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T1

T2

T3

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SmartCode T5

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S mart C ode
Version 9.2

The Town Paper


Publisher
The term “code” derives from “caudex,” which was simul-
taneously the trunk of a tree and set of laws. It is one of
several terms clustering around the idea of power being
resident in a sacred tree at the center of a traditional vil-
lage. A code, then, is etymologically and functionally the
trunk around which a settlement arranges itself.

Patrick Pinnell
Introduction

About the SmartCode

The SmartCode is a form-based code that incorporates Smart Growth and New
Urbanism principles. It is a unified development ordinance, addressing develop-
ment at all scales of design, from regional planning on down to the building sig-
nage. It is based on the rural-to-urban transect rather than separated-use zoning,
thereby able to integrate a full range of environmental techniques. Because the
SmartCode envisions intentional outcomes based on known patterns of urban de-
sign, it is a more succinct and efficient document than most conventional codes.

The model SmartCode is freeware, available in an editable format from the web-
sites www.smartcodecentral.org and www.transect.org.

The SmartCode is a model ordinance. It is not persuasive and instructive like a


guideline, nor is it intentionally general like a vision statement. It is meant to be
law, precise and technical, administered by municipal planning departments and
interpreted by elected representatives of local government. The SmartCode is
designed to be calibrated to local circumstances, ideally with the participation of
the local citizens.

This booklet, SmartCode Version 9.2, presents the entire 56-page base code in
compact form. Another publication, a printed calibrator’s Manual, the SmartCode
Version 9 and Manual, offers a fully annotated SmartCode Version 9.2, and an
extended appendix with sample plans, step-by-step procedures, illustrations, his-
torical commentary, checklists, and resources. In addition, there are numerous
supplementary Modules, as listed here in the Table of Contents. The Manual is
useful for anyone who is considering calibrating and adopting the SmartCode for
a project, city, or region. To date (early 2009), over 100 American municipalities
and counties have calibrated the SmartCode, with 25 adoptions and many more in
process. These numbers do not include scores of private developments.

The official text of the SmartCode appears in a sans serif font like this. The intro-
ductory commentary appears in a serif font like this. Green text indicates items
that should be considered for calibration.

iv SmartCode Version 9.2


Introduction

Codes and the SmartCode

Consider the most-loved towns of North America. They were either carefully
planned, or they evolved as compact, mixed use places because of their geogra-
phy and the limits of the transportation and economics of their time. However,
over the past sixty years, places have evolved in a completely different pattern.
They have spread loosely along highways and haphazardly across the country-
side, enabled by the widespread ownership of automobiles, by cheap petroleum
and cheap land, and by generalized wealth.

Such patterns are enabled by zoning codes that separate dwellings from work-
places, shops, and schools. These codes include design standards that favor the
automobile over the pedestrian, and are unable to resist the homogenizing effects
of globalization.

These practices have produced banal housing subdivisions, business parks, strip
shopping, big box stores, enormous parking lots, and sadly gutted downtowns.
They have caused the proliferation of drive-by eateries and billboards. They have
made walking or cycling dangerous or unpleasant. They have made children, the
elderly, and the poor utterly dependent on those who can drive, even for ordinary
daily needs. They have caused the simultaneous destruction of both towns and
open space -- the 20th century phenomenon known as sprawl.

The form of our built environment needs a 21st century correction. But in most
places it is actually illegal to build in a traditional neighborhood pattern. The
existing codes prevent it. In most places people do not have a choice between
sprawl and traditional urbanism. Codes favor sprawl and isolated residential sub-
divisions. It is not a level playing field.

The SmartCode was created to deal with this problem at the point of decisive
impact -- the intersection of law and design. It is a form-based code, meaning it
envisions and encourages a certain physical outcome -- the form of the region,
community, block, and/or building. Form-based codes are fundamentally differ-
ent from conventional codes that are based primarily on use and statistics -- none
of which envision or require any particular physical outcome.

The SmartCode is a tool that guides the form of the built environment in order to
create and protect development patterns that are compact, walkable, and mixed
use. These traditional neighborhood patterns tend to be stimulating, safe, and
ecologically sustainable. The SmartCode requires a mix of uses within walking
distance of dwellings, so residents aren’t forced to drive everywhere. It supports
a connected network to relieve traffic congestion. At the same time, it preserves
open lands, as it operates at the scale of the region as well as the community.

SmartCode Version 9.2 v


Introduction
Transect-Based Planning

“A town is saved, not more by the righteous men in it than by the woods and swamps that
surround it.” -- Henry David Thoreau

The SmartCode is a transect-based code. A transect of nature, first conceived by


Alexander Von Humboldt at the close of the 18th century, is a geographical cross-
section of a region intended to reveal a sequence of environments. Originally, it
was used to analyze natural ecologies, showing varying characteristics through
different zones such as shores, wetlands, plains, and uplands. It helps study the
many elements that contribute to habitats where certain plants and animals thrive
in symbiotic relationship to the minerals and microclimate.

Human beings also thrive in different places. There are those who could never
live in an urban center; there are those who would wither in a rural hamlet. Hu-
mans need a system that preserves and creates meaningful choices in their habi-
tats. Near the close of the 20th century, New Urbanist designers recognized that
sprawl was eradicating the pre-war American transect of the built environment.
They began to analyze it and extract its genetic material for replication. In this
way, they extended the natural transect to include the built environment, thus
establishing the basis for the SmartCode.

The rural-to-urban Transect is divided into six Transect Zones for application on
zoning maps. These six habitats vary by the level and intensity of their physical
and social character, providing immersive contexts from rural to urban. Smart-
Code elements are coordinated by these T-zones at all scales of planning, from the
region through the community scale down to the individual lot and building.

Back dune une

secondary dune

trough

Primary Dune

Beach

Ocean

A Typical Natural Transect

vi SmartCode Version 9.2


Introduction

One of the principles of Transect-based planning is that certain forms and ele-
ments belong in certain environments. For example, an apartment building be-
longs in a more urban setting, a ranch house in a more rural setting. Some types of
thoroughfares are urban in character, and some are rural. A deep suburban setback
destroys the spatial enclosure of an urban street; it is out of context. These distinc-
tions and rules don’t limit choices; they expand them. This is the antidote for the
one-size-fits-all development of today.

The Transect is evident in two ways. Zones and communities (1) exist as charac-
teristic places on the Transect and (2) they evolve along the Transect over time.
As places, the six Transect Zones display identifiable characteristics, based on
normative American urban patterns. They also increase in complexity, density
and intensity over a period of years, until a “climax condition” is reached. This is
a growth process analogous to succession in natural environments.

The best urbanism requires the sequential influence of many participants. A code
allows buildings to be designed and built by many hands over years, or even gen-
erations. The single designer or committee leads to a lack of robustness, similar
to vulnerable monocultures in nature. A parametric and successional code like the
SmartCode allows experience to feed back and become integrated -- the fourth
dimension of time. Once adopted, it stays in place, allowing urbanism to evolve
and mature without losing its necessary foundation of order.

It also ensures that a community will not have to scrutinize all proposed projects,
because the intentions of the citizens will have already been determined in the
process that leads to the code. The SmartCode is a comprehensive framework for
that process.

T1 natural
T2 RURAL
T3 SUB-URBAN
T4 GENERALURBAN T5 URBAN CENTER
T6 URBAN CORE
SD SPECIAL
zone zone zone zone zone zone dISTRICT

A Typical Rural-Urban Transect, with Transect Zones

SmartCode Version 9.2 vii


Introduction

Summary: What the SmartCode Does

• It utilizes a type of zoning category that ranges systematically from the wil-
derness to the urban core.
• It enables and qualifies Smart Growth community patterns that include Clus-
tered Land Development (CLD), Traditional Neighborhood Development
(TND™), Regional Center Development (RCD), and Transit-Oriented Devel-
opment (TOD).
• It integrates the scale of planning concern from the regional through the com-
munity scale, on down to the individual lot and, if desired, its architectural ele-
ments.
• It integrates the design process across professional disciplines.
• It integrates methods of environmental protection, open space conservation
and water quality control.
• It integrates subdivision, public works and Transfer of Development Rights
(TDR) standards.
• It provides a set of zoning categories common to new communities and to the
infill of existing urbanized areas.
• It is compatible with architectural, environmental, signage, lighting, hazard
mitigation, and visitability standards.
• It establishes parity of process for existing and new urban areas.
• It integrates protocols for the preparation and processing of plans.
• It encourages the efficiency of administrative approvals when appropriate,
rather than decision by public hearing.
• It encourages specific outcomes through incentives, rather than through prohibi-
tions.
• It specifies standards parametrically (by range) in order to minimize the need
for variances.
• It generally increases the range of the options over those allowed by conven-
tional zoning codes.

viii SmartCode Version 9.2


Introduction
Outline of the SmartCode
aRTICLE 2 ARTICLE 3 & Article 4 ARTICLE 5
REGIONAL SCALE PLANS COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS BUILDING SCALE pLANS

A. Regional Sector b. Community Unit c.Transect Zones Standards


Open Lands O1 reserved
P
O p e n S e c t o r
None
T1 Natural
Zone

T2 Rural

O2 Reserved
O p e n S e c t o r
None Zone

New G1 Restricted
rowth Sector
G CLD Clustered Land
Development T2 Rural
Zone
Development
T3
Sub-Urban
Zone

T4
General Urban
Zone

G2 Controlled
rowth Sector
G CLD Clustered Land
Development T2 Rural
Zone
Building

T3
Sub-Urban Disposition
Zone

T4
General Urban
Zone
Building
Configuration

TND Tr a d i t i o n a l
Neighborhood T3 Sub-Urban
Zone
Development
T4
General Urban Building
Zone Function


T5
Urban Center
Zone
Density
Calculations

G3 Intended
G r o w t h S e c t o r TND Tr a d i t i o n a l
Neighborhood T3 Sub-Urban
Zone
Development
T4
General Urban
Zone Parking
Standards

T5
Urban Center
Zone

Landscape

RCD T4
Regional General Urban Standards
Center Zone
Development
T5
Urban Center
Zone Signage
Standards

T6
Urban Core
Zone

Supplementary
G4 T3
Infill I N F I LL Tr a d i t i o n a l Sub-Urban
TND
Existing Modules
rowth Sector
G Neighborhood Zone
Development Development
T4
General Urban
Zone

T5
Urban Center
Zone

T4
I N F I LL Regional General Urban
RCD Center
Development
Zone

T5
Urban Center
Zone

T6
Urban Core
Zone

Other CB Civic
Building

CS
Civic
Space

SD Sprcial
Districts

SmartCode Version 9.2 ix


Introduction

The Structure of the SmartCode

Article 1 contains the general instructions pertaining to all other Articles.


Article 2 prescribes how Regional Plans designate the Open Sectors intended for
open lands and the Growth Sectors intended for development and redevelopment.
It also prescribes what Community Unit types belong in each Sector.
Article 3 prescribes the requirements for New Communities, including the
Transect Zones that make up each type.
Article 4 prescribes the Infill requirements for areas already urbanized.
Article 5 prescribes lot and building standards within each Transect Zone.
Article 6 contains diagrams and tables supporting the other Articles.
Article 7 contains terms and definitions supporting the other Articles.

The SmartCode is a unified planning ordinance that applies to three scales of land
use. The three patterns are in a nesting relationship.

A. Regional Sectors contain designated types of Communities (Article 2).
B. Community Units contain designated ratios of Transect Zones (Articles 3 and 4).
C. Transect Zones contain the building elements appropriate to them (Articles 5
and 6).

A. Regional Scale:
“Sector” is a neutral term for a geographic area. In the SmartCode, six Sectors
establish the locations where certain patterns of development are allowed. This
system addresses preservation and development at the Regional scale. The Sec-
tors are assigned as follows:

• O-1 Preserved Open Sector and O-2 Reserved Open Sector for protection
of open lands
• G-1 Restricted Growth Sector, G-2 Controlled Growth Sector, and G-3
Intended Growth Sector for New Communities
• G-4 Infill Growth Sector for managed growth of existing urbanized areas.

B. Community Scale:
The Regional Sectors each contain one or more of the three basic Community
Unit types (CLD, TND, RCD).

• CLD - Clustered Land Development (Hamlet, settlement, cluster) permit-


ted in Growth Sectors G1, G2
• TND - Traditional Neighborhood Development (Village, neighborhood) –
permitted in Growth Sectors G2, G3, G4
• RCD - Regional Center Development (Regional Center, town center, down-
town) – permitted in Growth Sectors G3, G4

x SmartCode Version 9.2


Introduction

C. Transect Zones:
The Transect, as a framework, identifies a range of habitats from the most natural
to the most urban. Its continuum, when subdivided, lends itself to the creation of
zoning categories. These categories include standards that encourage diversity
similar to that of organically evolved settlements. The standards overlap (they
are parametric), reflecting the successional ecotones of natural and human com-
munities. The Transect thereby integrates environmental and zoning methodolo-
gies, enabling environmentalists to assess the design of social habitats and urban-
ists to support the viability of natural ones.

• T-1 Natural Zone consists of lands approximating or reverting to a wilder-


ness condition, including lands unsuitable for settlement due to topography,
hydrology or vegetation.
• T-2 Rural Zone consists of sparsely settled lands in open or cultivated state.
These include woodland, agricultural land, grassland, and irrigable desert.
Typical buildings are farmhouses, agricultural buildings, cabins, and villas.
• T-3 Sub-Urban Zone consists of low density residential areas, adjacent to
higher zones that some mixed use. Home occupations and outbuildings are
allowed. Planting is naturalistic and setbacks are relatively deep. Blocks may
be large and the roads irregular to accommodate natural conditions.
• T-4 General Urban Zone consists of a mixed use but primarily residential
urban fabric. It may have a wide range of building types: single, sideyard,
and rowhouses. Setbacks and landscaping are variable. Streets with curbs and
sidewalks define medium-sized blocks.
• T-5 Urban Center Zone consists of higher density mixed use building that
accommodate retail, offices, rowhouses and apartments. It has a tight network
of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street tree planting and buildings set
close to the sidewalks.
• T-6 Urban Core Zone consists of the highest density and height, with the
greatest variety of uses, and civic buildings of regional importance. It may
have larger blocks; streets have steady street tree planting and buildings set
close to the wide sidewalks. Typically only large towns and cities have an
Urban Core Zone.
• Civic Zone consists of Civic Buildings and/or Civic Spaces appropriate to thir
Transect Zones.
• Special Districts consist of areas with buildings that by their Function, Dis-
position, or Configuration cannot, or should not, conform to one or more of
the six normative Transect Zones.

SmartCode Version 9.2 xi


Introduction

Adjusting the Structure of the SmartCode

To create SmartCodes for different purposes, certain Articles may be discarded


and the code reassembled.

• All codes will require the inclusion of Article 1 General To All Plans, Ar-
ticle 6 Standards & Tables and Article 7 Definitions of Terms.
• If a Regional Plan has already been prepared, or if the code will be used
entirely for Infill situations, Article 2 Regional Scale Plans may be elimi-
nated.
• If a Community Scale plan has already been prepared, or if there is no pros-
pect of greenfield development, Article 3 New Community Scale Plans may
be adjusted or eliminated. (Note: Article 4 depends on Article 3 for larger
Infill parcels.)
• If an Infill Community Plan already has been prepared or if there is no pros-
pect of Infill development, Article 4 Infill Community Scale Plans may be
eliminated.
• If and when all plans have been prepared, Article 5 Building Scale Plans be-
comes the de facto code for builders and architects. This Article may be used
by developers as the guidelines for their private property owners association.
• A calibrated SmartCode for a municipality should include some Thoroughfare
standards and large-site provisions even if Article 3 and/or Article 4 are not
used. Portions of Section 3.7 and Article 4 may be incorporated into Article 5
or a new Article created for Thoroughfare Standards or Public Space Standards.
• In Article 6, tables may be individually dropped or modified as necessary.
• In Article 7, definitions that do not apply should be deleted, and any neces-
sary new ones added.
• Modules and their associated definitions may be added as needed.

Responsibilities for Implementation

The SmartCode requires the preparation of plans that allocate the Sectors, lay out
the Communities, and show lot and building placement.

• Article 2 - Regional Plans shall be prepared by or on behalf of the Municipal
Planning Department.
• Article 3 - New Community Plans shall be prepared on behalf of the land
owner, the developer, or the Municipal Planning Department.
• Article 4 - Infill Community Plans shall be prepared by or on behalf of the
Municipal Planning Department.
• Article 5 - Building Scale Plans shall be prepared on behalf of a builder or
the property owner.
• The Planning Office may include a Development and Design Center (DDC).
A DDC may be assigned to advise on the use of the SmartCode and to aid in
the design of the Communities and buildings based on it.

xii SmartCode Version 9.2


Introduction

Calibrating the SmartCode

• The model code in this booklet must be calibrated for local character and met-
rics. SmartCode calibration should be done in the context of a public charrette
with the advice of urban designers, architects, landscape architects, planners,
civil engineers and land use attorneys familiar with the SmartCode.
• For free electronic editable files and PDFs of the model SmartCode v9.0 and
v9.2, Supplementary SmartCode Modules, case studies, workshop opportu-
nities, and consultant services, please visit www.SmartCodeCentral.org and
www.Transect.org.
• A fully illustrated and annotated 250-page calibrator’s manual is available
for purchase. To order SmartCode Version 9 and Manual contact New Urban
News Publications at 607-275-3087 or mail@newurbannews.com, or visit
www.newurbannews.com.

Conditions of Use

• The images and diagrams appearing in SmartCode Version 9.2 are the prop-
erty of Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ). Their reproduction and use
is freely permitted.
• This booklet is for education and reference only. SmartCode Version 9.2 may
have undergone minor adjustments since this publication. For a complete list
of authors and contributors, and for the final editable file of SmartCode v9.2,
visit www.SmartCodeCentral.org.

SmartCode Version 9.2 xiii


SMARTCODE TABLE OF CONTENTS
Municipality

ARTICLE 1. general to all plans ................ page 2 ARTICLE 6. STANDARDS AND tables . ......... page 27
1.1 Authority table 1 Transect zone DESCRIPTIONS
1.2 applicability table 2 sector/COMMUNITY allocation
1.3 Intent table 3a vehicular lane dimensions
1.4 process table 3b vehicular LANE & PARKING Assemblies
1.5 WARRANTS AND VARIANCES table 4a public FrontageS - general
1.6 SUCCESSION table 4b public FrontageS - specific
TABLE 4C THOROUGHFARE ASSEMBLIES
ARTICLE 2. regional SCALE plans . .............. page 6 table 5 public lighting
2.1 instructions table 6 public planting
2.2 SEQUENCE OF SECTOR DETERMINATION table 7 private FrontageS
2.3 (O-1) Preserved Open Sector table 8 building CONFIGURATION
2.4 (O-2) Reserved Open Sector table 9 building DISPOSITION
2.5 (G-1) restricted growth Sector table 10 building FUNCTION & PARKING
2.6 (G-2) controlled growth Sector table 11 parking calculationS
2.7 (G-3) intended growth Sector table 12 SPECIFIC Function & USE
2.8 (G-4) Infill Growth Sector TABLE 13 Civic space
2.9 (SD) special districtS table 14 smartcode summary
ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS.... page 9 Table 15 Form-Based Code Graphics
3.1 instructions Table 16 special district STANDARDS
3.2 SEQUENCE OF COMMUNITY DESIGN Table 17 definitions illustrated
3.3 Community Unit TYPES
ARTICLE 7. Definitions OF TERMS ............... page 49
3.4 TRANSECT ZONES
3.5 Civic Zones SmartCode Modules
3.6 special districts • Affordable Housing Policy
3.7 THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS • Architectural Standards
• Comprehensive Planning
3.8 DENSITY calculationS
• Cycling Standards
3.9 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS • GENERATIVE CODING
ARTICLE 4. INFILL Community SCALE plans..... page 16 • Hazard Mitigation Standards
• Incentives
4.1 INSTRUCTIONS
• Light Imprint Matrix
4.2 Community Unit TYPES • Lighting Design
4.3 TRANSECT ZONES • Natural Drainage Standards
4.4 Civic Zones • noise Levels
4.5 SPECIAL DISTRICTS • PLACE TYPES TRANSLATION
4.6 PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS • RESIDENTIAL MARKETS
4.7 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS • RETAIL MARKETS
• Riparian and Wetland Buffers
ARTICLE 5. building SCALE plans ............... page 20 • Suburban Retrofit
5.1 Instructions • Sustainabile Urbanism
5.2 PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS Building Orientation
5.3 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS Composting and Recycling
Food Production
5.4 Civic Zones
Public Darkness
5.5 specific to T1 NATURAL zone Shading of Glazing
5.6 BUILDING DISPOSITION Solar Energy
5.7 BUILDING CONFIGURATION Stormwater Management
5.8 BUILDING FUNCTION Surface to Volume Ratio
5.9 PARKING AND DENSITY CALCULATIONS Tree Canopy Cover
5.10 PARKING LOCATION STANDARDS Vehicle Miles Traveled
5.11 LANDSCAPE STANDARDS Wind Power
5.12 SIGNAGE STANDARDS Zero Net Energy Buildings
• Thoroughfare Assemblies
• Visitability



ARTICLE 1. general to all plans SMARTCODE
Municipality

1.1 Authority
1.1.1 The action of the Municipality, State in the adoption of this Code is authorized under
the Charter of the Municipality, Section X and Local and State Statutes, Section X.
1.1.2 This Code was adopted as one of the instruments of implementation of the public
purposes and objectives of the adopted Municipal Comprehensive Plan. This Code
is declared to be in accord with the Municipal Comprehensive Plan, as required by
the Local Land Development Statutes.
1.1.3 This Code was adopted to promote the health, safety and general welfare of
the ______________ of __________________, State and its citizens, includ-
ing protection of the environment, conservation of land, energy and natural
resources, reduction in vehicular traffic congestion, more efficient use of public
funds, health benefits of a pedestrian environment, historic preservation, educa-
tion and recreation, reduction in sprawl development, and improvement of the
built environment.
1.1.4 This Code was adopted and may be amended by vote of the Planning Commission
and Legislative Body.

1.2 Applicability
1.2.1 Provisions of this Code are activated by “shall” when required; “should” when rec-
ommended; and “may” when optional.
1.2.2 The provisions of this Code, when in conflict, shall take precedence over those of
other codes, ordinances, regulations and standards except the Local Health and
Safety Codes.
1.2.3 The existing __________ of ___________, State Zoning Ordinances and the
_________ of __________, State Subdivision Ordinances (the “Existing Local
Codes”) shall continue to be applicable to issues not covered by this Code except
where the Existing Local Codes would be in conflict with Section 1.3 Intent.
1.2.4 Capitalized terms used throughout this Code may be defined in Article 7 Definitions
of Terms. Article 7 contains regulatory language that is integral to this Code. Those
terms not defined in Article 7 shall be accorded their commonly accepted meanings.
In the event of conflicts between these definitions and those of the Existing Local
Codes, those of this Code shall take precedence.
1.2.5 The metrics of Article 6 Standards and Tables are an integral part of this Code.
However, the diagrams and illustrations that accompany them should be considered
guidelines, with the exception of those on Table 15 Form-Based Code Graphics,
which are also legally binding.
1.2.6 Where in conflict, numerical metrics shall take precedence over graphic metrics.

1.3 intent
The intent and purpose of this Code is to enable, encourage and qualify the imple-
mentation of the following policies:
1.3.1 The Region
a. That the region should retain its natural infrastructure and visual character derived
from topography, woodlands, farmlands, riparian corridors and coastlines.
b. That growth strategies should encourage Infill and redevelopment in parity with
New Communities.
c. That development contiguous to urban areas should be structured in the pattern
of Infill TND or Infill RCD and be integrated with the existing urban pattern.

