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# 30 Inductance

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque Physics  72  1st Sem AY  15-­‐16 1

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Calculate  mutually-­induced  emf given  the  mutual  inductance
between  two  circuits

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 2

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## I’ I’ and I are both constant.

r I

Question:
What  if  instead  of  straight  wires  we  have  coils?
Also,  there  is  a  changing  current  in  one  of  the  coils.
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 3
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 4

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Remember that:
If  the  coils  are  in  vacuum:
§ M21 is  a  constant.
§ It  depends  on  the  geometry  of  both  coils
(size,  shape,  number  of  turns,  orientation
of  each  coil,  separation  between  coils).

## For our case, we assume that any magnetic

material present has constant Km so that M21 is
constant.
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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## SI  Unit  of  mutual  inductance  M:

1  H  =  1  Wb/A
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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

Equation to be used:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 7

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

Equations to be used:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 8

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
The  figure  shows  two  insulated  coils  wrapped  around  each
other  with  mutual  inductance  M  =  0.5  H.  If  the  current  in  coil  2
varies  as  I(t)  =  8t2 +  2t  +  14,  what  will  be  the  induced  emf  in
coil  1 after  1  s?

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 9

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Calculate  self-­induced  emf given  the  self-­inductance  of  the
circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 10

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Any  circuit  that  carries  a  varying  current  has  an  emf  induced  in  it
by  the  variation  in  its  own  magnetic  field.

Self-­Induced  emf
§ It can occur in any circuit.
§ The effect is greatly enhanced if circuit includes a coil with
N turns of wire.

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 11

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Self-­Inductance/Inductance

with time t,

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 12

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 13

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 14

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## What is the physical significance of inductance L?

When L is large, the rate of change of current is small.
When L is small, the rate of change of current is large.

## So, what is the use of an inductor in a circuit?

An inductor helps to prevent rapid changes in current.

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 15

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 16

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 17

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 18

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Exercise
A  current  i flowing  from  a  to  b  passes  through  an  inductor  of
inductance  L,  as  shown  in  the  figure.  It  is  observed  that  the
potential  at  b  is  higher  than  at  a.

## Which  of  the  following  describes  the  current  passing  through

the  inductor?  increasing,  decreasing  or  constant?

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 19

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Exercise
A  current  i flowing  from  a  to  b  passes  through  an  inductor  of
inductance  L,  as  shown  in  the  figure.  It  is  observed  that  the
potential  at  b  is  higher  than  at  a.

## Which  of  the  following  describes  the  current  passing  through

the  inductor?  increasing,  decreasing or  constant?

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 20

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Calculate  the  total  magnetic  energy  stored  in  an  inductor  and
its  magnetic  energy  density  after  current  is  increased  from
zero  to  a  final  steady-­state  value

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 21

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## The  total  energy  U supplied  while  the  current  increases  from

zero  to  a  final  value  I is

## This is actually stored

in the magnetic field
within the coil.
When  the  current  decreases  from  I to  zero,  the  inductor
acts  as  a  source  that  supplies  a  total  amount  of  energy  U.

## Note: When a steady current flows through an inductor,

there is no energy flow in or out.

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 22

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## A  resistor  is  a  device  in  which  energy

is  irrecoverably dissipated.

## Energy  stored  in  a  current-­carrying

inductor  can  be  recovered  when  the
current  decreases  to  zero.

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 23

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 24

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 25

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Seatwork (0.5 pt):

How  much  current  is  required  to  store  an  energy  of  7.2  kJ  in
a  coil  with  an  inductance  of  100  H?

Equation to be used:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 26

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Describe  the  current  variation  in  time  for  the  current  growth
and  current  decay  in  an  R-­L  circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 27

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

R-­L  Circuit
A circuit that includes both a resistor and an inductor, and possibly a
source of emf

1 Current growth

2 Current decay

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 28

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 29

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 30

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 31

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Current Growth in an R-L Circuit

Current in an R-L circuit with emf:

## At time τ, the current has risen to (1-1/e)I

or about 63% of its final value ε/R.

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 32

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
What  is  the  current  through  the  ideal  battery  after  a  very
long  time  the  switch  S  is  closed?

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 33

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
What  is  the  current  through  the  ideal  battery  after  a  very
long  time  the  switch  S  is  closed?

I1

I2

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 34

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Current Decay in an R-L Circuit

Current in an R-L circuit:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 35

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Current Decay in an R-L Circuit

Current in an R-L circuit:

## Io: initial current in the circuit

Time constant of an R-L circuit:

## At time τ, the current has decreased to or

about 37% of its initial value Io
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 36
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 37

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Seatwork (0.25 x 6 pts):

For  the  circuit  shown,  find  the  currents  I1,  I2,  and  I3
(a) immediately  after  switch  S  is  closed  and
(b) a  long  time  after  switch  S  has  been  closed.

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 38

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Describe  the  charge  and  current  variation  in  time  in  an  L-­C
circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 39

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 40

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 41

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor

§ Both  charge  and  current  in  an  L-­C  circuit  oscillate  sinusoidally  with  time,  with  an
angular  frequency  of

Capacitor  charge:
If  at  time  t =  0:
the  left-­hand  capacitor  plate  has
its  maximum  charge  Q and  the
Current  in  the  circuit:
current  i is  zero,  then

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 42

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit

Capacitor  charge:   Q

## Current  in  the  circuit:   Imax

Imax = ωQ
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 43
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Energy  in  an  L-­C  Circuit

Total  energy  of  the  LC  circuit:

## The total energy

in an LC circuit is
(inductor) (capacitor)
constant.
Recall:
Capacitor  charge:   Current  in  the  circuit:

Imax = ωQ
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 44
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 45

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 46

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Describe  the  charge,  voltage  and  current  variation  in  time  for
underdamped,  critically-­damped,  and  overdamped  L-­R-­C
circuits

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 47

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## L-­R-­C  Series  Circuit

An  inductor with  inductance  L and  a  resistor of  resistance  R are
connected  in  series across  the  terminals  of  a  charged capacitor.

3 cases:
1. Underdamped  oscillation
2. Critically  damped
3. Overdamped

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## UNDERdamped CRITICALLY damped OVERdamped

(Small R) (Large R) (Very large R)

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 49

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
An L-­R-­C series circuit includes a 2.0-­Ω resistor. At t = 0 the
capacitor charge is 2.0 μC. For which of the following
values of inductance and capacitance will the charge on the
capacitor not oscillate?
Hint:
A. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
B. L  =  6.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 50

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
An L-­R-­C series circuit includes a 2.0-­Ω resistor. At t = 0 the
capacitor charge is 2.0 μC. For which of the following
values of inductance and capacitance will the charge on the
capacitor not oscillate?
Hint:
A. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
B. L  =  6.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 51

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Seatwork (0.5 pt):

Consider  an  R-­L-­C  series  circuit  with  resistance  1  Ω.  Which
values  of  inductance  L  and  capacitance  C  will  the  charge  on
the  capacitor  undergo  a  damped  oscillation?

## A. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  4.0  μF

B. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  12.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  18.0  μF
D. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
E. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  8.0  μF

## 4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 52

Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

## Seatwork (0.5 pt):

Consider  an  R-­L-­C  series  circuit  with  resistance  1  Ω.  Which
values  of  inductance  L  and  capacitance  C  will  the  charge  on
the  capacitor  undergo  a  damped  oscillation?

## A. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  4.0  μF

B. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  12.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  18.0  μF
D. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
E. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  8.0  μF