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30 Inductance

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4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque Physics  72  1st Sem AY  15-­‐16 1


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Calculate  mutually-­induced  emf given  the  mutual  inductance  
between  two  circuits

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

I’ I’ and I are both constant.

r I

Question:
What  if  instead  of  straight  wires  we  have  coils?
Also,  there  is  a  changing  current  in  one  of  the  coils.
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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Remember that:
If  the  coils  are  in  vacuum:
§ M21 is  a  constant.
§ It  depends  on  the  geometry  of  both  coils  
(size,  shape,  number  of  turns,  orientation  
of  each  coil,  separation  between  coils).

For our case, we assume that any magnetic


material present has constant Km so that M21 is
constant.
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 5
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

For any two coils (symmetric or not):

SI  Unit  of  mutual  inductance  M:

1  H  =  1  Wb/A
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 6
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

Equation to be used:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 7


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

Equations to be used:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 8


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
The  figure  shows  two  insulated  coils  wrapped  around  each  
other  with  mutual  inductance  M  =  0.5  H.  If  the  current  in  coil  2  
varies  as  I(t)  =  8t2 +  2t  +  14,  what  will  be  the  induced  emf  in  
coil  1 after  1  s?

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 9


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Calculate  self-­induced  emf given  the  self-­inductance  of  the  
circuit

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 10


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Any  circuit  that  carries  a  varying  current  has  an  emf  induced  in  it  
by  the  variation  in  its  own  magnetic  field.

Self-­Induced  emf
§ It can occur in any circuit.
§ The effect is greatly enhanced if circuit includes a coil with
N turns of wire.

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Self-­Inductance/Inductance  

Since current i in the circuit changes


with time t,

From Faraday’s Law:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 12


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Potential difference between the terminals of the inductor

If the rate of change of current is zero:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 13


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Potential difference between the terminals of the inductor

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 14


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

What is the physical significance of inductance L?


When L is large, the rate of change of current is small.
When L is small, the rate of change of current is large.

So, what is the use of an inductor in a circuit?


An inductor helps to prevent rapid changes in current.

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 15


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 16


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 17


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 18


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Exercise
A  current  i flowing  from  a  to  b  passes  through  an  inductor  of  
inductance  L,  as  shown  in  the  figure.  It  is  observed  that  the  
potential  at  b  is  higher  than  at  a.  

Which  of  the  following  describes  the  current  passing  through  


the  inductor?  increasing,  decreasing  or  constant?

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 19


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Exercise
A  current  i flowing  from  a  to  b  passes  through  an  inductor  of  
inductance  L,  as  shown  in  the  figure.  It  is  observed  that  the  
potential  at  b  is  higher  than  at  a.  

Which  of  the  following  describes  the  current  passing  through  


the  inductor?  increasing,  decreasing or  constant?

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 20


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Calculate  the  total  magnetic  energy  stored  in  an  inductor  and  
its  magnetic  energy  density  after  current  is  increased  from  
zero  to  a  final  steady-­state  value

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 21


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Energy  Stored  in  an  Inductor

The  total  energy  U supplied  while  the  current  increases  from  


zero  to  a  final  value  I is  

This is actually stored


in the magnetic field
within the coil.
When  the  current  decreases  from  I to  zero,  the  inductor  
acts  as  a  source  that  supplies  a  total  amount  of  energy  U.

Note: When a steady current flows through an inductor,


there is no energy flow in or out.

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 22


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Resistor vs. Inductor

A  resistor  is  a  device  in  which  energy  


is  irrecoverably dissipated.  

Energy  stored  in  a  current-­carrying  


inductor  can  be  recovered  when  the  
current  decreases  to  zero.  

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 23


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Magnetic  Energy  Density

Magnetic  energy  density  in  vacuum  

Magnetic  energy  density  in  a  material  where  μ =  Kmμo

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 24


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 25


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Seatwork (0.5 pt):


How  much  current  is  required  to  store  an  energy  of  7.2  kJ  in  
a  coil  with  an  inductance  of  100  H?

