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10  27,  2019 -  ntnews.com ntadilabad.

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    ?


 &  2)   � � - 1091
3)  � � � - 1950
4)  
1.       23.  26   3   
    .       ?
 ? 1) 32 2) 33 3) 34 4) 35
1) � 2) � 24.       1 
3) ��� 4) � ?
2.  , 
    
    1) 2015 2) 2016 3) 2017 4) 2018
 ? 25.      24     
1) � 2)   ?  
3)  4)   1) � 2) �
3.   10     3)  4) ��  &   
   ? 26.         
1)  2) �     ? 
3) � 4) � 1)  2) �
4.        3) � 4)  
 ? 1)  � 2)   27.     2..   40.       
1) 39 2) 40 3) 41 4) 38 3)  �� 4)  � ? ?
5.        15.        1) � 2)  3) � 4) � 1)  � 2)  ��
   ?        28. 2019,  25     3) � ��� 4)  
1) 1967 2) 1966 3) 1965 4) 1971 ?  ? 41.  23    
6.      ,  1) 2030 2) 2035 3) 2040 4) 2050 1) 69 2)68 3) 67 4) 71   ?
? 16.  ,     29.        1) �  �
1)  24 2)  25    -       ‘  ’  ? 2)  �
3)  26 4)  23 ? 1)  2) � �� 3) � � � �
7.        100  1) � 2) � 3)  4) ���  4)  
? 3)  4)  30.     ? 42.  ,    
1) 56 2) 57 3) 58 4) 60 17.         1) � 2)       
8.  21  23            3) � 4)  -18  ?
 ? .   ? 1)  2) �
1) 16 2) 15 3) 17 4) 18 1) 70 2) 72 3) 73 4) 71 3)  4) ��
9.     24 -44  18.       43. 2019       
  ?      ?      ?
1) ��� 2) �� 1) �� 2)  3) � 4)  1) � 2) �
3) �-6 4) � -9� 19. 2019 ‘   ’  3)  4) �
10. 2018     ‘    ? 44.         
    ’  ? 1)  2)  ?
1) � �� 2) � � 3)  4)   1)   2)  �
3)  4) � 20. 15     ? 3) � 4)� �
11. 2019  17    1) ���  45.       ?
   ? 2) 28  � � � � 1) � � 2)  ��
1) 87 � 2) 91 � � 3)    4)  �
3) 85 � 4) 79 � 3) �  ��  �  31. 2019,  24   ‘  ’ 46.    1   
12.  25       ��� �  ?  ?
   ? 4)   1) 29 2) 26 3) 27 4) 31 1) �� 2) �
1) 2015 2) 2014 3) 2016 4) 2010 21.   10      32.       ? 3)  4) �
13.           ? 1)  2) � 3) � 4) �� 47.       
      ? 1) 2019,  1 2) 2019, � 1 33. 2019      ?
1) � 2)  3) � 4) � 3) 2019,  1 4) 2019,  26 ? 1) � 2) � 3) � 4) ��
14.    2019  22.   ? 1) 20 2) 21 3) 22 4) 18 48. 69    
     ? 1)   - 104 34. 2018        ?
   ratchanok intanon   1)   2) �� 

Scholarships
? 3)  �� 4)  
1) � 2)  3)  4) �� 49. 112      ?
35.      20 (-20)-2019  1) � 2) ��
Category: Merit cum Means Based  ? 3)  4) 
Scholarship: Sarla Devi Scholarship 2019 1) � 2)  3) � 4) �  50.      
Description: DharampalSatyapal Charitable Trust announces this scholarship for 36. 69       ?
meritorious but under-privileged students who are from any part of     .   1) �� 2) �
the country, currently studying in Delhi/NCR region. The purpose of 3)  4) �
this scholarship is to provide them a chance towards a better future.
   ?
Eligibility: Students pursuing 1st year in MBBS, Engineering, Nursing, LLB, 1) 2018 2) 2019 3) 2017 4) 2016
Psychology or Mass Communication with minimum 75% in class 12 37.      ANSWERS
board can apply. For students who are aspiring for CA, CS and scored   ( . )    1-2 2-4 3-4 4-1 5-2 6-1
minimum 80% in class 12 can also apply. For dropout students  ? 7-1 8-2 9-2 10-3 11-1 12-1
looking forward to pursue vocational courses are also eligible to 1) � 2) � 13-3 14-1 15-4 16-4 17-1 18-3
apply. The applicant's family income shouldn't be more than INR 4.5L p.a. 3) � 4) �� 19-1 20-4 21-3 22-4 23-1 24-2
Prizes & Rewards: INR 75K for science and engineering streams; INR 20K for arts 38.       
stream; INR 25K for commerce and CA, CS; and INR 15K for 25-2 26-2 27-2 28-1 29-2 30-4
?
vocational courses as scholarships. 31-2 32-3 33-1 34-4 35-1 36-1
Last Date to apply: March 31, 2019
1) �� 2)  3) � 4) 
39.  24, 25    37-2 38-3 39-2 40-1 41-4 42-2
Application: Online application 43-2 44-2 45-2 46-1 47-1 48-4
Short Source URL: http://www.b4s.in/namasthe/SDS5   ?
Courtesy: www.buddy4study.com 1) � 2)  3)  4)  49-2 50-2
ntnews.com ntkhammam.com  27,  2019 -  07
The vapour pressure of 10 % aqueous
glucose solution at 100 C ?
0

SOLUTIONS
Continued from Jan 26th

Krupakar Pendli
Centre Head
Urbane junior colleges
7893774888

JEE Main
Special
16 Á‹tyÓ˛ ÚflO˝ßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍßä˛ ∑ B®–ÈΔÊˇÖ 27 fØ˲–ö˛« 2019 www.andhrajyothy com .

Ì‹∞-–˲*À gÍ°ƒÊ˝$ –˲$*≈hƒÊ˝$Ö gÍ°-ƒÊ˝$Ö Vʸ-—$Ö_ øÍΔÊˇôå˛ D HyÈ® AΔˇ$$߯ ›Î¶ØÈ-∞Mϸ ^Û˛ΔÊˇ$-M¯-Ø˲$Ö-ßÊ˛∞
دsÏ˝-Ìú-MÛ¸-ÁŸ-Ø˲œ-∞≤Ö-sÏ˝MÓ¸ 10 ‘>ôË˛Ö ı≥ßÊ˛À M¯sÍØ˲$ –˲«¢Ö-Á≥-gÙ˝-ƒÊ˝$-Ø˲$- AÖô˲-Δ>j-°ƒÊ˝$ MʸØ˲fi-ÃÒ˝t±fi Á‹ÖÁ‹¶ Ô≥yÊ˛-∫*œ≈Ô‹ ô˲Ø˲ ôÈgÍ ∞–Û˛-®-MʸÃZ

MʸΔˇÖ-så˝ A-ÚúO-Δäˇfi
øÍΔÊˇ-°ƒÊ˝$ Ì‹∞-–˲*-ÀMʸ$ Á‹Ö∫Ö-´®Ö-_Ø˲ gÍ°ƒÊ˝$ –˲$*≈h-ƒÊ˝*∞≤ Ø˲≤r$œ MÛ¸Ö{ßÊ˛ {Á≥øÊ˝$ô˲”Ö {Á≥Mʸ-sÏ˝Ö-_Ö®. 103–˲ Δ>gÍ≈ÖVʸ Á‹–˲-ΔÊˇ◊˝ ô˛Õ-Ì≥Ö®. 2017ÃZ {Á≥Á≥Ö^˲ ªÍ≈ÖMʸ$ —yÊ˛$-ßÊ˛À ^Û˛Ì‹Ø˲ AÖô˲-Δ>j-
{Á≥´ßë∞ –˛*yÓ˛ fØ˲-–ö˛« 19Ø˲ –ö˛$$ÖªÒ˝OÃZ {¥ÎΔÊˇÖ-¿Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. ßÛ˛‘Ë˝-–È≈- ^˲rtÖ-ÃZ∞ B«t-MʸÃå˝ 15(6), 16(6) {Á≥M>ΔÊˇÖ Ì‹—Ãå˝ ¥˘Á‹$tÀ$, Á‹»”- °ƒÊ˝$ Δ>≈ÖMϸÖ-Vä¸fiÃZ {∏ÎØå˛fiØ˲$ A´®-Vʸ-—$Ö_ øÍΔÊˇôå˛ BΔ¯ ›Î¶ØÈ-∞Mϸ
Á≥¢ÖV> Ì‹∞–˲* Á≥«-{‘Ë˝-–˲$Mʸ$ Ì‹ÖWÃå˝ —Öy¯ —´ßÈ-Ø˲ÖÃZ AØ˲$-–˲$- Á‹$À$, —ßÈ≈-Á‹Ö-Á‹¶ÃZœ {Á≥–Û˛-‘>À M¯Á‹Ö 10 ‘>ôË˛Ö «f-ΔÛˇ”-ÁŸØ˲$œ GVʸ-ªÍ-Mϸ֮. Ô≥yÊ˛-∫*œ≈Ô‹ AÖô˲-Δ>j-°ƒÊ˝$ B«¶Mʸ ∞–Û˛-®Mʸ {Á≥M>ΔÊˇÖ D
ô˲$À$ –˲$ÖlΔÊˇ$ ^Û˛›Î¢-–˲$∞ ô˛Õ-¥ÎΔÊˇ$. –ö˛$$ÖªÒ˝O-ÃZ∞ Ú≥ßÈ™Δäˇ MʸյÖ-^˲-Ø˲$-ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. {Á≥Á‹$¢ôË˛Ö A–˲$ÃZœ EØ˲≤ GÔ‹fi, GÔ‹t, KΩÔ‹ «f- HyÈ® {ºrØå˛ –ÈÁ‹¢–˲ iyÓ˛Ô≥ 1.6 ‘>ô˲Ö, {∏ÎØå˛fi –ÈÁ‹¢–˲ iyÓ˛Ô≥
Δ¯yä˛ÃZ "ØÛ˛ÁŸ-Ø˲Ãå˝ –˲$*≈hƒÊ˝$Ö Bãú CÖyÏ˛-ƒÊ˝$Øå˛ Ì‹∞-–˲*'Ø˲$ ΔÛˇ”-ÁŸØ˲œ Mϸ֮Mϸ Δ>∞ Mʸ$r$Ö∫ –È«¤Mʸ BßÈƒÊ˝$Ö G∞-—$® ÀÑʸ-À- 1.7 ‘>ôË˛Ö –Û˛$ΔÊˇ –˲ñ®Æ ^˛ÖßÊ˛$-ôÈ-ƒÊ˝$∞ AÖ^˲ØÈ –Û˛Ì‹Ö®. CßÛ˛ Á‹–˲$-
HΔ>µr$ ^Û˛‘>ΔÊˇ$. ÃZÁ≥# EØ˲≤-–È-«Mϸ D DyÊ˛-∫*œ≈-Gã‹ «f-ΔÛˇ”-ÁŸØå˛ AÖßÊ˛$-ô˲$Ö®. ƒÊ˝$ÖÃZ 2019&20ÃZ øÍΔÊˇô˲ –˲ñ®Æ 7.6 ‘>ô˲ÖV> Ø˲–˛*-ßÊ˛ƒÙ˝$≈ A–˲-
M>‘Ë˝Ö EÖßÊ˛∞ ı≥ΔˆPÖ®.
AÖßÊ˛$-–˲Àœ øÍΔÊˇôå˛, {∏ÎØå˛fi AÜ Ú≥ßÊ˛™ B«¶Mʸ –˲≈–˲- Δ>–˲$^˲Ö{ßÈΔˇyÏ˛z
Ìú{∫-–˲« 1 Ø˲$Ö_ DyÊ˛-∫*œ≈-Gã‹ M¯sÍ ô˲”ΔÊˇÃZ I߯ AÜÚ≥ßÊ˛™ B«¶Mʸ- –ö˛≈-–ö˛-Á‹¶V> øÍΔÊˇ-ôå˛ Á‹¶À&2019 gͺ-ôÈÃZ ƒÊ˝$$Ø˛O-sÒ˝yä˛ MϸÖVä¸-yÊ˛–í˛$Ø˲$ A´®-Vʸ-—$Ö-^˲-Ø˲$-
EÁ≥#µÀ
ØÈ≤Δˇ$$. –˲ΔÊˇ$-Á‹V> øÍΔÊˇôå˛ AΔˇ$$ßÊ˛$, {∏ÎØå˛fi BΔÊˇ$, {ºrØå˛ HyÊ˛$
MÛ¸Ö{ßÊ˛ {Á≥øÊ˝$ô˲” E߯≈-V>À øÊ˝»¢Mϸ Ìú{∫-–˲« 1 Ø˲$Ö_ gÍ» ^Û˛ı‹ AÜ Ú≥ßÊ˛™ B«¶Mʸ –˲≈–˲-Á‹¶ÃZœ I߯ ›Î¶Ø˲ÖÃZ EØ˲≤ {ºr-Øå˛Ø˲$ A´®- ›Î¶ØÈÃZœ ∞À$-–˲-Ø˲$-ØÈ≤Δˇ$$.