SC2 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 1. general to all plans
Municipality

d. That development non-contiguous to urban areas should be organized in the


pattern of CLD, TND, or RCD.
e. That Affordable Housing should be distributed throughout the region to match
job opportunities and to avoid concen­trations of poverty.
f. That transportation Corridors should be planned and reserved in coordination with land
use.
g. That green corridors should be used to define and connect the urbanized ar-
eas.
h. That the region should include a framework of transit, pedestrian, and bicycle
systems that provide alternatives to the automobile.
1.3.2 The Community
a. That neighborhoods and Regional Centers should be compact, pedestrian-
oriented and Mixed Use.
b. That neighborhoods and Regional Centers should be the preferred pattern of de-
velopment and that Districts specializing in a single use should be the exception.
c. That ordinary activities of daily living should occur within walking distance of
most dwellings, allowing independence to those who do not drive.
d. That interconnected networks of Thoroughfares should be designed to disperse
traffic and reduce the length of automobile trips.
e. That within neighborhoods, a range of housing types and price levels should be
provided to accommodate diverse ages and incomes.
f. That appropriate building Densities and land uses should be provided within
walking distance of transit stops.
g. That Civic, institutional, and Commercial activity should be embedded in down-
towns, not isolated in remote single-use complexes.
h. That schools should be sized and located to enable children to walk or bicycle to them.
i. That a range of Open Space including Parks, Squares, and playgrounds should
be distributed within neighborhoods and downtowns.
1.3.3 The Block and the Building
a. That buildings and landscaping should contribute to the physical definition of
Thoroughfares as Civic places.
b. That development should adequately accommodate automobiles while respecting
the pedestrian and the spatial form of public areas.
c. That the design of streets and buildings should reinforce safe environments, but
not at the expense of accessibility.
d. That architecture and landscape design should grow from local climate, topog-
raphy, history, and building practice.
e. That buildings should provide their inhabitants with a clear sense of geography
and climate through energy efficient methods.
f. That Civic Buildings and public gathering places should be provided as locations
that reinforce community identity and support self-government.
g. That Civic Buildings should be distinctive and appropriate to a role more important
than the other buildings that constitute the fabric of the city.
h. That the preservation and renewal of historic buildings should be facilitated, to
affirm the continuity and evolution of society.
i. That the harmonious and orderly evolution of urban areas should be secured
through form-based codes.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC3


ARTICLE 1. general to all plans SMARTCODE
Municipality

1.3.4 The Transect


a. That Communties should provide meaningful choices in living arrangements as
manifested by distinct physical environments.
b. That the Transect Zone descriptions on Table 1 shall constitute the Intent of this
Code with regard to the general character of each of these environments.

1.4 PROCESS
1.4.1 Municipality hereby creates a Consolidated Review Committee (“CRC”) comprised
of a member from each regulatory agency having jurisdiction over the permitting of
a project, a representative of the Development and Design Center, and the town
architect, to process administratively applications and plans for proposed projects.
1.4.2 The geographic locations of the Sectors and the standards for theTransect Zones
shall be determined as set forth in Article 2, Article 3, Article 4, and Article 5 through
a process of public consultation with approval by the Legislative Body. Once these
determinations have been incorporated into this Code and its associated plans, then
projects that require no Variances or Warrants, or only Warrants, shall be processed
administratively without further recourse to public consultation.
1.4.3 An owner may appeal a decision of the CRC to the Board of Zoning Adjustment and
may appeal a decision of the Board of Zoning Adjustment to the Legislative Body.
1.4.4 Should a violation of an approved Regulating Plan occur during construction, or
should any construction, site work, or development be commenced without an
approved Regulating Plan or Building Scale Plan, the Board of Zoning Adjustment
has the right to require the owner to stop, remove, and/or mitigate the violation, or
to secure a Variance to cover the violation.

1.5 WARRANTS AND VARIANCES


1.5.1 There shall be two types of deviation from the requirements of this Code: Warrants
and Variances. Whether a deviation requires a Warrant or Variance shall be deter-
mined by the CRC.
1.5.2 A Warrant is a ruling that would permit a practice that is not consistent with a specific
provision of this Code but is justified by the provisions of Section 1.3 Intent. The
CRC shall have the authority to approve or disapprove administratively a request
for a Warrant pursuant to regulations established by the CRC.
1.5.3 A Variance is any ruling on a deviation other than a Warrant. Variances shall be
granted only in accordance with _______Statutes, _______, as amended.
1.5.4 The request for a Warrant or Variance shall not subject the entire application to public
hearing, but only that portion necessary to rule on the specific issue requiring the
relief.
1.5.5 The following standards and requirements shall not be available for Warrants or
Variances:
a. The maximum dimensions of traffic lanes. (See Table 3a.)
b. The required provision of Rear Alleys and Rear Lanes.
c. The minimum Base Residential Densities. (See Table 14b.)
d. The permission to build Accessory Buildings.
e. The minimum requirements for parking. (See Table 10.)

SC4 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 1. general to all plans
Municipality

1.6 Succession
1.6.1 Twenty years after the approval of a Regulating Plan, each Transect Zone, except
the T1 Natural and T2 Rural Zones, shall be automatically rezoned to the succes-
sional (next higher) Transect Zone, unless denied in public hearing by the Legislative
Body.

Available Modules for Article 1


AFFORDABLE HOUSING INCENTIVES
AFFORDABLE HOUSING POLICY
COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING
HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
INCENTIVES

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC5


ARTICLE 2. regional SCALE plans SMARTCODE
Municipality

2.1 instructions
2.1.1 This Article governs the preparation of Regional Scale Plans (“Regional Plans”) that
allocate Sectors. For lands within Municipality that have been mapped pursuant to
this Article, Sections 2.5 et seq. prescribe the Community Unit types permitted in
each Growth Sector. Articles 3 and 4 regulate the standards of those Community
Unit types.
2.1.2 Regional Plans shall integrate the largest practical geographic area, overlapping
property lines as necessary and municipal boundaries if possible.
2.1.3 Regional Sectors are defined in Article 2 and are comprised of Open Space and
growth areas. Growth areas are intended for the development of Communy Units,
defined in Article 3 and Article 4, which in turn are comprised of Transect Zones,
defined by the elements appropriate to them in Article 5 and Article 6.
2.1.4 Regional Plans shall be prepared by the Planning Office and/or consultants under
its supervision. The process shall involve citizen participation and the approval of
the Legislative Body.

2.2 Sequence Of sector determination


Determination of Sector designations shall be made in the following sequence:
2.2.1 The areas to be designated Preserved Open Sector (O-1) shall be mapped using
the criteria listed in Section 2.3. The outline of this Sector is effectively the Rural
Boundary Line, which is permanent.
2.2.2 The areas to be designated Reserved Open Sector (O-2) shall be mapped using the
criteria listed under Section 2.4. The outline of this Sector is effectively the Urban
Boundary Line which is to be adjusted by the ongoing permitting of New Community
Plans or Infill Community Plans in accordance with this Code.
2.2.3 The areas to be designated Infill Growth Sectors (G-4) shall be mapped as described
in Section 2.8. These areas may be redeveloped according to Article 4 of this
Code.
2.2.4 All remaining areas shall be available for new development pursuant to New Com-
munity Plans submitted and approved in accordance with Article 3 of this Code.
These areas shall be assigned to the Restricted Growth Sector, the Controlled
Growth Sector, or the Intended Growth Sector using the criteria listed in this Article.
Within these Sectors, the Community Unit types of CLD (Clustered Land Develop-
ment), TND (Traditional Neighborhood Development), and RCD (Regional Center
Development), shall be permitted to the extent set forth in Table 2.
2.2.5 Within the four Growth Sectors, development according to the Existing Local Codes
remains as an option.
2.2.6 Those areas that cannot or should not conform to one of the Community Unit types
shall be allocated to Special Districts. See Section 2.9.
2.2.7 A system for the gradual Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) shall be estab-
lished and administered for the purpose of transferring development rights from the
Reserved Open Sector (O-2) to the Growth Sectors as set forth in Section 2.4.3.

2.3 (O-1) PreserveD OPEN Sector


2.3.1 The Preserved Open Sector shall consist of Open Space that is protected from
development in perpetuity. The Preserved Open Sector includes areas under envi-
ronmental protection by law or regulation, as well as land acquired for conservation
through purchase, by easement, or by past Transfer of Development Rights.

SC6 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 2. regional SCALE plans
Municipality

2.3.2 The Preserved Open Sector shall consist of the aggregate of the following categories:
a. surface waterbodies
b. protected wetlands
c. protected habitat
d. riparian Corridors
e. purchased Open Space
f. conservation easements
g. transportation Corridors
h. areas residual to Clustered Land Development (CLD)
2.3.3 Development and construction within the Preserved Open Sector and the specifica-
tions required to do so shall be determined on an individual project basis by public
hearing of the Legislative Body.

2.4 (O-2) Reserved Open Sector


2.4.1 The Reserved Open Sector shall consist of Open Space that should be, but is not
yet, protected from development.
2.4.2 The Reserved Open Sector shall consist of the aggregate of the following categories:
a. flood plain, including Special Flood Hazard Areas
b. steep slopes
c. Open Space to be acquired
d. Corridors to be acquired
e. buffers to be acquired
f. legacy woodland
g. legacy farmland
h. legacy viewsheds
2.4.3 The Reserved Open Sector is a Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) sending area,
for the gradual sale of rights for development in the Controlled Growth Sector and
the Intended Growth Sector. An owner who has purchased such development rights
may exceed the allocated Densities of New Communities as set forth in Section 3.8
and Table 14b. Areas from where development rights have been transferred shall
be designated Preserved Open Sector.The Planning Office shall maintain a record
of such transfers, updating the regional map accordingly.
2.4.4 (For HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS)

2.5 (G-1) restricted growth Sector


2.5.1 The Restricted Growth Sector shall be assigned to areas that have value as Open
Space but nevertheless are subject to development, either because the zoning has
already been granted or because there is no legally defensible reason, in the long
term, to deny it.
2.5.2 Within the Restricted Growth Sector, Clustered Land Development (CLD) shall be
permitted By Right.

2.6 (G-2) Controlled growth Sector


2.6.1 The Controlled Growth Sector shall be assigned to those locations that can support
Mixed Use by virtue of proximity to an existing or planned Thoroughfare.
2.6.2 Within the Controlled Growth Sector, CLD and Traditional Neighborhood Develop-
ment (TND) shall be permitted By Right.
2.6.3 Any TND on an existing or projected rail or Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) network may

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC7


ARTICLE 2. regional SCALE plans SMARTCODE
Municipality

be redesignated in whole or in part as TOD and permitted the higher Density rep-
resented by the Effective Parking allowance in Section 5.9.2d. The use of a TOD
overlay requires approval by Variance.

2.7 (G-3) Intended growth Sector


2.7.1 The Intended Growth Sector shall be assigned to those locations that can support
substantial Mixed Use by virtue of proximity to an existing or planned regional
Thoroughfare and/or transit.
2.7.2 Within the Intended Growth Sector, Communities in the pattern of Regional Center
Developments (RCD), as well as TNDs, shall be permitted By Right, .
2.7.3 Any TND or RCD on an existing or projected rail or Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) network
may be redesignated in whole or in part as TOD and permitted the higher Density
represented by the Effective Parking allowance in Section 5.9.2d. The use of a
TOD overlay requires approval by Variance.

2.8 (G-4) Infill growth Sector


2.8.1 The Infill Growth Sector shall be assigned to areas already developed, having the potential
to be modified, confirmed or completed in the pattern of Infill TNDs or Infill RCDs.

2.9 (sd) special districtS


2.9.1 Special District designations shall be assigned to areas that, by their intrinsic size,
Function, or Configuration, cannot conform to the requirements of a CLD, a TND,
or an RCD as set forth in Article 3.
2.9.2 Conditions of development for Special Districts shall be determined in public hearing
of the Legislative Body and recorded on Table 16. Alternatively, the provisions of
the Existing Local Codes shall remain applicable to Special Districts.

AVailable Modules for Article 2


COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING
HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
PLACE TYPES TRANSLATION
RESIDENTIAL MARKETS
RETAIL MARKETS
RIPARIAN AND WETLAND BUFFERS
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM
• FOOD PRODUCTION
• SOLAR ENERGY
• TREE CANOPY COVER
• VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED
• WIND POWER

SC8 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS
Municipality

3.1 instructions
3.1.1 Within the Growth Sectors as shown on the Regional Scale Plan (“Regional Plan”),
the provisions of Article 3 and this Code in general shall be available By Right, upon
request by the owner.
3.1.2 New Community Plans may be prepared in the absence of a Regional Plan or
Comprehensive Plan by approval of the Legislative Body. New Community Plans
may contain more than one Community Unit and/or more than one Community Unit
type.
3.1.3 Once the CRC or Legislative Body approves a New Community Plan, the parcel shall
become a Community Planning Area and shall be marked as such on the Zoning
Map of Municipality. Within the Community Planning Area, this Code shall be the
exclusive and mandatory zoning regulation, and its provisions shall be applied in
their entirety.
3.1.4 New Community Plans submitted in accordance with the provisions of this Code,
for the appropriate Sector of a Regional Plan and requiring no Variances, shall be
approved administratively by the CRC.
3.1.5 New Community Plans may be prepared by an owner or by the Planning Office.
3.1.6 New Community Plans shall include a Regulating Plan consisting of one or more
maps showing the following for each Community Unit in the plan area, in compliance
with the standards described in this Article:
a. Transect Zones
b. Civic Zones
c. Thoroughfare network
d. Special Districts, if any
e. Special Requirements, if any
f. numbers of Warrants or Variances, if any.
3.1.7 New Community Plans shall include one set of preliminary site plans for each
Transect Zone, as provided by Table 15 and Section 5.1.3a.

3.2 SEQUENCE OF COMMUNITY DESIGN


3.2.1 The site shall be structured using one or several Pedestrian Sheds, which should
be located according to existing conditions, such as traffic intersections, adjacent
developments, and natural features. The site or any Community Unit within it may
be smaller or larger than its Pedestrian Shed.
3.2.2 The Pedestrian Sheds may be adjusted to include land falling between or outside
them, but the extent of each shall not exceed the acreage limit specified in Section
3.3 for the applicable Community Unit type. An Adjusted Pedestrian Shed becomes
the boundary of a Community Unit.
3.2.3 Areas of Transect Zones (Section 3.4) shall be allocated within the boundaries of
each Community Unit as appropriate to its type. See Section 3.3 and Table 14a.
3.2.4 Civic Zones shall be assigned according to Section 3.5.
3.2.5 Special Districts, if any, shall be assigned according to Section 3.6.
3.2.6 The Thoroughfare network shall be laid out according to Section 3.7.
3.2.7 Density shall be calculated according to Section 3.8.
3.2.8 Remnants of the site outside the Adjusted Pedestrian Shed(s) shall be assigned to
Transect Zones or Civic Space by Warrant or Special District by Variance.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC9


ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

3.3 Community UNIT Types


3.3.1 Clustered Land Development (CLD)
a. A Clustered Land Development (CLD) shall be permitted within the G-1 Restricted
Growth Sector and the G-2 Controlled Growth Sector.
b. A CLD shall be structured by one Standard Pedestrian Shed and shall consist
of no fewer than 30 acres and no more than 80 acres.
c. A CLD shall include Transect Zones as allocated on Table 2 and Table 14a. A
minimum of 50% of the Community Unit shall be permanently allocated to a T1
Natural Zone and/or T2 Rural Zone.
3.3.2 Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND)
a. A Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) shall be permitted within the
G-2 Controlled Growth Sector, the G-3 Intended Growth Sector, and the G-4
Infill Growth Sector.
b. A TND within the G-2 Controlled Growth Sector and the G-3 Intended Growth
Sector shall be structured by one Standard or Linear Pedestrian Shed and shall
be no fewer than 80 acres and no more than 160 acres. See Article 4 for Infill
TND acreage requirements in the G-4 Infill Growth Sector.
c. A TND shall include Transect Zones as allocated on Table 2 and Table 14a.
d. Larger sites shall be designed and developed as multiple Communities, each subject
to the individual Transect Zone requirements for its type as allocated on Table 2
and Table 14a. The simultaneous planning of adjacent parcels is encouraged.
e. In the T-4 General Urban Zone, a minimum Residential mix of three Building
Disposition types (none less than 20%) shall be required, selected from Table 9.
3.3.3 Regional Center Development (RCD)
a. A Regional Center Development (RCD) shall be permitted within the G-3 Intended
Growth Sector and the G-4 Infill Growth Sector.
b. An RCD within the G-3 Intended Growth Sector shall be structured by one Long
Pedestrian Shed or Linear Pedestrian Shed and shall consist of no fewer than 80
acres and no more than 640 acres. See Article 4 for Infill RCD acreage require-
ments in the G-4 Infill Growth Sector
c. An RCD shall include Transect Zones as allocated on Table 2 and Table 14a.
d. For larger sites, an RCD may be adjoined without buffer by one or more TNDs,
each subject to the individual Transect Zone requirements for TND as allocated
on Table 2 and Table 14a. The simultaneous planning of adjacent parcels is
encouraged.
3.3.4 Transit Oriented Development (TOD)
a. Any TND or RCD on an existing or projected rail or Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
network may be redesignated in whole or in part as TOD and permitted the higher
Density represented by the Effective Parking allowance in Section 5.9.2d.
b. The use of a TOD overlay requires approval by Variance.

3.4 Transect ZoneS


3.4.1 Transect Zones shall be assigned and mapped on each New Community Plan
according to the percentages allocated on Tables 2 and 14a.
3.4.2 A Transect Zone may include any of the elements indicated for its T-zone number
throughout this Code, in accordance with Intent described in Table 1 and the metric
standards summarized in Table 14.

SC10 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS
Municipality

3.5 Civic Zones


3.5.1 General
a. Civic Zones dedicated for public use shall be required for each Community Unit
and designated on the New Community Plan as Civic Space (CS) and Civic
Building (CB).
b. Civic Space Zones are public sites permanently dedicated to Open Space.
c. Civic Building Zones are sites dedicated for buildings generally operated by
not-for-profit organizations dedicated to culture, education, religion, government,
transit and municipal parking, or for a use approved by the Legislative Body.
d. A Civic Zone may be permitted by Warrant if it does not occupy more than 20%
of a Pedestrian Shed, otherwise it is subject to the creation of a Special District.
See Section 3.6.
e. Parking for Civic Zones shall be determined by Warrant. Civic parking lots may
remain unpaved if graded, compacted and landscaped.
3.5.2 Civic Zones Specific to T1 & T2 Zones
a. Civic Buildings and Civic Spaces within T1 Natural and T2 Rural Zones shall be
permitted only by Variance.
3.5.3 Civic Space (CS) Specific to T3-T6 Zones
a. Each Pedestrian Shed shall assign at least 5% of its Urbanized area to Civic
Space.
b. Civic Spaces shall be designed as generally described in Table 13, approved by
Warrant, and distributed throughout Transect Zones as described in Table 14e.
c. Those portions of the T1 Natural Zone that occur within a development parcel
shall be part of the Civic Space allocation and should conform to the Civic Space
types specified in Table 13a or 13b.
d. Each Pedestrian Shed shall contain at least one Main Civic Space. The Main
Civic Space shall be within 800 feet of the geographic center of each Pedestrian
Shed, unless topographic conditions, pre-existing Thoroughfare alignments or
other circumstances prevent such location. A Main Civic Space shall conform
to one of the types specified in Table 13b, 13c, or 13d.
e. Within 800 feet of every Lot in Residential use, a Civic Space designed and equipped
as a playground shall be provided. A playground shall conform to Table 13e.
f. Each Civic Space shall have a minimum of 50% of its perimeter enfronting a
Thoroughfare, except for playgrounds.
g. Civic Spaces may be permitted within Special Districts by Warrant.
h. Parks may be permitted in Transect Zones T4, T5 and T6 by Warrant.
3.5.4 Civic Buildings (CB) Specific to T3-T6 Zones
a. The owner shall covenant to construct a Meeting Hall or a Third Place in proxim-
ity to the Main Civic Space of each Pedestrian Shed. Its corresponding Public
Frontage shall be equipped with a shelter and bench for a transit stop.
b. One Civic Building Lot shall be reserved for an elementary school. Its area shall
be one (1) acre for each increment of 100 dwelling units provided by the Com-
munity Plan, with a minimum of three (3) acres. The school site may be within
any Transect Zone. Any playing fields should be outside the Pedestrian Shed.
c. One Civic Building Lot suitable for a childcare building shall be reserved within
each Pedestrian Shed. The owner or a homeowners’ association or other com-
munity council may organize, fund and construct an appropriate building as the
need arises.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC11


ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

d. Civic Building sites shall not occupy more than 20% of the area of each Pedestrian
Shed.
e. Civic Building sites should be located within or adjacent to a Civic Space, or at
the axial termination of a significant Thoroughfare.
f. Civic Buildings shall not be subject to the standards of Article 5. The particulars
of their design shall be determined by Warrant.
g. Civic Buildings may be permitted within Special Districts by Warrant.

3.6 SPECIAL DISTRICTS


3.6.1 Special District designations shall be assigned to areas that, by their intrinsic size,
Function, or Configuration, cannot conform to the requirements of any Transect Zone
or combination of zones. Conditions of development for Special Districts shall be
determined in public hearing of the Legislative Body and recorded on Table 16.

3.7 THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS


3.7.1 General
a. Thoroughfares are intended for use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to
provide access to Lots and Open Spaces.
b. Thoroughfares shall generally consist of vehicular lanes and Public Frontages.
c. Thoroughfares shall be designed in context with the urban form and desired design
speed of the Transect Zones through which they pass. The Public Frontages of
Thoroughfares that pass from one Transect Zone to another shall be adjusted
accordingly or, alternatively, the Transect Zone may follow the alignment of
the Thoroughfare to the depth of one Lot, retaining a single Public Frontage
throughout its trajectory.
d. Within the most rural Zones (T1 and T2) pedestrian comfort shall be a sec-
ondary consideration of the Thoroughfare. Design conflict between vehicular
and pedestrian generally shall be decided in favor of the vehicle. Within
the more urban Transect Zones (T3 through T6) pedestrian comfort shall
be a primary consideration of the Thoroughfare. Design conflict between
vehicular and pedestrian movement generally shall be decided in favor of
the pedestrian.
e. The Thoroughfare network shall be designed to define Blocks not exceeding the
size prescribed in Table 14c. The perimeter shall be measured as the sum of Lot
Frontage Lines. Block perimeter at the edge of the development parcel shall be
subject to approval by Warrant.
f. All Thoroughfares shall terminate at other Thoroughfares, forming a network.
Internal Thoroughfares shall connect wherever possible to those on adjacent
sites. Cul-de-sacs shall be subject to approval by Warrant to accommodate
specific site conditions only.
g. Each Lot shall Enfront a vehicular Thoroughfare, except that 20% of the Lots
within each Transect Zone may Enfront a Passage.
h. Thoroughfares along a designated B-Grid may be exempted by Warrant from
one or more of the specified Public Frontage or Private Frontage requirements.
See Table 7.
i. Standards for Paths and Bicycle Trails shall be approved by Warrant.
j. The standards for Thoroughfares within Special Districts shall be determined by
Variance.

