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Experiment OF RADIO AND ANTENNA

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Transmission line.

Theory: The coaxial transmission line consists of an inner conductor and a outer

conducting shunts separated by a dielectric medium. This structure has the

important advantages of confining the electric and magnetic field entirely within

the dielectric region. No stray fields are generated by a coaxial transmission line

and little external interference in coupled into the line. Consider the following

figure:

At the source end of the line z/=l, the generating loading into the line sees an input

Z L Z 0 tanh l Z jR tan l

Zi Z0 Or Z i Z 0 R jZ tan l

L 0

Z 0 Z L tanh l 0 L

Apparatus:

2. Signal generator

3. Oscilloscope

4. Connectors

Figure:

ZL=∞

Calculation: We can calculated input impedance in three condition where

ZL=100Ω

ZL=0Ω

ZL=∞Ω

From the short condition we get,

Vis 4.2V

1

I is 0.05 A

20

4 .2

Z is 84

0.05

From the open circuit condition we get,

Vio 3.8V

1.1

I io 0.055 A

20

3.8

Z io 69.09

0.055

Vi 3.6V

1

Ii 0.05 A

20

3.6

Zi 72

0.05

Name of experiment : Measurement of characteristics impedance of a coaxial

Transmission line.

Theory: The characteristics impedance of a transmission line is defined as

R<< ωL and G<<ωC

Apparatus:

6. Signal generator.

7. Oscilloscope.

8. Connectors.

Circuit diagram:

Measurement of characteristics impedance : A common procedure for

determining the characteristics impedance of given transmission line is to take two

measurements:

1. Measurement of the sending-end impedance with the receiving end short-

circuited record the result:

circuited record the result:

Then the characteristics impedance of the measured transmission line is given by:

Using signal generator frequency was adjusted to 1 KHz and signal voltage was

taken 3 V(p-p).

Calculation:

= = 69.09Ω

Under short circuit condition:

= = 84Ω

Characteristics impedance,

= =76.18 Ω

Discussion: The characteristics impedance is not same as the ratings because of

old instrument. The characteristics impedance plays important role because if the

line matches with characteristics impedance then there is no backward travelling

wave.

Transmission line.

Theory: Standing waves results from the simultaneous presence of waves travelling in

opposite directions on a transmission line. The ratio of the maximum of the standing-wave

pattern to the minimum is defined as the standing-wave ratio, designated by ρ.

Standing-wave ratio, ρ=

The distance between two successive maxima or minima is .The standing-wave ratio of a

pure travelling wave is unity that of pure standing wave is infinite.

Since the reflected wave is defined as the product of an incident wave and its reflection

coefficient, the standing-wave ratio ρ is related to the reflection coefficient Г by

Vmax

SWR …………….(i)

Vmin

Apparatus:

1. Transmission line (Length:25m of each section)

2. Signal generator.

3. Oscilloscope.

4. Connectors.

Calculation:

From experiment we get,

Vmax 4.2V

Vmin 2.2V

From the equation (i) the standing wave ratio,

Vmax 4 .2

SWR 1.92 2

Vmin 2 .2

Result: Therefore the standing wave ratio of the transmission line is 2.

Discussion:

The circuit was connected and data’s were taken very carefully. In matched load the

SWR should be 1 for no backward travelling wave which has a great significance in transmission

line.

Name of experiment : Measurement of characteristics impedance of a coaxial Transmission

line.

Theory: The ohomic resistance R / and conductance G / are responsible with the line of the

energy dispersion in the form of heat. This occur within both the conductor and the dielectric

material. These losses which determine the attenuation characteristics of the line are expressed in

terms of attenuation constant represented by symbol aV and can be calculated through the

equation,

V

aV 20 log 1

V2

Where V1 =Amplitude of the signal input of the line

V2 =Amplitude of the signal output of the line

aV = Voltage attenuation in dB

Apparatus:

2. Signal generator.

3. Oscilloscope.

4. Connectors.

Circuit diagram:

Procedure:

The circuit was connected according to the above diagram. A 56 ohm load was

connected to the output side of the transmission line and 50 ohm was connected to the input

side in order to match the impedance of the generators. Using the signal generator, frequency

was varied from 301 KHz to 601MHz. First, for 301 KHz the voltage of each section was

measured and so on.