AÖÁ≥-‘Ë˝ƒÊ˝$≈ Ø˲“-Øå˛Mʸ$ "ÃZMä¸-ØÈ-ƒÊ˝$Mä¸'


Á≥#ΔÊˇ-›ÎP-Δ>-À$ MʸÑʸ≈ÃZMϸ Ì≥Gã‹GÃå˝—&Ì‹44 Ú‹OØå˛fi á sÒ˝M>≤-À-i
øÍΔÊˇô˲ AÖô˲-«Ñʸ Á≥«-‘Z-´ßÊ˛Ø˲ Á‹ÖÁ‹¶ C{›˘
Ø˲iΔäˇ AÁfl˝√ßä˛ –ȱMϸ "A‘ZMʸ ^˲{Mʸ' Ì≥Gã-‹-G-Ãå˝-—&Ì‹44 –ÈÁfl˝-Mʸ-Ø˙Mʸ ßÈ”Δ> MʸÃÍÖ-‘>så˝, –˛$O{M¯-‘>så˝ ßÛ˛‘Ë˝ÖÃZ ôˆÕ [Ú≥O–Û˛r$ BƒÊ˝$$´ßÊ˛ MʸΔ>√-V>ΔÊˇÖ
Mʸ÷√-ΔäˇÃZ E{Vʸ-–È-ßÊ˛$-Àô¯ ¥˘Δ>-yÊ˛$ô˲* A–ö˛$-ΔÊˇ$-y˛OØ˲ ÃÍØå˛fi- &BΔäˇ-ÀØ˲$ fØ˲-–˲« 24Ø˲ —f-ƒÊ˝$-–˲Ö-ô˲ÖV> MʸÑʸ≈-ÃZMϸ {Á≥–Û˛-‘Ë˝-Ú≥-sÏ˝tÖ®. Ø˛À*œΔÊˇ$ hÃÍœ-
ÃZ∞ Á‹°‘å˝ ´ßë–˲Øå˛ AÖô˲-«Ñʸ {Á≥ƒÒ˝*Vʸ MÛ¸Ö{ßÊ˛Ö Vʸ$f-Δ>-ôå˛-ÃZ∞ Á‹*ΔÊˇ-ôå˛Mʸ$ 30 Mϸ.“$. ßÊ˛*ΔÊˇÖ-ÃZ∞ Áfl˝i-Δ>ÃZ GÃå˝ AÖyä˛ sÏ˝
ØÈ-ƒÊ˝$Mä¸ Ø˲iΔäˇ AÁfl˝√ßä˛ –ȱMϸ ‘ÈÖÜ-M>-ÀÖÃZ C^Û˛a Ø˲$Ö_ D EÁ≥-{Vʸ-‡-ÀØ˲$ ∞ÖW-ÃZMϸ Á≥Ö¥ÎΔÊˇ$. ô˲—$- MʸÖÚ≥± ∞«√Ö-_Ø˲ ôˆÕ [Ú≥O–Û˛så˝ BƒÊ˝$$´ßÊ˛ MʸΔ>√-V>-Δ>∞≤ fØ˲-–˲« 19Ø˲ ßÛ˛‘Ë˝
Aô˲$≈-Ø˲≤ô˲ ›ÎÁfl˝Á‹ Á≥#ΔÊˇ-›ÎPΔÊˇÖ A‘ZMʸ ^˲{MʸØ˲$ ‚Ê˝-ØÈyÊ˛$ EØ˲≤ô˲ ¥ÎuÊˇ-‘>À —ßÈ≈-ΔÊˇ$¶À$ ΔÊˇ*¥˜Ö-®Ö-_Ø˲ {Á≥´ßÈ∞ –˛*yÓ˛ {¥ÎΔÊˇÖ-¿Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. ©∞ÃZ M¸9 –˲{gÍ&sÓ˝ 155 —$.“$.
{Á≥øÊ˝$ô˲”Ö {Á≥Mʸ-sÏ˝Ö-_Ö®. JMʸ-Á≥#µyÊ˛$ E{Vʸ-–È-®V> EØ˲≤ Ø˲iΔäˇ –˲$Ø˲Á‹$ –˲*ΔÊˇ$a-Mˆ∞ MʸÃÍÖ-‘>-så˝-ô¯-¥Îr$ 740 MϸÃZÀ –˛$O{M¯-‘>-så˝&-BΔäˇ EÁ≥-{Vʸ-‡- Á‹”ƒÊ˝$Ö-^¯-´®ô˲ ÁflZ—-rjΔäˇ ô˲$¥Î-Mʸ$-ÀØ˲$ ô˲ƒÊ˝*ΔÊˇ$ ^Û˛›Î¢ΔÊˇ$. "–Û˛$MϸØå˛
øÊ˝{ßÊ˛ôÈ ßÊ˛‚Í-ÀMʸ$ ÃüÖW-¥˘ƒÊ˝*yÊ˛$. 2004ÃZ BƒÊ˝$Ø˲ øÍΔÊˇô˲ Ú‹OØ˲≈ÖÃZ ^Û˛Δ>ΔÊˇ$. ÀØ˲$ Ì≥Gã-‹-G-Ãå˝-—&Ì‹44 ßÈ”Δ> ∞ÖW-ÃZMϸ Á≥Ö¥ÎΔÊˇ$. –˛$O{M¯-‘>- CÖyÏ˛ƒÊ˝*' Á≥£Ê˛-MʸÖÃZ GÃå˝ AÖyä˛ sÏ˝ MʸÖÚ≥± 100 MÛ¸9 –˲{gÍ ô˲$¥Î-
Mʸ÷√-ΔäˇÃZ °{–˲-–ÈßÊ˛ H«-–Û˛ô˲ M>ΔÊˇ≈-{Mʸ-–˲$ÖÃZ ^˲ΔÊˇ$-Mʸ$V> ¥ÎÃüY-ØÈ≤yÊ˛$. B {Mʸ–˲$Ö- så˝&-B-ΔäˇØ˲$ ßÛ˛‘Ë˝ ΔÊˇÑʸ◊˝ ΔÊˇÖVʸ A–˲-Á‹-Δ>À M¯Á‹Ö Mʸ$-ÀØ˲$ AÖ®Ö-^˲-yÈ-∞Mϸ 2017ÃZ ΔÊˇ*.4500 M¯rœ M>Ö{sÍ-Mʸ$tØ˲$
ÃZØÛ˛ –˲$$ÁŸP-ΔÊˇ$-Àô¯ ¥˘Δ>-yÊ˛$ô˲* “ΔÊˇ –˲$ΔÊˇ◊˝Ö ¥˜ÖßÈyÊ˛$. Ø˲iΔäˇ ^˲*Ì≥Ø˲ ß˛OΔÊˇ≈- ΔÊˇ*¥˜Ö-®Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. ßÊ˛MϸPÖ-^˲$-Mʸ$Ö®. 755 GMʸ-Δ>-ÀÃZ —Á‹¢-«Ö_ EØ˲≤ Áfl˝iΔ>
›Î-Áfl˝-›Î-ÀMʸ$ ΔˇÖyÊ˛$-›ÎΔÊˇ$œ ı‹ØÈ Á≥ô˲MÊ¸Ö À¿Ö-_Ö®. 2018 Ø˲–˲Ö-∫ΔÊˇ$ 25Ø˲ BƒÊ˝$$´ßÊ˛ M>ÖÚ≥œ-Mä¸fiÃZ ÃÍΔÊˇfiØå˛ AÖyä˛ r*{ªZMʸ$ 40 GMʸ-Δ>À$ MÛ¸sÍ-
⁄˘Ì≥-ƒÊ˝*Øå˛ hÃÍœ-ÃZ∞ Ìfl˝Δ>-Á≥N-ΔäˇÃZ f«-WØ˲ GØå˛-M˙Ö-r-ΔäˇÃZ {¥Î◊ÍÀ$ M¯ÃZµ- Δˇ$$Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. CMʸPyÊ˛ A´ßÊ˛$-ØÈ-ô˲Ø˲ ƒÊ˝$$ßÊ˛Æ sÍ≈ÖMʸ$-ÀØ˲$ ô˲ƒÊ˝*ΔÊˇ$ ^Û˛ı‹ ›Î–ö˛$ΔÊˇ¶≈Ö Mʸ*yë EÖ®.
ƒÊ˝*yÊ˛$.
GW-«Ø˲
iد–å˛$ –È≈Œ GMä¸fi-ÃÒ˝Øå˛fi A–ÈΔÊˇ$z i–˲ CÖ´ßÊ˛Ø˲ —–˲*Ø˲Ö
M>≈Ø˲fiΔäˇ –È≈´®Ú≥O —‘Û˝ÁŸ Á≥«-‘Z-´ßÊ˛-Ø˲À$ ^Û˛Ì‹Ø˲ yÈMʸtΔäˇ yÈØå˛ MÓ¸œ–å˛ ÃÍ≈Öyä˛, {Á≥gÍ-Δ¯Vʸ≈ ƒÊ˝$*H-DÃZ i–˲ CÖ´ßÊ˛-Ø˲Öô¯ ΔÊˇ*¥˜Ö-
—øÍ-VʸÖÃZ ı‹–˲À$ AÖ®Ö-_Ø˲ yÈMʸtΔäˇ ›˚–˲$≈ ›Î”—$-ØÈ-£Ê˛Øå˛ "iد–å˛$ –È≈Œ GMä¸fi- ®Ø˲ GÜ-‡ßä˛ –È◊Ï˝f≈ —–˲*ØË˛Ö ôˆÕ-
ÃÒ˝Øå˛fi' A–È-ΔÊˇ$zMʸ$ GÖÌ≥-Mʸ-ƒÊ˝*≈ΔÊˇ$. ∫ƒÒ˝*-H-ÌŸƒÊ˝*&2019 Á‹ßÊ˛Á‹$fi Á≥#ΔÊˇ-Á‹P-«Ö-^˲$- ›Î-«V> V>Õ-ÃZMϸ GW-«Ö®. D
Mʸ$∞ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$z-ÀØ˲$ {Á≥Mʸ-sÏ˝Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. fØ˲-–˲« 25 Ø˲$Ö_ 27 –ö˛ΔÊˇMʸ$ Úfl˝OßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍ- —–˲*ØË˛Ö A∫$-ßȺ Ø˲$Ö_ B–å˛$-Á‹tΔÊˇyÈ–å˛$ –˲ΔÊˇMʸ* HyÊ˛$ VʸÖrÀ ı‹Á≥#