SC12 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS
Municipality

3.7.2 Vehicular Lanes


a. Thoroughfares may include vehicular lanes in a variety of widths for parked and
for moving vehicles, including bicycles. The standards for vehicular lanes shall
be as shown in Table 3A.
b. A bicycle network consisting of Bicycle Trails, Bicycle Routes and Bicycle Lanes
should be provided throughout as defined in Article 7 Definitions of Terms and
allocated as specified in Table 14d. Bicycle Routes should be marked with Shar-
rows. The community bicycle network shall be connected to existing or proposed
regional networks wherever possible.
3.7.3 Public Frontages
a. General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
i. The Public Frontage contributes to the character of the Transect Zone, and in-
cludes the types of Sidewalk, Curb, planter, bicycle facility, and street trees.
ii. Public Frontages shall be designed as shown in Table 4A and Table 4B and
allocated within Transect Zones as specified in Table 14d.
iii. Within the Public Frontages, the prescribed types of Public Planting and
Public Lighting shall be as shown in Table 4A, Table 4B, Table 5 and Table
6. The spacing may be adjusted by Warrant to accommodate specific site
conditions.
b. Specific to zones T1, T2, T3
i. The Public Frontage shall include trees of various species, naturalistically
clustered, as well as understory.
ii. The introduced landscape shall consist primarily of native species requiring
minimal irrigation, fertilization and maintenance. Lawn shall be permitted only
by Warrant.
c. Specific to zone T4, T5, T6
i. The introduced landscape shall consist primarily of durable species tolerant
of soil compaction.
d. Specific to zone T4
i. The Public Frontage shall include trees planted in a regularly-spaced Allee
pattern of single or alternated species with shade canopies of a height that,
at maturity, clears at least one Story.
e. Specific to zones T5, T6
i. The Public Frontage shall include trees planted in a regularly-spaced Allee
pattern of single species with shade canopies of a height that, at maturity,
clears at least one Story. At Retail Frontages, the spacing of the trees may
be irregular, to avoid visually obscuring the shopfronts.
ii. Streets with a Right-of-Way width of 40 feet or less shall be exempt from the
tree requirement.

3.8 Density CALCULATIONS


3.8.1 All areas of the New Community Plan site that are not part of the O-1 Preserved Sector
shall be considered cumulatively the Net Site Area. The Net Site Area shall be allocated
to the various Transect Zones according to the parameters specified in Table 14a.
3.8.2 Density shall be expressed in terms of housing units per acre as specified for the
area of each Transect Zone by Table 14b. For purposes of Density calculation, the
Transect Zones include the Thoroughfares but not land assigned to Civic Zones.
Ten percent (10%) shall be in the Affordable Housing range.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC13


ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

3.8.3 The Base Density of the Community Unit may be increased by the Transfer of
Development Rights (TDR) up to the amount specified for each Zone by Table
14b. Fifteen percent (15%) of the increase in housing units by TDR shall be in the
Affordable Housing range.
3.8.4 Within the percentage range shown on Table 14b for Other Functions, the housing
units specified on Table 14b shall be exchanged at the following rates:
a. For Lodging: 2 bedrooms for each unit of Net Site Area Density.
b. For Office or Retail: 1000 square feet for each unit of Net Site Area Density.
c. The number of units exchanged shall be subject to approval by Warrant.
3.8.5 The housing and other Functions for each Transect Zone shall be subject to further
adjustment at the building scale as limited by Table 10, Table 11 and Section 5.9.

3.9 special requirements
3.9.1 A New Community Plan may designate any of the following Special Require-
ments:
a. A differentiation of the Thoroughfares as A-Grid and B-Grid. Buildings along the
A-Grid shall be held to the highest standard of this Code in support of pedestrian
activity. Buildings along the B-Grid may be more readily considered for War-
rants allowing automobile-oriented standards. The Frontages assigned to the
B-Grid shall not exceed 30% of the total length of Frontages within a Pedestrian
Shed.
b. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Retail Frontage requiring or
advising that a building provide a Shopfront at Sidewalk level along the entire
length of its Private Frontage. The Shopfront shall be no less than 70% glazed
in clear glass and shaded by an awning overlapping the Sidewalk as generally
illustrated in Table 7 and specified in Article 5. The first floor shall be confined
to Retail use through the depth of the second Layer. (Table 17d)
c. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Gallery Frontage, requiring
or advising that a building provide a permanent cover over the Sidewalk, either
cantilevered or supported by columns. The Gallery Frontage designation may
be combined with a Retail Frontage designation..
d. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Arcade Frontage, requiring
or advising that a building overlap the Sidewalk such that the first floor Facade is
a colonnade. The Arcade Frontage designation may be combined with a Retail
Frontage designation.
e. A designation for Coordinated Frontage, requiring that the Public Frontage
(Table 4A) and Private Frontage (Table 7) be coordinated as a single, coherent
landscape and paving design.
f. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Terminated Vista locations,
requiring or advising that the building be provided with architectural articulation
of a type and character that responds visually to the location, as approved by
the CRC.
g. A designation for Cross Block Passages, requiring that a minimum 8-foot-wide
pedestrian access be reserved between buildings.
h. A designation for Buildings of Value, requiring that such buildings and structures
may be altered or demolished only in accordance with Municipal Preservation
Standards and Protocols.

SC14 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS
Municipality

Available Modules For Article 3


AFFORDABLE HOUSING POLICY
AGRICULTURAL URBANISM
CYCLING STANDARDS
GENERATIVE CODING
HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
LIGHT IMPRINT MATRIX
Lighting Design
NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS
PLACE TYPES TRANSLATION
RESIDENTIAL MARKETS
RETAIL MARKETS
RIPARIAN AND WETLAND BUFFERS
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM
BUILDING ORIENTATION
COMPOSTING & RECYCLING
FOOD PRODUCTION
PUBLIC DARKNESS
SHADING OF GLAZING
SOLAR ENERGY
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
SURFACE TO VOLUME RATIO
TREE CANOPY COVER
VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED
WIND POWER
ZERO NET ENERGY BUILDINGS
THOROUGHFARE ASSEMBLIES

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC15


ARTICLE 4. INFILL Community scale plans SMARTCODE
Municipality

4. 1 INSTRUCTIONS
4.1.1 Within the G-4 Infill Growth Sector of the Regional Plan (Article 2), or other areas
designated as Infill, the Planning Office shall prepare, or have prepared on its behalf,
Infill Regulating Plans to guide further development. Infill Regulating Plans shall be
prepared in a process of public consultation subject to approval by the Legislative
Body.
4.1.2 Infill Regulating Plans shall regulate, at minimum, an area the size of the Pedestrian
Shed commensurate with its Community Unit type as listed in Section 4.2. The
Planning Office shall determine a Community Unit type based on existing conditions
and intended evolution in the plan area.
4.1.3 Infill Regulating Plans shall consist of one or more maps showing the following:
a. The outline(s) of the Pedestrian Shed(s) and the boundaries of the Community
Unit(s)
b. Transect Zones and any Civic Zones within each Pedestrian Shed, assigned
according to an analysis of existing conditions and future needs
c. a Thoroughfare network, existing or planned (Table 3A, Table 3B, Table 4A,
Table 4B, and Table 4C)
d. any Special Districts (Section 4.5)
e. any Special Requirements (Section 4.7)
f. a record of any Warrants or Variances.
4.1.4 Within any area subject to an approved Infill Regulating Plan, this Code becomes
the exclusive and mandatory regulation. Property owners within the plan area may
submit Building Scale Plans under Article 5 in accordance with the provisions of this
Code. Building Scale Plans requiring no Variances shall be approved administratively
by the CRC.
4.1.5 The owner of a parcel, or abutting parcels, consisting of 10 acres or more of con-
tiguous lots within an area subject to an Infill Regulating Plan may apply to prepare
a Special Area Plan. In consultation with the Planning Office, a Special Area Plan
may assign new Transect Zones, Civic Zones, Thoroughfares, Special Districts and/
or Special Requirements as provided in this Code, with appropriate transitions to
abutting areas. Special Area Plans may be approved by Warrant.
4.1.6 The owner of a parcel, or abutting parcels, consisting of 30 acres or more of contigu-
ous lots, whether inside or outside an area already subject to an Infill Regulating
Plan, may initiate the preparation of a New Community Plan. New Community Plans
for the G-4 Sector, or other areas designated as Infill by the Planning Office, shall
regulate, at minimum, an area the size of the Pedestrian Shed commensurate with
its Community Unit type as listed in Section 4.2, even if it overlaps adjacent parcels.
Both the site and plan area should connect and blend with surrounding urbanism.

4.2 COMMUNITY UNIT Types


4.2.1 Infill Regulating Plans shall encompass one or more of the following Community
Unit types. The allocation percentages of Table 14a do not apply.
4.2.2 Infill TND (Traditional Neighborhood Development)
a. An Infill TND should be assigned to neighborhood areas that are predominantly
residential with one or more Mixed Use Corridors or centers. An Infill TND shall
be mapped as at least one complete Standard Pedestrian Shed, which may be
adjusted as a Network Pedestrian Shed, oriented around one or more existing
or planned Common Destinations.

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SMARTCODE ARTICLE 4. INFILL Community scale plans
Municipality

b. The edges of an Infill TND should blend into adjacent neighborhoods and/or a
downtown without buffers.
4.2.3 Infill RCD (Regional Center Development)
a. An Infill RCD should be assigned to downtown areas that include significant Of-
fice and Retail uses as well as government and other Civic institutions of regional
importance. An Infill RCD shall be mapped as at least one complete Long or
Linear Pedestrian Shed, which may be adjusted as a Network Pedestrian Shed,
oriented around an important Mixed Use Corridor or center.
b. The edges of an Infill RCD should blend into adjacent neighborhoods without
buffers.
4.2.4 Infill TOD (Transit Oriented Development)
a. Any Infill TND or Infill RCD on an existing or projected rail or Bus Rapid Transit
(BRT) network may be redesignated in whole or in part as TOD and permitted
the higher Density represented by the Effective Parking allowance in Section
5.9.2d.
b. The use of a TOD overlay shall be approved by Variance.

4.3 TRANSECT ZONES


4.3.1 Transect Zone standards for Infill Regulating Plans should be calibrated by means of
a survey of exemplary existing and intended conditions, as identified in a process of
public consultation and subject to the approval of the Legislative Body. Metrics shall
be recorded on Table 14 and Table 15.
4.3.2 A Transect Zone shall include elements indicated by Article 3, Article 5, and
Article 6.

4.4 Civic ZONEs


4.4.1 General
a. Infill Plans should designate Civic Space Zones (CS) and Civic Building Zones (CB).
b. A Civic Zone may be permitted by Warrant if it does not occupy more than 20%
of a Pedestrian Shed, otherwise it is subject to the creation of a Special District.
See Section 4.5.
c. Parking provisions for Civic Zones shall be determined by Warrant.
4.4.2 Civic Space Zones (CS)
a. Civic Spaces shall be generally designed as described in Table 13, their type
determined by the surrounding or adjacent Transect Zone in a process of public
consultation subject to the approval of the Legislative Body.
4.4.3 Civic Building Zones (CB)
a. Civic Buildings shall be permitted by Variance in any Transect Zone or by War-
rant on Civic Zones reserved in the Infill Regulating Plan.
b. Civic Buildings shall not be subject to the Requirements of Article 5. The particulars
of their design shall be determined by Warrant.

4.5 SPECIAL DISTRICTS


4.5.1 Areas that, by their intrinsic size, Function, or Configuration, cannot conform to the
requirements of any Transect Zone or combination of zones shall be designated
as Special Districts by the Planning Office in the process of preparing an Infill Plan.
Conditions of development for Special Districts shall be determined in public hearing
of the Legislative Body and recorded on Table 16.

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ARTICLE 4. INFILL Community scale plans SMARTCODE
Municipality

4.6 Pre-existing Conditions


4.6.1 Existing buildings and appurtenances that do not conform to the provisions of this
Code may continue in the same use and form until a Substantial Modification occurs
or is requested, at which time the Consolidated Review Committee (CRC) shall
determine the provisions of this Section that shall apply.
4.6.2 Existing buildings that have at any time received a certificate of occupancy shall
not require upgrade to the current Building Code and when renovated may meet
the standards of the code under which they were originally permitted.
4.6.3 The modification of existing buildings is permitted By Right if such changes result
in greater conformance with the specifications of this Code.
4.6.4 Where buildings exist on adjacent Lots, the CRC may require that a proposed
building match one or the other of the adjacent Setbacks and heights rather than
the provisions of this Code.
4.6.5 Any addition to or modification of a Building of Value that has been designated as
such by the Local Preservation Organization or to a building actually or potentially
eligible for inclusion on a state, local or national historic register, shall be subject
to approval by the Local Preservation Organization.
4.6.6 The restoration or rehabilitation of an existing building shall not require the provision
of (a) parking in addition to that existing or (b) on-site stormwater retention/detention
in addition to that existing. Existing parking requirements that exceed those for this
Code may be reduced as provided by Tables 10 and 11.

4.7 special requirementS
4.7.1 An Infill Community Plan may designate any of the following Special Requirements:
a. A differentiation of the Thoroughfares as A-Grid and B-Grid. Buildings along the
A-Grid shall be held to the highest standard of this Code in support of pedestrian
activity. Buildings along the B-Grid may be more readily considered for War-
rants allowing automobile-oriented standards. The Frontages assigned to the
B-Grid shall not exceed 30% of the total length of Frontages within a Pedestrian
Shed.
b. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Retail Frontage requiring or
advising that a building provide a Shopfront at Sidewalk level along the entire
length of its Private Frontage. The Shopfront shall be no less than 70% glazed
in clear glass and shaded by an awning overlapping the Sidewalk as generally
illustrated in Table 7 and specified in Article 5. The first floor shall be confined
to Retail use through the depth of the second Layer. (Table 17d.)
c. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Gallery Frontage, requiring
or advising that a building provide a permanent cover over the Sidewalk, either
cantilevered or supported by columns. The Gallery Frontage designation may
be combined with a Retail Frontage designation.
d. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Arcade Frontage, requiring
or advising that a building overlap the Sidewalk such that the first floor Facade is
a colonnade. The Arcade Frontage designation may be combined with a Retail
Frontage designation.
e. A designation for Coordinated Frontage, requiring that the Public Frontage
(Table 4A) and Private Frontage (Table 7) be coordinated as a single, coherent
landscape and paving design.

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SMARTCODE ARTICLE 4. INFILL Community scale plans
Municipality

f. Designations for Mandatory and/or Recommended Terminated Vista locations,


requiring or advising that the building be provided with architectural articulation
of a type and character that responds visually to the location, as approved by
the CRC.
g. A designation for Cross Block Passages, requiring that a minimum 8-foot-wide
pedestrian access be reserved between buildings.
h. A designation for Buildings of Value, requiring that such buildings and structures
may be altered or demolished only in accordance with Municipal Preservation
Standards and Protocols.

Available Modules For Article 4


AFFORDABLE HOUSING POLICY
AGRICULTURAL URBANISM
CYCLING STANDARDS
GENERATIVE CODING
HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
LIGHT IMPRINT MATRIX
Lighting Design
NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS
PLACE TYPES TRANSLATION
RESIDENTIAL MARKETS
RETAIL MARKETS
RIPARIAN AND WETLAND BUFFERS
SUBURBAN RETROFIT
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM
BUILDING ORIENTATION
COMPOSTING & RECYCLING
FOOD PRODUCTION
PUBLIC DARKNESS
SHADING OF GLAZING
SOLAR ENERGY
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
SURFACE TO VOLUME RATIO
TREE CANOPY COVER
VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED
WIND POWER
ZERO NET ENERGY BUILDINGS
THOROUGHFARE ASSEMBLIES

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ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

5.1 instructions
5.1.1 Lots and buildings located within a New Community Plan or Infill Community Plan
governed by this Code and previously approved by the Legislative Body shall be
subject to the requirements of this Article.
5.1.2 Owners and developers may have the design plans required under this Article
prepared on their behalf. Such plans require administrative approval by the CRC.
5.1.3 Building and site plans submitted under this Article shall show the following, in
compliance with the standards described in this Article:
a. For preliminary site and building approval:
• Building Disposition
• Building Configuration
• Building Function
• Parking Location Standards
b. For final approval, in addition to the above:
• Landscape Standards
• Signage Standards
• Special Requirements, if any
• Hazard Mitigation Standards
•Natural Drainage Standards
• Architectural Standards
• Lighting Standards
• Sound Standards
• Visitability Standards
5.1.4 Special Districts that do not have provisions within this Code shall be governed by
the standards of the pre-existing zoning.

5.2 Pre-existing Conditions
5.2.1 Existing buildings and appurtenances that do not conform to the provisions of this
Code may continue in use as they are until a Substantial Modification is requested, at
which time the CRC shall determine the provisions of this section that shall apply.
5.2.2 Existing buildings that have at any time received a certificate of occupancy shall
not require upgrade to the current Building Code and when renovated may meet
the standards of the code under which they were originally permitted.
5.2.3 The modification of existing buildings is permitted By Right if such changes result
in greater conformance with the specifications of this Code.
5.2.4 Where buildings exist on adjacent Lots, the CRC may require that a proposed
building match one or the other of the adjacent Setbacks and heights rather than
the provisions of this Code.
5.2.5 Any addition to or modification of a Building of Value that has been designated as
such by the Local Preservation Organization, or to a building actually or potentially
eligible for inclusion on a state, local or national historic register, shall be subject
to approval by the Local Preservation Organization.
5.2.6 The restoration or rehabilitation of an existing building shall not require the provi-
sion of (a) parking in addition to that existing nor (b) on-site stormwater retention/
detention in addition to that existing. Existing parking requirements that exceed
those for this Code may be reduced as provided by Table 10 and Table 11.

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SMARTCODE ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS
Municipality

5.3 special requirementS


5.3.1 To the extent that a Regulating Plan for either a New Community Plan or an Infill
Community Plan designates any of the following Special Requirements, standards
shall be applied as follows:
a. Buildings along the A-Grid shall be held to the highest standard of this Code in
support of pedestrian activity. Buildings along the B-Grid may be more readily
considered for Warrants allowing automobile-oriented standards.
b. a Mandatory or Recommended Retail Frontage designation requires or advises
that a building provide a Shopfront at Sidewalk level along the entire length of its
Private Frontage. The Shopfront shall be no less than 70% glazed in clear glass
and shaded by an awning overlapping the Sidewalk as generally illustrated in
Table 7. The first floor shall be confined to Retail use through the depth of the
second Layer. (Table 17d.)
c. a Mandatory or Recommended Gallery Frontage designation requires or advises
that a building provide a permanent cover over the Sidewalk, either cantilevered
or supported by columns (as generally illustrated in Table 7). A Gallery Frontage
may be combined with a Retail Frontage.
d. a Mandatory or Recommended Arcade Frontage designation requires or advises
that a building overlap the Sidewalk such that the first floor Facade is a colonnade
(as generally illustrated in Table 7 and Table 8). The Arcade Frontage may be
combined with a Retail Frontage.
e. a Coordinated Frontage designation requires that the Public Frontage (Table 4A)
and Private Frontage (Table 7) be coordinated as a single, coherent landscape
and paving design.
f. a Mandatory or Recommended Terminated Vista designation requires or advises
that the building be provided with architectural articulation of a type and character
that responds visually to its axial location, as approved by the CRC.
g. a Cross Block Passage designation requires that a minimum 8-foot-wide pedes-
trian access be reserved between buildings.
h. a Building of Value designation requires that the building or structure may be
altered or demolished only in accordance with Municipal Preservation Standards
and Protocols.

5.4 CIVIC Zones


5.4.1 General
a. Civic Zones are designated on Community Plans as Civic Space (CS) or Civic
Building (CB).
b. Parking provisions for Civic Zones shall be determined by Warrant.
5.4.2 Civic Spaces (CS)
a. Civic Spaces shall be generally designed as described in Table 13.
5.4.3 Civic Buildings (CB)
a. Civic Buildings shall not be subject to the requirements of this Article. The par-
ticulars of their design shall be determined by Warrant.

5.5 specific to T1 NATURAL zone


5.5.1 Buildings in the T1 Natural Zone are permitted only by Variance. Permission to build
in T1 and the standards for Article 5 shall be determined concurrently as Variances,
in public hearing of the Legislative Body.

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ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

5.6 BUILDING DISPOSITION


5.6.1 Specific to zone T2
a. Building Disposition shall be determined by Warrant.
5.6.2 Specific to zones T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Newly platted Lots shall be dimensioned according to Table 14f and Table 15.
b. Building Disposition types shall be as shown in Table 9 and Table 14i.
c. Buildings shall be disposed in relation to the boundaries of their Lots according
to Table 14g, Table 14h, and Table 15.
d. One Principal Building at the Frontage, and one Outbuilding to the rear of the
Principal Building, may be built on each Lot as shown in Table 17c.
e. Lot coverage by building shall not exceed that recorded in Table 14f and Table 15.
f. Facades shall be built parallel to a rectilinear Principal Frontage Line or to the
tangent of a curved Principal Frontage Line, and along a minimum percentage
of the Frontage width at the Setback, as specified as Frontage Buildout on Table
14g and Table 15.
g. Setbacks for Principal Buildings shall be as shown in Table 14g and Table 15.
In the case of an Infill Lot, Setbacks shall match one of the existing adjacent
Setbacks. Setbacks may otherwise be adjusted by Warrant.
h. Rear Setbacks for Outbuildings shall be a minimum of 12 feet measured from the
centerline of the Rear Alley or Rear Lane easement. In the absence of Rear Alley
or Rear Lane, the rear Setback shall be as shown in Table 14h and Table 15.
i. To accommodate slopes over ten percent, relief from front Setback requirements
is available by Warrant.
5.6.3 Specific to zone T6
a. The Principal Entrance shall be on a Frontage Line.

5.7 BUILDING CONFIGURATION


5.7.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. The Private Frontage of buildings shall conform to and be allocated in accordance
with Table 7 and Table 14j.
b. Buildings on corner Lots shall have two Private Frontages as shown in Table
17. Prescriptions for the second and third Layers pertain only to the Principal
Frontage. Prescriptions for the first Layer pertain to both Frontages.
c. All Facades shall be glazed with clear glass no less than 30% of the first
Story.
d. Building heights, Stepbacks, and Extension Lines shall conform to Table 8 and
Table 14j.
e. Stories may not exceed 14 feet in height from finished floor to finished ceiling,
except for a first floor Commercial Function, which shall be a minimum of 11 feet
with a maximum of 25 feet. A single floor level exceeding 14 feet, or 25 feet at
ground level, shall be counted as two (2) stories. Mezzanines extending beyond
33% of the floor area shall be counted as an additional Story.
f. In a Parking Structure or garage, each above-ground level counts as a single
Story regardless of its relationship to habitable Stories.
g. Height limits do not apply to Attics or raised basements, masts, belfries, clock
towers, chimney flues, water tanks, or elevator bulkheads. Attics shall not exceed
14 feet in height.

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SMARTCODE ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS
Municipality

5.7.2 Specific to zones T2, T3, T4, T5


a. The habitable area of an Accessory Unit within a Principal Building or an Out-
building shall not exceed 440 square feet, excluding the parking area.
5.7.3 Specific to zone T3
a. No portion of the Private Frontage may Encroach the Sidewalk.
b. Open porches may Encroach the first Layer 50% of its depth. (Table 17d)
c. Balconies and bay windows may Encroach the first Layer 25% of its depth except
that balconies on porch roofs may Encroach as does the porch.
5.7.4 Specific to zone T4
a. Balconies, open porches and bay windows may Encroach the first Layer 50% of
its depth. (Table 17d)
5.7.5 Specific to zones T5, T6
a. Awnings, Arcades, and Galleries may Encroach the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of
the Curb but must clear the Sidewalk vertically by at least 8 feet.
b. Maximum Encroachment heights (Extension Lines) for Arcades shall be as shown
on Table 8.
c. Stoops, Lightwells, balconies, bay windows, and terraces may Encroach the first
Layer 100% of its depth. (Table 17d)
d. Loading docks and service areas shall be permitted on Frontages only by Warrant.
e. In the absence of a building Facade along any part of a Frontage Line, a
Streetscreen shall be built co-planar with the Facade.
f. Streetscreens should be between 3.5 and 8 feet in height. The Streetscreen may
be replaced by a hedge or fence by Warrant. Streetscreens shall have openings
no larger than necessary to allow automobile and pedestrian access.
g. A first level Residential or Lodging Function shall be raised a minimum of 2 feet
from average Sidewalk grade.

5.8 BUILDING Function
5.8.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Buildings in each Transect Zone shall conform to the Functions on Table 10,
Table 12 and Table 14l. Functions that do not conform shall require approval by
Warrant or Variance as specified on Table 12.
5.8.2 Specific to zones T2, T3
a. Accessory Functions of Restricted Lodging or Restricted Office shall be permitted
within an Accesory Building. See Table 10.
5.8.3 Specific to zones T4, T5
a. Accessory Functions of Limited Lodging or Limited Office shall be permitted
within an Accesory Building. See Table 10.
5.8.4 Specific to zones T5, T6
a. First Story Commercial Functions shall be permitted.
b. Manufacturing Functions within the first Story may be permitted by Variance.

