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Introduction to Adhesives

UPACO Division of Worthen 
Industries
Barbara Strickland April 11, 2013
20,000 BC
Cavemen
Beeswax, Pine Sap
feathers on arrows
8000 BC
Nomadic Tribes
Animal Hides
Repair pottery
1500 BC
Egyptians
Animal glues‐repair
Asphalt‐mosaics
1000 BC
Greeks & Romans
Albumin‐gold leaf
beeswax/tar‐mortar
1500 AD
Spaniards
Rubber‐bookbinding
1841
Goodyear
Vulcanized Rubber
1905
Baekeland
Balelite‐billiard balls
1922
BASF
Urea‐formaldehyde
1928
Rohm & Haas
PMMA
1937
Bayer
Polyurethanes
1920
Dupont
Neoprene rubber
Commercialized 1940's, 50's, 60's 
Cyanoacrylates, 
Polyimides
1970'2, 80's, 90's
Reactive hot melts, 
UV‐curable coatings 
& Adhesives, Silanes
2000's
Reversion to natural, sustainable
RM's for polymers, growth of
water‐borne & 100% solids systems
Categories of Adhesives
• Solvent‐based:
Solvent(s) + Polymer + resin + additives
• Water‐Borne:
Water + Polymer + resin dispersion + wetting
agent + thickener + preservative   
• 100% Solids:  Hot Melt or Reactive
1 or 2 polymer system 
Pressure Sensitive
• Rubber based:  
Natural (Isoprene)
Butyl
Block Copolymers:
SBS, SIS, SEBS, APAO
Thermoplastic

• Will soften with heat; may be in solvent or 
water
• Rubber/plastic based:
Polyurethane
Polychloroprene
Acrylic 
Nitrile 
Thermoset
• Will not soften with heat
• Rubber/plastic based:
2 part polyurethanes
Silicones 
Epoxies
Polymers Used to Manufacture 
Adhesives
• Polyurethanes
• Acrylics
• Epoxies
• Polychloroprenes
• Natural rubber
• Styrenated Block Copolymers
• Cyanoacrylates
• Silicones
Polyurethanes
• Prepared by addition reaction of isocyanates 
and polyols.
– May also include catalysts, chain extenders, 
plasticizers, flame retardants, fillers and other 
additives.

• Wide variety of end properties and uses.
– Hard, soft, rigid, flexible.
– Adhesives, coatings, sealants, foams, fibers.
Polyols and Chain Extenders
• Polyoxypropylene glycol
• Polytetramethylene ether glycol
• Polycaprolactones
• Castor oil
• Trimethylolpropane
• 1,4‐Butanediol
• Ethylenediamine
• Triisopropanolamine
Isocyanates

• Diphenylmethane 4,4’‐Diisocyanate (MDI)

• Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI)

• Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI)

• Isophorone Diisocyanate (IPDI)

• Bis(4‐Isocyanatocyclohexyl) Methane (HMDI)
Simple Polyurethane:  Reaction of 
Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate (MDI) 
with Ethylene Glycol
Acrylics
• Prepared by free radical polymerization of 
acrylic monomers.
– Chain reaction steps: initiation, propagation and 
termination.

• Initiators are unstable compounds that 
decompose at elevated temperatures to form 
free radicals (molecules with unpaired 
electrons).
Acrylic Monomers
• Acrylic acid
• Methyl acrylate
• Ethyl acrylate
• 2‐Ethylhexyl acrylate
• Methyl methacrylate
• Acrylonitrile
Free Radical Initiators
• 2,2’‐Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)
• tert‐Butyl peroxide
• Cumyl peroxide
• Benzoyl peroxide
• tert‐Butyl hydroperoxide
• tert‐Butyl perbenzoate
Polyurethane Adhesive
Formulation
Ingredient Function %

Acetone Solvent (main dissolver) 45.00


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Solvent (main dissolver) 16.42
Toluene Solvent (diluent) 14.00
Polyurethane polymer Base polymer 19.00
Fumed Silica Filler/Flow control 0.08
Phenolic Resin Specific adhesion 5.50
Contact Adhesive for Roofing
Membrane Installation
Ingredient Function %