ßä˛ÃZ fΔÊˇ$-Vʸ$-ô˲$Ø˲≤ Á‹ßÊ˛-Á‹$fiÃZ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$z-ÀØ˲$ AÖßÊ˛-gÙ˝-›Î¢ΔÊˇ$. ƒÊ˝$*∞-–˲-«fisÓ˝ Bãú {Á≥ƒÊ˝*-◊Ï˝Ö-_Ö®. ªZΔˇ$$ÖVä¸ 787 ΔÊˇM>-∞Mϸ ^˛Ö®Ø˲ D —–˲*-Ø˲ÖÃZ fØ˲-ΔÊˇÃå˝
M>Õ-∏˘-«≤-ƒÊ˝*ÃZ {¥˜Úú-Á‹-ΔäˇV> Á≥∞-^Û˛-Á‹$¢Ø˲≤ yÈMʸtΔäˇ MÓ¸œ–å˛ ÃÍ≈Öyä˛ A›ÎPΔäˇ Bãú GÀ-[MϸtMä¸ Á‹ÖÁ‹¶ ô˲ƒÊ˝*ΔÊˇ$ ^Û˛Ì‹Ø˲ Mˆô˲¢ ô˲ΔÊˇÖ 1º CÖfØ˲$œ EØÈ≤Δˇ$$. D —–˲*-
Ú‹OØå˛fiV> ı≥ΔÊˇ$Ø˲≤ "{ªÙ˝Mä¸{ô˲* {Ú≥ïgå˝'Ø˲$ 2018ÃZ V¸À$-^˲$-Mʸ$-ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. yÈMʸtΔäˇ ›˚–˲$≈ Ø˲ÖÃZ –ÈyÏ˛Ø˲ CÖ´ßÊ˛-ØÈ∞≤ GyÈ-«ÃZ EÁ≥#µ -±-sÏ˝ô¯ Ú≥Ö_Ø˲ –˛$$MʸPÀ Ø˲$Ö_
›Î”—$-ØÈ-£Ê˛Øå˛ ^˛Ø˛O≤-ÃZ∞ ØÛ˛ÁŸ-Ø˲Ãå˝ CØå˛-Ì‹t-r*≈så˝ ÁúΔäˇ »Ú‹Δäˇa CØå˛ r*≈∫ΔäˇMʸ$≈ÃZ- ô˲ƒÊ˝*ΔÊˇ$ ^Û˛‘>ΔÊˇ$. ƒÊ˝$*H-D-ÃZ∞ QŒ∏Î –˲«fi-sÓ˝-ÃZ∞ –˲$›ÎÆΔäˇ CØå˛-Ì‹t-r*≈så˝
Ì‹ã‹ y˛OΔˇ-Mʸt-ΔäˇV>, CÖyÏ˛-ƒÊ˝$Øå˛ M˙∞fiÃå˝ Bãú –˛$yÏ˛-MʸÃå˝ »Ú‹Δäˇa y˛OΔˇ-MʸtΔäˇ fØ˲-ΔÊˇ-Ãå˝V> Á≥∞- HΔ>µr$ ^Û˛Ì‹Ø˲ Á‹$Ì‹¶ΔÊˇ i–˲ CÖ´ßÊ˛Ø˲ Á≥«-‘Z-´ßÊ˛Ø˲ Á‹ÖÁ‹¶ ©∞≤ ô˲ƒÊ˝*-ΔÊˇ$- fØ˲$≈ GyÏ˛-sÏ˝ÖVä¸ —´ßëØ˲Ö
^Û˛-‘>ΔÊˇ$. {Á≥Á‹$¢ôË˛Ö {Á≥Á≥Ö^˲ BΔ¯Vʸ≈ Á‹ÖÁ‹¶ÃZ yÏ˛Á≥N≈sÓ˝ y˛OΔˇ-MʸtΔäˇ fØ˲-ΔÊˇÃå˝ ÁflZßÈÃZ ^Û˛-Ì‹Ö®. ›ÎÕ-M¯-«≤ƒÊ˝* –˛$$MʸPÀ Ø˲$Ö_ °Ì‹Ø˲ Ø˲*Ø˛Ø˲$ gÒ˝så˝ ßë”Δ> Á≥#sÏ˝tØ˲ JMʸ M¯Ü∞ ^˛OØÈ ‘È{Á‹¢-–Û˛-ô˲¢À$ M¯œØå˛ ^Û˛Ì‹
EØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. CÖ´ßÊ˛-Ø˲ÖV> –˲*«aÖ®. AΔˇ$$ßÊ˛$ {Á≥Ü-ΔÊˇ*-¥Î-ÀØ˲$ Á‹ñÌŸtÖ-
^ÈΔÊˇ$. “sÏ˝ÃZ Á≥À$ –ö˛*Ø˲–ö˛ fØ˲$≈ GyÏ˛-sÏ˝ÖVä¸ ßë”Δ> M¯ÜÚ≥O M¯œ∞ÖVä¸
¥ÎÀ ØÈ◊˝≈-ô˲Ø˲$ Vʸ$«¢Ö^Û˛ B—-ÁŸP-ΔÊˇ◊˝ ΔÊˇ$Vʸ√-ô˲-ÀØ˲$ ^ˆÌ≥µÖ-^ÈΔÊˇ$.
AÖÁ≥-‘Ë˝ƒÊ˝$≈ Ø˲“-Øå˛Mʸ$ "ÃZMä¸-ØÈ-ƒÊ˝$Mä¸' ¥ÎÀ ØÈ◊˝≈-ô˲Ø˲$ Vʸ$«¢Ö^Û˛ –˲yÊ˛-¥˘ô˲ M>W-ôÈ∞≤ IIsÏ˝ Vʸ$–È-Áfl˝sÏ˝ Á≥«-‘Z-´ßÊ˛- C— ⁄ÎÖÚú$O-ÃZ∞ CØå˛-Ì‹t-
›ÎÌfl˝-°-–Û˛ô˲¢ AÖÁ≥-‘Ë˝ƒÊ˝$≈ Ø˲“-Øå˛Mʸ$ ÃZMä¸-ØÈ-ƒÊ˝$Mä¸ Á≥#ΔÊˇ-›ÎPΔÊˇÖ ßÊ˛MϸPÖ®. fØ˲-–˲« Mʸ$À$ ΔÊˇ*¥˜Ö-®Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. D M>W-ô˲ÖÃZ EÖyÛ˛ ∫ƒÒ˝*-Ú‹-ØÈfi-ΔäˇÀ$ ¥ÎÀ ØÈ◊˝≈- r*≈så˝ Bãú Ø˲*≈Δ¯
ô˲Ø˲$ Vʸ$«¢-›Î¢Δˇ$$. ¥ÎÀÃZ EÖyÛ˛ BÀP-ÃÒ˝OØå˛ ∏Λ˘µ-sÙ˝ã‹ AØÛ˛ GÖgÒ˝O–å˛$ B´ßÈ- Ú‹OØå˛fiÃZ f∞√Ö-^ÈΔˇ$$.
19Ø˲ —‘>-Q-Á≥-r≤ÖÃZ Á≥#ΔÊˇ-›ÎP-Δ>∞≤ {Á≥ßëØË˛Ö ^Û˛‘ÈΔÊˇ$. Ø˲“Øå˛ AÁ‹-À$ -ı≥ΔÊˇ$
߈ÖVʸ« –˲$ÀœƒÊ˝$≈. AÖÁ≥-‘Ë˝ƒÊ˝$≈ Ø˲–˲-Àô¯ {Á≥Ì‹®Æ ^˛ÖßÈΔÊˇ$. Ø˲“Øå˛ Δ>Ì‹Ø˲ M>À-ΔÛˇ- ΔÊˇÖV> C® ¥ÎÀ ØÈ◊˝≈-ô˲Ø˲$ AÖ^˲ØÈ –Û˛Á‹$¢Ö®. –˲yÊ˛-¥˘ô˲ M>W-ô˲ÖÚ≥O HG-Ãå˝Ô≥
QÀ$ Ø˲–˲-ÀMʸ$ "MÛ¸Ö{ßÊ˛ ›ÎÌfl˝ô˲≈ AM>-yÊ˛“$' Á≥#ΔÊˇ-›ÎPΔÊˇÖ À¿Ö-_Ö®. ô˛À$Vʸ$ {Á≥Ü ΔÊˇÑʸ-M>-ÀØ˲$ AÜ-MϸÖ-^˲yÊ˛Ö ßÈ”Δ> Mˆô˲¢ ∫ƒÒ˝*-Ú‹-Ø˲fi-ΔäˇØ˲$ ΔÊˇ*¥˜Ö-®Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$.
›ÎÌfl˝ô˲≈ —M>-Á‹ÖÃZ —‘Û˝ÁŸ MʸñÌŸ ^Û˛Ì‹Ø˲ –È«Mϸ ÃZMä¸-ØÈ-ƒÊ˝$Mä¸ ∏˚ÖyÛ˛-ÁŸØå˛ 2005 IIsÏ˝ Vʸ$–˲-Áfl˝-sÏ˝ÃZ {¥˜Úú-Á‹Δäˇ {¥ÎÖfÃå˝ ^˲Ö{ßÊ˛ ØÛ˛ô˲ñ-ô˲”Ö-ÃZ∞ ∫ñÖßÊ˛Ö ©∞∞
Ø˲$Ö_ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$z-ÀØ˲$ AÖ®-›˘¢Ö®. A–ÈΔÊˇ$z MϸÖßÊ˛ ΔÊˇ*.ÀÑ> ¥ÎÜMʸ –Û˛À$, {Á≥‘Ë˝Ö- ΔÊˇ*¥˜Ö-®Ö-_Ö®.
›Î-Á≥{ôË˛Ö AÖ®-›Î¢ΔÊˇ$.