5.9 PARKING AND DENSITY CALCULATIONS


5.9.1 Specific to zones T2, T3
a. Buildable Density on a Lot shall be determined by the actual parking provided
within the Lot as applied to the Functions permitted in Table 10 and Table 11.
5.9.2 Specific to zones T4, T5, T6
a. Buildable Density on a Lot shall be determined by the sum of the actual parking

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ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

calculated as that provided (1) within the Lot (2) along the parking lane corre-
sponding to the Lot Frontage, and (3) by purchase or lease from a Civic Parking
Reserve within the Pedestrian Shed, if available.
b. The actual parking may be adjusted upward according to the Shared Parking
Factor of Table 11 to determine the Effective Parking. The Shared Parking Factor
is available for any two Functions within any pair of adjacent Blocks.
c. Based on the Effective Parking available, the Density of the projected Function
may be determined according to Table 10.
d. Within the overlay area of a Transit Oriented Development (TOD) the Effective
Parking may be further adjusted upward by 30%.
e. The total Density within each Transect Zone shall not exceed that specified by
an approved Regulating Plan based on Article 3 or Article 4.
f. Accessory Units do not count toward Density calculations.
g. Liner Buildings less than 30 feet deep and no more than two Stories shall be
exempt from parking requirements.

5.10 PARKING LOCATION STANDARDS


5.10.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Parking shall be accessed by Rear Alleys or Rear Lanes, when such are avail-
able on the Regulating Plan.
b. Open parking areas shall be masked from the Frontage by a Building or
Streetscreen.
c. For buildings on B-Grids, open parking areas may be allowed unmasked on the
Frontage by Warrant, except for corner lots at intersections with the A-Grid.
5.10.2 Specific to zones T2, T3
a. Open parking areas shall be located at the second and third Lot Layers, except
that Driveways, drop-offs and unpaved parking areas may be located at the first
Lot Layer. (Table 17d)
b. Garages shall be located at the third Layer except that side- or rear-entry types
may be allowed in the first or second Layer by Warrant.
5.10.3 Specific to zones T3, T4
a. Driveways at Frontages shall be no wider than 10 feet in the first Layer.
(Table 3B.f)
5.10.4 Specific to zone T4
a. All parking areas and garages shall be located at the second or third Layer.
(Table 17d)
5.10.5 Specific to zones T5, T6
a. All parking lots, garages, and Parking Structures shall be located at the second
or third Layer. (Table 17d)
b. Vehicular entrances to parking lots, garages, and Parking Structures shall be no
wider than 24 feet at the Frontage. (Table 3B.f)
c. Pedestrian exits from all parking lots, garages, and Parking Structures shall be
directly to a Frontage Line (i.e., not directly into a building) except underground
levels which may be exited by pedestrians directly into a building.
d. Parking Structures on the A-Grid shall have Liner Buildings lining the first and
second Stories.
e. A minimum of one bicycle rack place shall be provided within the Public or Private
Frontage for every ten vehicular parking spaces.

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SMARTCODE ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS
Municipality

5.11 landscape standards


5.11.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Impermeable surface shall be confined to the ratio of Lot coverage specified in
Table 14f.
5.11.2 Specific to zones T2, T3, T4
a. The first Layer may not be paved, with the exception of Driveways as specified
in Section 5.10.2 and Section 5.10.3. (Table 17d)
5.11.3 Specific to zone T3
a. A minimum of two trees shall be planted within the first Layer for each 30 feet of
Frontage Line or portion thereof. (Table 17d)
b. Trees may be of single or multiple species as shown on Table 6.
c. Trees shall be naturalistically clustered.
d. Lawn shall be permitted by Warrant.
5.11.4 Specific to zone T4
a. A minimum of one tree shall be planted within the first Layer for each 30 feet of
Frontage Line or portion thereof. (Table 17d)
b. Trees shall be a single species to match the species of Street Trees on the Public
Frontage, or as shown on Table 6.
c. Lawn shall be permitted By Right.
5.11.5 Specific to zones T5, T6
a. Trees shall not be required in the first Layer.
b. The first Layer may be paved to match the pavement of the Public Frontage.

5.12 SIGNAGE standards


5.12.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. There shall be no signage permitted additional to that specified in this section.
b. The address number, no more than 6 inches measured vertically, shall be at-
tached to the building in proximity to the Principal Entrance or at a mailbox.
5.12.2 Specific to zones T2, T3
a. Signage shall not be illuminated.
5.12.3 Specific to zones T4, T5, T6
a. Signage shall be externally illuminated, except that signage within the Shopfront
glazing may be neon lit.
5.12.4 Specific to zones T2, T3, T4
a. One blade sign for each business may be permanently installed perpendicular
to the Facade within the first Layer. Such a sign shall not exceed a total of 4
square feet and shall clear 8 feet above the Sidewalk.
5.12.5 Specific to zones T5, T6
a. Blade signs, not to exceed 6 square ft. for each separate business entrance,
may be attached to and should be perpendicular to the Facade, and shall clear
8 feet above the Sidewalk.
b. A single external permanent sign band may be applied to the Facade of each
building, providing that such sign not exceed 3 feet in height by any length.

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ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS SMARTCODE
Municipality

aVAILABLE mODULES fOR aRTICLE 5


ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS
CYCLING STANDARDS
GENERATIVE CODING
HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
Lighting Design
NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS
NOISE LEVELS
RESIDENTIAL MARKETS
RETAIL MARKETS
RIPARIAN AND WETLAND BUFFERS
SUBURBAN RETROFIT
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM
BUILDING ORIENTATION
COMPOSTING & RECYCLING
FOOD PRODUCTION
SHADING OF GLAZING
SOLAR ENERGY
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
SURFACE TO VOLUME RATIO
WIND POWER
ZERO NET ENERGY BUILDINGS
VISITABILITY STANDARDS

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SMARTCODE TABLE 1. TRANSECT ZONE DESCRIPTIONS
Municipality
TABLE 1: Transect Zone Descriptions. This table provides descriptions of the character of each T-zone.

T1 T-1 Natural
T-1 Natural Zone consists of lands General Character: Natural landscape with some agricultural use
approximating or reverting to a wilder- Building Placement: Not applicable
ness condition, including lands unsuit- Frontage Types: Not applicable
able for settlement due to topography, Typical Building Height: Not applicable
hydrology or vegetation. Type of Civic Space: Parks, Greenways

T2 T-2 Rural
T-2 Rural Zone consists of sparsely General Character: Primarily agricultural with woodland & wetland and scattered buildings
settled lands in open or cultivated states. Building Placement: Variable Setbacks
These include woodland, agricultural Frontage Types: Not applicable
land, grassland, and irrigable desert. Typical Building Height: 1- to 2-Story
Typical buildings are farmhouses, agri- Type of Civic Space: Parks, Greenways
cultural buildings, cabins, and villas.

T3 T-3 Sub-Urban
T-3 Sub-Urban Zone consists of low General Character: Lawns, and landscaped yards surrounding detached single-family
density residential areas, adjacent to houses; pedestrians occasionally
higher zones that some mixed use. Building Placement: Large and variable front and side yard Setbacks
Home occupations and outbuildings Frontage Types: Porches, fences, naturalistic tree planting
are allowed. Planting is naturalistic and Typical Building Height: 1- to 2-Story with some 3-Story
setbacks are relatively deep. Blocks Type of Civic Space: Parks, Greenways
may be large and the roads irregular to
accommodate natural conditions.

T4 T-4 General Urban


T-4 General Urban Zone consists of General Character: Mix of Houses, Townhouses & small Apartment buildings, with scat-
a mixed use but primarily residential tered Commercial activity; balance between landscape and buildings;
urban fabric. It may have a wide range presence of pedestrians
of building types: single, sideyard, and Building Placement: Shallow to medium front and side yard Setbacks
rowhouses. Setbacks and landscaping Frontage Types: Porches, fences, Dooryards
are variable. Streets with curbs and side- Typical Building Height: 2- to 3-Story with a few taller Mixed Use buildings
walks define medium-sized blocks. Type of Civic Space: Squares, Greens

T5 T-5 Urban Center


T-5 Urban Center Zone consists of General Character: Shops mixed with Townhouses, larger Apartment houses, Offices,
higher density mixed use building that workplace, and Civic buildings; predominantly attached buildings;
accommodate etail, offices, rowhouses trees within the public right-of-way; substantial pedestrian activit
and apartments. It has a tight network Building Placement: Shallow Setbacks or none; buildings oriented to street defining a
of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street wall
street tree planting and buildings set Frontage Types: Stoops, Shopfronts, Galleries
close to the sidewalks. Typical Building Height: 3- to 5-Story with some variation
Type of Civic Space: Parks, Plazas and Squares, median landscaping

T6 T-6 Urban Core


T-6 Urban Core Zone consists of the General Character: Medium to high-Density Mixed Use buildings, entertainment, Civic
highest density and height, with the and cultural uses. Attached buildings forming a continuous street
greatest variety of uses, and civic build- wall; trees within the public right-of-way; highest pedestrian and
ings of regional importance. It may have transit activity
larger blocks; streets have steady street Building Placement: Shallow Setbacks or none; buildings oriented to street, defining a
tree planting and buildings are set close street wall
to wide sidewalks. Typically only large Frontage Types: Stoops, Dooryards, Forecourts, Shopfronts, Galleries, and Arcades
towns and cities have an Urban Core Typical Building Height: 4-plus Story with a few shorter buildings
Zone. Type of Civic Space: Parks, Plazas and Squares; median landscaping

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC27


TABLE 2. SECTOR/COMMUNITY ALLOCATION SMARTCODE
Municipality

TABLE 2: Sector/Community Allocation. Table 2 defines the geography, including both natural and infrastructure elements, determining areas that
are or are not suitable for development. Specific Community types of various intensities are allowable in specific Sectors. This table also allocates the
proportions of Transect Zones within each Community Type.

Already DEVELOPED AREAS

Proximity to Major Thoroughfares and transit

Proximity to Thoroughfares

MEDIUM SLOPES
WOODLANDS

FLOOD PLAIN
OPEN SPACE TO BE ACQUIRED
CORRIDORS TO BE ACQUIRED
BUFFERS TO BE ACQUIRED
LEGACY WOODLAND
LEGACY FARMLAND
LEGACY VIEWSHEDS
CLD RESIDUAL OPEN SPACE
RURAL GROWTH BOUNDARY

URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARY

surface Waterbodies
Protected Wetlands
protected habitat
Riparian corridors
purchased open space
conserv. Easements
LAND TRUST
transport. Corridors
CLD open space
◄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------► ◄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------► ◄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------►
(PRIMARILY OPEN SPACE) (PRIMARILY NEW COMMUNITIES) (SUCCESSIONAL COMMUNITIES)

O1 OPEN SECTOR O2 OPEN SECTOR G1 GROWTH SECTOR G2 GROWTH SECTOR G3 GROWTH SECTOR G4 GROWTH SECTOR
PRESERVED RESERVED RESTRICTED CONTROLLED INTENDED INFILL

CLD CLD TND TND RCD TND RCD


T1 NO MINIMUM NO MINIMUM
50% MIN 50% MIN
T2 NO MINIMUM NO MINIMUM NO MIN NO MIN

T3 10 - 30% 10 - 30% 10 - 30% 10 - 30% VARIABLE

T4 20 - 40% 20 - 40% 30 - 60% 30 - 60% 10 - 30% VARIABLE VARIABLE

T5 10 - 30% 10 - 30% 10 - 30% VARIABLE VARIABLE

T6 40 - 80% VARIABLE

SC28 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE TABLE 3A. VEHICULAR LANE DIMENSIONS
Municipality

TABLE 3A: Vehicular Lane Dimensions. This table assigns lane widths to Transect Zones. The Design ADT (Average Daily Traffic) is the
determinant for each of these sections. The most typical assemblies are shown in Table 3B. Specific requirements for truck and transit bus
routes and truck loading shall be decided by Warrant.

DESIGN SPEED TRAVEL LANE WIDTH T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 ▪ BY RIGHT


Below 20 mph 8 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ ▫ BY WARRANT
20-25 mph 9 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ ▫
25-35 mph 10 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
25-35 mph 11 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Above 35 mph 12 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
DESIGN SPEED parking LANE WIDTH
20-25 mph (Angle ) 18 feet ▪ ▪
20-25 mph (Parallel) 7 feet ▪
25-35 mph (Parallel) 8 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Above 35 mph (Parallel) 9 feet ▪ ▪
DESIGN SPEED eFFECTIVE tURNING RADIUS (See Table 17b)
Below 20 mph 5-10 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
20-25 mph 10-15 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
25-35 mph 15-20 feet ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Above 35 mph 20-30 feet ▪ ▪ ▫ ▫

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC29


table 3B. VEHICULAR LANE & PARKING assemblIES SMARTCODE
Municipality

TABLE 3B: Vehicular Lane/Parking Assemblies. The projected design speeds determine the dimensions of the vehicular lanes and Turning Radii
assembled for Thoroughfares.
ONE WAY MOVEMENT TWO WAY MOVEMENT
a. no
parking
T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T1 T2

Design ADT 300 VPD 600 VPD 2,500 VPD 22,000 VPD 36,000 VPD
Pedestrian Crossing 3 Seconds 5 Seconds 5 Seconds 9 Seconds 13 Seconds
Design Speed 20 - 30 MPH Below 20 MPH 20-25 MPH 35 MPH and above
b. Yield
parking
T3 T4 T3 T4

Design ADT 1,000 VPD 1,000 VPD


Pedestrian Crossing 5 Seconds 7 Seconds
Design Speed
c. parking
one side
T3 T4 T3 T4 T5 T4 T5 T4 T5 T6 T5 T6
parallel

Design ADT 5,000 VPD 18,000 VPD 16,000 VPD 15,000 VPD 32,000 VPD
Pedestrian Crossing 5 Seconds 8 Seconds 8 Seconds 11 Seconds 13 Seconds
Design Speed 20-30 MPH 25-30 MPH 25-30 MPH
d. parking
both sides
T4 T4 T5 T6 T4 T5 T6 T5 T6 T5 T6
parallel

Design ADT 8,000 VPD 20,000 VPD 15,000 VPD 22,000 VPD 32,000 VPD
Pedestrian Crossing 7 Seconds 10 Seconds 10 Seconds 13 Seconds 15 Seconds
Design Speed Below 20 MPH 25-30 MPH 25-30 MPH 25-30 MPH 35 MPH and above
e. parking
both sides
T5 T6 T5 T6 T5 T6 T5 T6 T5 T6
diagonal

Design ADT 18,000 VPD 20,000 VPD 15,000 VPD 22,000 VPD 31,000 VPD
Pedestrian Crossing 15 Seconds 17 Seconds 17 Seconds 20 Seconds 23 Seconds
Design Speed Below 20 MPH 20-25 MPH 20-25 MPH 25-30 MPH 25-30 MPH
f. Parking
Access
T3 T4 T5 T6
10’ 24’

Design ADT
Pedestrian Crossing 3 Seconds 6 Seconds
Design Speed

SC30 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE table 4A. public Frontages - GENERAL
Municipality

TABLE 4A: Public Frontages - General. The Public Frontage is the area between the private Lot line and the edge of the vehicular lanes. Dimen-
sions are given in Table 4B.
PLAN
LOT ► ◄ R.O.W.
PRIVATE FRONTAGE ► ◄ PUBLIC FRONTAGE

a. (HW) For Highway: This Frontage has open Swales drained by percolation, Bicycle Trails and no parking. T1
The landscaping consists of the natural condition or multiple species arrayed in naturalistic clusters. Build-
ings are buffered by distance or berms. T2
T3

b. (RD) For Road: This Frontage has open Swales drained by percolation and a walking Path or Bicycle T1
Trail along one or both sides and Yield parking. The landscaping consists of multiple species arrayed in
naturalistic clusters. T2
T3

c. (ST) For Street: This Frontage has raised Curbs drained by inlets and Sidewalks separated from the vehicular T3
lanes by individual or continuous Planters, with parking on one or both sides. The landscaping consists of
street trees of a single or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee, with the exception that T4
Streets with a right-of-way (R.O.W.) width of 40 feet or less are exempt from tree requirements.
T5

d. (DR) For Drive: This Frontage has raised Curbs drained by inlets and a wide Sidewalk or paved Path T3
along one side, related to a Greenway or waterfront. It is separated from the vehicular lanes by individual
or continuous Planters. The landscaping consists of street trees of a single or alternating species aligned T4
in a regularly spaced Allee.
T5
T6
e. (AV) For Avenue: This Frontage has raised Curbs drained by inlets and wide Sidewalks separated from T3
the vehicular lanes by a narrow continuous Planter with parking on both sides. The landscaping consists
of a single tree species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee. T4
T5
T6
f. (CS) (AV) For Commercial Street or Avenue: This Frontage has raised Curbs drained by inlets and very T5
wide Sidewalks along both sides separated from the vehicular lanes by separate tree wells with grates
and parking on both sides. The landscaping consists of a single tree species aligned with regular spacing T6
where possible, but clears the storefront entrances.

g. (BV) For Boulevard: This Frontage has Slip Roads on both sides. It consists of raised Curbs drained by T3
inlets and Sidewalks along both sides, separated from the vehicular lanes by Planters. The landscaping
consists of double rows of a single tree species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee. T4
T5
T6

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC31


table 4B. public frontageS - SPECIFIC SMARTCODE
Municipality

Table 4B: Public Frontages - Specific. This table assembles prescriptions and dimensions for the Public Frontage elements - Curbs, walkways and
Planters – relative to specific Thoroughfare types within Transect Zones. Table 4B-a assembles all of the elements for the various street types. Locally
appropriate planting species should be filled in to the calibrated Code.

RURAL l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l T RAN S E C T l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l UR B AN
TRANSECT ZONE T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T3 T4 T4 T5 T5 T6 T5 T6
Public Frontage Type HW & RD RD & ST ST-DR-AV ST-DR-AV-BV CS-DR-AV-BV CS-DR-AV-BV

a. Assembly: The princi-


pal variables are the type
and dimension of Curbs,
walkways, Planters and
landscape.

Total Width 16-24 feet 12-24 feet 12-18 feet 12-18 feet 18-24 feet 18-30 feet

b. Curb: The detailing of


the edge of the vehicular
pavement, incorporating
drainage.

Type Open Swale Open Swale Raised Curb Raised Curb Raised Curb Raised Curb
Radius 10-30 feet 10-30 feet 5-20 feet 5-20 feet 5-20 feet 5-20 feet

c. Walkway: The pavement


dedicated exclusively to
pedestrian activity.

Type Path Optional Path Sidewalk Sidewalk Sidewalk Sidewalk


Width n/a 4-8 feet 4-8 feet 4-8 feet 12-20 feet 12-30 feet

d. Planter: The layer which


accommodates street trees
and other landscape.

Arrangement Clustered Clustered Regular Regular Regular Opportunistic


Species Multiple Multiple Alternating Single Single Single
Planter Type Continuous Swale Continuous Swale Continuous Planter Continuous Planter Continuous Planter Tree Well
Planter Width 8 feet-16 feet 8 feet-16 feet 8 feet-12 feet 8 feet-12 feet 4 feet-6 feet 4 feet-6 feet

e. Landscape: The recom-


mended plant species.
(See Table 6)

f. Lighting: The recom-


mended Public Lighting.
(See Table 5)

SC32 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE table 4c. Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

TABLE 4C: Thoroughfare Assemblies. These Thoroughfares are assembled from the elements that appear in Tables 3A and 3B and incorpo-
rate the Public Frontages of Table 4A. The key gives the Thoroughfare type followed by the right-of-way width, followed by the pavement width,
and in some instances followed by specialized transportation capabiliity.

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST SEE MODULE 4C
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

ST-50-26 ST-50-28
Thoroughfare Type Street Street
Transect Zone Assignment T4, T5, T6 T4, T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 50 feet 50 feet
Pavement Width 26 feet 28 feet
Movement Slow Movement Yield Movement
Design Speed 20 MPH 20 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 7.4 seconds 7.6 seconds
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 2 lanes
Parking Lanes One side @ 8 feet marked Both sides @ 8 feet unmarked
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 5 foot Sidewalk 5 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 7 foot continuous Planter 6 foot continuous Planter
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30’ o.c. Avg. Trees at 30’ o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision BR BR

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC33


TABLE 5. PUBLIC LIGHTING SMARTCODE
Municipality

TABLE 5: Public Lighting. Lighting varies in brightness and also in the character of the fixture according to the Transect. The table
shows five common types. A listed set of streetlights corresponding to these types would be approved by the utility company and listed
on the page.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Specifications

Cobra Head

▪ ▪

Pipe

▪ ▪ ▪

Post

▪ ▪ ▪

Column

▪ ▪ ▪

Double Column

▪ ▪

SC34 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE TABLE 6. PUBLIC PLANTING
Municipality

TABLE 6: Public Planting. This table shows six common types of street tree shapes and their appropriateness within the Transect Zones.
The local planning office selects species appropriate for the bioregion.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Specific Lighting

Pole

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Oval

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Ball

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Pyramid

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Umbrella

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Vase

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC35


TABLE 7. private Frontages SMARTCODE
Municipality

TABLE 7: Private Frontages. The Private Frontage is the area between the building Facades and the Lot lines.
SECTION PLAN
LOT ► ◄ R.O.W. LOT ► ◄ R.O.W.
PRIVATE ► ◄ PUBLIC PRIVATE ► ◄ PUBLIC
FRONTAGE FRONTAGE FRONTAGE FRONTAGE

a. Common Yard: a planted Frontage wherein the Facade is set back T2


substantially from the Frontage Line. The front yard created remains
unfenced and is visually continuous with adjacent yards, supporting a T3
common landscape. The deep Setback provides a buffer from the higher
speed Thoroughfares.

b. Porch & Fence: a planted Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from T3
the Frontage Line with an attached porch permitted to Encroach. A fence
at the Frontage Line maintains street spatial definition. Porches shall be T4
no less than 8 feet deep.

c. Terrace or Lightwell: a Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from T4


the Frontage line by an elevated terrace or a sunken Lightwell. This type
buffers Residential use from urban Sidewalks and removes the private yard T5
from public Encroachment. Terraces are suitable for conversion to outdoor
cafes. Syn: Dooryard.

d. Forecourt: a Frontage wherein a portion of the Facade is close to the T4


Frontage Line and the central portion is set back. The Forecourt created is
suitable for vehicular drop-offs. This type should be allocated in conjunction T5
with other Frontage types. Large trees within the Forecourts may overhang
the Sidewalks. T6

e. Stoop: a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line T4
with the first Story elevated from the Sidewalk sufficiently to secure privacy
for the windows. The entrance is usually an exterior stair and landing. This T5
type is recommended for ground-floor Residential use.
T6
f. Shopfront: a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage
Line with the building entrance at Sidewalk grade. This type is conventional
T4
for Retail use. It has a substantial glazing on the Sidewalk level and an
awning that may overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of the Curb. Syn:
T5
Retail Frontage. T6

g. Gallery: a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage line T4
with an attached cantilevered shed or a lightweight colonnade overlapping
the Sidewalk. This type is conventional for Retail use. The Gallery shall be T5
no less than 10 feet wide and should overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet
of the Curb. T6

h. Arcade: a colonnade supporting habitable space that overlaps the Sidewalk, T5


while the Facade at Sidewalk level remains at or behind the Frontage Line.
This type is conventional for Retail use. The Arcade shall be no less than T6
12 feet wide and should overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of the Curb.
See Table 8.

SC36 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE TABLE 8. BUILDING CONFIGURATION
Municipality
TABLE 8: Building Configuration. This table shows the Configurations for different building heights for each Transect Zone. It
must be modified to show actual calibrated heights for local conditions. Recess Lines and Expression Lines shall occur on higher
buildings as shown. N = maximum height as specified in Table 14k.

