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Threats (317) Electrical Power (319) Fire (328)

Natural environment threats (earthquakes floods, tornadoes) Interference Prevention

Supply system threats (power communications water gas) Clean=no interference Training construction, supplies, reach ability
Manmade threats (vandalism, fraud, theft) Line noise: can be EMI or RFI Detection
Politically motivated threats (terroristic attacks, riots bombings) Transient: short duration of noise Manual: pull boxes
Life safety takes precedence!! Counter: voltage regulators, grounding/shielding and line Automatic dial- up: Fire department, aka Auxiliary station alarm
Layered defense model: all physical controls should be work conditioners Detectors:
together in a tiered architecture (stacked layers) EMI - Smoke activated,
Vulnerability=weakness threat = someone will identify the COMMON mode noise: difference between hot and ground - Heat activated,
weakness and use it against you and becomes the threat agent Traverse mode noise: difference between hot and neutral - Flame activated(infrared)
Risk analysis-->Acceptable risk level -->baseline>implement HINT: common--grounds
countermeasures Excesses Classes
Major sources: SPIKE: short high voltage A Common WATER, SODA ACID (take away temp)
Temperature, Gases, Liquids SURGE: long high voltage B Liquids----GAS/CO2, SODA ACID (takes away fuel)
Organism: viruses, bacteria Counter: surge protector C Electrical-----GAS/CO2 (displace O2)
Projectiles: cars, trucks, bullets Losses D Metals----DRY POWDER
Movement: Collapse, earthquakes Energy: radio, radiation FAULT: short outage
Nice to Know BLACKOUT: long outage WATER suppress temperature
Counter: Backup power SODA ACID reduces fuel supply
SMSD - Switched Multimegabit Data Service, a connectionless
Long term: Backup Power generator CO2 reduces oxygen
packet-switching technology. Often, SMDS is used to connect
Short term: UPS HALON chemical reaction
multiple LANs to form a metropolitan area network (MAN) or a
-Online uses ac line voltage to charge batteries, power always Fire distinguishers should be 50 feet from equipment and toward the
WAN. SMDS was often a preferred connection mechanism for
though UPS door
linking remote LANs that communicate infrequently, a forerunner
-Standby UPS, inactive till power down Heat
to ATM because of the similar technologies used.
Degradation Computer hardware 175F (80c)
DHCP Snooping – used to shield networks from unauthenticated
SAG/DIP: short low voltage Magnetic storage 100F (37c)
DHCP clients
BROWNOUT: long low voltage Paper 350F (176c)
ICS - industrial control system is a form of computer-management
Counter: constant voltage transformers Sprinklers Wet pipe always contains water, fuse nozzle melts at
device that controls industrial processes and machines. ICSs are
Other 165F
used across a wide range of industries, including manufacturing,
Inrush Surge: surge of current required to power on devices Dry pipe water in tank until clapper valve releases
fabrication, electricity generation and distribution, water
Common-mode noise: radiation from hot and ground wires it – only begins to fill when triggered by excessive
distribution, sewage processing, and oil refining.
Traverse-mode noise: radiation from hot and neutral wires. heat
There are several forms of ICS, including distributed control
Static charge Douches, large amounts of water/foam Pre-action
systems (DCSs), programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and
40 volts sensitive circuits (MOST RECOMMENDED)
SCADA - supervisory control and data acquisition 1000 scramble monitor display water in tanks, first water in pipes when air is lost when heat is
Kerchoff principle - a cryptographic system should be secure 1500 disk drive data loss detected, then thermal link in nozzle melts to release water
even if everything about the system, except the key, is public 2000 system shutdown
4000 Printer Jam HALON
Input and Parameter Checking - limit how much data can be 17000 Permanent chip damage 1211 = portable
Humidity (326) 1301 = flooding
proffered as input. Proper data validation is the only way to do
<40% static electricity up to 20.000 volts FM-200 most common replacement (others: CEA, NAF, FE-13
away with buffer overflows.
Side-channel attack - is a passive, noninvasive attack intended to NORMAL 40-60% up to 4000 volts Argon INERGEN Low Pressure Water)
observe the operation of a device. When the attack is successful, >60% corrosion
the attacker is able to learn valuable information contained within Tempest Walls: 1 hour fire rating and adjacent room with paper 2 hours
the smartcard, such as an encryption key. shielding and other emanations-reducing mechanism, a
Trust – () technology that allows the electronic emanations that every Security Capabilities of Information Systems
Transitive Trust – Transitive trust is the concept that if A trusts B monitor produces (known as Van Eck radiation) to be read from a TPM - Trusted Platform Module is both a specification for a
and B trusts C, then A inherits trust of C through the transitive distance (this process is known as Van Eck phreaking) cryptoprocessor chip on a mainboard and the general name for
property— which works like it would in a mathematical equation: if implementation of the specification. A TPM chip is used to store and
a = b, and b = c, then a = c. A transitive trust extends the trust White noise - broadcasting false traffic at all times to mask and process cryptographic keys for the purposes of a hardware
relationship between the two security domains to all of their hide the presence of real emanations. supported/ implemented hard drive encryption system. Generally, a
subdomains. Within the context of least privilege, it’s important to Faraday cage - a box, mobile room, or entire building designed hardware implementation, rather than a software-only
examine these trust relationships. with an external metal skin, often a wire mesh that fully surrounds implementation of hard drive encryption, is considered to be more
Nontransitive trust - exists between two security domains, which an area on all sides (in other words, front, back, left, right, top, and secure.
could be within the same organization or between different bottom). This metal skin acts as an EMI absorbing capacitor Constrained or restricted interface - is implemented within an
organizations. It allows subjects in one domain to access objects control zone - the implementation of either a Faraday cage or application to restrict what users can do or see based on their
in the other domain. A nontransitive trust enforces the principle of white noise generation or both to protect a specific area in an privileges.
least privilege and grants the trust to a single domain at a time. environment