XôÈ V¯Ì≥-ØÈ-£ä˛Mʸ$ "{Á≥–ÈÔ‹ øÍΔÊˇ-°ƒÊ˝$ Á‹–˲*√Øå˛' f¥ÎØå˛ Mʸ$ΔÊˇ$-–ö˛ñ-ßÊ˛$ÆyÊ˛$ ’–˲-Mʸ$-–˲*ΔÊˇ ›Î”—$


AÖô˲-Δ>j-°ƒÊ˝$ {ßÊ˛–˲≈-∞´® Á‹ÖÁ‹¶(-I-G-–å˛$-Gãú) {Á≥´ßÈØ˲ B«¶-Mʸ-–Û˛ô˲¢ XôÈ V¯Ô≥-ØÈ-£ä˛Mʸ$ {Á≥Á≥Ö-^˲Ö-ÃZØÛ˛ Aô˲≈Öô˲ GMʸ$P–˲ –˲ƒÊ˝$- ô˲$–˲$$-Mʸ*ΔÊˇ$ Ì‹ßÊ˛™-VʸÖVʸ –˲$u>-´®-Á≥Ü Á≥ßÊ˛√-øÊ˝*-ÁŸ◊ä˝ ’–˲-Mʸ$-–˲*-ΔÊˇ-
{Á≥Ü-⁄Îx-ô˲√Mʸ "{Á≥–ÈÔ‹ øÍΔÊˇ-°ƒÊ˝$ Á‹–˲*√Øå˛' A–ÈΔÊˇ$z À¿Ö-_Ö®. –˛$$ô˲¢Ö 28 Á‹$Ø˲≤ –˲≈Mϸ¢V> W∞≤ã‹ «M>-ΔÊˇ$zØ˲$ ›˜ÖôË˛Ö ›Î”—$ fØ˲-–˲« 21Ø˲ –˲$ΔÊˇ-◊Ï˝Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. ›Î”“$i –˲ƒÊ˝$Á‹$ 111
–˲$Ö® {Á≥–ÈÁ‹ øÍΔÊˇ-°-ƒÊ˝$$-ÀMʸ$ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$z-À$ ßÊ˛M>PΔˇ$$. fØ˲-–˲« 21 Ø˲$Ö_ 23 ^Û˛Á‹$-Mʸ$Ø˲≤ f¥Î-Øå˛-–ÈÌ‹ Á‹Ö–˲-ô˲fi-Δ>À$. Δ>f-MÓ¸-ƒÊ˝*-ÀMʸ$, Mʸ$À-–˲$-ôÈ-ÀMʸ$ A°-ô˲-–˛$OØ˲ ı‹–˲-
–ö˛ΔÊˇMʸ$ –ÈΔÊˇ-◊Í-Ì‹ÃZ f«-WØ˲ 15–˲ {Á≥–ÈÔ‹ øÍΔÊˇ-°ƒÊ˝$ –˛$gÍgZ ؈ØÈM> fØ˲- –ö ˛ $ñÜ ÀMʸ$ Ì‹ßÊ˛™-VʸÖVʸ –˲$uÊˇÖ MÛ¸Ö{ßÊ˛ÖV> ∞Õ-_Ö®. AØ˲≤Ö&-A-Ñʸ-ΔÊˇÖ&-
®–Ë˛ã‹ Á‹ßÊ˛-Á‹$fiÃZ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$z-ÀØ˲$ Δ>ÁŸâ-Á≥Ü Δ>–å˛$-ØÈ´ßä˛ –˲« 20Ø˲ –˲$ΔÊˇ-◊Ï˝Ö- B-{‘Ë˝ƒÊ˝$Ö AØÛ˛ {Ü—´ßÊ˛ ßÈ›˘Áfl˝ —´ßÈ-ØÈ∞≤ B^˲-«Ö-_Ø˲
M¯—Ößä˛ AÖßÊ˛-gÙ˝-‘>ΔÊˇ$. ô˛À$-Vʸ$-–ÈΔÊˇ$ Ì≥— ›ÎÖ∫-’-–˲- ^ÈΔÊˇ$. Eô˲¢ΔÊˇ f¥Î-Øå˛-ÃZ∞ ÁflZM¸OP߯ ©“ÃZ ô˲Ø˲ –˲$u>-∞Mϸ A´®-Á≥-ÜV> ’–˲-Mʸ$-–˲*ΔÊˇ ›Î”—$ 88 H‚Ê˝œ ¥Îr$ ı‹–˲-
Δ>–˲#, Vʸ$◊˝-‘Û˝-QΔäˇ –˲$$Á≥Nµ«, fVʸ-©-‘Ë˝”-ΔÊˇ-Δ>–˲# –˲$$ßÊ˛™-Mʸ*- ∞–È-Á‹ÖÃZ ؈ØÈM> ^˲∞-¥˘-ƒÊ˝*ΔÊˇ$. 1905 kÃÒ˝O 25Ø˲ –˛$gÍgZ ÀÖ-®Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. 1940ÀÃZØÛ˛ Ì‹ßÊ˛™-VʸÖVʸ –˲$uÊˇÖ E_ô˲ —ßÊ˛≈Ø˲$ AÖ®Ö-_Ö®. 12–˲ ‘Ë˝ôȺ™
«-ÀMʸ$ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$zÀ$ ßÊ˛M>PΔˇ$$. ØÈΔÛˇ” GÖÔ≥ f∞√Ö-^ÈΔÊˇ$. 2018ÃZ 112 H‚Ê˝œ 259 Δ¯kÀ$ Á≥N«¢ ^Û˛Á‹$-Mˆ∞ –˲$‡-Á≥#-ΔÊˇ$-ÁŸ$yÊ˛$ ∫Á‹-–˲◊˝~ ô˲ô˲”-øZ-´ßÊ˛-Ø˲-Àô¯ ¥Îr$ ∞ΔÊˇÖ-ô˲ΔÊˇÖ ›Î–˲*-hMʸ ı‹–˲-ÀØ˲$ MˆØ˲-
Ìfl˝–˲*Ø˲$¤ Vʸ$ÃÍsÓ˝, ßÊ˛Ñϸ-◊Í-{ÌúM> ß˙ô˲≈-–Û˛ô˲¢ A∞Ãå˝ W∞≤ã‹ «M>ΔÊˇ$z ßÊ˛MϸPÖ-^˲$-Mʸ$-ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. ›Î-WÖ-_Ø˲ ’–˲-Mʸ$-–˲*ΔÊˇ ›Î”—$Mϸ MʸΔ>~-rMʸ {Á≥øÊ˝$ô˲”Ö 2001ÃZ "MʸΔ>~-rMʸ ΔÊˇô˲≤', MÛ¸Ö{ßÊ˛
Á‹*MʸœÃå˝ D A–È-ΔÊˇ$zØ˲$ AÖßÊ˛$-Mʸ$-ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. {Á≥øÊ˝$ô˲”Ö 2015ÃZ "Á≥ßÊ˛√-øÊ˝*-ÁŸ◊ä˝' Á≥#ΔÊˇ-›ÎP-Δ>À$ AÖ®Ö-^ÈΔˇ$$.
www.andhrajyothy com . ÚflO˝ßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍßä˛ ∑ B®–ÈΔÊˇÖ 27 fØ˲–ö˛« 2019 Á‹tyÓ˛ 17

How Energy Released during Respiration is Stored?


RESPIRATION THE ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEM Important Concepts
G.Srawana Chandra
UNIT 2 Senior Faculty
Respiration
The process by which a living being uti-
lizes the food to get energy is called respira-
tion. Respiration is an oxidation reaction in 10th - BIOLOGY
which carbohydrate is oxidized to produce
energy. Mitochondrion is the site of respira- In anaerobic respiration, the microorganisms
tion and the energy released is stored in the like yeast break down glucose(food) into
form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). ATP ethanol and CO2, and release energy.
is stored in mitochondria and is released as Anaerobic respiration produces much less
per need. The process of releasing energy energy which gets stored in the ATP mole-
from food is called respiration. It involves cules.
taking in oxygen (of air) into the cells, using
oxygen for releasing energy by burning food,
and then eliminating the waste products (CO2
and water) from the body.
The process of respiration which releases when required. Types of Respiration:
energy takes place inside the cells of the ADP (Adenosine Di-Phosphate, low energy
body. So, it is also known as cellular respira- content), Inorganic Phosphate (Pi) and ATP Aerobic Respiration: This type of respira- Pyruvate (In yeast; lack of O2) ----------->
tion. Respiration is essential for life because (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, high energy con- tion happens in the presence of oxygen. Ethyl alcohol + Carbon dioxide + Energy
it provide energy for carrying out all the life tent) are the substances present inside a cell. Pyruvic acid is converted into carbon dioxide.
Energy is released and water molecule is also C6H12O6 -----------> C2H5OH + CO2 + Energy
processes which are necessary to keep the The energy released during respiration is used
organism alive. formed at the end of this process. Sometimes, when there is lack of oxygen in
to make ATP molecules form ADP and inor- our muscle cells, another pathway for the
ganic phosphate. Aerobic respiration produces a considerable
Difference between Breathing and Respiration: breakdown of pyruvate is taken. Here the
Thus, energy is stored in the form of ATP. amount of energy for use by the organism
Breathing which gets stored in the ATP molecules. pyruvate is converted into lactic acid(which
When the cell needs energy, then ATP can be is also a three-carbon molecule)with the
The mechanism by which organisms obtain broken down using water to release energy. release of small amount of energy.
oxygen from the air and release carbon diox- Thus:
ide is called breathing The energy equivalent to 30.5KJ/mole is
Breathing is a physical process. released in this process.
The process of breathing innvolves the lungs ATP is known as energy currency of cells. Pyruvate (In muscles; lack of O2) ----------->
of the organism.
Steps of Respiration: Lactic Acid + Energy
Respiration Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respira- C6H12O6 -----------> CH3CHOHCOOH + Energy
Breaking down glucose into pyruvate: This tion in the cells. Thus, the breakdown of
Respiration includes breathing as well as the step happens in the cytoplasm. Glucose mol- Pain in Leg Muscles on Running:
pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and
oxidation of food in the cells of the organism ecule is broken down into pyruvic acid. energy takes place in mitochondria. When someone runs too fast, he may experi-
to release energy Glucose molecule is composed of 6 carbon
C6H12O6 -----------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy ence a throbbing pain the leg muscles. This
Respiration includes physical as well as bio- atoms, while pyruvic acid is composed of 3 happens because of anaerobic respiration tak-
chemical process of oxidation of food. carbon atoms. Anaerobic Respiration: This type of respira- ing place in the muscles. During running, the
The process of respiration involves the lungs Fate of Pyruvic Acid: Further breaking down tion happens in the absence of oxygen. energy demand from the muscle cells increas-
and mitochondria of the cells of pyruvic acid takes place in mitochondria Pyruvic acid is either converted into ethyl es. This is compensated by anaerobic respira-
How Energy Released during Respiration and the molecules formed depend on the type alcohol or lactic acid. Ethyl alcohol is usual- tion and lactic acid is formed in the process.
is Stored? of respiration in a particular organism. ly formed in case of anaerobic respiration in The deposition of lactic acid causes the pain
The energy produced during respiration is Respiration is of two types, viz. aerobic res- microbes; like yeast or bacteria. Lactic acid is the leg muscles. The pain subsides after tak-
stored in the form of ATP molecules in the piration and anaerobic respiration. formed in some microbes as well as in the ing rest for some time.
cells of the body and used by the organism as muscle cells.