T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Lot R.O.W.

Max. height

Lot R.O.W. N

Lot R.O.W.
4
Max. height Lot R.O.W.
N 3
Max. height Expression Line
Max. height
2 2 2
N
1 1 1
13

12

T6 T6 T6 Lot R.O.W.
Max. height
11

N 10
Lot R.O.W.
9 9
Max. height Stepback Stepback
8 8
Lot R.O.W. 8

7 7
7
Max. height
6 6 6 6

5 5 5 5

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

Stepbacks/Arcade Heights. The diagrams below show Arcade Frontages. Diagrams above apply to all other Frontages.

T6 T6 T6 T6 Lot R.O.W.

Max. height
N

13

12

Lot R.O.W.
11
Max. height
N 10
Lot R.O.W.
9 9
Max. height Stepback Stepback
8 8
Lot R.O.W. 8

7 7 7
Max. height Arcade max.
6 6 6 6
Arcade max.
5 5 5 5
Arcade max.
4 4 4 4
Arcade max.
3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC37


TABLE 9. BUILDING DISPOSITION SMARTCODE
Municipality

TABLE 9: Building Disposition. This table approximates the location of the structure relative to the boundaries of each individual Lot, establishing
suitable basic building types for each Transect Zone.

a. Edgeyard: Specific Types - single family House, cottage, villa, estate house, urban villa. A building T2
that occupies the center of its Lot with Setbacks on all sides. This is the least urban of types as
the front yard sets it back from the Frontage, while the side yards weaken the spatial definition T3
of the public Thoroughfare space. The front yard is intended to be visually continuous with the
yards of adjacent buildings. The rear yard can be secured for privacy by fences and a well-placed T4
Backbuilding and/or Outbuilding.

b. Sideyard: Specific Types - Charleston single house, double house, zero lot line house, twin. A T4
building that occupies one side of the Lot with the Setback to the other side. A shallow Frontage
Setback defines a more urban condition. If the adjacent building is similar with a blank side wall, T5
the yard can be quite private. This type permits systematic climatic orientation in response to the
sun or the breeze. If a Sideyard House abuts a neighboring Sideyard House, the type is known
as a twin or double House. Energy costs, and sometimes noise, are reduced by sharing a party
wall in this Disposition.

c. Rearyard: Specific Types - Townhouse, Rowhouse, Live-Work unit, loft building, Apartment T4
House, Mixed Use Block, Flex Building, perimeter Block. A building that occupies the full Frontage,
leaving the rear of the Lot as the sole yard. This is a very urban type as the continuous Facade T5
steadily defines the public Thoroughfare. The rear Elevations may be articulated for functional
purposes. In its Residential form, this type is the Rowhouse. For its Commercial form, the rear T6
yard can accommodate substantial parking.

d. Courtyard: Specific Types - patio House. A building that occupies the boundaries of its Lot while T5
internally defining one or more private patios. This is the most urban of types, as it is able to shield
the private realm from all sides while strongly defining the public Thoroughfare. Because of its T6
ability to accommodate incompatible activities, masking them from all sides, it is recommended
for workshops, Lodging and schools. The high security provided by the continuous enclosure
is useful for crime-prone areas.

e. Specialized: A building that is not subject to categorization. Buildings dedicated to SD


manufacturing and transportation are often distorted by the trajectories of machinery.
Civic buildings, which may express the aspirations of institutions, may be included.

SC38 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE TABLES 10 & 11. BUILDING FUNCTION & PARKING CALCULATIONS
Municipality
TABLE 10: Building Function. This table categorizes Building Functions within Transect Zones. Parking requirements are correlated to functional
intensity. For Specific Function and Use permitted By Right or by Warrant, see Table 12.

T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
a. RESIDENTIAL Restricted Residential: The number of Limited Residential:The number of dwell- Open Residential:The number of dwellings
dwellings on each Lot is restricted to one ings on each Lot is limited by the requirement on each Lot is limited by the requirement
within a Principal Building and one within of 1.5 parking places for each dwelling, a of 1.0 parking places for each dwelling, a
an Accessory Building, with 2.0 parking ratio which may be reduced according to the ratio which may be reduced according to the
places for each. Both dwellings shall be shared parking standards (See Table 11). shared parking standards (See Table 11).
under single ownership. The habitable area
of the Accessory Unit shall not exceed 440 sf,
excluding the parking area.

b. LODGING Restricted Lodging: The number of bed- Limited Lodging: The number of bedrooms Open Lodging: The number of bedrooms
rooms available on each Lot for lodging is available on each Lot for lodging is limited available on each Lot for lodging is limited
limited by the requirement of 1.0 assigned by the requirement of 1.0 assigned parking by the requirement of 1.0 assigned parking
parking place for each bedroom, up to five, places for each bedroom, up to twelve, places for each bedroom. Food service may
in addition to the parking requirement for in addition to the parking requirement for be provided at all times. The area allocated
the dwelling. The Lodging must be owner the dwelling. The Lodging must be owner for food service shall be calculated and
occupied. Food service may be provided in occupied.Food service may be provided in provided with parking according to Retail
the a.m. The maximum length of stay shall the a.m. The maximum length of stay shall Function.
not exceed ten days. not exceed ten days.

c. OFFICE Restricted Office: The building area avail- Limited Office: The building area available Open Office: The building area available
able for office use on each Lot is restricted to for office use on each Lot is limited to the first for office use on each Lot is limited by the
the first Story of the Principal or the Acces- Story of the principal building and/or to the requirement of 2.0 assigned parking places
sory Building and by the requirement of 3.0 Accessory building, and by the requirement per 1000 square feet of net office space.
assigned parking places per 1000 square of 3.0 assigned parking places per 1000
feet of net office space in addition to the square feet of net office space in addition to
parking requirement for each dwelling. the parking requirement for each dwelling.

d. RETAIL Restricted Retail: The building area avail- Limited Retail: The building area available Open Retail: The building area available
able for Retail use is restricted to one Block for Retail use is limited to the first Story of for Retail use is limited by the requirement of
corner location at the first Story for each buildings at corner locations, not more than 3.0 assigned parking places per 1000 square
300 dwelling units and by the requirement one per Block, and by the requirement of feet of net Retail space. Retail spaces under
of 4.0 assigned parking places per 1000 4.0 assigned parking places per 1000 1500 square feet are exempt from parking
square feet of net Retail space in addition square feet of net Retail space in addition requirements.
to the parking requirement of each dwelling. to the parking requirement of each dwelling.
The specific use shall be further limited to The specific use shall be further limited to
neighborhood store, or food service seating neighborhood store, or food service seating
no more than 20. no more than 40.

e. CIVIC See Table 12 See Table 12 See Table 12

f. OTHER See Table 12 See Table 12 See Table 12

TABLE 11: Parking Calculations. The Shared Parking Factor for two Functions, when divided into the sum of the two amounts as listed on the
Required Parking table below, produces the Effective Parking needed for each site involved in sharing. Conversely, if the Sharing Factor is used as a
multiplier, it indicates the amount of building allowed on each site given the parking available.

REQUIRED PARKING (See Table 10) SHARED PARKING FACTOR

T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Function with Function

RESIDENTIAL 2.0 / dwelling 1.5 / dwelling 1.0 / dwelling RESIDENTIAL RESIDENTIAL

LODGING 1.0 / bedroom 1.0 / bedroom 1.0 / bedroom LODGING LODGING

3.0 / 1000 sq. ft. 3.0 / 1000 sq. ft. 2.0 / 1000 sq. ft. OFFICE 1 OFFICE
OFFICE
1.1 1.1
RETAIL 4.0 / 1000 sq. ft. 4.0 / 1000 sq. ft. 3.0 / 1000 sq. ft. RETAIL 1.4 1 1.4 RETAIL
1.2 1.7 1.7 1.2
CIVIC To be determined by Warrant 1.3 1 1.3
1.2 1.2
To be determined by Warrant 1
OTHER

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC39


TABLE 12. SPECIFIC FUNCTION & USE SMARTCODE
Municipality
TABLE 12: Specific Function & Use. This table expands the categories of Table 10 to delegate specific Functions and uses within
Transect Zones. Table 12 should be customized for local character and requirements.

a. RESIDENTIAL
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD f. OTHER: AGRICULTURE
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
Mixed Use Block ▪ ▪ Grain Storage ▪ ▪ ▫
Flex Building ▪ ▪ ▪ Livestock Pen ▫ ▫ ▫
Apartment Building ▪ ▪ ▪ Greenhouse ▪ ▪ ▫ ▫
Live/Work Unit ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ Stable ▪ ▪ ▫ ▫
Row House ▪ ▪ Kennel ▪ ▪ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
Duplex House ▪ ▪ f. OTHER: AUTOMOTIVE
Courtyard House ▪ ▪ Gasoline ▫ ▫ ▫ ▪
Sideyard House ▪ ▪ ▪ Automobile Service ▪
Cottage ▪ ▪ Truck Maintenance ▪
House ▪ ▪ ▪ Drive -Through Facility ▫ ▫ ▪
Villa ▪ Rest Stop ▪ ▪ ▫
Accessory Unit ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Roadside Stand ▪ ▪ ▫
b. LODGING
Billboard ▫ ▫
Hotel (no room limit) ▪ ▪ ▫ Shopping Center ▫
Inn (up to 12 rooms) ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ Shopping Mall ▫
f. OTHER: CIVIL SUPPORT
Bed & Breakfast (up to 5 rooms) ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
S.R.O. hostel ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫
Fire Station ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
School Dormitory ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Police Station ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
c. office
Cemetery ▪ ▫ ▫ ▪
Office Building ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ Funeral Home ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Live-Work Unit ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ Hospital ▫ ▫ ▪
d. RETAIL Medical Clinic ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪
Open-Market Building ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ f. OTHER: EDUCATION
Retail Building ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ College ▫ ▫ ▪
Display Gallery ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ High School ▫ ▫ ▫ ▪
Restaurant ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ Trade School ▫ ▫ ▪
Kiosk ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫ Elementary School ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Push Cart ▫ ▫ ▫ Other- Childcare Center ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫
Liquor Selling Establishment ▫ ▫ ▫ f. OTHER: INDUSTRIAL

Adult Entertainment ▫ ▫ Heavy Industrial Facility ▪


e. CIVIC Light Industrial Facility ▫ ▪
Bus Shelter ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Truck Depot ▪
Convention Center ▫ ▪ Laboratory Facility ▫ ▪
Conference Center ▫ ▪ ▪ Water Supply Facility ▪
Exhibition Center ▫ ▪ Sewer and Waste Facility ▪
Fountain or Public Art ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electric Substation ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▪
Library ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wireless Transmitter ▫ ▫ ▪
Live Theater ▪ ▪ ▪ Cremation Facility ▪
Movie Theater ▪ ▪ ▪ Warehouse ▫ ▪
Museum ▫ ▪ ▪ Produce Storage ▪
Outdoor Auditorium ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Mini-Storage ▪
Parking Structure ▪ ▪ ▪
▪ BY RIGHT
Passenger Terminal ▫ ▫ ▪ ▫ BY WARRANT
Playground ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Sports Stadium ▫ ▪
Surface Parking Lot ▫ ▫ ▫ ▪
Religious Assembly ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
SC40 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SMARTCODE TABLE 13. CIVIC SPACE
Municipality

a. Park: A natural preserve available for unstructured recreation. A park may be independent T1
of surrounding building Frontages. Its landscape shall consist of Paths and trails, meadows,
waterbodies, woodland and open shelters, all naturalistically disposed. Parks may be lineal, T2
following the trajectories of natural corridors. The minimum size shall be 8 acres. Larger parks
may be approved by Warrant as Special Districts in all zones. T3

b. Green: An Open Space, available for unstructured recreation. A Green may be spatially defined T3
by landscaping rather than building Frontages. Its landscape shall consist of lawn and trees, natu-
ralistically disposed. The minimum size shall be 1/2 acre and the maximum shall be 8 acres. T4
T5

c. Square: An Open Space available for unstructured recreation and Civic purposes. A Square T4
is spatially defined by building Frontages. Its landscape shall consist of paths, lawns and trees,
formally disposed. Squares shall be located at the intersection of important Thoroughfares. The T5
minimum size shall be 1/2 acre and the maximum shall be 5 acres.
T6

d. Plaza: An Open Space available for Civic purposes and Commercial activities. A Plaza shall be T5
spatially defined by building Frontages. Its landscape shall consist primarily of pavement. Trees
are optional. Plazas should be located at the intersection of important streets. The minimum T6
size shall be 1/2 acre and the maximum shall be 2 acres.

e. Playground: An Open Space designed and equipped for the recreation of children. A playground T1
should be fenced and may include an open shelter. Playgrounds shall be interspersed within
Residential areas and may be placed within a Block. Playgrounds may be included within parks T2
and greens. There shall be no minimum or maximum size.
T3
T4
T5
T6

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC41


TABLE 14. SmartCode Summary SMARTCODE
Municipality

Note: All requirements


in this Table are sub-
ject to calibration for
local context.

T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict
a. ALLOCATION OF ZONES per Pedestrian Shed (applicable to Article 3 only) (see Table 16)
CLD requires no minimum 50% min 10 - 30% 20 - 40% not permitted not permitted
TND requires no minimum no minimum 10 - 30% 30 - 60 % 10 - 30% not permitted
RCD requires no minimum no minimum not permitted 10 - 30% 10 - 30% 40 - 80%
b. BASE RESIDENTIAL DENSITY (see Section 3.4)
By Right not applicable 1 unit / 20 ac avg. 2 units / ac. gross 4 units / ac. gross 6 units / ac. gross 12 units / ac. gross
By TDR by Variance by Variance 6 units / ac. gross 12 units / ac. gross 24 units / ac. gross 96 units / ac. gross
Other Functions by Variance by Variance 10 - 20% 20 - 30% 30 - 50% 50 - 70%
c. BLOCK SIZE
Block Perimeter no maximum no maximum 3000 ft. max 2400 ft. max 2000 ft. max 2000 ft. max *
d. THOROUGHFARES (see Table 3 and Table 4) * 3000 ft. max with parking structures
HW permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted
BV not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
AV not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
CS not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
DR not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
ST not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted
RD permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted
Rear Lane permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Rear Alley not permitted not permitted permitted required required required
Path permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Passage not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
Bicycle Trail permitted permitted permitted not permitted * not permitted not permitted
Bicycle Lane permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Bicycle Route permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
e. CIVIC SPACES (see Table 13) * permitted within Open Spaces
Park permitted permitted permitted by Warrant by Warrant by Warrant
Green not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Square not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Plaza not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
Playground permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
f. LOT OCCUPATION

Disposition
Lot Width not applicable by Warrant 72 ft. min 120 ft. max 18 ft. min 96 ft. max 18 ft. min 180 ft. max 18 ft. min 700 ft. max
Lot Coverage not applicable by Warrant 60% max 70% max 80% max 90% max
g. SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BUILDING (see Table 15)
(g.1) Front Setback (Principal) not applicable 48 ft. min 24 ft. min 6 ft. min 18 ft. max 2 ft. min 12 ft. max 2 ft. min 12 ft. max
(g.2) Front Setback (Secondary) not applicable 48 ft. min 12 ft. min 6 ft. min 18 ft. max 2 ft. min 12 ft. max 2 ft. min 12 ft. max
(g.3) Side Setback not applicable 96 ft. min 12 ft. min 0 ft. min 0 ft. min 24 ft. max 0 ft. min 24 ft. max
(g.4) Rear Setback not applicable 96 ft. min 12 ft. min 3 ft. min * 3 ft. min * 0 ft. min
Frontage Buildout not applicable not applicable 40% min 60% min 80% min 80% min
h. SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING (see Table 15)
(h.1) Front Setback not applicable 20 ft. min +bldg setback 20 ft. min +bldg setback 20 ft. min +bldg setback 40 ft. max from rear prop not applicable
(h.2) Side Setback not applicable 3 ft. or 6 ft. 3 ft. or 6 ft. 0 ft. min or 3 ft. 0 ft min not applicable
(h.3) Rear Setback not applicable 3 ft. min 3 ft. min 3 ft. 3 ft. max not applicable
i. BUILDING DISPOSITION (see Table 9)
Edgeyard permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Sideyard not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Rearyard not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Courtyard not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
j. PRIVATE FRONTAGES (see Table 7)
Configuration

Common Yard not applicable permitted permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted
Porch & Fence not applicable not permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Terrace or Dooryard not applicable not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Forecourt not applicable not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Stoop not applicable not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Shopfront & Awning not applicable not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Gallery not applicable not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Arcade not applicable not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
k. BUILDING CONFIGURATION (see Table 8)
Principal Building not applicable 2 Stories max 2 Stories max 3 Stories max, 2 min 5 Stories max, 2 min 8 Stories max, 2 min
Outbuilding not applicable 2 Stories max 2 Stories max 2 Stories max 2 Stories max not applicable
l. BUILDING FUNCTION (see Table 10 &Table 12)
Function

Residential not applicable restricted use restricted use limited use open use open use
Lodging not applicable restricted use restricted use limited use open use open use
Office not applicable restricted use restricted use limited use open use open use
Retail not applicable restricted use restricted use limited use open use open use
ARTICLE 5
ARTICLE 2, 3, 4

SC42 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE Table 15A. Form-based Code Graphics - T3
Municipality

T3 BUILDING CONFIGURATION
1. Building height shall be mea-
sured in number of Stories,
excluding Attics and raised
basements.
2. Stories may not exceed 14 feet
in height from finished floor to
finished ceiling, except for a first Max. height
floor Commercial function which N Max. height
must be a minumum of 11 ft with 2
a maximum of 25 feet.
3. Height shall be measured to the 1
1
eave or roof deck as specified
(see Table 1) on Table 8.

l. BUILDING FUNCTION (see Table 10 & Table 12)


Residential restricted use
Lodging restricted use
SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BLDG
Office restricted use 1. The Facades and Elevations
Retail restricted use of Principal Buildings shall be
distanced from the Lot lines
k. building configuration (see Table 8) as shown. (g.2)

Principal Building 2 stories max. 2. Facades shall be built along


the Principal Frontage to the Corner Lot
Outbuilding 2 stories max. minimum specified width in (g.1) (g.4)
Condition
f. Lot occupation (see Table 14f) the table.

Lot Width 72 ft. min 120 ft. max


Lot Coverage 60% max (g.1) (g.4)
Mid-Block
i. BUILDING disposition (see Table 9) Condition

Edgeyard permitted (g.3)


Sideyard not permitted
Rearyard not permitted
Courtyard not permitted SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING
1. The Elevation of the Outbuilding
g. SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BUILDING (see Table 14g) shall be distanced from the Lot
(g.1) Front Setback Principal 24 ft. min lines as shown.
(h.2)
(g.2) Front Setback Secondary 12 ft min.
(g.3) Side Setback 12 ft min. Corner Lot
(h.1)
(g.4) Rear Setback 12 ft min. (h.3) Condition
Frontage Buildout 40% min at setback

h. SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING (see Table 14h)


(h.1) Front Setback 20 ft. min. + bldg setback (h.1) (h.3) Mid-Block
Condition
(h.2) Side Setback 3 ft. or 6 ft at corner (h.2)
(h.3) Rear Setback 3 ft. min

j. private fRONTAGEs (see Table 7)


Common Lawn permitted PARKING PLACEMENT
Porch & Fence permitted 1. Uncovered parking spaces
Terrace or L.C. not permitted may be provided within the Secondary Frontage
second and third Layer as
Forecourt not permitted shown in the diagram (see
Stoop not permitted Table 17d).
2. Covered parking shall be
Principal Frontage

Shopfront & Awning not permitted


provided within the third Layer
Gallery not permitted as shown in the diagram (see
Arcade not permitted Table 17d). Side- or rear-entry
garages may be allowed in
Refer to Summary Table 14 the first or second Layer by
PARKING PROVISIONS Warrant.
3. Trash containers shall be
See Table 10 & Table 11 stored within the third Layer.
*or 15 ft. from center line of alley
1st 2nd 3rd
”N” stands for any Stories above those shown, up to Layer Layer Layer
the maximum. Refer to metrics for exact minimums 20 ft
and maximums

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC43


Table 15B. Form-based Code Graphics - T4 SMARTCODE
Municipality

T4 BUILDING CONFIGURATION
1. Building height shall be mea-
sured in number of Stories,
excluding Attics and raised
basements.
2. Stories may not exceed 14 Max. height
feet in height from finished
floor to finished ceiling, except N
for a first floor Commercial
2 Max. height
function which must be a 2
minumum of 11 ft with a
maximum of 25 ft. 1
1
3. Height shall be measured
(see Table 1) to the eave or roof deck as
specified on Table 8.
l. BUILDING FUNCTION (see Table 10 & Table 12)
Residential limited use
Lodging limited use
SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BLDG
Office limited use 1. The Facades and Elevations
Retail limited use of Principal Buildings shall be
distanced from the Lot lines
k. building configuration (see Table 8) as shown. (g.2)
Principal Building 3 stories max, 2 min 2. Facades shall be built along Corner Lot
the Principal Frontage to the (g.1) (g.4) Condition
Outbuilding 2 stories max. minimum specified width in
f. Lot occupation (see Table 14f) the table.
Lot Width 18 ft min 96 ft max Mid-Block
(g.1) (g.4) Condition
Lot Coverage 70% max (g.3)
i. BUILDING disposition (see Table 9)
Edgeyard permitted
Sideyard permitted
Rearyard permitted
Courtyard not permitted SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING
1. The Elevations of the Out-
g. SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BUILDING (see Table 14g) (h.2)
building shall be distanced
(g.1) Front Setback Principal 6 ft. min. 18 ft. max. from the Lot lines as shown.
(g.2) Front Setback Secondary 6 ft. min. 18 ft. max Corner Lot
(h.1) (h.3) Condition
(g.3) Side Setback 0 ft. min.
(g.4) Rear Setback 3 ft. min.*
Frontage Buildout 60% min at setback Mid-Block
(h.1) (h.3) Condition
h. SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING (see Table 14h)
(h.2)
(h.1) Front Setback 20 ft. min. + bldg. setback
(h.2) Side Setback 0 ft. min. or 3 ft at corner
(h.3) Rear Setback 3 ft. min

j. private fRONTAGEs (see Table 7)


Common Lawn not permitted PARKING PLACEMENT
Porch & Fence permitted 1. Uncovered parking spaces
may be provided within the
Terrace or L.C. permitted third Layer as shown in the Secondary Frontage

Forecourt permitted diagram (see Table 17d).


2. Covered parking shall be
Stoop permitted provided within the third Layer
Principal Frontage

Shopfront & Awning permitted as shown in the diagram (see


Table 17d).
Gallery permitted
3. Trash containers shall be
Arcade not permitted stored within the third Layer.
Refer to Summary Table 14
PARKING PROVISIONS
1st 2nd 3rd
See Table 10 & Table 11 Layer Layer Layer
20 ft
*or 15 ft. from center line of alley
”N” stands for any Stories above those shown, up to
the maximum. Refer to metrics for exact minimums
and maximums

SC44 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE Table 15C. Form-based Code Graphics - T5
Municipality

T5 BUILDING CONFIGURATION
1. Building height shall be mea-
sured in number of Stories,
excluding Attics and raised Max. height
basements.
N
2. Stories may not exceed 14
feet in height from finished
3
floor to finished ceiling, except
for a first floor Commercial 2 min. Max. height
function which must be a 2
minumum of 11 ft with a
maximum of 25 ft. 1
1
3. Height shall be measured
(see Table 1) to the eave or roof deck as
specified on Table 8.
l. BUILDING FUNCTION (see Table 10 & Table 12) 4. Expression Lines shall be as
shown on Table 8.
Residential open use
Lodging open use
SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BLDG
Office open use 1. The Facades and Elevations
Retail open use of Principal Buildings shall be
distanced from the Lot lines
k. building configuration (see Table 8) as shown.
Principal Building 5 stories max. 2 min. 2. Facades shall be built along (g.2)
the Principal Frontage to the
Outbuilding 2 stories max. minimum specified width in Corner Lot
the table. (g.1) (g.4)
f. Lot occupation (see Table 14f) Condition

Lot Width 18 ft min 180 ft max


Lot Coverage 80% max Mid-Block
(g.1) (g.4)
Condition
i. BUILDING disposition (see Table 9) (g.3)
Edgeyard not permitted
Sideyard permitted
Rearyard permitted
Courtyard permitted SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING
1. The Elevations of the Outbuild-
g. SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BUILDING (see Table 14g) ing shall be distanced from the
(g.1) Front Setback Principal 2 ft. min. 12 ft. max. Lot lines as shown.

