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This example will illustrate the procedures to design a steel beam to BS 5400 Part 3. The concrete deck and live

loading are included to demonstrate the use of load factors only, they do not represent a solution for a deck

design.

Problem:

Design a simply supported beam which carries a 150mm thick concrete slab together with a nominal live load of

10.0 kN/m2 . The span of the beam is 9.0m centre to centre of bearings and the beams are spaced at 3.0m

intervals. The slab will be assumed to be laid on top of the beams with no positive connection to the

compression flange.

γconc. = 24kN/mm3

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Load factors for ultimate limit state from BS 5400 Part 2 Table 1:

Dead Load:

Live Load:

γfL HA = 1.50

BS 5400 Pt. 3

Use BS EN 10 025 steel grade S275, then nominal yield stress σy = 265 N/mm2

= M × γm × γf3 / σy

cl.9.3.7

cl.9.3.7.2

web:

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1/27/2019 Bridge Beam Design

cl.9.3.7.3.1

compression flange:

cl.9.6

cl.9.6.2

le = k1 k2 ke

k1 L = 1.0 (flange is free to rotate in plan)

k2 = 1.0 (load is not free to move laterally)

ke = 1.0 (check later for initial value)

L= 9000mm

le = 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 9000 = 9000mm

cl.9.7

Slenderness:

cl.9.7.1

Mpe = Zpe × σyc

Mpe = 3.677 × 106 × 265 × 10-6 = 974kNm

cl.9.7.2

λLT = le k4 ην / ry

k4 = 0.9

η = 0.94 (From Fig. 9(b): MA/MM = MB/MA = 0)

λF = le/ry(tf/D)

λF = 9000/49.6 (19.6/611.9) = 5.81

i = Ic/(Ic+It)

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i = 0.5

ν = 0.78 (from Table 9)

λLT = 9000 × 0.9 × 0.94 × 0.78 / 49.6 = 120

cl.9.8.

Section is compact, hence Mult = Mpe = 974kNm

λLT ((σyc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5 = 120 × ((265/355)(974/974))0.5 = 104

le/ lw = 1.0

From Fig.11(b) : MR/Mult = 0.42

MR = 0.42 × Mult = 0.42 × 974 = 409 kN/m

cl.9.9.1.2

MD = MR /γm γf3

MD = 409 / (1.2 × 1.1) = 310 kNm < 608 kNm

hence section too small.

{Note: If the compression flange is cast into the deck slab then le = 0 (cl.9.6.4.2.1) which results in

MR = Mult = 974 kNm giving MD = 974 / (1.2 × 1.1) = 738 kNm > 608 kNm}

Use a 762 × 267 × 197kg/m UB

Zpe = 7.167 × 106 mm3

Mpe = 7.167 × 106 × 265 × 10-6

Mpe = Mult = 1899kNm

Section is compact

λF = 5.2

ν= 0.81

λLT = 108

MR/Mult = 0.51

MD = 733 kNm > 608 hence OK

From fig. 11(b) : λLT((σyc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5 = 110

giving λLT = 127

λLT = le k4 ην / ry

approx le = (110×57.1) / (0.9×0.94×0.81) = 9166

Hence ke maximum = 9166 / 9000 = 1.018

cl.9.6.2(a)

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Rv/W = 0.5 (load causing max moment in beam)

E = 205 000 (cl.6.6)

tf = 25.4

β = 1.0

ν = 0.81

L/ry = 9000 / 57.1

Hence max δt = 0.000378 mm

cl.9.14.2.1

The ends of bearing stiffeners should be closely fitted or adequately connected to both flanges (cl.9.14.1). Hence

the compressive edge of the bearing stiffener is fully restrained at the point of maximum bending. Therefore

yield stress can be developed in both tension and compression edges of the bearing stiffener (λLT = 0).

cl.9.14.2.1

Deflection of cantilever :

δt = F a3 / 3 E I

0.000378 = 1×(744.2)3 / (3×20500× I )

I = 1.773 × 106 mm4

I of end stiffener :

I = 250×15.63/12 + t×2503/12

t min = 1.3 mm

Use at least 10mm plate hence OK

I = 250×15.63/12 + 10×2503/12 = 13.1×106 mm4

δt = 1×(744.2)3 / (3×205000×13.1×106) = 51×10-6 mm/N

cl.9.12.5

End stiffeners have to be provided to support the compression flange for a pinned end condition (k1 = 1.0 in

cl.9.6.2).

cl.9.12.5.2.2

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Fs1 = 0.005(M/(df{1-(σfc/σci)2}))

df = 769.6 - 25.4 = 744mm

σfc = M / Zxc = 608×106 / 6.234×106 = 97.5 N/mm2

σci = π2ES/λLT2

S = Zpe/Zxc = 7.167 / 6.234 = 1.15

σci = π2 × 205000 × 1.15 / 1082 = 199 N/mm2

Fs1 = 0.005(608×106/(744{1-(97.5/199)2}))×10-3

Fs1 = 5.4 kN

cl.9.12.5.2.3

Δe1 = Δe2 = D/200 = 769.6 / 200 = 3.848

β=1

Σδ = 2δt = 2 × 51×10-6 = 0.102 × 10-3

σci is to be determined using le from 9.6.4.1.1.2b).

le = πk2(EIc(δe1+δe2)/L)0.5

Ic = 25.4 × 2683 / 12 = 40.7 × 106

le = π × 1.0(205000 × 40.7 × 106 × 2 × 51 × 10-6 / 9000)0.5 = 967mm

λF = (le/ry)(tf/D) = (967/57.1)(25.4/769.6) = 0.559

ν = 0.993 (From Table 9)

λLT = lek4ην/ry = 967 × 0.9 × 1.0 × 0.993 / 57.1 = 15.1

σci = π2ES/λLT2

σci = π2 × 205000 × 1.15 / 15.12 = 10205 N/mm2

Fs2 = 3.848 × 97.5 / ((10205 - 97.5) × 0.102 × 10-3) × 10-3

Fs2 = 0.4 kN

cl.9.12.5.2.4

Assume no camber is provided to the beams and the bearings are aligned square to the longitudinal axis of the

beam, then :

Fs3 = RdL(Δ/D+θLtanα)/D

α=0

R = 60 × 9 / 2 = 270 kN

dL = 810 say (allow 40mm for depth of bearing)

Fs3 = 270 × 0.81 × ( 1/200 ) / 0.77 = 1.4 kN

cl.9.12.5.2.5

Hence Fs4 = 0

cl.9.12.5.2.1

Allowing additional effect for wind load ( which is generally small compared to Fs ) then

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say Fs = 9 kN

cl.9.14.2.1(c)

Use 762 × 267 × 197 kg/m UB with 10mm thick end bearing stiffener.

cl.9.9.2.2

dwe = 685.8mm

λ = (dwe/tw)*(σyw/355)0.5

λ = (685.8/15.6)*(265/355)0.5 = 38

Transverse web stiffeners will not improve the shear strength of the web.

dw = D = 769.6

hh = 0

γf3 = 1.1 (Clause 4.3.3)

γm = 1.05 (Table 2)

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