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Equilibrium of a Particle

A particle is said to be in equilibrium if it remains at rest


if originally at rest, or has a constant velocity if originally
in motion. Most often, however, the term "equilibrium"
or more specifically, "Static equilibrium" is used to
describe an object at rest. To maintain equilibrium, it is
necessary to satisfy Newton’s first law of motion which
requires the resultant force acting on a particle to be
equal to zero. This condition may be stated
mathematically as:

∑𝐹 = 0

where F is the vector sum of all the forces acting on the


particle.

THE STATIC FORCE SYSTEMS: Example Problem:


Force – is any influence that tend to change the state (@ 1. Determine the magnitudes P and F necessary to
rest or in motion) of the body. keep the concurrent force system shown in
Frictional Force – a force that always acts opposite equilibrium.
direction to the applied force.
Parallel Forces – are forces that are of the same angle to
one another.
Coplanar Forces – are forces lying on the same plane.
Concurrent Forces – are forces that meet in one common
point.
Non – concurrent Forces – are forces that do not meet in
one common point.

The resultant of a system of forces is the minimum


system of forces which will produce the same effect as
the original system. The minimum system may be: 1.)
single force; 2.) a pair of equal, opposite, and parallel Solution:
force called a couple; and 3.) a single force and a couple. 𝐹𝑥
F cos 60 = 𝐹
; Fx = Fcos60

The equilibrant of a system of forces has the same 𝐹𝑦


magnitude as the resultant of the system, but is of Fy sin 60 = 𝐹
; Fy = Fsin60
opposite sense. In other sense equilibrant is will balance 60
or cancel the resultant.
Fx
The components of a force are the two or more forces,
which acts together and will produce the same effect as A=300 lb Ax = A = -300lb ; Ay = 0
the original force.
Px
𝑃𝑥
The Free-Body Diagram Py 30 cos 30 = ; Px = Pcos30
𝑃
𝑃𝑦
P sin 30 = 𝑃 ; Py = Psin30
To apply the equation of equilibrium we must
Bx
account for all the known and unknown forces (F) 𝐵𝑥
which act on the particle. The best way to do this is to 45 cos 45 = 𝐵
; Bx = Bcos45
𝐵𝑦
think of the particle as isolated and "free" from its B = 200 lb By sin 45 = 𝐵 ; By = Bsin45
surroundings.
A drawing that shows the particle with aII the forces that Fx = 0
act on it is called a free-body diagram (FBO). Fx + Bx – Ax – Px = 0 → 1
Example:
Fy = 0
Fy – Py – By = 0 → 2
Substituting the values:
Fx = 0
Fcos60+ 200cos45-300 - Pcos30 = 0
Fy = 0
Fsin60- Psin30 - 200sin45 = 0
Solving further: Tay Ta c c2 = a2+b2
Fx = 0 3 = 32+42
Fcos60+ 200cos45-300 - Pcos30 = 0 4 = 9+16
Fcos60- Pcos30 + 141.4214 – 300=0 Tax c2 = 25
Fcos60- Pcos30– 158.5786=0 By Ratio and Proportion: c=5
Fcos60- Pcos30=158.5786 →1(new)
𝑇𝑎 𝑇𝑎𝑥 𝑇𝑎𝑦
Fy = 0 =
5 4
=
3
Fsin60- Psin30 - 200sin45 = 0 Solving for Tax: Solving for Tay:
Fsin60- Psin30 - 141.4214 = 0 4 3
Tax = 5 𝑇𝑎 Tay = 5 𝑇𝑎
Fsin60- Psin30 = 141.4214 → 2(new)

Using calculator to solve for the value of F & P Tbd = 60(9.81)N Tbdx = 0; Tbdy = Tbd =588.6N
F = 86.370 lbs.
P = -133.245 lbs.
Equations of Equilibrium. Applying the equations of
2. Determine the tension in cables BA and BC equilibrium along the x and y axes. we have:
necessary to support the 6O-kg cylinder in Fig.
1a.
Fx = 0
Tcx - Tax = 0 → 1

Fy = 0
Tcy + Tax - Tbd = 0 → 2
Solving further:
Fx = 0
𝟒
Tccos45 - 𝟓 𝑻𝒂 = 0 →1 (new)
Fy = 0
𝟑
Tcsin45 + 𝟓 𝑻𝒂 - 588.6 = 0 →2 (new)

Sol’n. 1(Using Algebra- substitution):


Solving for Tc in eq. 1:
Solution: 4
Free-Body Diagram. Due to equilibrium, the weight of Tccos45 - 𝑇𝑎 = 0
5
4
the cylinder causes the tension in cable BD to be TBD = Tccos45 = 5 𝑇𝑎
60(9.81) N. Fig. 1b (below). 𝟒
𝑻𝒂
𝟓
Tc = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝟒𝟓
→3
Solving for Ta in eq. 2 with eq. 3
3
Tcsin45 + 5 𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0
4
𝑇𝑎 3
5
( cos 45
) sin45 + 5
𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0
4 3
5
𝑇𝑎 + 5
𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0
7
5
𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0
7
5
𝑇𝑎 = 588.6
5
Ta = 7
(588.6)
The forces in cables BA and BC can be determined by Ta = 420.4286 N
investigating the equilibrium of ring B. Its free- body Substituting Ta in eq. 3
4
diagram is shown in Fig. 1c. The magnitudes of TA and TC 𝑇𝑎
5
Tc = cos 45
arc unknown but their directions are known. 4
(420.4286)
Tc = 5 cos 45
Tc = 475.6606 N

Sol’n. 2(Using Calculator):