Toluene Solvent 45.00


Acetone Diluent 18.00
Heptane Diluent 11.80
Magnesium Oxide Curative for Resin 0.20
Zinc Oxide Curative for Rubber  0.20
Tertiary Butyl Phenolic Tackifier Resin 7.55
Polychloroprene Rubber Base Polymer 15.00
Brominated Butyl Rubber Adhesion Promoter 2.00
Phenolic Antioxidant Stabilizer 0.25
Pressure‐Sensitive Adhesive
Formulation
Ingredient Function %

Toluene Solvent (main dissolver) 40.00


Hexane Solvent (diluent) 9.75
Styrene‐isoprene‐Styrene
(SIS) Copolymer Base polymer 25.00
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
(C‐5 or C‐9) Resin Tackifier 20.00
Paraffinic Oil Plasticizer/Tackifier 5.00
Antioxidant Stabilizer 0.25
Hot melt Packaging Adhesive

Ingredient Function %

Ethylene‐Vinyl Acetate
Coploymer Base Polymer 30.00
Pentaerythritol Rosin
Ester Resin Tackifyier Resin 34.50
Paraffinic Wax Reduces Viscosity & Cost 20.00
PE Homopolymer
(Polyethylene) Improves Wetting 15.00
Phenolic Antioxidant Stabilizer 0.50
Water‐borne Polyurethane
Adhesive Formulation
Ingredients Function %

PU Dispersion Base polymer 70.00


Resin Dispersion Tackifier/Softening point 25.00
depression
Silica or clay dispersion Filler/Flow control 2.50
Modified soap dispersion Wetting/Leveling agent 0.50
Preservative Antimold/Antifungal 1.40
Sodium Polyacrylate Thickener 0.60
Activation
Product Composition Bonds to Carrier Standard Thickness**
Temp*
EVA Fabrics Metals Neoprene Polyester Some Rubber Vinyl Urethane Application Mil MM
Film 100-3, 5 Urethane √ √ √ √ 1 90ºC Paper + PE 3/5 0.08 / 0.13
FILM 156 Urethane √ √ √ √ 2 90ºC Paper or PET 1.5 / 4 / 7 0.08 / 0.13
FILM 803 Urethane √ √ √ √ 2 95ºC Paper or PET 3 0.08
Film 333 Urethane √ √ √ √ 3 95ºC Paper or PET 1.5 / 4 / 7 0.04 / 0.11 / 0.18
Film 1423 Urethane √ √ √ √ 1 110ºC Paper + PE 3 0.08
Film 339 Olefin Blend √ √ √ √ 2 110ºC Paper or PET 3 0.08
Film 453 Olefin Blend √ √ √ 3 110ºC Paper or PET 3 0.08
Film 240 Aliphatic TPU √ √ √ √ 4 110ºC Polyester 1.5 / 3 0.04 / 0.08
Film 375 Urethane √ √ √ √ 2,3 125ºC Paper or PET 1.5 / 4 / 7 0.04 / 0.11 / 0.18
Film 2603 Coextrusion √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 1 125ºC Paper or PET 6, 8, 10 0.15 / 0.20 / 0.25
Film 515 Blend √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 1,3 125ºC Paper 3 0.08
FILM 2608 Blend √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 1,2 125ºC Polyester 6, 10 0.20 / 0.25
Film 449 Proprietary √ √ √ √ √ √ 2,3 125ºC Paper 3 0.08
FILM 2609 Proprietary √ √ √ √ √ √ 1 125ºC Polyester 8, 10 0.20 / 0.25
FILM 2815 Coextrusion √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 1 125°C Polyester 4, 6, 8 0.11 / 0.15 / 0.20
Film 8618 Coex Printable TPU √ √ √ √ 4 125°C Polyester 10 0.25
Film 2743*** Polyester √ √ √ √ √ 2 130ºC Paper or PET 3/5 0.08 / 0.13
Film 218 Urethane √ √ √ √ √ √ 2,3 140ºC Paper or PET 6 0.15
Film 1413 Urethane √ √ √ √ 1 145ºC Paper + PE 3 0.08
*Activation temperature can vary depending on applied pressure and the substrate permeability 1 = Sole Attaching
**Worthen will customize films and/or carriers to meet a customer's specific requirements 2 = Lamination
***Contains organo tin (DBT) 3 = Stichless
4 = Printable/Colored Updated: 05/18/12
Thank you for your attention

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