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Name of experiment : Measurement of input impedance of a coaxial

Transmission line.
Theory: The coaxial transmission line consists of an inner conductor and a outer
conducting shunts separated by a dielectric medium. This structure has the
important advantages of confining the electric and magnetic field entirely within
the dielectric region. No stray fields are generated by a coaxial transmission line
and little external interference in coupled into the line. Consider the following
figure:

At the source end of the line z/=l, the generating loading into the line sees an input

Z L  Z 0 tanh l Z  jR tan l
Zi  Z0  Or Z i  Z 0 R  jZ tan l 
L 0

Z 0  Z L tanh l 0 L

Apparatus:

1. Transmission line with impedance sockets


2. Signal generator
3. Oscilloscope
4. Connectors

Figure:

ZL=∞

(i) Open circuit (ii) Short circuit (iii) With load


Calculation: We can calculated input impedance in three condition where
ZL=100Ω
ZL=0Ω
ZL=∞Ω
From the short condition we get,
Vis  4.2V
1
I is   0.05 A
20
4 .2
Z is   84
0.05
From the open circuit condition we get,
Vio  3.8V
1.1
I io   0.055 A
20
3.8
Z io   69.09
0.055

From the loaded condition we get,


Vi  3.6V
1
Ii   0.05 A
20
3.6
Zi   72
0.05

Result: The input impedance of the transmission line , 72Ω.


Name of experiment : Measurement of characteristics impedance of a coaxial
Transmission line.
Theory: The characteristics impedance of a transmission line is defined as

At microwave frequencies it can be seen that


R<< ωL and G<<ωC

The characteristics impedance is found to be

Apparatus:

5. Transmission line (Length:25m of each section)


6. Signal generator.
7. Oscilloscope.
8. Connectors.
Circuit diagram:
Measurement of characteristics impedance : A common procedure for
determining the characteristics impedance of given transmission line is to take two
measurements:
1. Measurement of the sending-end impedance with the receiving end short-
circuited record the result:

2. Measurement of the sending-end impedance with the receiving end open-


circuited record the result:

Then the characteristics impedance of the measured transmission line is given by:

Using signal generator frequency was adjusted to 1 KHz and signal voltage was
taken 3 V(p-p).

Calculation:

Under open circuit condition:

= = 69.09Ω
Under short circuit condition:

= = 84Ω
Characteristics impedance,
= =76.18 Ω

Result: The characteristics impedance of the transmission line , 76.18 Ω.


Discussion: The characteristics impedance is not same as the ratings because of
old instrument. The characteristics impedance plays important role because if the
line matches with characteristics impedance then there is no backward travelling
wave.

Name of the experiment: Measurement of standing-wave ratio (SWR) of a coaxial


Transmission line.

Theory: Standing waves results from the simultaneous presence of waves travelling in
opposite directions on a transmission line. The ratio of the maximum of the standing-wave
pattern to the minimum is defined as the standing-wave ratio, designated by ρ.

Standing-wave ratio, ρ=

The distance between two successive maxima or minima is .The standing-wave ratio of a
pure travelling wave is unity that of pure standing wave is infinite.
Since the reflected wave is defined as the product of an incident wave and its reflection
coefficient, the standing-wave ratio ρ is related to the reflection coefficient Г by

Also standing wave ratio is defined as follows


Vmax
SWR  …………….(i)
Vmin

Apparatus:
1. Transmission line (Length:25m of each section)
2. Signal generator.
3. Oscilloscope.
4. Connectors.

Calculation:
From experiment we get,
Vmax  4.2V
Vmin  2.2V
From the equation (i) the standing wave ratio,
Vmax 4 .2
SWR    1.92  2
Vmin 2 .2
Result: Therefore the standing wave ratio of the transmission line is 2.
Discussion:
The circuit was connected and data’s were taken very carefully. In matched load the
SWR should be 1 for no backward travelling wave which has a great significance in transmission
line.
Name of experiment : Measurement of characteristics impedance of a coaxial Transmission
line.
Theory: The ohomic resistance R / and conductance G / are responsible with the line of the
energy dispersion in the form of heat. This occur within both the conductor and the dielectric
material. These losses which determine the attenuation characteristics of the line are expressed in
terms of attenuation constant represented by symbol aV and can be calculated through the
equation,
V 
aV  20 log 1 
 V2 
Where V1 =Amplitude of the signal input of the line
V2 =Amplitude of the signal output of the line
aV = Voltage attenuation in dB

Apparatus:

1. Transmission line (Length:25m of each section)


2. Signal generator.
3. Oscilloscope.
4. Connectors.
Circuit diagram:

Procedure:
The circuit was connected according to the above diagram. A 56 ohm load was
connected to the output side of the transmission line and 50 ohm was connected to the input
side in order to match the impedance of the generators. Using the signal generator, frequency
was varied from 301 KHz to 601MHz. First, for 301 KHz the voltage of each section was
measured and so on.
Data Table: When load end is opened then