(g.2) Front Setback Secondary 2 ft. min. 12 ft. max.


(h.2)
(g.3) Side Setback 0 ft. min. 24 ft. max.
Corner Lot
(g.4) Rear Setback 3 ft. min.* (h.1)
Condition
40 ft. max.
Frontage Buildout 80% min at setback
(h.3)
h. SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING (see Table 14h) Mid-Block
(h.1)
(h.1) Front Setback 40 ft. max. from rear prop. Condition

(h.2) Side Setback 0 ft. min. or 2 ft at corner


(h.3) Rear Setback 3 ft. max.

j. private fRONTAGEs (see Table 7)


Common Lawn not permitted PARKING PLACEMENT
Porch & Fence not permitted 1. Uncovered parking spaces
Terrace or L.C. permitted may be provided within the
third Layer as shown in the
Forecourt permitted diagram (see Table 17d). Secondary Frontage
Stoop permitted 2. Covered parking shall be
Shopfront & Awning permitted provided within the third Layer
Gallery permitted as shown in the diagram (see
Table 17d).
Principal Frontage

Arcade permitted
3. Trash containers shall be
Refer to Summary Table 14
stored within the third Layer.
PARKING PROVISIONS
See Table 10 & Table 11
*or 15 ft. from center line of alley 1st 2nd 3rd
”N” stands for any Stories above those shown, up to Layer Layer Layer
the maximum. Refer to metrics for exact minimums 20 ft
and maximums

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC45


Table 15D. Form-based Code Graphics - T6 SMARTCODE
Municipality

T6 BUILDING CONFIGURATION
1. Building height shall be mea- Max.
sured in number of Stories, height
excluding Attics and raised N
basements.
2. Stories may not exceed 14 feet 5
in height from finished floor to
finished ceiling, except for a 4
first floor Commercial Function
which must be a minumum 3
of 11 ft with with a maximum
of 25 ft. 2 min.
3. Height shall be measured to the
(see Table 1) eave or roof deck as specified 1
on Table 8.
l. BUILDING FUNCTION (see Table 10 & Table 12) 4. Stepbacks, Recess Lines, and
Extension Lines shall be as
Residential open use shown on Table 8.
Lodging open use
Office open use
Retail open use SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BLDG
1. The Facades and Elevations
k. building configuration (see Table 8) of Principal Buildings shall be
distanced from the Lot lines
Principal Building 8 stories max. 2 min. as shown. (g.2)
Outbuilding N/A 2. Facades shall be built along
the Principal Frontage to the Corner Lot
f. Lot occupation (see Table 14f) minimum specified width in (g.1) Condition
(g.4)
Lot Width 18 ft. min 700 ft. max the table.
Lot Coverage 90% max Mid-Block
(g.1) (g.4) Condition
i. BUILDING disposition (see Table 9)
(g.3)
Edgeyard not permitted
Sideyard not permitted
Rearyard permitted
Courtyard permitted

g. SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BUILDING (see Table 14g)


(g.1) Front Setback Principal 2 ft. min. 12 ft. max. PARKING PLACEMENT
(g.2) Front Setback Secondary 2 ft. min. 12 ft. max. 1. Uncovered parking spaces may
be provided within the third
(g.3) Side Setback 0 ft. min. 24 ft. max. Layer as shown in the diagram SecondaryFrontage
(g.4) Rear Setback 0 ft. min. (see Table 17d).
2. Covered parking shall be
Frontage Buildout 80% min. at setback provided within the third Layer Corner Lot
as shown in the diagram (see Condition
Principal Frontage

h. SETBACKS - OUTBUILDING (see Table 14h)


Table 17d).
Front Setback N/A 3. Trash containers shall be stored
Side Setback N/A within the third Layer. Mid-Block
Condition
Rear Setback N/A

j. private fRONTAGEs (see Table 7)


1st 2nd 3rd
Common Lawn not permitted Layer
Layer Layer
Porch & Fence not permitted
Terrace or L.C. not permitted
Forecourt permitted
Stoop permitted
Shopfront & Awning permitted
Gallery permitted
Arcade permitted
Refer to Summary Table 14
PARKING PROVISIONS
See Table 10 & Table 11
*or 15 ft. from center line of alley
”N” stands for any Stories above those shown, up to
the maximum. Refer to metrics for exact minimums
and maximums

SC46 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE TABLE 16. SPECIAL DISTRICT STANDARDS
Municipality
The metrics for each column of this table (SD1, SD2, etc.) are to be filled in for each Special District as they currently exist, or as they are permit-
ted.More pages can be added. Special Districts that do not have provisions within this Code shall be governed by the standards of the pre-existing
zoning.

SD1 SD2 SD3 SD4 SD5 SD6 SD7


a. ALLOCATION OF ZONES
CLD X
TND X
TOD X

b. BASE RESIDENTIAL DENSITY


By Right X
By TDR X
Other Functions X

c. BLOCK SIZE
Block Perimeter X

d. THOROUGHFARES
HW X
BV X
AV X
CS X
DR X
ST X
RD X
Rear Lane X
Rear Alley X
Path X
Passage X
Bicycle Trail X
Bicycle Lane X
Bicycle Route X

e. CIVIC SPACES
Park X
Green X
Square X
Plaza X
Playground X

f. LOT OCCUPATION

Disposition
Lot Width X
Lot Coverage X

g. SETBACKS - PRINCIPAL BUILDING


Front Setback X
Side Setback X
Rear Setback X

h. BUILDING DisposItion
Edgeyard X
Sideyard X
Rearyard X

i. PRIVATE FRONTAGES

Configuration
Common Yard X
Porch & Fence X
Terrace, Dooryard X
Forecourt X
Stoop X
Shopfront X
Gallery X
Arcade X
Parking Lot X

j. BUILDING CONFIGURATION
Principal Building X
Outbuilding X

k. BUILDING FUNCTION
Function

Residential X
Lodging X
Office X
Retail X

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC47


TABLE 17. DEFINITIONS ILLUSTRATED SMARTCODE
Municipality
a. THOROUGHFARE & FRONTAGES

Building Private Public Vehicular Public Private Building


Frontage Frontage Lanes Frontage Frontage

Private Lot Thoroughfare (R.O.W.) Private Lot


b. TURNING RADIUS c. BUILDING DISPOSITION

3 3

2
2
Parking Lane

Moving Lane

1
1- Principal Building
1 1
2- Backbuilding
1-Radius at the Curb 3- Outbuilding
2-Effective Turning Radius (± 8 ft)

d. LOT LAYERS e. FRONTAGE & LOT LINES

4 4
3rd layer
Secondary Frontage

2 1
4 4 4 3
20 feet

2nd layer
1-Frontage Line
3 3 2-Lot Line
Principal Frontage
1st layer
3-Facades
1 1 4-Elevations
1st layer
2nd & 3rd
layer

f. SETBACK DESIGNATIONS g. Network-Based Pedestrian Shed

3 3

2
1
2
1-Front Setback
2-Side Setback
1 1 3-Rear Setback

SC48 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Municipality

DEFINITIONS
This Article provides definitions for terms in this Code that are technical in nature or
that otherwise may not reflect a common usage of the term. If a term is not defined
in this Article, then the CRC shall determine the correct definition. Items in italics
refer to Articles, Sections, or Tables in the SmartCode.

A-Grid: cumulatively, those Thoroughfares that by virtue of their pre-existing


pedestrian-supportive qualities, or their future importance to pedestrian connectiv-
ity, are held to the highest standards prescribed by this Code. See B-Grid. (Syn:
primary grid.)
Accessory Building: an Outbuilding with an Accessory Unit.
Accessory Unit: an Apartment not greater than 440 square feet sharing owner-
ship and utility connections with a Principal Building; it may or may not be within
an Outbuilding. See Table 10 and Table 17. (Syn: ancillary unit)
Adjusted Pedestrian Shed: a Pedestrian Shed that has been adjusted according
to Section 3.2, creating the regulatory boundary of a Community Unit.
Affordable Housing: dwellings consisting of rental or for-sale units that have a
rent (including utilities) or mortgage payment typically no more than 30% of the
income of families earning no more than 80% of median incomes by family size for
the county. (Alt. definition: rental or for-sale dwellings that are economically within
the means of the starting salary of a local elementary school teacher.)
Allee: a regularly spaced and aligned row of trees usually planted along a Thor-
oughfare or Path.
Apartment: a Residential unit sharing a building and a Lot with other units and/or
uses; may be for rent, or for sale as a condominium.
Arcade: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use wherein the Facade is a
colonnade supporting habitable space that overlaps the Sidewalk, while the Facade
at Sidewalk level remains at the Frontage Line.
Attic: the interior part of a building contained within a pitched roof structure.
Avenue (AV): a Thoroughfare of high vehicular capacity and low to moderate speed,
acting as a short distance connector between urban centers, and usually equipped
with a landscaped median.
B-Grid: cumulatively, those Thoroughfares that by virtue of their use, location, or
absence of pre-existing pedestrian-supportive qualities, may meet a standard lower
than that of the A-Grid. See A-Grid. (Syn: secondary grid.)
BRT: see Bus Rapid Transit.
Backbuilding: a single-Story structure connecting a Principal Building to an Out-
building. See Table 17.
Base Density: the number of dwelling units per acre before adjustment for other
Functions and/or TDR. See Density.
Bed and Breakfast: an owner-occupied Lodging type offering 1 to 5 bedrooms,
permitted to serve breakfast in the mornings to guests.
Bicycle Lane (BL): a dedicated lane for cycling within a moderate-speed vehicular
Thoroughfare, demarcated by striping.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC49


ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS SMARTCODE
Municipality

Bicycle Route (BR): a Thoroughfare suitable for the shared use of bicycles and
automobiles moving at low speeds.
Bicycle Trail (BT): a bicycle way running independently of a vehicular Thoroughfare.
Block: the aggregate of private Lots, Passages, Rear Alleys and Rear Lanes,
circumscribed by Thoroughfares.
Block Face: the aggregate of all the building Facades on one side of a Block.
Boulevard (BV): a Thoroughfare designed for high vehicular capacity and moderate
speed, traversing an Urbanized area. Boulevards are usually equipped with Slip
Roads buffering Sidewalks and buildings.
Brownfield: an area previously used primarily as an industrial site.
Bus Rapid Transit: a rubber tire system with its own right-of-way or dedicated
lane along at least 70% of its route, providing transit service that is faster than a
regular bus.
By Right: characterizing a proposal or component of a proposal for a Community
Plan or Building Scale Plan (Article 3, Article 4, or Article 5) that complies with the
SmartCode and is permitted and processed administratively, without public hearing.
See Warrant and Variance.
CLD or Clustered Land Development: a Community Unit type structured by a
Standard Pedestrian Shed oriented toward a Common Destination such as a general
store, Meeting Hall, schoolhouse, or church. CLD takes the form of a small settle-
ment standing free in the countryside. See Table 2 and Table 14a. (Syn: Hamlet,
Conservation Land Development, cluster)
CRC: Consolidated Review Committee.
Civic: the term defining not-for-profit organizations dedicated to arts, culture, educa-
tion, recreation, government, transit, and municipal parking.
Civic Building: a building operated by not-for-profit organizations dedicated to arts,
culture, education, recreation, government, transit, and municipal parking, or for
use approved by the legislative body.
Civic Parking Reserve: Parking Structure or parking lot within a quarter-mile of
the site that it serves. See Section 5.9.2.
Civic Space: an outdoor area dedicated for public use. Civic Space types are defined
by the combination of certain physical constants including the relationships among their
intended use, their size, their landscaping and their Enfronting buildings. See Table 13.
Civic Zone: designation for public sites dedicated for Civic Buildings and Civic
Space.
Commercial: the term collectively defining workplace, Office, Retail, and Lodging
Functions.
Common Destination: An area of focused community activity, usually defining the
approximate center of a Pedestrian Shed. It may include without limitation one or
more of the following: a Civic Space, a Civic Building, a Commercial center, or a
transit station, and may act as the social center of a neighborhood.
Common Yard: a planted Private Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from
the Frontage line. It is visually continuous with adjacent yards. See Table 7.
Community Unit: a regulatory category defining the physical form, Density, and
extent of a settlement. The three Community Unit types addressed in this Code are

SC50 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Municipality

CLD, TND, and RCD. Variants of TND and RCD for Infill (Article 4) are called Infill
TND and Infill RCD. The TOD Community Unit type may be created by an overlay
on TND or RCD.
Configuration: the form of a building, based on its massing, Private Frontage, and
height.
Consolidated Review Committee (CRC): Usually part of the Planning Office, a
CRC is comprised of a representative from each of the various regulatory agencies
that have jurisdiction over the permitting of a project, as well as a representative of
the Development and Design Center. See Section 1.4.3.
Corridor: a lineal geographic system incorporating transportation and/or Greenway
trajectories. A transportation Corridor may be a lineal Transect Zone.
Cottage: an Edgeyard building type. A single-family dwelling, on a regular Lot, often
shared with an Accessory Building in the back yard.
Courtyard Building: a building that occupies the boundaries of its Lot while internally
defining one or more private patios. See Table 9.
Curb: the edge of the vehicular pavement that may be raised or flush to a Swale.
It usually incorporates the drainage system. See Table 4A and Table 4B.
DDC: Development and Design Center.
Density: the number of dwelling units within a standard measure of land area.
Design Speed: is the velocity at which a Thoroughfare tends to be driven without
the constraints of signage or enforcement. There are four ranges of speed: Very
Low: (below 20 MPH); Low: (20-25 MPH); Moderate: (25-35 MPH); High: (above
35 MPH). Lane width is determined by desired Design Speed. See Table 3A.
Developable Areas: lands other than those in the O-1 Preserved Open Sector.
Development and Design Center (DDC): A component of the Planning Office
assigned to advise on the use of this Code and to aid in the design of the Com-
munities and buildings based on it.
Disposition: the placement of a building on its Lot. See Table 9 and Table 17.
Dooryard: a Private Frontage type with a shallow Setback and front garden or patio,
usually with a low wall at the Frontage Line. See Table 7. (Variant: Lightwell, light
court.)
Drive: a Thoroughfare along the boundary between an Urbanized and a natural
condition, usually along a waterfront, Park, or promontory. One side has the urban
character of a Thoroughfare, with Sidewalk and building, while the other has the
qualities of a Road or parkway, with naturalistic planting and rural details.
Driveway: a vehicular lane within a Lot, often leading to a garage. See Section 5.10
and Table 3B-f.
Edgeyard Building: a building that occupies the center of its Lot with Setbacks on
all sides. See Table 9.
Effective Parking: the amount of parking required for Mixed Use after adjustment
by the Shared Parking Factor. See Table 11.
Effective Turning Radius: the measurement of the inside Turning Radius taking
parked cars into account. See Table 17.
Elevation: an exterior wall of a building not along a Frontage Line. See Table 17.
See: Facade.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC51


ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS SMARTCODE
Municipality

Encroach: to break the plane of a vertical or horizontal regulatory limit with a


structural element, so that it extends into a Setback, into the Public Frontage, or
above a height limit.
Encroachment: any structural element that breaks the plane of a vertical or hori-
zontal regulatory limit, extending into a Setback, into the Public Frontage, or above
a height limit.
Enfront: to place an element along a Frontage, as in “porches Enfront the
street.”
Estate House: an Edgeyard building type. A single-family dwelling on a very large
Lot of rural character, often shared by one or more Accessory Buildings. (Syn:
country house, villa)
Expression Line: a line prescribed at a certain level of a building for the major
part of the width of a Facade, expressed by a variation in material or by a limited
projection such as a molding or balcony. See Table 8. (Syn: transition line.)
Extension Line: a line prescribed at a certain level of a building for the major part
of the width of a Facade, regulating the maximum height for an Encroachment by
an Arcade Frontage. See Table 8.
Facade: the exterior wall of a building that is set along a Frontage Line. See Elevation.
Forecourt: a Private Frontage wherein a portion of the Facade is close to the
Frontage Line and the central portion is set back. See Table 7.
Frontage: the area between a building Facade and the vehicular lanes, inclusive of
its built and planted components. Frontage is divided into Private Frontage and
Public Frontage. See Table 4A and Table 7.
Frontage Line: a Lot line bordering a Public Frontage. Facades facing Frontage
Lines define the public realm and are therefore more regulated than the Elevations
facing other Lot Lines. See Table 17.
Function: the use or uses accommodated by a building and its Lot, categorized
as Restricted, Limited, or Open, according to the intensity of the use. See Table 10
and Table 12.
Gallery: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use wherein the Facade is
aligned close to the Frontage Line with an attached cantilevered shed or lightweight
colonnade overlapping the Sidewalk. See Table 7.
GIS (Geographic Information System): a computerized program in widespread
municipal use that organizes data on maps.The protocol for preparing a Regional
Plan should be based on GIS information. See Section 2.1.
Green: a Civic Space type for unstructured recreation, spatially defined by landscap-
ing rather than building Frontages. See Table 13.
Greenfield: an area that consists of open or wooded land or farmland that has not
been previously developed.
Greenway: an Open Space Corridor in largely natural conditions which may include
trails for bicycles and pedestrians.
Greyfield: an area previously used primarily as a parking lot. Shopping centers and
shopping malls are typical Greyfield sites. (Variant: Grayfield.)
Growth Sector: one of four Sectors where development is permitted By Right in
the SmartCode, three for New Communities and one for Infill. See Article 2.

SC52 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Municipality

Hamlet: See CLD. (Syn: cluster, settlement.)


Highway: a rural and suburban Thoroughfare of high vehicular speed and capacity.
This type is allocated to the more rural Transect Zones (T-1, T-2, and T-3).
Home Occupation: non-Retail Commercial enterprises. The work quarters should
be invisible from the Frontage, located either within the house or in an Outbuilding.
Permitted activities are defined by the Restricted Office category. See Table 10.
House: an Edgeyard building type, usually a single-family dwelling on a large Lot,
often shared with an Accessory Building in the back yard. (Syn: single.)
Infill: noun - new development on land that had been previously developed, includ-
ing most Greyfield and Brownfield sites and cleared land within Urbanized areas.
verb- to develop such areas.
Infill RCD: a Community Unit type within an Urbanized, Greyfield, or Brownfield
area based on a Long or Linear Pedestrian Shed and consisting of T-4, T-5, and/or
T-6 Zones. An Infill RCD is permitted By Right in the G-4 Infill Growth Sector and
is regulated by Article 4. See Section 4.2.3. (Var: downtown.)
Infill TND: a Community Unit type within an Urbanized, Greyfield, or Brownfield
area based on a Standard Pedestrian Shed and consisting of T-3, T-4, and/or T-5
Zones. An Infill TND is permitted By Right in the G-4 Infill Growth Sector and is
regulated by Article 4. See Section 4.2.2. (Var: neighborhood.)
Inn: a Lodging type, owner-occupied, offering 6 to 12 bedrooms, permitted to serve
breakfast in the mornings to guests. See Table 10.
Layer: a range of depth of a Lot within which certain elements are permitted. See
Table 17.
Lightwell: A Private Frontage type that is a below-grade entrance or recess designed
to allow light into basements. See Table 7. (Syn: light court.)
Linear Pedestrian Shed: A Pedestrian Shed that is elongated along an important
Mixed Use Corridor such as a main street. A Linear Pedestrian Shed extends
approximately 1/4 mile from each side of the Corridor for the length of its Mixed Use
portion. The resulting area is shaped like a lozenge. It may be used to structure a
TND, RCD, Infill TND, or Infill RCD. (Syn: elongated pedestrian shed.)
Liner Building: a building specifically designed to mask a parking lot or a Parking
Structure from a Frontage.
Live-Work: a Mixed Use unit consisting of a Commercial and Residential Function.
The Commercial Function may be anywhere in the unit. It is intended to be occupied
by a business operator who lives in the same structure that contains the Commercial
activity or industry. See Work-Live. (Syn.: flexhouse.)
Lodging: premises available for daily and weekly renting of bedrooms. See Table
10 and Table 12.
Long Pedestrian Shed: a Pedestrian Shed that is an average 1/2 mile radius or 2640
feet, used when a transit stop (bus or rail) is present or proposed as the Common
Destination. A Long Pedestrian Shed represents approximately a ten-minute walk
at a leisurely pace. It is applied to structure an RCD Community Unit type. See
Pedestrian Shed.
Lot: a parcel of land accommodating a building or buildings of unified design. The
size of a Lot is controlled by its width in order to determine the grain (i.e., fine grain
or coarse grain) of the urban fabric.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC53


ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS SMARTCODE
Municipality

Lot Line: the boundary that legally and geometrically demarcates a Lot.
Lot Width: the length of the Principal Frontage Line of a Lot.
Main Civic Space: the primary outdoor gathering place for a community.The Main
Civic Space is often, but not always, associated with an important Civic Building.
Manufacturing: premises available for the creation, assemblage and/or repair of
artifacts, using table-mounted electrical machinery or artisanal equipment, and
including their Retail sale.
Meeting Hall: a building available for gatherings, including conferences, that accom-
modates at least one room equivalent to a minimum of 10 square feet per projected
dwelling unit within the Pedestrian Shed in which it is located.
Mixed Use: multiple Functions within the same building through superimposition
or adjacency, or in multiple buildings by adjacency, or at a proximity determined by
Warrant.
Net Site Area: all developable land within a site including Thoroughfares but exclud-
ing land allocated as Civic Zones.
Network Pedestrian Shed: a Pedestrian Shed adjusted for average walk times
along Thoroughfares. This type may be used to structure Infill Community Plans.
See Table 17.
Office: premises available for the transaction of general business but excluding
Retail, artisanal and Manufacturing uses. See Table 10.
Open Space: land intended to remain undeveloped; it may be for Civic Space.
Outbuilding: an Accessory Building, usually located toward the rear of the same
Lot as a Principal Building, and sometimes connected to the Principal Building by
a Backbuilding. See Table 17.
Park: a Civic Space type that is a natural preserve available for unstructured rec-
reation. See Table 13.
Parking Structure: a building containing one or more Stories of parking above
grade.
Passage (PS): a pedestrian connector, open or roofed, that passes between build-
ings to provide shortcuts through long Blocks and connect rear parking areas to
Frontages.
Path (PT): a pedestrian way traversing a Park or rural area, with landscape match-
ing the contiguous Open Space, ideally connecting directly with the urban Sidewalk
network.
Pedestrian Shed: An area that is centered on a Common Destination. Its size
is related to average walking distances for the applicable Community Unit type.
Pedestrian Sheds are applied to structure Communities. See Standard, Long,
Linear or Network Pedestrian Shed. (Syn: walkshed, walkable catchment.)
Planter: the element of the Public Frontage which accommodates street trees,
whether continuous or individual.
Plaza: a Civic Space type designed for Civic purposes and Commercial activities in
the more urban Transect Zones, generally paved and spatially defined by building
Frontages. 
Principal Building: the main building on a Lot, usually located toward the Frontage.
See Table 17.