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VʸÖr-À-ı‹Á≥# ߯–ö˛$-ÀØ˲$ CÖsÏ˝-ÃZMϸ Δ>∞-–ö˛”-
Mʸ$Öyë ∞Δ¯-´®Ö-^˲-–ö˛^˲$a. D AVʸ-Δäˇ-∫-°¢À$
MÛ¸–ö˛ÀÖ ß¯–ö˛$-ÀØ˲$ ¥ÎΔÊˇ-߯-À-yÊ˛–Û˛$ M>Mʸ$Öyë
CÖsÏ˝∞ Á‹$–È-Á‹-Ø˲ô¯ ∞ÖÁ≥#-ôÈΔˇ$$. AÖßÊ˛$-–ö˛Àœ
–ö˛ÖsÏ˝ {¥Î◊ÍÖ-ô˲Mʸ –È≈´ßÊ˛$À$ Á‹Ö{Mʸ-—$-›Î¢-ƒÊ˝$Ø˲≤ —ÁŸƒÊ˝$Ö ^Û˛ΔÊˇ$-ô˲$Ö-ßÊ˛∞ AÖ^˲ØÈ. D Eô˲µ-ô˲$¢À –ö˛*ΔˇPså˝ HsÍ CÖsÏ˝-ÃZ∞ –ÈΔÊˇ$ Mʸ*yë {Á≥‘ÈÖ-ô˲ÖV> EÖyÊ˛-Vʸ-À$-
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Á‹–ö˛$Á‹≈ M>ßÊ˛$. 2017ÃZ {Á≥Á≥Ö-^˲-–È≈-Á≥¢ÖV> ߯–ö˛$-Àô¯ ‡∞MʸΔÊˇÖV> Mˆ∞≤ Eô˲µô˲$¢À$ ƒÊ˝$Ö{ô˲ Á≥«MʸΔ>À$
MʸÕVÛ¸ –È≈´ßÊ˛$À M>ΔÊˇ-◊˝ÖV> 7,25,000 –ö˛$Ö® ^˲∞-¥˘-ƒÊ˝*-
ΔÊˇ∞ Á‹ΔÛˇ”À$ ô˛À$-Á≥#-ô˲$-ØÈ≤Δˇ$$. –ö˛$Ø˲-ßÛ˛-‘Ë˝ÖÃZ –˛$$ô˲¢Ö ߯–ö˛$-ÀØ˲$ ¥ÎΔÊˇ-߯-À-yë-∞Mϸ EÁ≥-ƒÒ˝*-WÖ^Û˛ ——´ßÊ˛ Eô˲µ- ¥˚yÊ˛Δäˇ —$MϸfiÖVä¸ ƒÊ˝$Ö{ô˲Ö, fÃÒ˝œyÊ˛, BsZ-–Û˛$-sÏ˝Mä¸ –˛$OØ˲Ö-¥ÎsÏ˝ {÷∞–È-Á‹-Δ>-–ö˛#
∞–ÈÁ‹ {Á≥ßÛ˛-‘ÈÃZœ 95% ߯–ö˛$-M>-r$Mʸ$ A–ö˛-M>‘Ë˝Ö EØ˲≤–Û˛ ô˲$¢ÃZœ ‡∞-MʸΔÊˇ ΔÊˇ›Î-ƒÊ˝$-ØÈÀ$ A´®Mʸ Á≥«-–ö˛*-◊˝ÖÃZ EÖyÊ˛- AVʸ-Δäˇ-∫°¢ ô˲ƒÊ˝*» ƒÊ˝$Ö{ô˲Ö. ºh-Ø˛ã‹ MʸØ˲fi-ÃÒ˝tÖ-så˝
M>–ö˛yÊ˛Ö Vʸ–ö˛$-ØÈΔÊˇ·Ö. rÖô¯ –ö˛$$Q≈ÖV> _Ø˲≤-Ì≥-ÀœÀ$ AØÈ-Δ¯Vʸ≈ Á‹–ö˛$-Á‹≈À –ö˛$$yÏ˛ Á≥ßëΔ>¶À$ Ú‹Ãå˝: 9866119816
߯–ö˛$ÀØ˲$ ¥ÎΔÊˇß¯ÃÙ˝ Eô˲µô˲$¢À$ ªÍ«Ø˲ Á≥yÊ˛$-ô˲$-ØÈ≤-ΔÊˇ∞ ∞–Û˛-®-MʸÀ$ ô˛À$-Á≥#-ô˲$-ØÈ≤Δˇ$$.
^ÈΔäˇ-M¯Ãå˝ ¥˜yÏ˛, ^˛MʸP ¥˜yÏ˛, Ì‹{sZ-Ø˛ÃÍœ & ÃÒ˝–ö˛$-ب˛-
∞–ÈÁ‹ Vʸñ‡ÃZœ ߯–ö˛$-ÀØ˲$ ¥ÎΔÊˇ-߯-À-yë-∞Mϸ M>Δˇ$$Ãå˝fi, –Û˛$så˝fi, –Û˛Á≥- {Á≥ôÈ≈–ö˛*≤ƒÊ˝$ÖV> Úfl˝ΔÊˇæÃå˝ AVʸΔäˇ∫°¢À$ {V>ã-‹ BΔˇ$$Ãå˝, –Û˛Á≥-Ø˲*Ø˛, ô˲$ÀÌ‹ Ø˲*Ø˛, Á≥Á‹$-Á≥#-¥˜yÏ˛, ¥Î≈MϸÖVä¸ –˛$sÓ˝-«-ƒÊ˝$Ãå˝, –˛ßÊ˛$ΔÊˇ$
ΔˇO-fΔäˇfi, {ı‹µÀ$, {MÓ¸–í˛$À$ –ö˛ÖsÏ˝ Eô˲µ-ô˲$¢À$ —∞-ƒÒ˝*-Vʸ-ßë-ΔÊˇ$- {Á≥Mʸñ-Ü-Ì‹-ßÊ˛ÆÖV> Ú≥«VÛ¸ Ú‹{sZ-Ø˛ÃÍœ, Á≥#©ØÈ, Á≥Á‹$Á≥#, ƒÊ˝$*Mʸ-Õ- –ö˛$$MʸPÀ$ {Á≥´ßëØ˲ –ö˛$$yÏ˛ Á≥ßë-Δ>ÆÀ$.
ÀMʸ$ AÖßÊ˛$-ªÍ-r$-ÃZMϸ –ö˛^ÈaΔˇ$$. D Eô˲µ-ô˲$¢À –ö˛*ΔˇPså˝ —À$–ö˛ Á≥tã‹, ô˲$ÀÌ‹, ÃÒ˝–ö˛$-ب˛-{V>ã-‹, –Û˛Á≥, hØÛ˛-«ƒÊ˝$Ö, ÃÍ–˛Ö-yÊ˛Δäˇ –ö˛ÖsÏ˝ ô˲ƒÊ˝*» —´ßëØ˲Ö
2017ÃZ ΔÊˇ*.4,400 M¯r$œ EÖyÊ˛V>, 2020 ØÈsÏ˝Mϸ ΔÊˇ*.5,200 M¯rœMʸ$ –˛$$MʸPÀ Ø˲*Ø˛À$, Cô˲ΔÊˇ –ö˛ñÑʸ øÍV>ÃZœ ߯–ö˛$-ÀØ˲$ ¥ÎΔÊˇ-߯ÃÙ˝ ÀÑʸ-
◊Í-À$-ØÈ≤Δˇ$$. ∏ÎΔÊˇ$√ÃÍ {Á≥M>ΔÊˇÖ ∞»~ô˲ Á≥«-–ö˛*-◊ÍÃZœ –ö˛$$yÏ˛ Á≥ßë-Δ>Æ-ÀØ˲$ ªÍV> MʸÕÌ≥ AVʸ-Δäˇ-∫°¢
{¥ÎgÒ˝Mʸ$t –ö˛≈ƒÊ˝$Ö CsÓ˝-–ö˛À M>ÀÖÃZ Úfl˝ΔÊˇæÃå˝ M>Δˇ$$Ãå˝fi, Δ¯Ãå˝&-A-ب˛ ÕMϸ”yä˛fi ΔÊˇ*Á≥ÖÃZ ƒÊ˝$Ö{ô˲ÖÃZ –Û˛ƒÊ˝$yÊ˛Ö ßë”Δ> ô˲ƒÊ˝*-ΔÊˇ$-^Û˛-›Î¢ΔÊˇ$. ô˲ΔÊˇ-–Èô˲ GÖyÊ˛ÃZ ªÍV> BΔÊˇ-ªÒ˝sÏ˝t
● Eô˲µÜ¢ ›Î–ö˛$ΔÊˇÆ≈Ö: 50 MÛ¸iÀ$/Δ¯kMʸ$, 1250 ߯–ö˛$-ÀØ˲$ ¥ÎΔÊˇ-߯ÃÙ˝ Eô˲µ-ô˲$¢À$ ÀøÊ˝≈-–ö˛$-–ö˛#-ô˲$-ØÈ≤Δˇ$$. AßÛ˛-—-´ßÊ˛ÖV> ——´ßÊ˛ Ú‹OkÃZœ ¥Î≈MϸÖVä¸ ^Û˛Ì‹ –ö˛*ΔˇP-så˝Mʸ$ ô˲ΔÊˇ-Õ-›Î¢ΔÊˇ$. ——´ßÊ˛ «sÒ˝OÃå˝ ßÊ˛$M>-◊ÍÃZœ —∞-
MÛ¸iÀ$/Ø˛ÀMʸ$ Ú‹Ok: 13 AÖVʸ$‚ÍÀ ¥˜yÊ˛–ö˛# Á‹Ö∫Ö-®ô˲ AVʸ-Δäˇ-∫-°¢À$ Mʸ*yë Mˆô˲¢V> –ö˛*ΔˇP-så˝-ÃZMϸ –ö˛Á‹$¢-ØÈ≤Δˇ$$. ƒÒ˝*-Vʸ-ßë-ΔÊˇ$-ÀMʸ$ À¿Ö^Û˛ —´ßÊ˛ÖV> {Á≥ôÛ˛≈Ñʸ, Á≥Δ¯Ñʸ –ö˛*ΔˇP-sÏ˝ÖVä¸ —´ßë-ØÈÀ$
● –ö˛≈ƒÊ˝$Ö: ΔÊˇ*.10 ÀÑʸÀ$ ∞»~ô˲ ∏ÎΔÊˇ$√-ÃÍô¯ ô˲ƒÊ˝*ΔÊˇ$ ^Û˛ı‹ {Á≥ôÛ˛≈Mʸ AVʸ-Δäˇ-∫-°¢-ÀØ˲$ AØ˲$-Á‹-«Ö-^ÈÕfi EÖr$Ö®.
12 Ä~yês¡+ 27.1.2019
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yìþ. òßý¼-Äæý$‹ÜM>Ææÿ¾‹Ü ¼. Ôé…sìý-Äæý*-Vø ¼. A´ëÄæý$… ^óþÄæý$° {Ðèþ×ê˯èþ$ ¼¯ðþO¯Œþ {Ðèþ×êË$ A… ¼. yìþòÜ…ºÆŠÿ, f¯èþ-ÐèþÇ, íœ{º-ÐèþÇ, Ðèþ*Ça
8. Móü…{§æþ&Æ>çÙ‰ çÜ…º…«§éË MæüÑ$sîý ^ðþOÆæÿïŒ GÐèþÆæÿ$? íÜ. º*ůèþ‹Ü IÆŠÿÞ sêÆæÿ$. Òsìý° Ôèýç܈ _Mìü™èþÞ §éÓÆ> ¡íÜÐóþÄæý$Ðèþ^èþ$a. íÜ. f¯èþ-ÐèþÇ, íœ{º-ÐèþÇ, Ðèþ*Ça
G. Ððþ$$Æ>Èj §óþÔéÄŒý$ yìþ. MìüÓsZ íÜ. A´ëÄæý$MæüÆæÿÐðþ$O¯èþ Væüyæþz¯èþ$ Ðèþ*ÍVðü²…r$ Væüyæþz A… yìþ. ¯èþÐèþ…ºÆŠÿ, yìþòÜ…ºÆŠÿ, f¯èþ-ÐèþÇ, íœ{º-ÐèþÇ
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9. ¿êÆæÿ™èþ Eç³-Æ>-çÙ‰-ç³-†° G¯èþ$²-Mæü$¯óþ çÜ¿æý$ÅË$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? íÜ. º*ůèþ‹Ü IÆŠÿÞ Væü$Ç¢…^èþÐèþ^èþ$a? ¼. H{í³ÌŒý
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yìþ. ò³OÐèþ±²
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G. Æ>çÙ‰-糆 ¼. Ôé…sìý-Äæý*-Vø G. ç³#Ææÿ$çÙ$ÌZÏ Fí³Ç†™èþ$¢Ë$, iÆæÿ~MøÔèý (¯øÆæÿ$, 31)yìþ 32)¼þ 33)íÜ 34)¼ 35)þG
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íÜ. ´ëÆæÿÏ-Ððþ$…r$ yìþ. MìüÓsZ 36)¼ 37)G 38)íÜ
15
ÎCî¦ô¢
ÎCî¦ô¢ÙÙÎÞœ
27ú£áì÷J 2019- „„ email:
ªd 12, 2018 email:help@eenadupratibha.net
help@eenadupratibha.net

