notes on engineering mechanics

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notes on engineering mechanics

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if originally at rest, or has a constant velocity if originally

in motion. Most often, however, the term "equilibrium"

or more specifically, "Static equilibrium" is used to

describe an object at rest. To maintain equilibrium, it is

necessary to satisfy Newton’s first law of motion which

requires the resultant force acting on a particle to be

equal to zero. This condition may be stated

mathematically as:

∑𝐹 = 0

particle.

Force – is any influence that tend to change the state (@ 1. Determine the magnitudes P and F necessary to

rest or in motion) of the body. keep the concurrent force system shown in

Frictional Force – a force that always acts opposite equilibrium.

direction to the applied force.

Parallel Forces – are forces that are of the same angle to

one another.

Coplanar Forces – are forces lying on the same plane.

Concurrent Forces – are forces that meet in one common

point.

Non – concurrent Forces – are forces that do not meet in

one common point.

system of forces which will produce the same effect as

the original system. The minimum system may be: 1.)

single force; 2.) a pair of equal, opposite, and parallel Solution:

force called a couple; and 3.) a single force and a couple. 𝐹𝑥

F cos 60 = 𝐹

; Fx = Fcos60

magnitude as the resultant of the system, but is of Fy sin 60 = 𝐹

; Fy = Fsin60

opposite sense. In other sense equilibrant is will balance 60

or cancel the resultant.

Fx

The components of a force are the two or more forces,

which acts together and will produce the same effect as A=300 lb Ax = A = -300lb ; Ay = 0

the original force.

Px

𝑃𝑥

The Free-Body Diagram Py 30 cos 30 = ; Px = Pcos30

𝑃

𝑃𝑦

P sin 30 = 𝑃 ; Py = Psin30

To apply the equation of equilibrium we must

Bx

account for all the known and unknown forces (F) 𝐵𝑥

which act on the particle. The best way to do this is to 45 cos 45 = 𝐵

; Bx = Bcos45

𝐵𝑦

think of the particle as isolated and "free" from its B = 200 lb By sin 45 = 𝐵 ; By = Bsin45

surroundings.

A drawing that shows the particle with aII the forces that Fx = 0

act on it is called a free-body diagram (FBO). Fx + Bx – Ax – Px = 0 → 1

Example:

Fy = 0

Fy – Py – By = 0 → 2

Substituting the values:

Fx = 0

Fcos60+ 200cos45-300 - Pcos30 = 0

Fy = 0

Fsin60- Psin30 - 200sin45 = 0

Solving further: Tay Ta c c2 = a2+b2

Fx = 0 3 = 32+42

Fcos60+ 200cos45-300 - Pcos30 = 0 4 = 9+16

Fcos60- Pcos30 + 141.4214 – 300=0 Tax c2 = 25

Fcos60- Pcos30– 158.5786=0 By Ratio and Proportion: c=5

Fcos60- Pcos30=158.5786 →1(new)

𝑇𝑎 𝑇𝑎𝑥 𝑇𝑎𝑦

Fy = 0 =

5 4

=

3

Fsin60- Psin30 - 200sin45 = 0 Solving for Tax: Solving for Tay:

Fsin60- Psin30 - 141.4214 = 0 4 3

Tax = 5 𝑇𝑎 Tay = 5 𝑇𝑎

Fsin60- Psin30 = 141.4214 → 2(new)

Using calculator to solve for the value of F & P Tbd = 60(9.81)N Tbdx = 0; Tbdy = Tbd =588.6N

F = 86.370 lbs.

P = -133.245 lbs.

Equations of Equilibrium. Applying the equations of

2. Determine the tension in cables BA and BC equilibrium along the x and y axes. we have:

necessary to support the 6O-kg cylinder in Fig.

1a.

Fx = 0

Tcx - Tax = 0 → 1

Fy = 0

Tcy + Tax - Tbd = 0 → 2

Solving further:

Fx = 0

𝟒

Tccos45 - 𝟓 𝑻𝒂 = 0 →1 (new)

Fy = 0

𝟑

Tcsin45 + 𝟓 𝑻𝒂 - 588.6 = 0 →2 (new)

Solving for Tc in eq. 1:

Solution: 4

Free-Body Diagram. Due to equilibrium, the weight of Tccos45 - 𝑇𝑎 = 0

5

4

the cylinder causes the tension in cable BD to be TBD = Tccos45 = 5 𝑇𝑎

60(9.81) N. Fig. 1b (below). 𝟒

𝑻𝒂

𝟓

Tc = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝟒𝟓

→3

Solving for Ta in eq. 2 with eq. 3

3

Tcsin45 + 5 𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0

4

𝑇𝑎 3

5

( cos 45

) sin45 + 5

𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0

4 3

5

𝑇𝑎 + 5

𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0

7

5

𝑇𝑎 - 588.6 = 0

7

5

𝑇𝑎 = 588.6

5

Ta = 7

(588.6)

The forces in cables BA and BC can be determined by Ta = 420.4286 N

investigating the equilibrium of ring B. Its free- body Substituting Ta in eq. 3

4

diagram is shown in Fig. 1c. The magnitudes of TA and TC 𝑇𝑎

5

Tc = cos 45

arc unknown but their directions are known. 4

(420.4286)

Tc = 5 cos 45

Tc = 475.6606 N

Tc = 475.6606 N

Ta = 420. 4286 N

𝑇𝑐𝑦

Sin 45 = ; Tcy = Tcsin45

𝑇𝑐

𝑇𝑐𝑥

Tc Tcy Cos 45 = 𝑇𝑐 ; Tcx = Tccos45

45

Tcx

Practice Problems:

1. Determine the magnitudes of F1 and F2 so that 3. The crate has a weight of 2446.4 N. Determine

the particle is in equilibrium. the force in each supporting cable.