Input Frequency 0m 25 m 50m 75m 100m


voltage(V) kHz V1 (volt) V2 (volt) V3 (volt) V4 (volt) V5 (volt)
301 3.9 3.6 3.4 3 2.6
4 401 3.5 3.2 3 2.6 2.2
501 3.3 3 2.6 2.6 2.2
601 2.1 2 1.8 1.6 1.4
Calculation:
When load is opened at frequency 301 kHz
Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log    0.2199dB
 V1   3.9 
At distance 25m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   0.915dB
 V2   .6 
3
At distance 50m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   1.412dB
 V3   .4 
3
At distance 75m from source
V 
  20 log   2.498dB
4
aV  20 log
 V4  3
At distance 100m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   3.742dB
 V5   .6 
2

When load is opened at frequency 401 kHz


Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   1.159dB
 V1   .5 
3
At distance 25m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   1.938dB
 V2   .2 
3
At distance 50m from source
V 
  20 log   2.498dB
4
aV  20 log
 V3  3
At distance 75m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   3.742dB
 V4   .6 
2
At distance 100m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   4.437dB
 V5   .4 
2

When load is opened at frequency 501 kHz


Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   1.671dB
 V1   3.3 
At distance 25m from source
V 
  20 log   2.498dB
4
aV  20 log
 V2   3
At distance 50m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   3.742dB
 V3   2.6 
At distance 75m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log    3.742dB
 V4   2.6 
At distance 100m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   5.193dB
 V5   2.2 
When load is opened at frequency 601 kHz
Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   5.597dB
 V1   2.1 
At distance 25m from source
V 
  20 log   6.02dB
4
aV  20 log
 V2  2
At distance 50m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log    6.936dB
 V3   1.8 
At distance 75m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log   7.958dB
 V4   1.6 
At distance 100m from source
V 
  20 log
4 
aV  20 log    9.119 dB
 V5   1.4 

Discussion: The circuit was connected and data’s were taken very carefully. We carefully
observed that as the frequency increases voltage of each section of the transmission line
decreases .
Name of the Experiment: Observation of Radiation pattern of Dipole Antenna.

Theory: Dipole antenna:


The half wave dipole antenna becomes quite common where space permits. It can be
erected vertically but is more often than not erected horizontally for practical
reasons. The input impedance (affected by many factors) is nominally 50 ohms. As
with all antennas, the height above ground and proximity to other objects such as
buildings, trees, guttering etc. play an important part. However, reality says we must
live with what we can achieve in the real world notwithstanding what theory may say.
People erect half wave dipoles in attics constructed of fine gauge wire - far from ideal
BUT they get reasonable results by living with less than the "ideal". A lesson in life we
should always remember in more ways than one.

Figure:

Fig: half wave dipole antenna

Working Procedure: At first place two antennas (Dipole) are parallel at a fixed
distance & took reading of ammeter which connected with the receiving antenna.
Ammeter reading depends on the receiving power. So by this reading we conclude
for receiving power. After that rotate transmitting antenna & took reading of
ammeter for various angle.

Data Table:
Angle Current (for Dipole
Angle Current (for Dipole antenna)
antenna)
in µA
in µA 170 9
0 10 180 10
20 10 200 10
40 6 210 8
60 0 230 4
80 0 250 2
90 0 270 0
100 0
120 0
130 0
140 2
150 4
160 7
Radiation pattern:

Fig: radiation pattern of a dipole antenna

Discussion: The wavelength of the Dipole antenna is 17cm and the characteristics impedance of
Dipole antenna is 50ohm. In our experiment radiation patterns are approximately same with Folded
Dipole but have some distortion. There have some reasons for that. There are: some magnetic materials
present surrounding which affects the flux, movement of surrounding, parallax error.
Name of Experiment: Observation of Radiation pattern of folded Dipole Antenna.

Theory:
The folded dipole antenna:
The folded dipole antenna is probably only ever seen as a TV antenna. It exhibits an impedance of 300 ohms.
Within the limits of my artistic skills I have depicted a folded dipole antenna below. One powerful advantage
of a folded dipole antenna is that is has a wide bandwidth, in fact a one octave bandwidth. This is the reason
it was often used as a TV antenna for multi channel use. Folded dipole antennas were mainly used in
conjunction with Yagi antennas.

Figure

Figure: half wave folded dipole

Working Procedure:
At first place two antennas (Folded Dipole) are parallel at a fixed distance & took reading of
ammeter which connected with the receiving antenna. Ammeter reading depends on the receiving
Angle Current (for Dipole antenna)
power. So by this reading we conclude for receiving power. After that rotate transmitting antenna & took
reading of ammeter for various angle in µA

Data Table: 180 17

170 20
Angle Current (for Dipole antenna)
140 16
in µA
120 10
0 20
100 3

90 0

70 0
20 20

40 11

60 9

80 3

90 1

108 0

110 0

130 3

150 9

170 11

Radiation pattern:
Fig: radiation pattern of a folded dipole antenna

Discussion:
The wavelength of the folded dipole is 34cm and the characteristics impedance of folded is
300ohm. In our experiment radiation patterns are approximately same with Dipole antenna but have
some distortion. There have some reasons for that. There are: some magnetic materials present
surrounding which affects the flux, movement of surrounding, parallax error .