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Infinitive is the form which expresses the notion of the verb in its general
It is the finite in nature as it is not limited by person or number.

To say is easy and to do is difficult.

I like to play tennis.

She goes to school.
He does not play the piano.

Are finite verbs as they are limited by persons or numbers.

I like to write.
Is the non-finite verb which is independent of persons or numbers.

1. ‘Pure’ Infinitive
The form which has the distinct use of To before a verb without an –Ing after

She likes to play tennis.

I don't want to go home now.
To say is easy.

2. ‘Bare’ Infinitive
It is the form of the verb which is suppressed and it not used in some
I can speak three languages.
We will help you.
You had better tell the truth.

1. Functions
We use it as a Noun (subject or object) or complement.
To say something is easy, to do it is difficult. (as subject)
They tried to kill him. (as object)
My aim is to please you.

We also use it to show Purpose .

He came here to study.

Don't live to eat but eat to live.
I went to London to find a job.

3.Verbs without To
There are certain verbs which don't take an Infinitive.

Can, could, shall, must. Should. Dare, need, would rather, had better ,See,
know, feel, watch, and behold, have,bid, dare, need, make, feel and would
rather etc.

You need not behave like that.

How dare you say that?
He made him work all day.

4.Verbs with To
There are certain verbs which do take only Infinitive after them.

Like, want, plan, decide, learn, fail, seem, intend, promise, offer, deserve,
arrange, hope, aim, appear, attempt, pretend, claim, refuse, agree, afford,
threaten, agree, ask, consent, demand, deserve, hesitate, hope, learn, damage,
prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, wait, etc.

He refused to accept my proposal.

The boy hesitated to enter the room.
She promised to attend the lecture.

1. Infinitive in the Complement
There is a certain class of verbs which takes Infinitive in the Complement.

Remind, want, help, ask, help, mean, expect, beg, (Would rather, love, hate,
like) and teach, forbid, order, tell, force, persuade, enable, get, invite and cause

He forced me to join the party.

I want you to learn English.
They forbade me meet him.
He reminded me to post the letter.

2. Split Infinitive
Split Infinitive is the term given to the splitting of the verb from its Infinitive.

He reached his home to immediately inform his friends.

He reached home to inform his friends immediately.

The first sentence is the example of Split Infinitive.

There is a general discussion these days whether Split Infinitive should be used
or not. However, the writer if of the opinion that Split Infinitive should be used
in General English and avoided in the Academic English.

The –Ing used after a verb to act as a noun is called Gerund. Thus, a verb
with an –Ing functioning as a noun becomes a Verbal Noun.

Working in an office is not fun.

The reading of books is pleasurable.

1. Functions
It can be a subject or an object of a sentence.

Playing snooker is my favorite hobby.
Swimming exerts oneself much.

I don't enjoy working here.
She avoids meeting.

2. Gerund with Pronouns

When Gerund is used with Pronouns, only possessive forms are used and if
there is a noun, we use an Apostrophe.

She does not like his shouting aloud.

I am looking forward to my father’s coming home.
It is no use your repenting now.

3.Gerund with Phrasal verbs

Gerund is used after all phrasal and prepositions verbs.

He keeps on speaking.
I am looking forward to meeting you.

4.Certain verbs with Gerund

There are certain verbs which take Gerund only.

We enjoy watching TV. Enjoy to watch

He finished working and lay down to rest. Finished to work

Other verbs include. Finish, fancy, imagine, consider, deny, miss, mind, avoid,
stop, remember, suggest, enjoy, practice, keep on, carry on, give up, delay,
it/there--- no use. Admit, appreciate, complete, deny, discuss, mention, miss,
postpone, quit, recall, regret, risk, tolerate, understand, etc want, need, can't/
couldn't help + Ing, approve of, forget about, don’t mind, object to, look
forward to and keep on.

1. Infinitive and Gerund
There are verbs which can take both the infinitive and the Gerund depending
on the meaning you intend to express.

Please remember to lock the door. (don’t forget)

I remembered living in London. (I lived in London and I remember that I lived
I stopped to eat at a restaurant and when I heard the explosion, I stopped
eating. (I went to eat at a restaurant when I heard the explosion I finished

Other words are:

Remember, regret, go on Ing, go on to, stop, try, need, help, like, love, hate,
can't bear, prefer.

2. Hear, see, found etc.

We may use Gerund or the ‘bare’ infinitive after the above verbs with a slight
difference in meaning.
I saw him killing the boy. (he was in the process of
killing when I saw him. I didn't see the whole scene.)
I saw him kill the boy. (I saw the whole scene from A to Z. )

3. Gerund Vs. Infinitive

There is a certain class of verbs which, with a difference of structures, change
their sense.

She does not allow visiting people. (a general statement)

She does not allow me to visit people. (I am not allowed to meet people)


The –Ing used after a verb to act as an adjective or to show
progression is called Participle.

Flying kites Interesting children

Disturbing behavior A tired oldman
A dead horse Seeing the lion, he ran away.
Hearing the news, she fainted.


1. Present Participle
Eating, playing, working

3. Past Participle
Tired , lost, worried, killed, eaten

1. Participle and Time
It is not to be understood that Present Participle is used in the
Present only and Past Participle in the past only, rather both can
refer to present or past time.

She has completed her work. (past participle for Present)

Walking on the road, I came across a man.
I was waiting for you.
(Present Participle for Past)

2. Participle Vs. Gerund

There is a significant difference between Participle and Gerund.
Participle is an adjective and Gerund is a noun.
A sleeping man. adj + n (one who is sleeping)
A sleeping carriage. n + n (where one sleeps)
Running water. (Water that is flowing)
A running track. (track on which you run. It is not running.)

I like flying kites. (I like to do this = Gerund)

She saw some flying kites in the sky. (kites which were flying =

3. Further examples
I met a boy carrying some flowers.
Deceived by his apparent hospitality, the guest was mercilessly
Having seen the moon, we thanked Allah.

3. F

1.Participle clauses
As Participle acts as an adjective, it must have some noun or

Going up the tree, three eggs fell.

When he was going up the tree, three eggs fell.
Being hot day, I stayed indoors.