Data Table: When load end is opened then

voltage(V) kHz V1 (volt) V2 (volt) V3 (volt) V4 (volt) V5 (volt)

301 3.9 3.6 3.4 3 2.6

4 401 3.5 3.2 3 2.6 2.2

501 3.3 3 2.6 2.6 2.2

601 2.1 2 1.8 1.6 1.4

Calculation:

When load is opened at frequency 301 kHz

Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 0.2199dB

V1 3.9

At distance 25m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 0.915dB

V2 .6

3

At distance 50m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 1.412dB

V3 .4

3

At distance 75m from source

V

20 log 2.498dB

4

aV 20 log

V4 3

At distance 100m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 3.742dB

V5 .6

2

Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 1.159dB

V1 .5

3

At distance 25m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 1.938dB

V2 .2

3

At distance 50m from source

V

20 log 2.498dB

4

aV 20 log

V3 3

At distance 75m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 3.742dB

V4 .6

2

At distance 100m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 4.437dB

V5 .4

2

Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 1.671dB

V1 3.3

At distance 25m from source

V

20 log 2.498dB

4

aV 20 log

V2 3

At distance 50m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 3.742dB

V3 2.6

At distance 75m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 3.742dB

V4 2.6

At distance 100m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 5.193dB

V5 2.2

When load is opened at frequency 601 kHz

Attenuation at distance 0 meter from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 5.597dB

V1 2.1

At distance 25m from source

V

20 log 6.02dB

4

aV 20 log

V2 2

At distance 50m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 6.936dB

V3 1.8

At distance 75m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 7.958dB

V4 1.6

At distance 100m from source

V

20 log

4

aV 20 log 9.119 dB

V5 1.4

Discussion: The circuit was connected and data’s were taken very carefully. We carefully

observed that as the frequency increases voltage of each section of the transmission line

decreases .

Name of the Experiment: Observation of Radiation pattern of Dipole Antenna.

The half wave dipole antenna becomes quite common where space permits. It can be

erected vertically but is more often than not erected horizontally for practical

reasons. The input impedance (affected by many factors) is nominally 50 ohms. As

with all antennas, the height above ground and proximity to other objects such as

buildings, trees, guttering etc. play an important part. However, reality says we must

live with what we can achieve in the real world notwithstanding what theory may say.

People erect half wave dipoles in attics constructed of fine gauge wire - far from ideal

BUT they get reasonable results by living with less than the "ideal". A lesson in life we

should always remember in more ways than one.

Figure:

Working Procedure: At first place two antennas (Dipole) are parallel at a fixed

distance & took reading of ammeter which connected with the receiving antenna.

Ammeter reading depends on the receiving power. So by this reading we conclude

for receiving power. After that rotate transmitting antenna & took reading of

ammeter for various angle.

Data Table:

Angle Current (for Dipole

Angle Current (for Dipole antenna)

antenna)

in µA

in µA 170 9

0 10 180 10

20 10 200 10

40 6 210 8

60 0 230 4

80 0 250 2

90 0 270 0

100 0

120 0

130 0

140 2

150 4

160 7

Radiation pattern:

Discussion: The wavelength of the Dipole antenna is 17cm and the characteristics impedance of

Dipole antenna is 50ohm. In our experiment radiation patterns are approximately same with Folded

Dipole but have some distortion. There have some reasons for that. There are: some magnetic materials

present surrounding which affects the flux, movement of surrounding, parallax error.

Name of Experiment: Observation of Radiation pattern of folded Dipole Antenna.

Theory:

The folded dipole antenna:

The folded dipole antenna is probably only ever seen as a TV antenna. It exhibits an impedance of 300 ohms.

Within the limits of my artistic skills I have depicted a folded dipole antenna below. One powerful advantage

of a folded dipole antenna is that is has a wide bandwidth, in fact a one octave bandwidth. This is the reason

it was often used as a TV antenna for multi channel use. Folded dipole antennas were mainly used in

conjunction with Yagi antennas.

Figure

Working Procedure:

At first place two antennas (Folded Dipole) are parallel at a fixed distance & took reading of

ammeter which connected with the receiving antenna. Ammeter reading depends on the receiving

Angle Current (for Dipole antenna)

power. So by this reading we conclude for receiving power. After that rotate transmitting antenna & took

reading of ammeter for various angle in µA

170 20

Angle Current (for Dipole antenna)

140 16

in µA

120 10

0 20

100 3

90 0

70 0

20 20

40 11

60 9

80 3

90 1

108 0

110 0

130 3

150 9

170 11

Radiation pattern:

Fig: radiation pattern of a folded dipole antenna

Discussion:

The wavelength of the folded dipole is 34cm and the characteristics impedance of folded is

300ohm. In our experiment radiation patterns are approximately same with Dipole antenna but have

some distortion. There have some reasons for that. There are: some magnetic materials present

surrounding which affects the flux, movement of surrounding, parallax error .

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