GRAMMAR AND USAGE


In the last lesson we have seen countable
and uncountable nouns. We have also seen
He is quite Nostalgic..!
more and most are the comparative and
superlative degrees of both the countable and b) There is some milk in the glass
uncountable nouns. sÚ¨Ùë]æ¨ ð§ôÈ¢Ùö˺ ÷ªìÙ (Uncountable) sð§õª Íû¶N öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ENz.
1) Advice sú£õz – a piece of advice / pieces
of advice, but never advices. VOCABULARY
ÎÙÞœxÙö˺ Ú•Eo nouns uncountable ÍÙç˶ c) I have some friends in Delhi (Countable) 2) Bread sô•çËμdz – a slice s÷³ÚÛ\z / a loaf of
î¦æ¨Ú¨ plurals ÑÙè[÷E 1. Enigmatic = Perplexing/ confusing
bread sô•çËμd šíë]ÌCz or slices/loaves of bread
öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶E÷E,
sÞœÙë]ô¢ÞÁüŒí£Jà¶z. eg: He kept on an enig-
sû¦ÚÛª Ú•ÙêŸ÷ªÙC ›úo꟪õª Ñû¦oô¢ª CMxö˺. ÏC
3) Business (Business as trade is used both in
êμõªú£ªÚÛªû¦oÙ.z
matic smile the meaning of which none
öËμÚÛ\šíådÞœLTÙC.z
d) He wasted a lot of milk (Uncountable) the singular and plural), but if business knew.
means work, then it is uncountable. You
Antonym: Plain sê¶åêμõxÙÞ¥ ÑÙè˶z. eg:
sÍêŸìª à¦ö° ð§õª ÷”ëǯ à¶ø‹è[ª
then say an item of / items of business.
His explanations were quite plain and
n öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ECz.
e) Most books in the shop are high priced sí£E Íû¶ Íô¢–ÙêÁ business öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ECz. every student understood it.
(Countable) sÎ ë]ªÚ¥éÙö˺ à¦ö° í£±ú£hÚ¥õ ëÅ]ô¢ 4) Furniture sÏÙæ˺x
2. Acoustic = Connected with sound or
Þœ”ï£°Ë ºí£ÚÛô¢é°õª n
ÍA ÓÚÛª\÷ n öËμÚÛ\ šíådÞœLTìNz öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ENz – an item / items of furniture;
f) Most rice grown here is exported. a piece / pieces of furniture. hearing søŒñÌÙêÁ Þ¥F, NEÚ¨è…êÁ Þ¥F
(Uncountable) sÏÚÛ\è[ šíJ¸Þ ÷JE ÏêŸô¢ 5) Information sú£÷ «à¦ô¢Ù n öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶EC
ú£ÙñÙëÅ]Ù Ñìoz.
ë¶ø‹õÚÛª ÓÞœª÷ªA à¶þ§hô¢ª n öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ECz ÎÙÞœxÙö˺z – a piece of / pieces of informa- eg: The acoustics in the hall was not prop-
tion er and the audience found it difficult
to understand the speech of the
6) Machinery sóŸªÙvêŸÙ n öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ECz – an
eg: a) Most students in the class are clever. 1028 item / items of machinery
speaker.
Antonym: Silence sEøŒ)ñÌÙz. eg: He spoke
(Superlative). More students in that sec- 7) News sú£÷«à¦ô¢Ùz – a piece of News
in such silence that none understood
tion are cleverer than those in this section 8) Paper – a slip of / a sheet of – slips of /
what he was saying.
(Comparative). This is for countables. sheets of sÚ¥Tê¦EÚ¨ ÚÛ«è¯ plural ö˶ë]ª n ÖÚÛ
H More and most are the comparative and Ú¥TêŸÙ ÷³ÚÛ\ ÍEÞ¥F, ÷³ÚÛ\õª ÍEÞ¥F ÍÙæ°ô¢ª. 3. Sadistic = Deriving pleasure from
superlative degrees of uncountables too. sheet of paper/ sheets of paper). causing pain to others sÏêŸô¢ªõÚÛª ò°ëÅ]
Remember carefully these things always. ÚÛLTÙ# ú£ÙêÁù£Ù ð»Ùë]è[Ùz. eg: He is very
(Uncountable ÚÛª ÚÛ«è¯ more and most com-
parative and superlative degrees) The following words are uncountable, that sadistic and enjoys pleasure from the
is, they are used only in the singular and pain caused to the others.
eg: a) Most of the milk was wasted Writer
never in plural. However, before them you Antonym: Kind së]óŸªÞœõz. eg: He is very
(Uncountable - superlative) sÏC
could always use a piece or pieces. The fol- M. Suresan kindhearted and never causes trouble to
öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶EC n ë¯EÚ¨ superlative degree lowing are uncountable nouns. Understand the others.
them carefully and remember them.
쑦z.
b) More sugar is there in that vessel than in 9) Poetry – a piece of / pieces of (ÚÛNêŸyÙ n ÏC 4. Nostalgic = Homesick sÏÙæ¨ Oªë] òËμÙÞœêÁ
this vessel (Uncountable – comparative) UNCOUNTABLES ÚÛ«è¯ uncountable) Ñìo n DEÚ¨ ÏêŸô¢ Íô¦–õª ÚÛ«è¯ Ñû¦oô³z.
sàŸ·Ú\ô¢ ÚÛ«è¯ öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶EC n ÏC comparative 10) Scenery (always uncountable) (Óí£±pè[« eg: He is quite nostalgic about his home
The following nouns are always used as
degreez uncountable) which he left for a job in some other
uncountables. sÐ Ú¨ÙC nouns ÍFo
H Similarly ‘some’ and ‘a lot of’ are used 11) Soap – a cake of / cakes of; a piece of / place
both for countables and uncountables. pieces of (ú£ñª( – a cake of soap / cakes
öËμÚÛ\šíådö˶ENz
5. Articulate = Able to speak sàŸÚÛ\Þ¥
sÍö°¸Þ 'some' and 'a lot of' countables ÚÛª, of soap ÍE Þ¥F, ÷³ÚÛ\ / ÷³ÚÛ\õª ÍEÞ¥F
uncountables ÚÛª ·ôÙè…Ùæ¨Ú© î¦è[ê¦Ùz.
÷«æ°xè[Þœõz / Express oneself s÷ªìú£ªö˺
Ïí£pæ¨ ÷ô¢ÚÛª ví£àŸªJêŸîμªiì þ¼pÚÛû ÏÙTxùà ð§êŸ
›í@õ ÚÁú£Ù https://goo.gl/JjLcew LÙÚ ö˶ë¯
ÍÙæ°ô¢ª.z ÑìoC àμí£pÞœõz. eg: He was able to artic-
a) Some books are on the table (Countable) 12) Work – a piece of work (í£E ÚÛ«è¯ ulate his feelings without any hesita-
sí£±ú£hÚ¥õª ÍÙç˶ öËμÚÛ\šíç˶dN ÚÛë¯z www.eenadupratibha.net àŸ«è[÷àŸªa uncountable) tion.
6. Scant = Inadequate / not enough sà¦M
à¦õEz. eg: He gave his boss scant
respect and was dismissed from service.
ûÁ æ© úà ò˺ ô¢ª“ šúÚÛ«uJæ© ví‡Ùæ¨ÙÞ všíúÃ, šïj°ë]ô¦ò°ëÂ
H
è…vU, ÷«ú£dôÂq è…vU, ÍìªòÅ¡÷Ù.
Antonym: Abundant sNþ§hô¢ÙÞ¥ Ñìoz.
H
ÓÙí‡ÚÛ: ú‡\öËÀ, vç˶è çËμúÃd, ô¦êŸ í£K¤Û/ ÏÙæô¢«yu
eg: There is an abundance of food for all
ví£òÅ¡ªêŸy ÑëÁuÞ¥õª
šïj°ë]ô¦ò°ëÂö˺E šúÚÛ«uJæ© ví‡Ùæ¨ÙÞ všíúà ڨÙC Îëůô¢ÙÞ¥.
ð¼ú£ªdöË òÅ¡KhÚ¨ ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªhõª ÚÁô¢ªêÁÙC. H ÎûËÂöËμjûË ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªhÚÛª #÷Jê¶C: íƇvñ÷J 21 the travelers.
H ð¼ú£ªdõªnÝ°Sõª:
H ô¢ª“ Ú¥íˆöËìª í£Ùí£è¯EÚ¨ #÷Jê¶C: íƇvñ÷J 28 7. Stealthy = Secret sô¢ï£°ú£uÙÞ¥ ඛú í£Ez.
ú£«í£ôÂîËμjáô sJþ¼ôÂq
eg: He entered the room stealthily without
û¶âËÀîμªÙæËÀzn04, WEóŸªôÂ
î¦ÚÂÏûËÂ
ÎKtö˺ 191 ÓúÃÓúÃúˆ Îíƈú£ô¢ªx
being noticed by anybody.
çËμÚ©où‡óŸªûË sÓöËwÚ¨dÚÛöËÀ/
H ÏÙè…óŸªûË ÎKt... ÿ§ôÂd
Antonym: Open sò°ï£„åÙÞ¥z. eg: He open-
ÓöËvÚ¥dEÚÂqzn01, WEóŸªôÂ
îËμòËÀšújæËÀ:
ú£KyúÃ ÚÛNªù£ûËÂ sÓúÃÓúÃúˆz
www.iitgoa.ac.in ly came into the room in spite of the
çËμÚ©où‡óŸªûË sví‡Ùæ¨ÙÞÂzn30,
Îíƈú£ô ð¼ú£ªdöË òÅ¡KhÚ¨
police there.
šíÆjôÂîμªûË sÎôÂè[ñ«xuzn03.
ÍNî¦ï‡°êŸªöËμjì í£±ô¢ªù£, H ÎûËÂöËμjûË í£K¤Û ê¶C: 2019
8. Stray = Wander sÔ í£F ö˶ÚÛªÙè¯ Aô¢Þœè[Ùz.
÷ªï‡°ü° ÍòÅ¡uô¢ª–öË ìªÙ# ÷«Ja/ Ôví‡öËÀ. šúÙvæöËÀ öËμë]ô JšúôÂa ÏûËÂú‡då«uæËÀ
ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªhõª ÚÁô¢ªêÁÙC.H Ý°Sõª: 191 H ÎûËÂöËμjûË ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªhÚÛª #÷Jê¶C: íƇvñ÷J 11 H àμûμjoö˺E úˆÓúÃÕÎô n šúÙvæöËÀ öËμë]ô JšúôÂa eg: Having lost his near and dear ones he
H 1z ÓúÃÓúÃúˆ sçËμÚÂz: 189. ÏÙë]ªö˺ í£±ô¢ªù£ªöËÚÛª
îËμòËÀšújæËÀ; ÏûËÂú‡då«uæËÀ súˆÓöËÀÎôÂÕz Ú¨ÙC Ý°SöË òÅ¡KhÚ¨ strayed about in the streets for a
month.
https:///spphyderabad.spmcil.com
175, ÷ªï‡°üŒöËÚÛª 14. î¦ÚÂÏûË ÏÙæô¢«yu Eô¢yþ¼hÙC.
H 2z NèÁúà ÎíÆà 腚íÆûËÂq ÍòÅ¡uô¢ª–öËÚÛª: 02 H ð¼ú£ªdõªnÝ°Sõª: úˆEóŸªô Antonym: Settle sú‡–ô¢í£è[åÙz. eg: He set-
H Íô¢|êŸ: ú£ÙñÙCÅêŸ NòÅ°Þ¥ö˺x ÏÙ>FJÙÞ è…vU JšúôÂa šíÆö˺n02, WEóŸªô tled down in Mumbai and carried on his
business there.
ÑBhô¢gêŸ. #÷J Ôè¯C àŸë]ª÷±êŸªìoî¦ô¢« ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªh ÞÁî¦ ÕÕæ©ö˺ û¦ûË æ©#ÙÞ ð¼ú£ªdõª JšúôÂa šíÆö˺n01, vð§âËμÚÂd
à¶ú£ªÚÁ÷àŸªa. E¸ôÌPêŸ ø‹Kô¢ÚÛ ví£÷«é°õª ÑÙè¯L. H ÞÁî¦ö˺E ÏÙè…óŸªûË ÏûËÂú‡då«uæËÀ ÎíÆà çËμÚ¥oöË@ Íú‡šúdÙæËÀn12 9. Tranquillity = Calmness sví£ø‹ÙêŸêŸz.
H ÷óŸªlí£JNªA: 01.10.2019 û¦æ¨Ú¨ 20n27 ÔüŒx H Íô¢|êŸ: ú£ÙñÙCÅêŸ ú£òËμbÚÛªdõª/
eg: The lake had tranquillity and the boat
sÕÕæ©z Ú¨ÙC û¦ûË æ©#ÙÞ ð¼ú£ªdöË òÅ¡KhÚ¨
was able to sail safely
÷ªëÅ]u ÑÙè¯L. ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªhõª ÚÁô¢ªêÁÙC. vò°ÙàŸªö˺x óŸ´@, HÐ/ HçËμÚÂ, ÓÙÓúˆq, ÓÙÐ/
H ÓÙí‡ÚÛ: H ð¼ú£ªdõª: WEóŸªô Íú‡šúdÙæËÀ, WEóŸªôÂ
Antonym: Disturbance sÞœÙë]ô¢ÞÁüŒ í£Jú‡–Aö˺
ÓúÃÓúÃH ÏÙæô¢«yu, îμªè…ÚÛöËÀ ÓÙçËμÚÂ, ÍìªòÅ¡÷Ù.
H î¦ÚÂÏûË ÏÙæô¢«yu ê¶C: íƇvñ÷J 12
ÓÞ¥bNªû¶ù£ûË Îëůô¢ÙÞ¥. ÏÙ>FôÂ, WEóŸªô ö°uòËÀ Íú‡šúdÙæËÀ êŸCêŸô¦õª.
H î˶CÚÛ: HÓÙ ë¯úà öËÀ, úˆÓöËÀÎôÂÕ.
Ñìoz. eg: Because of the storm the sea
H ÎûËÂöËμjûË ë]ô¢Ý°ú£ªhÚÛª #÷Jê¶C: íƇvñ÷J 21 H Ý°Sõª: 23 was full of disturbance and no sailor
îËμòËÀšújæËÀ: https://joinindianarmy.nic.in H Íô¢|êŸ: ú£ÙñÙCÅêŸ ú£òËμbÚÛªdõª/ vò°ÙàŸªö˺x ò°u#öËôÂq îËμòËÀšújæËÀ: www.clri.org ventured into the sea.
14
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• 58 GMýSÆ>ÌZÏ °ÇÃ…^èl¯]l$¯]l² ¿êÆý‡™èl ™öÍ G…{rò³¯]l*ÅÆŠæíÙ‹³ M>Æý‡Å{MýSÐ]l*°² H ¯]lVýSÆý‡…- Ķæ* ݉ëri MýSÑ$sîæ'° HÆ>µr$^ólíܯ]l §ólÔ¶æ… f: AMøtºÆý‡$ 15 f: 43.4 Ñ$ÍĶæ$¯]lÏ AÐðl$ÇMýS¯Œæ yéËÆý‡$Ï
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¿êÆý‡™Œæ Æ>Å…MŠS G…™èl? f: 2 MýSÌSaÆŠæ {Oò³gŒæ¯]l$ A…§ýl$MýS$¯]l² ¿êÆý‡™èl gê¯]l糧ýl MøçÜ… H-1B ÒÝëË$ ´÷…¨¯]l sꋳ 10
• 2018ÌZ A™èlÅ…™èl ´ùsîæ™èl™èlÓ BǦMýS Ð]lÅÐ]l- MýSâêM>Æý‡$yýl$ GÐ]lÆý‡$? f: ¡f¯Œl »êƇ¬ çÜ…çܦÌZÏ E¯]l² HOMðSMýS ¿êÆý‡¡Ä¶æ$ MýS…ò³±
Vidya Weekly Test- 4 çܦOò³ 140 §ólÔ>ËMýS$ çÜ…º…«¨…_¯]l {ç³ç³…^èl • AÝù…ÌZ° §ýl${½°, Ðól$çœ*ÌSĶæ$ÌZ° H¨? f: sêsê MýS¯]lÞÌñæt±Þ çÜÈÓòÜ‹Ü