Take:

F = 500 N

θ1 = 45 deg

θ2 = 30deg

directions of three of them are 12 N due North, 1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxM9lsbUbpw

15 N at 30 East of North, 20 N at 40 East if &t=43s (Static Equilibrium)

South. Find the magnitude and direction of the 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcBUoTM-8rg

fourth force so that the system will be in 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdipI_N7Yow

equilibrium, (a) by graphical means, (b) by &t=815s

calculation. 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_F9pEwG2R7

w&t=311s

Moment of a Force We can generalize the above discussion and

(Scalar Formulation) consider the force F and point 0 which lie in the shaded

plane as shown in Fig. 2a. The moment MO about point

When a force is applied to a body it will produce a O, or about an axis passing through O and perpendicular

tendency for the body to rotate about a point that is not to the plane, is a vector quantity since it has a specified

on the line of action of the force. This tendency to rotate magnitude and direction.

is sometimes called a torque, but most often it is called

the moment of a force or simply the moment. For

example. consider a wrench used to unscrew the bolt in

Fig. a(below). If a force is applied to the handle of the

wrench it will tend to turn the bolt about point 0 (or the

z axis). The magnitude of the moment is directly

proportional to the magnitude of F and the

perpendicular distance or moment arm.

The larger the force or the longer the moment arm the

greater the moment or turning effect. Note that if the

force F is applied at an angle 𝜃 ≠ 90. Fig. b (below), then

it will be more difficult to turn the bolt since the moment

arm d' = d sin 𝜃 will be smaller than d. Magnitude. The magnitude of Mo is

𝑀𝑂 = 𝐹𝑑

Where d is the moment arm or perpendicular distance

from 1 the axis of point O to the line of action of the

force. Units of moment magnitude consist of force times

distance. e.g.. N· m or lb· ft.

axis which is perpendicular to the plane that contains the

force F and its moment arm d. The right-hand rule is used

to establish the sense of direction of Mo. According to

this rule, the natural curl of the fingers of the right hand

as they are drawn towards the palm, represent the

tendency for rotation caused by the moment. As this

action is performed, the thumb of the right hand will give

the directional sense of MO. Fig. 2a (above). Notice that

lf F is applied along the wrench, Fig. c (below), its the moment vector is represented three dimensionally

moment arm will be zero since the line of action of F will by a curl around an arrow. In two dimensions this victor

intersect point 0 (the z axis). As a result, the moment of is represented only by the curl as in Fig. 2b (above). Since

F about 0 is also zero and no turning can occur. in this case the moment will tend to cause a

counterclockwise rotation the moment vector is actually

directed out of the page.

nail will require the

moment of FH about

point O to be larger than

the moment of the force

FA about O that is needed to pull the nail out.

Examples: Example Prob.

For each case illustrated in Figure below, determine the Determine the resultant moment of the four forces

moment of the force about point O. acting on the rod shown in Figure (below) about point 0.

a.

a.

b.

c.

d.

NAME: ________________________________ SECTION: ___________ DATE:_______________ SCORE: ____________

PROBLEM SET# 5

VECTOR ADDITION

(RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS METHOD)

INSTRUCTION:

Use an accurately-drawn scaled vector diagram to represent the magnitude and direction of the following vectors

below. Use the indicated scale and the counter-clockwise convention discussed in class.

NOTE: Since your answers were determined using a scaled vector diagram, small errors in the measurement of the

direction and magnitude of any one of the vectors may lead to small differences between your answers and the correct

ones which are shown here. This should not be a reason for concern.

1. Given the SCALE: 1 cm = 10 m,

a. . Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant using:

i. Graphical Method

ii. Analytical Method

⃗⃗ = 70 m, 120-degrees due East

𝐵

𝐶⃗ = 35 m, 180-degrees due East

⃗⃗ = 40 m, 285-degrees due East

𝐷

2. Determine the resultant of the concurrent forces shown below. (Fig. B)

PREPARED BY:

ENGR. N.B. RN., MS – MATH

NAME: ________________________________ SECTION: ___________ DATE:_______________ SCORE: ____________

PROBLEM SET# 6

EQUILIBRIUM

INSTRUCTION: Solve the following problems and all problems must have FBD.

1. The members of a truss are connected to the gusset plate.

If the forces are concurrent at point O, determine the

magnitudes of F and T for equilibrium.Take = 30°.

3. The members of a truss are pin connected at joint O.

Determine the magnitudes of and for equilibrium.

Set 𝜃 = 60°.

required for equilibrium of the 10-kg cylinder. Take 𝜃 = 40°.

PREPARED BY:

ENGR. N.B. RN., MS – MATH

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