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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

HOMEWORK CHAPTER 1

Section I:
USING FIGURE 1.6, IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING

1) Identify the cavity that houses the spinal cord.


A) Label A
B) Label B
C) Label C
D) Label D
E) Label E
F) Label F

Answer: B
Page Ref: 17

2) Label E points to the ________ cavity.


A) thoracic
B) pelvic
C) cranial
D) abdominal

Answer: D
Page Ref: 17

3) Identify the cavity that houses the heart and lungs (and other organs).
A) Label A
B) Label B
C) Label C
D) Label D
E) Label E
F) Label F

Answer: C
Page Ref: 17

4) Identify the structure that separates the thoracic cavity from the rest of the ventral cavity.
A) Label A
B) Label B
C) Label C
D) Label D
E) Label E
F) Label F

Answer: D
Page Ref: 17

5) Label F points to the ________ cavity.


A) thoracic
B) pelvic
C) cranial
D) abdominal

Answer: B
Page Ref: 17

6) Identify the cavity that houses the stomach, liver, and other digestive organs.
A) Label A
B) Label B
C) Label C
D) Label D
E) Label E
F) Label F

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Answer: E
Page Ref: 17

SECTION II:
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1) Which of the following is the smallest unit of all living things?
A) organ
B) tissue
C) cell
D) organ system
Answer: C
Page Ref: 2

2) The heart and blood vessels are the primary organs of the ________ system.
A) lymphatic
B) integumentary
C) cardiovascular
D) muscular
Answer: C
Page Ref: 4

3) The skeletal muscles that contract and shorten to move the bones form the ________ system.
A) skeletal
B) muscular
C) endocrine
D) reproductive
Answer: B
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4) ________ refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body.


A) Metabolism
B) Homeostasis
C) Hematopoiesis
D) Irritability
Answer: A
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5) When our body temperature rises above 37°C or 98°F, a negative feedback mechanism will be
triggered to lower the body temperature. As a result, our sweat glands release sweat to cool the
body temperature. What part of the negative feedback mechanism is the sweat gland?
A) stimulus
B) effector
C) receptor
D) control center
Answer: B
Page Ref: 20

6) When we imagine a person exhibiting anatomical position, the palms of the hands are
assumed to be facing ________.
A) to the side
B) forward
C) down
D) behind
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12

7) The body's ability to maintain stable internal conditions is referred to as ________.


A) metabolism
B) homeostasis
C) irritability
D) output
Answer: B
Page Ref: 19

8) Ed tore a ligament in the patellar region and anticipates having difficulty with his ________.
A) wrist
B) knee
C) ankle
D) elbow
Answer: B
Page Ref: 14

9) Andy sustained a baseball hit to his cranial cavity. Which bones were fractured?
A) ribs
B) vertebrae
C) hips
D) skull
Answer: D
Page Ref: 16-1

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10) Ventral is a directional term synonymous with ________ in humans.
A) posterior
B) dorsal
C) anterior
D) medial
Answer: C
Page Ref: 13

11) Which of the following activities represents a physiological study?


A) making a section through the kidney to observe its interior
B) examining the surface of a bone
C) viewing muscle tissue through a microscope
D) studying how the layers of the skin are organized
E) observing how the heart contracts to pump blood
Answer: E
Page Ref: 2

12) Which of the following represents the chemical level of structure in the human body?
A) organs
B) tissues
C) atoms
D) cells
E) organ systems
Answer: C
Page Ref: 2

13) The major organs of the cardiovascular system are the ________.
A) skeletal muscles
B) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
C) bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints
D) brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
E) heart and blood vessels
Answer: E
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14) Milk production during breastfeeding is increased by the suckling of a newborn from his
mother's nipple. This type of feedback mechanism best describes ________.
A) negative feedback
B) an abnormal physiological mechanism
C) homeostatic imbalance
D) positive feedback
E) both negative and positive feedback
Answer: D
Page Ref: 20

15) The surgeon created an opening in the chest during surgery. The incision was made along a
plane that equally separated the right and left halves of the thoracic cavity. This section is known
as a(n) ________.
A) median (midsagittal) section
B) frontal section
C) transverse section
D) horizontal section
E) parasagittal section
Answer: A
Page Ref: 15

16) The thoracic cavity is ________ to the abdominopelvic cavity.


A) inferior
B) lateral
C) proximal
D) superior
E) dorsal
Answer: D
Page Ref: 17

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SECTION III:
MATCH THE FOLLOWING ORGAN SYSTEMS WITH THEIR
FUNCTIONS:
A) digestive system
B) integumentary system
C) lymphatic system
D) muscular system
E) endocrine system
F) urinary system

20) Glands secrete hormones to regulate other structures


Page Ref: 4

21) Breaks down food for distribution by blood to the body's cells
Page Ref: 4

22) Movement of the body as a whole


Page Ref: 4

23) Removes nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood and disposes of them in the urine
Page Ref: 7

24) Picks up fluids leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
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25) Excretes salts in perspiration and helps regulate body temperature

Answers: 20) E 21) A 22) D 23) F 24) C 25) B

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Section IV:
TRUE OR FALSE (Explain any false statements)
1) Cells are the building blocks of all matter.
Answer: FALSE
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2) Tissues are made up of different types of organs.


Answer: FALSE
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3) The adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, and parathyroids are glands of the endocrine system.
Answer: TRUE
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4) The cardiovascular system delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to, and
picks up wastes such as carbon dioxide from, cells near sites of exchange.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 4

5) Survival needs include nutrients, oxygen, water, and appropriate temperature and atmospheric
pressure.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 9

SECTION V:
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

1) Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology.


Answer: Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their
relationships to one another. Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or
function. Structure (anatomy) determines what functions (physiology) can take place in the
human body.
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2) Identify the organ system that bears the major responsibility for responsiveness, one of the
necessary life functions, and briefly explain the system's role in the body.
Answer: The nervous system bears the major responsibility for responsiveness (or irritability),
the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them Nerve cells are
highly irritable and can communicate rapidly via electrical and is thus the fast-acting control
system of the body. This system responds to internal and external changes by activating
appropriate muscles and glands.
Page Ref: 4, 8

3) Identify the two dorsal body cavities, and state their locations and the organs contained
therein.
Answer:
1. Cranial cavity–the superior posterior space inside the bony skull that houses the brain.
2. Spinal cavity–the inferior posterior space inside the bony vertebral column that houses the
spinal cord.
Page Ref: 15, 17

4) You are preparing to given an injection to a patient in his deltoid region. Explain specifically
where you will administer this injection.
Answer: The deltoid region is a visible landmark on the anterior body surface. The injection will
be administered into the area formed by the large deltoid muscle and the curve of the shoulder.
Page Ref: 14

5) Explain homeostasis as it relates to the human body.


Answer: Homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain relative stable internal conditions even
though the outside world is continuously changing. Homeostasis is a dynamic state of
equilibrium, or a balance in which internal conditions change and vary but always within
relatively narrow limits. The body demonstrates homeostasis when its needs are being
adequately met and it is functioning smoothly.
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