Equation to be used:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 26


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Describe  the  current  variation  in  time  for  the  current  growth  
and  current  decay  in  an  R-­L  circuit

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 27


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

R-­L  Circuit
A circuit that includes both a resistor and an inductor, and possibly a
source of emf

1 Current growth

2 Current decay

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 28


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

R-­L  Circuit Applying  Kirchhoff’s  loop  rule:

At  t  =  0,  i =  0 As  i increases,    di/dt à0

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

R-­L  Circuit Solving  for  i(t):

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 30


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Current Growth in an R-L Circuit

Current in an R-L circuit with emf:

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 31


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Current Growth in an R-L Circuit


Current in an R-L circuit with emf:

Time constant of an R-L circuit:

At time τ, the current has risen to (1-1/e)I


or about 63% of its final value ε/R.

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 32


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
What  is  the  current  through  the  ideal  battery  after  a  very  
long  time  the  switch  S  is  closed?

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
What  is  the  current  through  the  ideal  battery  after  a  very  
long  time  the  switch  S  is  closed?

I1

I2

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 34


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Current Decay in an R-L Circuit


Current in an R-L circuit:

Io: initial current in the circuit

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 35


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Current Decay in an R-L Circuit


Current in an R-L circuit:

Io: initial current in the circuit


Time constant of an R-L circuit:

At time τ, the current has decreased to or


about 37% of its initial value Io
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 36
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Seatwork (0.25 x 6 pts):


For  the  circuit  shown,  find  the  currents  I1,  I2,  and  I3
(a) immediately  after  switch  S  is  closed  and  
(b) a  long  time  after  switch  S  has  been  closed.  

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 38


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Describe  the  charge  and  current  variation  in  time  in  an  L-­C  
circuit

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 39


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 40


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 41


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor

§ Both  charge  and  current  in  an  L-­C  circuit  oscillate  sinusoidally  with  time,  with  an  
angular  frequency  of  

Capacitor  charge:  
If  at  time  t =  0:
the  left-­hand  capacitor  plate  has  
its  maximum  charge  Q and  the  
Current  in  the  circuit:  
current  i is  zero,  then  

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­C  Circuit

Capacitor  charge:   Q

Current  in  the  circuit:   Imax

Imax = ωQ
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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Energy  in  an  L-­C  Circuit


Total  energy  of  the  LC  circuit:

The total energy


in an LC circuit is
(inductor) (capacitor)
constant.
Recall:
Capacitor  charge:   Current  in  the  circuit:  

Imax = ωQ
4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 44
Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Seatwork (0.25 x 4 pts):

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Objective
1. Describe  the  charge,  voltage  and  current  variation  in  time  for  
underdamped,  critically-­damped,  and  overdamped  L-­R-­C  
circuits

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

L-­R-­C  Series  Circuit


An  inductor with  inductance  L and  a  resistor of  resistance  R are  
connected  in  series across  the  terminals  of  a  charged capacitor.

3 cases:
1. Underdamped  oscillation
2. Critically  damped
3. Overdamped

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

UNDERdamped CRITICALLY damped OVERdamped


(Small R) (Large R) (Very large R)

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
An L-­R-­C series circuit includes a 2.0-­Ω resistor. At t = 0 the
capacitor charge is 2.0 μC. For which of the following
values of inductance and capacitance will the charge on the
capacitor not oscillate?
Hint:
A. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
B. L  =  6.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 50


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Example:
An L-­R-­C series circuit includes a 2.0-­Ω resistor. At t = 0 the
capacitor charge is 2.0 μC. For which of the following
values of inductance and capacitance will the charge on the
capacitor not oscillate?
Hint:
A. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
B. L  =  6.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  3.0  μF

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Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Seatwork (0.5 pt):


Consider  an  R-­L-­C  series  circuit  with  resistance  1  Ω.  Which  
values  of  inductance  L  and  capacitance  C  will  the  charge  on  
the  capacitor  undergo  a  damped  oscillation?

A. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  4.0  μF


B. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  12.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  18.0  μF
D. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
E. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  8.0  μF

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 52


Mutual Inductance

30
Self-Inductance and Inductors
Magnetic Field Energy
The R-L Circuit
The L-C Circuit
The R-L-C Series Circuit

Seatwork (0.5 pt):


Consider  an  R-­L-­C  series  circuit  with  resistance  1  Ω.  Which  
values  of  inductance  L  and  capacitance  C  will  the  charge  on  
the  capacitor  undergo  a  damped  oscillation?

A. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  4.0  μF


B. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  12.0  μF
C. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  18.0  μF
D. L  =  3.0  μH,  C  =  6.0  μF
E. L  =  1.0  μH,  C  =  8.0  μF

4/6/16 Kristine  F aith  R oque  Physics  72  1st  S em  AY  15-­‐16 53