SC54 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Municipality

Principal Entrance: the main point of access for pedestrians into a building.
Principal Frontage: On corner Lots, the Private Frontage designated to bear the
address and Principal Entrance to the building, and the measure of minimum Lot
width. Prescriptions for the parking Layers pertain only to the Principal Frontage.
Prescriptions for the first Layer pertain to both Frontages of a corner Lot. See
Frontage.
Private Frontage: the privately held Layer between the Frontage Line and the
Principal Building Facade. See Table 7 and Table 17.
Public Frontage: the area between the Curb of the vehicular lanes and the Front-
age Line. See Table 4A and Table 4B.
RCD: see Regional Center Development.
Rear Alley (RA): a vehicular way located to the rear of Lots providing access to
service areas, parking, and Outbuildings and containing utility easements. Rear
Alleys should be paved from building face to building face, with drainage by inverted
crown at the center or with roll Curbs at the edges.
Rear Lane (RL): a vehicular way located to the rear of Lots providing access to
service areas, parking, and Outbuildings and containing utility easements. Rear
Lanes may be paved lightly to Driveway standards. The streetscape consists of
gravel or landscaped edges, has no raised Curb, and is drained by percolation.
Rearyard Building: a building that occupies the full Frontage Line, leaving the rear
of the Lot as the sole yard. See Table 9. (Var: Rowhouse, Townhouse, Apartment
House)
Recess Line: a line prescribed for the full width of a Facade, above which there is
a Stepback of a minimum distance, such that the height to this line (not the overall
building height) effectively defines the enclosure of the Enfronting public space.
Var: Extension Line. See Table 8.
Regional Center: Regional Center Development or RCD.
Regional Center Development (RCD): a Community Unit type structured by a Long
Pedestrian Shed or Linear Pedestrian Shed, which may be adjoined without buffers
by one or several Standard Pedestrian Sheds, each with the individual Transect
Zone requirements of a TND. RCD takes the form of a high-Density Mixed Use
center connected to other centers by transit. See Infill RCD, Table 2 and Table 14a.
(Var: town center, downtown. Syn: Regional Center)
Regulating Plan: a Zoning Map or set of maps that shows the Transect Zones, Civic
Zones, Special Districts if any, and Special Requirements if any, of areas subject
to, or potentially subject to, regulation by the SmartCode.
Residential: characterizing premises available for long-term human dwelling.
Retail: characterizing premises available for the sale of merchandise and food
service. See Table 10 and Table 12.
Retail Frontage: Frontage designated on a Regulating Plan that requires or recom-
mends the provision of a Shopfront, encouraging the ground level to be available
for Retail use. See Special Requirements.
Road (RD): a local, rural and suburban Thoroughfare of low-to-moderate vehicular
speed and capacity. This type is allocated to the more rural Transect Zones (T1-T3).
See Table 3A.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC55


ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS SMARTCODE
Municipality

Rowhouse: a single-family dwelling that shares a party wall with another of the
same type and occupies the full Frontage Line. See Rearyard Building. (Syn:
Townhouse)
Rural Boundary Line: the extent of potential urban growth as determined by exist-
ing geographical determinants. The Rural Boundary Line is permanent.
Sector: a neutral term for a geographic area. In the SmartCode there are six specific
Sectors for regional planning that establish the legal boundaries for Open Space
and development.
Secondary Frontage: on corner Lots, the Private Frontage that is not the Principal
Frontage. As it affects the public realm, its First Layer is regulated. See Table 17.
Setback: the area of a Lot measured from the Lot line to a building Facade or
Elevation that is maintained clear of permanent structures, with the exception of
Encroachments listed in Section 5.7. See Table 14g. (Var: build-to-line.)
Shared Parking Factor: an accounting for parking spaces that are available to
more than one Function. See Table 11.
Shopfront: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use, with substantial glazing
and an awning, wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line with the
building entrance at Sidewalk grade. See Table 7.
Sidewalk: the paved section of the Public Frontage dedicated exclusively to pedes-
trian activity.
Sideyard Building: a building that occupies one side of the Lot with a Setback on
the other side. This type can be a Single or Twin depending on whether it abuts the
neighboring house. See Table 9.
Slip Road: an outer vehicular lane or lanes of a Thoroughfare, designed for slow
speeds while inner lanes carry higher speed traffic, and separated from them by a
planted median. (Syn: access lane, service lane)
Specialized Building: a building that is not subject to Residential, Commercial, or
Lodging classification. See Table 9.
Special District (SD): an area that, by its intrinsic Function, Disposition, or Configu-
ration, cannot or should not conform to one or more of the normative Community
Unit types or Transect Zones specified by the SmartCode. Special Districts may
be mapped and regulated at the regional scale or the community scale.
Special Flood Hazard Area: a designation by the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) that may include the V (Velocity) Zones and Coastal A Zones
where building construction is forbidden, restricted, or contingent upon raising to
the Base Flood Elevation.
Special Requirements: provisions of Section 3.9, Section 4.7, and Section 5.3 of
this Code and/or the associated designations on a Regulating Plan or other map
for those provisions.
Square: a Civic Space type designed for unstructured recreation and Civic purposes,
spatially defined by building Frontages and consisting of Paths, lawns and trees,
formally disposed. See Table 13.
Standard Pedestrian Shed: a Pedestrian Shed that is an average 1/4 mile radius
or 1320 feet, about the distance of a five-minute walk at a leisurely pace. See
Pedestrian Shed.

SC56 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Municipality

Stepback: a building Setback of a specified distance that occurs at a prescribed


number of Stories above the ground. See Table 8.
Stoop: a Private Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line
with the first Story elevated from the Sidewalk for privacy, with an exterior stair and
landing at the entrance. See Table 7.
Story: a habitable level within a building, excluding an Attic or raised basement.
See Table 8.
Street (ST): a local urban Thoroughfare of low speed and capacity. See Table 3B
and Table 4B.
Streetscreen: a freestanding wall built along the Frontage Line, or coplanar with the
Facade. It may mask a parking lot from the Thoroughfare, provide privacy to a side
yard, and/or strengthen the spatial definition of the public realm. (Syn: streetwall.)
See Section 5.7.5f.
Substantial Modification: alteration to a building that is valued at more than 50%
of the replacement cost of the entire building, if new.
Swale: a low or slightly depressed natural area for drainage.
T-zone: Transect Zone.
TDR: Transfer of Development Rights, a method of relocating existing zoning rights
from areas to be preserved as Open Space to areas to be more densely urban-
ized.
TDR Receiving Area: an area intended for development that may be made more
dense by the purchase of development rights from TDR Sending Areas.
TDR Sending Area: an area previously zoned for development within a designated
Reserved Open Sector (O-2), from which development rights may be transferred
to a Growth Sector.
Terminated Vista: a location at the axial conclusion of a Thoroughfare. A build-
ing located at a Terminated Vista designated on a Regulating Plan is required or
recommended to be designed in response to the axis.
Thoroughfare: a way for use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to provide
access to Lots and Open Spaces, consisting of Vehicular Lanes and the Public
Frontage. See Table 3A, Table 3B and Table 17a.
TND: Traditional Neighborhood Development, a Community Unit type structured
by a Standard Pedestrian Shed oriented toward a Common Destination consisting
of a Mixed Use center or Corridor, and in the form of a medium-sized settlement
near a transportation route. See Table 2 and Table 14a. (Syn: village. Variant: Infill
TND, neighborhood.)
TOD: Transit Oriented Development. TOD is created by an overlay on all or part of
a TND or RCD, or by designation on a Regional Plan, permitting increased Density
to support rail or Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as set forth in Section 5.9.2d.
Townhouse: See Rearyard Building. (Syn: Rowhouse)
Transect: a cross-section of the environment showing a range of different habitats.
The rural-urban Transect of the human environment used in the SmartCode tem-
plate is divided into six Transect Zones. These zones describe the physical form
and character of a place, according to the Density and intensity of its land use and
Urbanism.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC57


ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS SMARTCODE
Municipality

Transect Zone (T-zone): One of several areas on a Zoning Map regulated by the
SmartCode. Transect Zones are administratively similar to the land use zones in
conventional codes, except that in addition to the usual building use, Density, height,
and Setback requirements, other elements of the intended habitat are integrated,
including those of the private Lot and building and Public Frontage. See Table 1.
Turning Radius: the curved edge of a Thoroughfare at an intersection, measured
at the inside edge of the vehicular tracking. The smaller the Turning Radius, the
smaller the pedestrian crossing distance and the more slowly the vehicle is forced
to make the turn. See Table 3B and Table 17.
Urban Boundary Line: the extent of potential urban growth as determined by
the projected demographic needs of a region. The Urban Boundary Line may be
adjusted from time to time.
Urbanism: collective term for the condition of a compact, Mixed Use settlement,
including the physical form of its development and its environmental, functional,
economic, and sociocultural aspects.
Urbanized: generally, developed. Specific to the SmartCode, developed at T-3
(Sub-Urban) Density or higher.
Variance: a ruling that would permit a practice that is not consistent with either a
specific provision or the Intent of this Code (Section 1.3). Variances are usually
granted by the Board of Appeals in a public hearing. See Section 1.5.
Warrant: a ruling that would permit a practice that is not consistent with a specific
provision of this Code, but that is justified by its Intent (Section 1.3). Warrants are
usually granted administratively by the CRC. See Section 1.5.
Work-Live: a Mixed Use unit consisting of a Commercial and Residential Func-
tion. It typically has a substantial Commercial component that may accommodate
employees and walk-in trade. The unit is intended to function predominantly as
work space with incidental Residential accommodations that meet basic habitability
requirements. See Live-Work. (Syn: Live-With.)
Yield: characterizing a Thoroughfare that has two-way traffic but only one effec-
tive travel lane because of parked cars, necessitating slow movement and driver
negotiation. Also, characterizing parking on such a Thoroughfare.
Zoning Map: the official map or maps that are part of the zoning ordinance and
delineate the boundaries of individual zones and districts. See Regulating Plan.

SC58 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Adaptive
Agricultural Reuse
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by T o w n -G r e e n : S t e v e C o y l e and Daniel Dunigan

_____________________________________________

Because we don't think about future generations, they


will never forget us.

Henrik Tikkanen
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Adaptive Agricultural Reuse


ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS
of Marginal Agricultural and Pasture
The text on the righthand page is available to activate
lands THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION and Table AAR-1 as regulatory.
Celulosic BIOFUELS Production
Two Reuse Programs
The first program consists of growing trees for carbon
sequestration; the second, cultivating dedicated, non-food
energy crops in marginal agriculture, pasture, and aban- CIVIC ZONES
doned lands instead of prime arable land. Both provide Some examples of Carbon Sequestration Areas used as
benefits to the soil, the economy, the environment, and Civic Space are groves, forests, orchards, and meadows
the city or town. where hiking and birdwatching is permitted, or forested/
These programs may be administered by municipalities, planted greenways that include bikeways. A comprehensive
counties, townships, state, or other governmental agencies, approach to community planning should include attention
and/or by private and non-profit organizations. The planting to multi-function spaces.
and maintenance of tree stands for carbon sequestration, Biofuel production and Carbon Sequestration Areas may
and the cultivation and harvesting of cellulosic biofuels, certainly occur outside planned Community Units, prefer-
may occur on public or private land. ably as part of a Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)
Carbon Sequestration through Reforestation and program. See Section 2.4.3 of the base code. However,
Afforestation if these areas are not within walking distance of the resi-
Carbon sequestration through reforestation and afforesta- dents of the Community Unit, they cannot be counted as
tion (developing new forests) consists of the long-term part of the SmartCode's Civic Space allocation for that
absorption and storage of carbon dioxide or other forms pedestrian shed.
of carbon through tree planting. Besides mitigating cli- The Consolidated Agrarian Settlement (CAS) and Clus-
mate change effects, planting or replanting of trees on tered Land Development (CLD) Community Units are
marginal crop and pasture lands can create greenbelts especially appropriate for DACS and Cellulosic Biofuels
around and between urban areas, and transfers CO2 from programs as described on the following pages, because of
the atmosphere to the new biomass. Applications may their rural character. See Section 3.3. of the base code for
include linear tree stands at urban edges, tree farms and/ Community Unit types.
or productive fruit and nut orchards that sequester carbon (The Consolidated Agrarian Settlement is introduced in
during the healthy life of the tree. Version 10 of the SmartCode.)
Cellulosic Biofuels Grown on Marginal Crop and
Pasture Lands
Cellulosic Biofuels are non-food crops or inedible waste
energy fuels produced from wood, grasses, or the non-edi-
ble parts of plants. Food prices and land use are not likely
to be negatively affected by the growing of new sources
of cellulosic biofuels and biomass on marginal crop and
pasture lands, nor by converting the crop into fuel through
bioenergy technologies. Examples range from sustainably
farmed switchgrass, a native perennial grass capable of
producing high yields on otherwise non-forested, fallow
land, to willow, planted and sustainably managed on
marginal land without irrigation or fertilizer.

SCM2 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE ADAPTIVE AGRICULTURAL REUSE
Municipality

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS

3.X Specific to zones T1, T2


a. Cellulosic biofuel farming of wood, grasses, or non-food plants shall meet or exceed
the latest 2010 draft of the Council on Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP)
Standards for dedicated energy products.

3.X CIVIC ZONES


3.X.X. Civic Space (CS) Specific to Zones T1, T2, T3
x. Carbon Sequestration Areas within the Community Unit that are also available
for public recreation shall be permitted by Warrant within the appropriate Civic
Space for the Transect Zone, as provided on Table AAR-1 Biofuels & Carbon
Sequestration and Table 13 Civic Space.

ARTICLE 5. Building & Lot Scale Plans

5.X BUILDING FUNCTION


5.X Specific to zones T1, T2
x. Cellulosic biofuel farming of wood, grasses, or non-food plants shall meet or
exceed the latest 2010 draft of the Council on Sustainable Biomass Production
(CSBP) Standards for dedicated energy products.
x. Biofuel production shall be permitted by Warrant as provided on Table AAR-1
Biofuels & Carbon Sequestration and Table 12 Specific Function and Use.
5.X.X Specific To Zones T1, T2, T3
x. Carbon Sequestration Areas shall be permitted by Warrant as provided on Table
AAR-1 Biofuels & Carbon Sequestration and Table 12 Specific Function and
Use.

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


Biofuel: energy derived from a renewable biological source
Cellulosic: comprised of plant material
CO2e: the unit of measurement used to compare the relative climate impact of the
different greenhouse gases. The CO2e quantity of any greenhouse gas is the amount
of carbon dioxide that would produce the equivalent global warming potential.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC3


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

TABLE AAR-1. BIOFUELS & • Bio-energy may be generated and supplied in the
CARBON SEQUESTRATION same area, reducing or eliminating the installation of
pipelines. Consolidated Agricultural Settlement (see
This table may be advisory only, or activated as regulatory
the v10 SmartCode) may be incentivized through
by the text on the preceding page.
the permitting of such facilities on the landowner's
existing farm or ranch.
Cellulosic Biofuels Grown on Marginal Crop and
• The jurisdiction can implement a TDR program to help
Pasture Lands
preserve existing and potential biofuel crop lands.
1. The program consists of market and/or regulatory incen-
tives for the cultivation of dedicated, non-food energy 5. Cellulosic biofuels reduce CO2e, the unit of measurement
crops in marginal agriculture, pasture, and abandoned used to compare the relative climate impact of the different
public and private land. greenhouse gases. (The CO2e quantity of any greenhouse
gas is the amount of carbon dioxide that would produce
2. While biomass energy can be derived from garbage,
the equivalent global warming potential.) On February 3,
wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels, this program
2010, the EPA finalized new regulations for the National
is limited to plants approved, recommended, and/or certi-
Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2010 and beyond.
fied by the Council on Sustainable Biomass Production
This program will increase the required volumes of renew-
(CSBP) Standards for dedicated energy products. These
able fuel to 36 billion gallons per year by 2022.
may include miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, poplar, and
willow, though the first two contain the highest potential
for conversion into a biofuel or biodiesel. The program Carbon Sequestration Program Components
should not include biomass sources primarily used for the 1. The program consists of methodology for sequestering
generation of heat, especially those that emit significant carbon through tree planting on public and private land.
amounts of carbon dioxide, methane or nitrous oxide. 2. The program requires an agreement between a jurisdic-
2. The market incentives for the landowner / farmer for tion or an independent management entity representing
cellulosic biofuel cultivation consist of the potential revenue the jurisdiction, and individual private property owners
stream from harvesting biofuel crops from marginal lands. or public property agencies.
Public lands may be leased for private cultivation. Addi- 3. Each agreement requires that the landowner plant and
tional benefits include an increase in the ecological value maintain tree stands on a designated parcel or parcels pre-
of the land and protection from built development. approved by the jurisdiction. Each transaction benefits both
3. The program anticipates that, over the next ten years, parties: the landowner receives a revenue stream from the
cellulosic biofuel crops [e.g., switchgrass or miscanthus] jurisdiction based on the monetized carbon market value
that don't require deep tilling will begin to replace both of the permanent carbon sequestration, in total CO2e
corn-based biofuels and fossil-fuel fertilized conventional metric tons. Additional benefits include an increase in
row crops in the agricultural market place. the ecological value of the land and protection from built
4. The jurisdiction can provide both market and regulatory development.
incentives consisting of: 4. Each agreement requires the protection of the land from
• The development of a biorefinery facility that integrates any type of wood harvesting or adverse uses in perpetuity
cellulosic/biomass conversion processes and equip- using one of the following approaches:
ment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added • Purchase Carbon/No Harvest: Landowner plants
chemicals from biomass. Biorefineries will become trees and retains responsibility for crop maintenance
standard facilities for producing biologically-active up to 99 years with a guarantee of no timber harvest.
chemicals and materials from biomass. The jurisdic- Jurisdiction purchases carbon credits for 99 years,
tion may employ zoning and economic development renewable.
funding as incentives for the facility, and to create a • Lease/No Harvest: Jurisdiction's agent leases land for
market for local biofuel crop yields. 99 years usage, plants trees and retains responsibility
for crop maintenance for 99 years with a guarantee of
no timber harvest. Jurisdiction retains carbon rights
for 99 years, renewable. (continued)

SCM4 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE TABLE AAR-1: BIOFUELS & CARBON SEQUESTRATION
Municipality

Table AAR-1: Biofuels & Carbon Sequestration. This table provides ways of incorporating Cellulosic Biofluel production and Carbon Sequestra-
tion orchards and tree farms along the Transect.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Specific

Cellulosic Biofuels Circular Crop Plan

▫ ▫

Cellulosic Biofuels Row Crop Plan

▫ ▫

Sequestration Orchard Plan

▫ ▫ ▫

Sequestration Green Belt Plan

▫ ▫

▪ BY RIGHT
▫ BY WARRANT

© S teve C oyle , D aniel D unigan 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC5
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

• Donate/No Harvest: Landowner or jurisdiction's 9. The program requires verification and reporting protocols
agent plants trees. Landowner donates land in Year to assess the continued health and growth or productiv-
5 to a qualified land management agency or non- ity of each eco-parcel and certify periodic estimates of
profit; jurisdiction retains carbon rights for 99 years, sequestration values.
renewable. 10. Besides a formal program, trees can be "infilled" or
• Donate/Thin: Landowner or jurisdiction's agent plants planted along public rights-of-way as part of its urban
trees. Landowner donates land in Year 5 to a qualified forest program.
land management agency or non-profit; jurisdiction
retains carbon rights at least 99 years, renewable. Additional Program Considerations
• Lease/Harvest: Jurisdiction's agent leases land for 99 1. Both programs require customization, beginning with the
years usage, plants trees and retains responsibility for research of and adaptation to the environmental, economic,
crop maintenance up to 99 years with a guarantee of no political, and social context. They require initial research
timber harvest. Jurisdiction retains carbon rights up to in biogeochemistry, soil science, range management sci-
99 years. Forest is harvested between Year 71-100. ence, plant ecology and ecosystem ecology to determine
the best approach for long-term carbon storage in trees and
• For landowner of forest land, the “exercise price” soil, and for the production of periodic cellulosic biofuel
for each of these options is the present value of the wood, grasses, or non-food plants.
discounted capital costs associated with conducting
the specific activity. The “donate” option only can be 2. The programs can result in the creation and sustaining of
exercised in Project Year 5. The “Thin” option only multi-function, biologically diverse greenbelts, croplands,
can be exercised in Year 50 at the earliest. orchards, and forests around cities and within counties,
while incentivizing the reclamation, enhancement, and
5. The jurisdiction may develop a local mechanism to protection of marginal agriculture, pasture, and abandoned
secure the carbon credits derived from the sequestration. lands. The sequestration of carbon and the production of
For example, the city could develop a local "carbon bank" non-food biofuels will reduce atmospheric CO2e, while
for the sale, purchase, and transfer of carbon credits. the growing of cellulosic biofuels offers farmers a local
6. Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) may be consid- rotational or dedicated non-till crop. Combined with
ered to redirect urban growth away from sequestration or the development of a local biorefinery, the program can
"sending" areas and toward "receiving areas" appropriate provide a marketable biofuel product, and/or a source of
for sustainable development. The sending area landown- clean community energy.
ers receive compensation for preserving the sequestration 3. As a first step, a small demonstration project is recom-
land, and receiving area owners or developers experience mended to implement a program with minimal risk.
greater profits; the jurisdiction implements its sequestration
goals using little or no community funds.
7. The program requires, for each target region, an esti-
mate of the lands both suitable and available for long-term
tree planting, each landowner's commitment to fulfill the
program agreement, and the jurisdiction’s capacity to set
up, administer, and manage the program.
8. A minimum land area threshold of about 20 acres per
contract is recommended for accounting purposes, though
smaller parcels may be aggregated into larger, single hold-
ings. Tree stands may be grown in linear configurations
sufficiently wide to maintain a functional wind break,
habitat needs, visual screening, or "blow-over" protection
from shallow root species such as Douglas fir.

SCM6 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE APPENDIX: BIOFUELS & CARBON SEQUESTRATION
Municipality

Estimated CO2e Metric Tons Sequestration Values


The values below represent general benefits from each program, and should be locally calibrated for each specific
application of this Module. This Appendix is advisory only.

Carbon Sequestration Values


Mean Annual Seq.
TYPE UNIT CO2e - metric tons
per acre per year

vineyard/orchard per acre .59 to 1.68 [1]


oak woodlands per acre 3.71 [2]
coniferous forest per acre 8.89 [2]
grasslands/shrub per acre unknown [3]
urban per tree

[1] Source: Kroodsma and Field (2006)


[2] Source: Baldacci et al. (unpublished)
[3] not quantified (no factor) and offset by grazing emissions

EROEI (Energy Return on Energy Invested)

FUEL SOURCE EROEI


biodiesel 3:1
coal 1:1 to 10:1
ethanol 1.2: 1
natural gas 1:1 to 10:1
hydropower 10:1
hydrogen 0.5:1
nuclear 4:1
oil 1.1 to 100:1
oil sands 2:1
solar PV 1:1 to 10:1
Cellulosic Biofuel vs. Conventional Fuel Values
wind 3:1 to 20:1
CO2 emissions/gallon gasoline = 19.4 pounds/gallon
Source: Dana Visalli, 2006 CO2 emissions/gallon diesel = 22.2 pounds/gallon
www.energybulletin.net/node/14745 CO2 emissions/gallon cellulosic = 5.04 pounds/gallon

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC7


Affordable Housing
Incentives
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by Munsun Park, Sandy Sorlien and E m i ly T a l e n

_____________________________________________

Exclusionary, discriminatory, and unnecessary regula-


tions constitute formidable barriers to affordable hous-
ing, raising costs by 20% to 35% in some communities.