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Current Affairs- 2018 Grand Test G…™èl? f: 58 A™èlÅ…™èl ´÷yýlOÐðl¯]l Ð]l…™ðl¯]l¯]l$ H ¯]l¨Oò³ ¿¶æ*VýSÆý‡ÂfÌêËOò³ ^èlÇa…^èlyé°MìS C{gêƇ¬-
Students can write exam at any time& at any place. • VýS…gêƇ$$ MýSÍW E…yýlsê°², Ñ°Äñæ*V>°² °ÇÃçÜ$¢¯é²Æý‡$? f: {ºçßæÃç³#{™èl ÌŒæ çÜ…çܦÌS™ø 4 AÐ]lV>çßæ¯]l Jç³µ…§éͲ


EÆý‡$VóSÓ ™èlÆ>Ó™èl, ^èlrtº§ýl®… ^ólíܯ]l §ólÔèæ… Æ>çى糆 Æ>ÐŒl$¯é£Šl MøÑ…§Šl 3&ÆøkÌS MýS$§ýl$Æý‡$aMýS$¯]l² Æ>çÙ‰… H¨? f: ç³…g껌æ
� Statewide Ranks will be announced H¨? f: MðS¯]lyé "ÑÔèæÓ Ô>…† Aíßæ…Ýë çÜÐól$Ãâý毌l" ({ç³ç³…^èl • Ķ欰Ð]lÆý‡ÞÌŒæ òßæÌŒæ¢ MóSÆŠæ, çÜ$íܦÆý‡ AÀÐ]l–¨®
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Only first time attempted score will be considered for Ranking 2018 yìlòÜ…ºÆŠæ 12, 13 ™ól©ÌZÏ GMýSPyýl {´ëÆý‡…À…^éÆý‡$? f: ¯éíÜMŠS, Ð]l$àÆ>çÙ‰ Æý‡„ýS×æOò³ 2Ð]l A…™èlÆ>j¡Ä¶æ$ çÜÐ]l*ÐólÔèæ…


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çÜÑ$†ÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>Ë çÜ…Qů]l$ HÐ]l$…sêÆý‡$? Ķæ*Æý‡ÏVýSyýlz Ð]l¯]l…Æ>k ◆ A ∪ A = A (Aç³Ð]lÇ¢™èl «§ýlÆý‡Ã…)