Tc = 475.6606 N
Ta = 420. 4286 N

For the Components:


𝑇𝑐𝑦
Sin 45 = ; Tcy = Tcsin45
𝑇𝑐
𝑇𝑐𝑥
Tc Tcy Cos 45 = 𝑇𝑐 ; Tcx = Tccos45
45
Tcx
Practice Problems:
1. Determine the magnitudes of F1 and F2 so that 3. The crate has a weight of 2446.4 N. Determine
the particle is in equilibrium. the force in each supporting cable.
Take:
F = 500 N
θ1 = 45 deg
θ2 = 30deg

2. Four forces pull on a point, the magnitudes and Online Tutorials:


directions of three of them are 12 N due North, 1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxM9lsbUbpw
15 N at 30 East of North, 20 N at 40 East if &t=43s (Static Equilibrium)
South. Find the magnitude and direction of the 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcBUoTM-8rg
fourth force so that the system will be in 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdipI_N7Yow
equilibrium, (a) by graphical means, (b) by &t=815s
calculation. 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_F9pEwG2R7
w&t=311s
Moment of a Force We can generalize the above discussion and
(Scalar Formulation) consider the force F and point 0 which lie in the shaded
plane as shown in Fig. 2a. The moment MO about point
When a force is applied to a body it will produce a O, or about an axis passing through O and perpendicular
tendency for the body to rotate about a point that is not to the plane, is a vector quantity since it has a specified
on the line of action of the force. This tendency to rotate magnitude and direction.
is sometimes called a torque, but most often it is called
the moment of a force or simply the moment. For
example. consider a wrench used to unscrew the bolt in
Fig. a(below). If a force is applied to the handle of the
wrench it will tend to turn the bolt about point 0 (or the
z axis). The magnitude of the moment is directly
proportional to the magnitude of F and the
perpendicular distance or moment arm.

The larger the force or the longer the moment arm the
greater the moment or turning effect. Note that if the
force F is applied at an angle 𝜃 ≠ 90. Fig. b (below), then
it will be more difficult to turn the bolt since the moment
arm d' = d sin 𝜃 will be smaller than d. Magnitude. The magnitude of Mo is
𝑀𝑂 = 𝐹𝑑
Where d is the moment arm or perpendicular distance
from 1 the axis of point O to the line of action of the
force. Units of moment magnitude consist of force times
distance. e.g.. N· m or lb· ft.

Direction. The direction of Mo is defined by its moment


axis which is perpendicular to the plane that contains the
force F and its moment arm d. The right-hand rule is used
to establish the sense of direction of Mo. According to
this rule, the natural curl of the fingers of the right hand
as they are drawn towards the palm, represent the
tendency for rotation caused by the moment. As this
action is performed, the thumb of the right hand will give
the directional sense of MO. Fig. 2a (above). Notice that
lf F is applied along the wrench, Fig. c (below), its the moment vector is represented three dimensionally
moment arm will be zero since the line of action of F will by a curl around an arrow. In two dimensions this victor
intersect point 0 (the z axis). As a result, the moment of is represented only by the curl as in Fig. 2b (above). Since
F about 0 is also zero and no turning can occur. in this case the moment will tend to cause a
counterclockwise rotation the moment vector is actually
directed out of the page.

The ability to remove the


nail will require the
moment of FH about
point O to be larger than
the moment of the force
FA about O that is needed to pull the nail out.
Examples: Example Prob.
For each case illustrated in Figure below, determine the Determine the resultant moment of the four forces
moment of the force about point O. acting on the rod shown in Figure (below) about point 0.
a.

a.

b.

c.

d.
NAME: ________________________________ SECTION: ___________ DATE:_______________ SCORE: ____________

PROBLEM SET# 5
VECTOR ADDITION
(RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS METHOD)
INSTRUCTION:
Use an accurately-drawn scaled vector diagram to represent the magnitude and direction of the following vectors
below. Use the indicated scale and the counter-clockwise convention discussed in class.
NOTE: Since your answers were determined using a scaled vector diagram, small errors in the measurement of the
direction and magnitude of any one of the vectors may lead to small differences between your answers and the correct
ones which are shown here. This should not be a reason for concern.
1. Given the SCALE: 1 cm = 10 m,
a. . Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant using:
i. Graphical Method
ii. Analytical Method

𝐴⃗ = 55 m, 17-degrees due East


⃗⃗ = 70 m, 120-degrees due East
𝐵
𝐶⃗ = 35 m, 180-degrees due East
⃗⃗ = 40 m, 285-degrees due East
𝐷
2. Determine the resultant of the concurrent forces shown below. (Fig. B)

--- be HAPPY in ANSWERING ---


PREPARED BY:
ENGR. N.B. RN., MS – MATH
NAME: ________________________________ SECTION: ___________ DATE:_______________ SCORE: ____________

PROBLEM SET# 6
EQUILIBRIUM
INSTRUCTION: Solve the following problems and all problems must have FBD.
1. The members of a truss are connected to the gusset plate.
If the forces are concurrent at point O, determine the
magnitudes of F and T for equilibrium.Take  = 30°.

2. In Fig 2-05, determine the magnitudes of forces AB and AC for equilibrium.


3. The members of a truss are pin connected at joint O.
Determine the magnitudes of and for equilibrium.
Set 𝜃 = 60°.

4. Determine the tension developed in wires CA and CB


required for equilibrium of the 10-kg cylinder. Take 𝜃 = 40°.

--- be HAPPY in ANSWERING ---


PREPARED BY:
ENGR. N.B. RN., MS – MATH