Ð]l*¨Ç{ç³Ô¶æ²Ë$
◆ A ∪ B = B ∪ A (íܦ™èlÅ…™èlÆý‡ «§ýlÆý‡Ã…)
çÜ*PÌŒæ AíÜòÜt…sŒæ, ◆ A ∪ φ = φ ∪ A = A (™èl™èlÞÐ]l$ «§ýlÆý‡Ã…) 1. çÜÑ$†MìS JMýS E§éçßæÆý‡×æ CÐ]lÓ…yìl.
{糿¶æ$™èlÓ E¯]l²™èl ´ëuý‡Ô>Ë, ◆ A∪µ=µ=µ∪A f. çÜÇçÜ…QÅ çÜÑ$†
¼.M>Å…‹³, MýSÆý‡*²Ë$. ◆ A ⊂ B AƇ¬™ól A ∪ B = B E = {2, 4, 6, 8 ....}
VýSÐ]l$°MýS:
çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë ból§ýl¯]l… çÜÑ$† «§ýlÆ>ð² ´ësìæ…^ól §ólO¯ðl²¯é E§éçßæÆý‡×æV>
CÐ]lÓÐ]l^èl$a.
A«§éÅĶæ$…ÌZ Ð]l¬QÅ…V> Æð‡…yýl$ ¿êÐ]l¯]lËOò³ B«§éÆý‡ç³yìl Üç Ñ$† A Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ Üç Ñ$† BËÌZ E¯]l² EÐ]l$Ãyìl 2. MìS…¨ çÜÑ$™èl$˯]l$ gê¼™é Æý‡*ç³…
çÜÐ]l$çÜÅË$ E…sêƇ¬. Ð]lÊËM>˯]l$ A, B çÜÑ$™èl$Ë "ból§ýl¯]l çÜÑ$†' A…sêÆý‡$. A, (ÆøçÜtÆŠæ Æý‡*ç³…)ÌZ Æ>Ķæ$…yìl.
AÑ: 1. Üç Ñ$™èl$Ë$ & Æý‡M>Ë$ B çÜÑ$™èl$Ë ból§ýl¯]l çÜÑ$†° A ∩ B ™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. i) A ={x : x JMýS ³ ç NÆý‡~ Üç …QÅ
2. çÜÑ$™èl$ËOò³ {´ë£ýlÑ$MýS ç³Ç{MìSĶæ$Ë$. A ∩ B = {x: x ∈ A Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ x ∈ B} Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ x2 = 4}
çÜÑ$™èl$ËOò³ {´ë£ýlÑ$MýS ç³Ç{MìSĶæ$Ë (çÜÐól$Ãâ¶æ¯]l…, ból§ýl¯]l…, Ð]l*Å£ýlÐðl$sìæMŠæÞ E§é: A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8} ii) B ={x : x JMýS çÜçßæf çÜ…QÅ
¿ôæ§ýl…) ¯]l$…_ ÐéÅçÜÆý‡*ç³ {ç³Ô¶æ²Ë$ Ð]lÝë¢Æ‡¬. çÜÑ$™èl$Ë Æý‡M>Ë A∩B = {2, 4} Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ 1 < x < 10}
¯]l$…_ çÜÓ˵ çÜÐ]l*«§é¯]l {ç³Ô¶æ²Ë$, ¼r$Ï Æ>Ð]l^èl$a. çÜÑ$™èl$Ë A ∩ B Ððl¯Œæ _{™èl…: iii) C = {x : x A¯ól¨ JMýS Æð‡…yýl…MðSË çÜçßæf çÜ…QÅ
çÜÐól$Ãâ¶æ¯]l…, ból§ýl¯]l…, ¿ôæ§ýl… ¿êÐ]l¯]lËMýS$ çÜ…º…«¨…_¯]l Üç Ñ$† BÌZ E…sôæ A Üç Ñ$†° BMìS Eç³çÜÑ$† A…sêÆý‡$. µ Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ Æð‡…yýl$ A…MðSË Ððl¬™èl¢… 8}
çÜÐ]l$çÜÅËOò³ §ýl–íÙt ÝëÇ…^éÍ. ©°² A ⊂ B™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. A§ólÑ«§ýl…V> B° Üç Ñ$† AMýS$ iv) D = {x : x A¯ól¨ 42 M>Æý‡×ê…MýS…}
E¯]l²™èl çÜÑ$† A…sêÆý‡$. A B f. i) A = { –2, 2}
çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ & Æý‡M>Ë$ E§é: A = {1, 2, 3} A¯ól¨ ii) B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}MýS$ Eç³çÜÑ$†. iii) C = {17, 26, 35, 44, 53, 62, 80}
◆ Ô¶æ*¯]lÅçÜÑ$† φ {糆 çÜÑ$†MìS Eç³çÜÑ$†. õÙyŠæ ^ólíܯ]l {´ë…™èl… A∩B° iv) D = {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42}
Ð]l¬QÅOÐðl$¯]l A…Ô>Ë$, °Æý‡Ó^èl¯éË$ ◆ {糆 çÜÑ$† §é°MýS§ól Eç³çÜÑ$†. çÜ*_çÜ$¢…¨. 3. MìS…¨ çÜÑ$™èl$˯]l$ çÜÑ$† °Æ>Ã×æ Æý‡*ç³…ÌZ Æ>Ķæ$…yìl.
◆ VýS×ìæ™èl…ÌZ çÜÑ$† Ðé§é°² gêÇj M>…rÆŠæ AÀÐ]l–¨® ◆ A ⊂ B, B ⊂ C AƇ¬™ól A ⊂ C «§ýlÆ>ÃË$: i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
ç³Ç^éÆý‡$. çÜÐ]l$ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$: Üç Ñ$† AÌZ° {糆 Ð]lÊËMýS… Üç Ñ$† ◆ A ∩ A = A (Aç³Ð]lÇ¢™èl «§ýlÆý‡Ã…) ii) B = {1, 4, 9, .... 100}
çÜÑ$†: çÜ$°Æý‡Ó_™èl Ð]lçÜ$¢Ð]l#Ë çÜÐ]l¬§éĶæ*¯ól² "çÜÑ$†' BÌZ, BÌZ° {糆 Ð]lÊËMýS… AÌZ E…sôæ A, B˯]l$ çÜÐ]l$- ◆ A ∩ B = B ∩ A (íܦ™èlÅ…™èlÆý‡ «§ýlÆý‡Ã…) iii) C = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}
A…sêÆý‡$. çÜÑ$™èl$˯]l$ B…VýSÏ¿êçÙÌZ° ò³§ýlª A„ýSÆ>Ë™ø, çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ A…sêÆý‡$. ◆ A ∩ φ = φ = φ ∩ A(™èl™èlÞÐ]l$ «§ýlÆý‡Ã…) iv) D = {5, 10, 15, 20, 25}
A…§ýl$ÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>˯]l$ _¯]l² A„ýSÆ>Ë™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. A, BË$ çÜÐ]l$ çÜÑ$™èl$OÌñæ™ól A = B. ◆ A∩µ=A= µ∩A f. i) A = {x: x çÜçßæfçÜ…QÅ, x < 6}
E§é: {糫§é¯]l çÜ…QÅË Üç Ñ$† E§é: ◆ A ⊂ B AƇ¬™ól A ∩ B = A ii) B ={x: x Ð]lÆý‡YçÜ…QÅ, x ≤ 10}
P = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ....} A = {x/x A¯ól¨ ASSASSINATION A¯ól 糧ýl…ÌZ° iii) C = {x: x A¯ól¨ 13ÌZç³# {糫§é¯]l
B…VýSÏ¿êçÙÌZ° A^èl$aË çÜÑ$† A„ýSÆý‡…} ÑĶæ¬MýS¢ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ çÜ…QÅ}
V = {a, e, i, o, u} = {A, S, I, N, T, O} iv) D = {x: x A¯ól¨ 5 VýS$×ìæf…,
çÜÑ$† ÆøçÜtÆŠæ (gê¼™é) Æý‡*ç³…: çÜÑ$-†-ÌZ° Ð]lÊË- B = {x/x A¯ól¨ STATION A¯ól 糧ýl…ÌZ° A„ýSÆý‡…} = {A, Üç Ñ$† A Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ Üç Ñ$† BËÌZ EÐ]l$Ãyìl Ð]lÊËM>Ë$ x ≤ 25}
M>Ë°²…sìæ± çœÏÐ]lÆŠæ {»êMðSrÏÌZ Ð]lÆý‡-çÜV>, JMýS gê¼™éV>, S, I, N, T, O} ÌôæMýS$…sôæ A, B çÜÑ$™èl$˯]l$ "ÑĶæ¬MýS¢ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$' A…sêÆý‡$. 4. ç³ÇÑ$™èl, Aç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$™èl$ËMýS$ E§éçßæÆý‡×æË$
M>Ð]l* (,) Ë™ø ÐólÆý‡$^ólíÜ Æ>Ķæ$yé°² "ÆøçÜtÆŠæ Æý‡*ç³…' Ìôæ§é ◆ A, B çÜÑ$™èl$ÌZÏ° Ð]lÊËM>Ë$ çÜÐ]l*¯]l…. M>ºsìæt A = A…sôæ A ∩ B = φ M>ÐéÍ. CÐ]lÓ…yìl.
"gê¼™é Æý‡*ç³…' A…sêÆý‡$. E§é: 3 VýS$×ìægêË Üç Ñ$† B. E§é: A = {1, 3, 5, 7}, f. ç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$†:
A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, ....} ◆ A ⊂ B, B ⊂ A AƇ¬™ól A = B. B = {2, 4, 6, 8} ÑĶæ¬MýS¢ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$. A ={x : x A¯ól¨ 17, 61 Ð]l$«§lý Å E¯]l² 4 VýS$×ìæf…
çÜÑ$† °Æ>Ã×æ Æý‡*ç³…: çÜÑ$-†-ÌZ° Ð]lÊË-M>°² 'x' V> Ððl¯Œæ _{™éË$: çÜÑ$™èl$Ë Ð]l$«§ýlÅ çÜ…º…«§é˯]l$ Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ 7™ø ¿êW™èlÐ]l$Ð]l#™èl$…¨} = {28, 56}
çÜ*_çÜ*¢, 'x' ³ç MýSP¯]l Mø˯Œæ (;) Ìôæ§é »êÆŠæ (/) E…_ B çÜ*_…^èlyé°MìS Ððl¯Œæ _{™é˯]l$ Eç³Äñæ*WÝë¢Æý‡$. ÒsìæÌZ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë ¿ôæ§ýl… Aç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$†:
çÜÑ$†MìS ^ðl…¨¯]l Ð]lÊËM>Ë Ë„ýS×êË$ Æ>íÜ, Ððl¬™é¢°² çœÏÐ]lÆŠæ Ý뫧éÆý‡×æ…V> ©Æý‡ƒ^èl™èl$Æý‡{ÝëË$, çÜ…Ð]l–™èl Ð]l{M>Ë$, B = {x: x »ôæíÜçÜ…QÅ}
{»êMðSrÏÌZ Æ>Ķæ$yé°² "çÜÑ$† °Æ>Ã×æ Æý‡*ç³…' A…sêÆý‡$. Ð]l–™é¢Ë¯]l$ Ðéyýl™éÆý‡$. Ð]lÊËM>Ë$ Üç Ñ$† A MýS$ Ð]l*{™èlÐól$ ^ðl…¨, çÜÑ$† BMýS$ {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ......}
E§é: A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, ....}¯]l$ E§é: µ ={1, 2, 3, .......10} ÑÔ¶æÓçÜÑ$†, ^ðl…§ýlMýS$…yé E…sôæ B Ð]lÊËM>Ë Üç Ñ$†° A, B çÜÑ$™èl$Ë 5. A = {x : x2 = 4, 3x = 9}
Üç Ñ$† °Æ>Ã×æ Æý‡*ç³…ÌZ A = {1, 2, 3, 4}; B = {2, 4, 6, 8}Ë$ HOÐðl¯é Æð‡…yýl$ ¿ôæ§ýl… A…sêÆý‡$. B = {x : x çÜÇ {糫§é¯]l çÜ…QÅ}
A = {x/x A¯ól¨ 3 VýS$×ìæf…}™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. çÜÑ$™èl$OÌñæ™ól Ððl¯Œæ _{™éÌZÏ Òsìæ° MìS…¨Ñ«§ýl…V> çÜ*_Ý뢅. A, B çÜÑ$™èl$Ë ¿ôæ§é°² A–B ™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. D çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ Ô¶æ*¯]lÅ çÜÑ$™èl$Ìôæ¯é? Ò$ çÜÐ]l*«§é¯é°²
Ô¶æ*¯]lÅçÜÑ$†: JMýS çÜÑ$†ÌZ GÌê…sìæ Ð]lÊËM>Ë$ A – B = {x : x ∈ A Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ x ∉ B} çÜÐ]l$Ǧ…^èl…yìl.
µ
ÌôæMýS´ù™ól §é°² "Ô¶æ*¯]lÅ çÜÑ$†' A…sêÆý‡$. ©°² φ Ìôæ§é { } 5 7 B – A = {x : x ∈ B Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ x ∉A} f. A = {x : x2 = 4, 3x = 9}
™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. 1 2 6 E§é: A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, x2 = 4
E§é: A = {x/ 1 < x < 2, x çÜçßæf çÜ…QÅ} B = {4, 5, 6, 7} ⇒ x= 4 =±2
3 4 8
ç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$†: çÜÑ$†ÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>Ë$ ç³ÇÑ$™èl…V> 10 A – B = {1, 2, 3}, B – A= {6, 7} 3x = 9 ⇒ x = 3
E…sôæ B Üç Ñ$†° ç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$† A…sêÆý‡$. 9 A – B Ððl¯Œæ _{™èl…: x2 = 4, 3x = 9 ˯]l$ ™èl–í³¢ç³Ç^ól x ÑË$Ð]l Ìôæ§ýl$. M>ºsìæt A
E§é: A = {x/ x A¯ól¨ 12 M>Æý‡×ê…MýS…} çÜÑ$† JMýS Ô¶æ*¯]lÅçÜÑ$†.
{1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12} çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ & {´ë£ýlÑ$MýS ç³Ç{MìSĶæ$Ë$ A B µ B = {x: x çÜÇ {糫§é¯]l çÜ…QÅ} = {2}
Aç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$†: çÜÑ$†ÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>Ë$ Aç³ÇÑ$™èl…V> Üç Ñ$† BÌZ JMýS Ð]lÊËMýS… E…¨ M>ºsìæt C¨
E…sôæ B çÜÑ$†° Aç³ÇÑ$™èl Üç Ñ$† A…sêÆý‡$. A…MýSVýS×ìæ™èl…ÌZ MýS*yìlMýS, ¡íÜÐól™èl, VýS$×æM>Æý‡…, Ô¶æ*¯]lÅçÜÑ$† M>§ýl$.
E§é: A = {x/ x A¯ól¨ çÜÇçÜ…QÅ} ¿êVýSàÆý‡… Ìê…sìæ ç³Ç{MìSĶæ$Ë Ð]l*¨ÇV> çÜÑ$™èl$ÌZÏ 6. A = {1, 2, 3} çÜÑ$†MìS E…yól Eç³çÜÑ$™èl$Ë°²…sìæ°
= {2, 4, 6, 8, .......} çÜÐól$Ãâ¶æ¯]l…, ból§ýl¯]l…, çÜÑ$™èl$Ë ¿ôæ§ýl… A¯ól ç³Ç{MìSĶæ$Ë$ A–B
Æ>Ķæ$…yìl.
M>Çz¯]lÌŒæ çÜ…QÅ: JMýS çÜÑ$†ÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>Ë çÜ…Qů]l$ B E…sêƇ¬. f. {糆 çÜÑ$†MìS Ô¶æ*¯]lÅçÜÑ$† (φ), §é°MýS§ól Eç³çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$
çÜÑ$† M>Çz¯]lÌŒæ çÜ…QÅ A…sêÆý‡$. çÜÑ$† A M>Çz¯]lÌŒæ B – A Ððl¯Œæ _{™èl…: AÐ]l#™éƇ¬.
çÜ…Qů]l$ n(A)™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. çÜÑ$™èl$Ë çÜÐól$Ãâ¶æ¯]l… A = {1, 2, 3} Eç³çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$ =
E§é: A= {x/x A¯ól¨ MATHEMATICS A B µ φ, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {2, 3}
A¯ól 糧ýl…ÌZ° A„ýSÆý‡…} A Ð]l$ÇÄ¶æ¬ B çÜÑ$™èl$ËÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>°²…sìæ° MýSÍW {1, 3}, {1, 2, 3} = A
= {A, C, E, H, I, M, S, T} E¯]l² Üç Ñ$†° A, BË "çÜÐól$Ãâ¶æ¯]l çÜÑ$†' A…sêÆý‡$. A, B
AƇ¬™ól Üç Ñ$† A M>Çz¯]lÌŒæ çÜ…QÅ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë çÜÐól$Ãâ¶æ¯é°² A ∪ B ™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$.
n(A) = 8 A ∪ B = {x : x ∈ A Ìôæ§é x ∈ B}
◆ Ô¶æ*¯]lÅçÜÑ$† φ AƇ¬™ól n(φ) = 0 E§é: A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8} B–A
◆ A Aç³ÇÑ$™èl çÜÑ$† AƇ¬™ól n(A) Aç³ÇÑ$™èl…. A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}
ÑÔ¶æÓçÜÑ$†: ÑÔ¶æÓçÜÑ$†° U Ìôæ§é µ™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. A ∪ B Ððl¯Œæ _{™èl…: ◆ A–B≠B–A
Ý뫧éÆý‡×æ…V> ©°² ©Æý‡ƒ^èl™èl$Æý‡{çÜ…ÌZ µ ™ø çÜ*_Ýë¢Æý‡$. A B µ ◆ A – B, B –A, A ∩ BË$ ³ç Æý‡-
µ çܵÆý‡… ÑĶæ¬MýS¢ çÜÑ$™èl$Ë$.
A B ◆ n(A∪B)
= n(A) + n(B) – n(A∩B)
◆ A, BË$ ÑĶæ¬MýS¢ çÜÑ$™èl$OÌñæ™ól
õÙyŠæ ^ólíܯ]l {´ë…™èl… A ∪ B° A∩B = φ M>ºsìæt
çÜ*_çÜ$¢…¨. n(A∩B) = 0 Aç³#µyýl$
Eç³çÜÑ$†, E¯]l²™èl çÜÑ$†: Üç Ñ$† AÌZ° Ð]lÊËM>˱² «§ýlÆ>ÃË$: n(A∪B) = n(A) + n(B)