Jack Kemp

© M unsun P ark , S andy S orlien and E mily T alen V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

The Affordable Housing Incentives Module is regulatory. 1.X AFFORDABLE HOUSING Incentives
It is written with "shall" language to be inserted into the See also the notes for the Incentives Module, subsections
Base Code with little or no modification. 1.X.1a, g & h. Other incentives may be added particular to
The extent to which this content may be implemented the local situation. For example, if there are oversized lots
is subject to state law and local political support. If the in an area where the community supports adding afford-
municipality is unable to mandate these standards, they able housing, a subdivision incentive may be possible,
may be changed to "should" language, especially where whereby a property owner can create a substandard lot if
"shall" appears in colored text, or included in a separate it is dedicated to a deed-restricted affordable unit.
set of design guidelines. Municipalities may want to specify a percentage of afford-
able housing after which the incentives would apply.
It is important to design affordable units so that there is no
discernable outward difference between them and nearby
market rate units.
For more detailed policy provisions, see the Affordable
Housing Policy Guide at www.transect.org.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Affordable Housing Incentives
Municipality

ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS


1.X AFFORDABLE HOUSING INCENTIVES
1.X.1 To encourage the provision of Affordable Housing, the Legislative Body grants the
following incentives:
a. Applications containing Affordable Housing that meets this Code shall be pro-
cessed administratively by the CRC. Others shall be processed by Variance.
b. Applications containing Affordable Housing shall be processed with priority over
others, including those with earlier filing dates, providing that other applications
are not pushed past their deadlines.
c. Highest priority for processing and for approval shall be given to applications
involving partnership with a community land trust or other non-profit organization
responsible for ensuring the long-term retention of the Affordable Housing.
d. The municipality shall waive or reduce review fees for applications containing
Affordable Housing.
e. The municipality may increase Density for projects containing Affordable Housing.
f. The municipality may waive or reduce parking requirements for Affordable Hous-
ing units located within a quarter mile of a transit stop.
g. The municipality shall provide a property tax exemption for Affordable Housing
units meeting established criteria.

© M unsun P ark , S andy S orlien and E mily T alen V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
Affordable Housing
Policy Guide
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by H u r l e y -F r a n k s & A s s o c i at e s : J e n n i f e r H u r l e y & N i c o l e B r o w n

_____________________________________________

Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In


small places, close to home - so close and so small that
they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. Yet they
are the world of the individual person; the neighborhood
he lives in; the school or college he attends; the factory,
farm, or office where he works. Such are the places where
every man, woman, and child seeks equal justice, equal
opportunity, equal dignity without discrimination.Unless
these rights have meaning there, they have little mean-
ing anywhere. Without concerted citizen action to uphold
them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in
the larger world.

Eleanor Roosevelt
SMARTCODE MODULE TABLE OF CONTENTS
Municipality Author: Hurley-Franks & Associates
Draft: June 2, 2009

affordable housing policy - summary table ................................... 2

Regulation ....................................................................................................... 3

Development / management ...................................................................... 4

financing ........................................................................................................... 5

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 1


SMARTCODE MODULE AFFORDABLE HOUSING POLICY - SUMMARY TABLE
Municipality Author: Hurley-Franks & Associates
Draft: June 2, 2009

This document
is intended as
an introductory
educational piece to
encourage discussion
and implementation
of affordable housing
programs and policies.
It does not contain
regulatory language.
T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core

REGULATION Tenure Driver


a. Accessory Dwelling Units A M M L R/HO G/D
b. Density Bonus R L L M M R/HO G
c. Efficient Development Review A M M A A R/HO G
Process
d. Flexible Rehabilitation Codes A A M M M R/HO G
e. Inclusionary Zoning R L L L L R/HO G
f. Modest Minimum Lot Sizes R M M L L R/HO G
g. Rent Control R R R L L R G
h. Street Vacation R L L M M R/HO G
i. Diverse Housing Types/Sizes L M M L L R/HO D/G

DEVELOPMENT / MANAGEMENT
a. Affordable Housing Deed Covenants L M M M L HO N
b. Community Land Trust L M M M L R/HO N
c. Katrina Cottages M M M L R/HO D/G
d. Limited-Equity Condominium R R L M M HO N
e. Limited-Equity Cooperative R R L M M HO N
f. Manufactured Housing M L L R R/HO D/G
g. Single-Room Occupancy Buildings R L M M R N/G

FINANCING
a. Downpayment Assistance Programs A A M M A HO G
b. Fee Waivers A M M A A R/HO G
c. Historic Preservation Tax Credits A A M M M R G
d. Housing Trust Funds A A M M A R/HO G
e. Infill Incentives R R M M L R/HO G
f. Linkage Fees A A A M M R/HO G
g. Live Near Your Work Program R L M M M HO G
h. Location Efficient Mortgage L M M M HO G
i. Low Income Housing Tax Credits A A M M M R G
j. Real Estate Transfer Tax A A A M M R/HO G

KEY
Analysis of Tools Tenure Driver
R - Restricted: There may be significant R = Rental Refers to primary responsibility for initiating or
negative impacts or the tool may simply not managing.
HO = Homeownership
work in this context. The tool should be used
G = Government
only after detailed analysis and with clear
public support. D = Developer
N = Non-Profit Organization
L - Limited: There may be significant negative
impacts, the tool may have limited positive Note that the developer can be for-profit or
impacts in this context, or there may be nonprofit.
significant public opposition. Proceed with
caution.

A - Applicable: The tool is likely to have


positive impacts in this context.

M - Most Effective: The tool is likely to have


noticeable positive impacts in this context,
and is unlikely to have negative impacts or
generate significant public opposition.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 2


SMARTCODE MODULE REGULATION
Municipality Author: Hurley-Franks & Associates
Draft: June 2, 2009

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
a. Accessory Dwelling Units:
Permitting accessory dwelling units or “granny flats” not only allows for some lower-cost rental units to be
interspersed within a majority of homeownership units, it also provides extra income for the homeowner.
Accessory units can increase the diversity of income levels living in a neighborhood.
A M M L
www.mrsc.org/Publications/textadu.aspx
www.policylink.org/EDTK/HTF/action.html

b. Density Bonus:
Density bonuses permit increased density in exchange for development of affordable housing. Generally, density
bonus are 15-25%, but many cities have a flexible density bonus. Where there is a maximum percentage rate, the
city can negotiate a rate with a developer. The city must decide whether bonus units are dedicated only to affordable R L L M M
housing and whether they will include single-family developments in addition to multi-family housing projects.
www.huduser.org/rbc/newsletter/vol2iss4more.html
www.livableplaces.org/policy/densitybonus.html

c. Efficient Development Review Process:


An efficient development review process is imperative in reducing the cost barrier to affordable housing development.
www.planning.org/thecommissioner/2000/sum.htm A M M A A
www.ci.madison.wi.us/planning/BPG_Final_for%20weba.pdf

d. Flexible Rehabilitation Code:


A flexible rehabilitation code helps reduce the cost of rehabilitation by avoiding excessive requirements for
materials or size of materials. Stringent requirements can result in neglected or abandoned buildings. A A M M M
www.state.nj.us/dca/codes/rehab/pioneerart.shtml
www.huduser.org/rbc/FirstTimer.html

e. Inclusionary Zoning:
Inclusionary zoning requires developers to dedicate a specific percentage of housing units for low income or
low-moderate income households. There should not be any outward qualitative difference in units. This can
be either mandatory or incentive-driven. The range of incentives may include fee waivers, density bonuses, or
variances. Inclusionary zoning may be combined with a voluntary fee-in-lieu program, providing the option of R L L L L
developing the housing or paying into a housing fund. Inclusionary zoning should be applied regionally or over
a relatively large geographic area, to avoid displacement effects.
www.policylink.org
www.realtor.org/libweb.nsf/pages/fg806
f. Modest Minimum Lot Sizes:
A modest minimum lot size allows more homes to be built on a specific plot of land, thereby increasing the ability to include
dedicated affordable housing in a development. Furthermore, modest lot sizes in a code generally aid in controlling all
R M M L L
homeownership costs, not just for the dedicated affordable units.
www.mrsc.org/Publications/textaht.aspx#smalllots
www.housingworksri.org/matriarch/MultiPiecePage.asp_Q_PageID_E_9_A_PageName_E_everythingbuilding
g. Rent Control:
Rent control is a legal mechanism that limits the amount of rent that can be charged and the percentage it may
be increased in a given year. Rent control laws are useful in tight housing markets where even renting housing
units is cost-prohibitive for many income levels. Rent control laws also deal with a landlord’s responsibility to
R R R L L
make repairs and negotiate lease renewals and the eviction process. The overall effect of rent control on the
functioning of housing markets is controversial.
www.real-estate-law.freeadvice.com/landlord_tenant/rent-control.htm
www.econlib.org/library/Enc/RentControl.html
h. Street Vacation:
A city can give a development an unused or unneeded street, alley or public-right-of-way, restricting the use to
affordable housing. Any street vacation should be analyzed carefully to avoid reducing connectivity. R L L M M
www.spokaneengineering.org/streetvacation.htm
www.seattle.gov/transportation/streetvacations.htm
i. Diverse Housing Types/Sizes:
Encouraging a mix of housing types and sizes will organically allow for diversity in the population of a neighborhood.
People of different generations and income groups will live in adjacent units, without a specific law or mandate
dictating who should live where. L M M L L
www.mrsc.org/Publications/textaht.aspx
http://www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5136725/k.EE25/All_Tools.htm

M - Most Effective A - Applicable L - Limited R - Restricted


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 3
SMARTCODE MODULE DEVELOPMENT / MANAGEMENT
Municipality Author: Hurley-Franks & Associates
Draft: June 2, 2009

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
a. Affordable Housing Deed Covenants: A deed covenant is a signed document from a homeowner living
in an affordable housing unit, stipulating that when the current homeowner sells the property, it will stay
affordable in perpetuity. Deed covenants can be structured in various ways. Some prevent the homeowner
from building equity, while others allow the homeowner to benefit from some equity increase. L M M M L
www.landwatch.org/pages/issuesactions/housing/050101recommendations.htm
www.nhhfa.org/rl_docs/plandocs/HousingSolutions/Appendix/COVENANT.doc

b. Community Land Trust: A community land trust (CLT) is one mechanism that allows people to purchase
a house without purchasing the underlying land, making homeownership more affordable. The CLT is a
nonprofit, community-based organization whose mission is to provide affordable housing in perpetuity.
The CLT and the homeowner agree to a long-term lease agreement (typically 99 years). Among the
homeowner’s rights are the rights to privacy, the exclusive use of the property, and the right to bequeath
the property and the lease. The CLT has the right to purchase the house when and if the owner wants to
sell, based on a resale formula that balances the interests of the owner's profits with the long-term goals L M M M L
of the CLT to preserve housing affordability in perpetuity. In addition, if buildings become deteriorated,
the CLT can force repairs; if the homeowners are at risk for default, the CLT can and does act to forestall
the default.
www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5136895/k.7746/Community_Land_Trusts.htm
www.iceclt.org/clt

c. Katrina Cottages: Katrina Cottages were born from design charrettes following Hurricane Katrina. They
were designed to be an alternative to the temporary FEMA trailers. Katrina Cottages are affordable starter
homes that are safe and dignified. Many of the designs are expandable, so the cottage can grow with the
homeowner over time, or become an accessory building to a principal dwelling. M M M L
www.katrinacottages.com/index.html
www.katrinacottagehousing.org

d. Limited-Equity Condominium: Limited Equity Condominium (LEC) is a type of homeownership established


by state statutes. They are similar to regular condos in that a property is divided into multiple units that
are sold separately, but with LECs, an owner cannot sell the unit for its market price. LECs are generally
used in conjunction with deed covenants, land trusts, or other mechanisms, where the owner can sell
the unit according to a set formula. The formula is typically the original selling price plus inflation, but this
is not necessarily the only formula for determining the new selling price. The owner of a unit also owns R R L M M
a share of all the common area property. Unlike regular condos, LEC condo associations own nothing,
which may create difficulties in obtaining loans for repairs and rehabilitation.
www.weown.net/index1.htm
www.clronline.org/resources/app/WhitePaperCondominium.pdf/view

e. Limited-Equity Cooperative: Limited-Equity Cooperative (LECo) is similar to LEC, but a LECo is a


resident-controlled corporation that owns the entire property, and individual residents own shares of
stock in the corporation. In a LECo, the resident does not need a mortgage for the unit, and the purchase
price of the shares is relatively low. When the resident leaves the LECo, they sell the stock, based on an
affordable, pre-determined formula, but not the unit as with a condo. Because there is no down payment R R L M M
or mortgage, a LECo is an easily accessible form of homeownership for many different income groups.
www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5137049/k.A9DF/Limited_Equity_Housing_Coop.htm
www.weown.net/index1.htm

f. Manufactured Housing: Manufactured housing maintains low cost per square foot, making it an attractive
affordable housing development option in areas with high construction costs. In order to protect community
character, zoning and building code permitting must also require appropriate urban design elements. M L L R
www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/communitydevelopment/W02-11_apgar_et_al.pdf
www.frbsf.org/publications/community/investments/0508/assembly.pdf

g. Single-Room Occupancy (SRO) Buildings: SRO buildings typically shelter many at-risk people, such
as those suffering AIDS, homelessness, mental illness or drug/alcohol addiction. In theory, an SRO will
house people in single rooms, but in practice it varies from dormitory-style housing to private single
rooms, with shared facilities. They can be unpopular in the community, but they provide housing for a R L M M
percentage of the population that would not find housing elsewhere.
www.ccsro.org

M - Most Effective A - Applicable L - Limited R - Restricted

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 4


SMARTCODE MODULE FINANCING
Municipality Author: Hurley-Franks & Associates
Draft: June 2, 2009

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
a. Downpayment Assistance Programs: Often with a first-time homebuyer, the largest barrier to
homeownership is not the monthly mortgage payments but the down payment. Downpayment Assistance
Programs provide downpayment grants to the homebuyer. Typically these grants range from two to six
percent of the home’s sale price and depend on the maximum gift amount allowed by the lender. A A M M A
www.lendingtree.com/smartborrower/Down-payments/Down-payment-assistance-programs.aspx
www.nehemiahcorp.org/

b. Fee Waivers: Fee waivers or reductions are often applied to housing developments based on the
percentage of affordable housing units. The percentage of fee reduction usually depends on the
percentage of included affordable housing units. Typically, fee waivers or reductions are only for new
construction, but it is possible to apply them to larger scale rehabilitation projects. In some cases, these
programs are combined with employer incentives and location requirements to develop Live Near Your A M M A A
Work programs. (See g.)
www.ci.austin.tx.us/ahfc/smart_waivers.htm
www.oaklandnet.com/BlueRibbonCommission/PDFs/BlueRibbon11-WCLP.pdf

c. Historic Preservation Tax Credits: Historic Preservation Tax Credits (HPTC) is a federal program run
by the IRS and administered through the National Park Service and State Historic Preservation Offices.
The program gives a 20% tax credit for the certified rehabilitation of certified historic structures. The
project must involve substantial rehabilitation efforts and the structure itself must be depreciable (i.e.,
income-producing). The property must be retained by the owner for at least five years after the completion A A M M M
of the renovation.
www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/tax/brochure1.htm
www.state.il.us/hpa/ps/taxcredits.htm

d. Housing Trust Funds: Housing trust funds are specific funds allocated by a public agency, such as the
city, county or state, that may only be used for housing. Typically, they serve the needs of low income
households (below 80% Area Median Income), but could also be used for other pre-determined special
needs groups. Housing trust funds are generally used for affordable housing development and construction
projects, but are sometimes used for rental assistance. The funds come from various public sources, A A M M A
which may include but are not limited to: real estate taxes and fees, developer fees, other taxes and fees,
repayments on loan programs, and interest from government-held and market-based accounts.
www.bpichicago.org/documents/RegionalToolKit.pdf
www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5137005/k.DB1/Housing_Trust_Funds.htm

e. Infill Incentives: Infill incentives are used to promote the redevelopment of vacant land or the rehabilitation
of properties in urbanized areas. Because sites like these are generally more difficult to acquire and
develop than greenfield sites, infill incentives seek to redress common development barriers. Incentives
may include fast tracking of permits, density bonuses, zoning waivers, fee waivers or reductions. R R M M L
www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5137445/k.A34D/Infill_Incentives.htm
www.mrsc.org/Subjects/Planning/infilldev.aspx

f. Linkage Fees: Linkage fees apply to areas where retail, industrial or office building growth is outpacing
residential growth, causing unaffordable housing. A fee is levied on the developer of a new commercial,
industrial or office property during the building permit application process. Proceeds from the fee finance
an affordable housing fund.
www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5136851/k.2F58/Commercial_Linkage_Strategies.htm A A A M M
www.bpichicago.org/documents/RegionalToolKit.pdf

M - Most Effective A - Applicable L - Limited R - Restricted

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 5


SMARTCODE MODULE FINANCING
Municipality Author: Hurley-Franks & Associates
Draft: June 2, 2009

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
g. Live Near Your Work Program: Live Near Your Work Programs may be administered through regional,
state or local agencies to encourage people to end long commutes and live near the workplace. In
expensive housing markets, it is important that blue-collar and essential service workers have access to
affordable housing. Many localities have set up programs to aid homebuyers in purchasing homes close R L M M M
to the workplace, often partnering with large local employers.
www.dnr.state.md.us/education/growfromhere/lesson15/MDP/LNYW.htm
www.mwcog.org/commuter2/employer/employer_live_near_your_work.htm

h. Location Efficient Mortgage: Location Efficient Mortgages (LEMs) allow urban homeowners to increase
borrowing capacity due to close proximity to public transit and neighborhood walkability. This reduces the
need for a car or multiple cars in households and thereby the expense of car ownership. LEMs support
homeownership in areas that are densely populated and are well served by public transit and other L M M M
services. Currently LEMs are only available in a few locations throughout the US.
www.locationefficiency.com/
www.nrdc.org/cities/smartGrowth/qlem.asp

i. Low Income Housing Tax Credits: Low Income Housing Tax Credits is a program run by the Internal
Revenue Service and administered at the state level by state finance housing agencies. Companies
invest in low income housing development projects and receive 10-year tax credits. Projects must be
new construction, rehabilitation, or acquisition and rehabilitation. To be eligible, a project must meet the
following criteria: 20% or more of the residential units are rent controlled and occupied by individuals
whose income is 50% or less of the Area Median Income (AMI), or 40% or more of the residential units
are rent controlled and occupied by individuals whose income is 60% or less of the AMI, and housing must A A M M M
be eligible to be affordable for 30 years. The IRS issues tax credits to the state housing finance agency,
which then reviews affordable housing development proposals and awards tax credits to the developer.
In exchange for further equity financing, the developer “sells” the tax credits to investors.
www.realtor.org/libweb.nsf/pages/fg720
www.danter.com/taxcredit/about.htm
www.hud.gov/offices/fheo/lihtcmou.cfm

j. Real Estate Transfer Tax: A real estate transfer tax is a tax collected by the local or state government
when a property changes owners. This helps discourage speculation in a gentrifying neighborhood. The
fees are directed to an affordable housing fund and to new services that benefit long-time residents.
www.policylink.org/site/c.lkIXLbMNJrE/b.5137597/k.80AA/Real_Estate_Transfer_Taxes.htm A A A M M
www.realtor.org/libweb.nsf/pages/fg717#topica

M - Most Effective A - Applicable L - Limited R - Restricted

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 6


Architectural Standards
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o .

_____________________________________________

Architecture is the art of making places.

Robert Campbell

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

5.14 ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS


This optional Module contains basic Architectural Stan-
dards for Buildings. These provisions contribute to a visu-
ally harmonious urban fabric, easing the public’s acceptance
of mixed functions in adjacency, and in some instances,
supporting the superior environmental performance of
traditional building technique. More complete and more
detailed Modules, in the form of more elaborate standards
or full pattern books, may be used instead. Such Modules
are available from New Urbanist suppliers listed on the
website www.smartcodecentral.com.
Some municipalities may decide not to regulate archi-
tectural matters. However, many of these standards,
besides their aesthetic effects, also have health and public
safety purposes, such as crime prevention by increasing
“eyes on the street,” that may be cited as support for their
implementation.
5.14.1c This assures a minimum of visual harmony. “Ver-
tical” may be replaced by “horizontal” where modernist
architecture is desired.
5.14.1.f & g These provisions should be removed where
modernist architecture is desired. Even codes that promote
sloped roofs should allow flat roofs when permanently
dedicated to roof gardens or green roofs. Such roof gardens,
if they are to be used, should be easily accessible from a
room on the roof.
5.14.1g Other materials may be added to this list as the
community wishes. For example, eighty percent of the
new housing in the Northeast has vinyl siding. But its use
is controversial. While it initially contributes to housing
affordability, some vinyl has not proved durable. According
to the Vinyl Siding Institute, the latest premium products
are more colorfast and durable than they have been in the
past, with warranties against fading and yellowing. Still,
the authors of this Manual recommend cementitious siding
or wood if price allows.
This provision is for Facades only; calibrators should
consider also regulating the side elevations.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS
Municipality

5.14 ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS


5.14.1 General to Zones T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Building wall materials may be combined on each Facade only horizontally, with
the heavier below the lighter.
b. Streetscreens should be constructed of a material matching the adjacent building
Facade.
c. All openings, including porches, Galleries, Arcades and windows, with the excep-
tion of Shopfronts, shall be square or vertical in proportion.
d. Openings above the first Story shall not exceed 50% of the total building wall
area, with each Facade being calculated independently.
e. Doors and windows that operate as sliders are prohibited along Frontages.
f. Pitched roofs, if provided, shall be symmetrically sloped no less than 5:12, except
that roofs for porches and attached sheds may be no less than 2:12.
g. The exterior finish material on all Facades shall be limited to brick, wood siding,
cementitious siding and/or stucco.
h. Flat roofs shall be enclosed by parapets a minimum of 42 inches high, or as
required to conceal mechanical equipment to the satisfaction of the CRC.
i. Balconies and porches shall be made of painted wood.
j. Fences at the first Lot Layer shall be painted. Fences at other Layers may be of
wood board or chain link.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Bicycling
SmartCode Module
Prepared by M i k e Ly d o n , with Zachary Adelson and To n y G a r c i a

_____________________________________________

The bicycle is the most efficient machine ever created:


Converting calories into gas, a bicycle gets the equiva-
lent of three thousand miles per gallon.

Bill Strickland
SMARTCODE BICYCLING MODULE TABLE OF CONTENTS

BICYCLING STANDARDS
1.3 INTENT
3.7 THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS
5.9 PARKING AND DENSITY CALCULATIONS
5.10 PARKING LOCATION STANDARDS

Bikeway & FACILITY TYPE Summary TABLE B1, FOR ARTICLE 6


Bikeway Types TABLE B2, FOR ARTICLE 6
Bicycle Parking Requirements TABLE B3, FOR ARTICLE 6
Bicycle Parking FACILITY TYPES TABLE B4, FOR ARTICLE 6
Bicycle Parking - GENERAL Location STANDARDS TABLE B5, FOR ARTICLE 6

Definitions of Terms FOR ARTICLE 7

COMPLETE THOROUGHFARE Assemblies WITH BikewayS FOR ARTICLE 6, TABLE 4C

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC3


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

SMARTCODE MODULE - BicyclING BICYCLING STANDARDS


This Bicycling Module is transect-based. All or part of it ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS
may be adopted with a customized SmartCode as regula- 1.3 INTENT
tory, advisory, or merely permissive ("shall," "should" or These goals may be added to the Intent section of the base
"may") or it may be provided as an auxiliary set of guide- SmartCode.
lines for developers and/or municipalities. Any mandatory
regulations must be activated by the sections on the facing
page or similar language. Even advisory or permissive
standards are more likely to be used if they are activated
by text within the code.
The Bicycle Tables may need further calibration with By
Right and Warrant bullets, as local regulations, politics,
and physical conditions require. While all Bikeways,
Bicycle Parking Facilities, and Countermeasures require
site-specific analysis and informed judgment for appli-
cability, "By Right" shall mean that the proposed facility
is applicable and permitted, while "Warrant" shall mean
that further analysis is almost always appropriate. Spaces
left blank in a table mean that a facility is generally not
compatible with that Transect Zone in terms of habitat
character.
The Bicycle Module tables may be appropriate in various ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY PLANS
places in Article 6, before the SmartCode Summary Table 3.7 THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS
14. As always, the insertion of new tables will require the If any tables of this Module are to be mandatory or advi-
renumbering of subsequent tables and a Find/Replace of sory for New Community Plans (the public realm), they
those numbers throughout the code text. The Bikeway should be activated using this or similar language in the
Assemblies should be included with other Thoroughfare code text. The word "shall" may be replaced with "should"
Assemblies, found in the Complete Thoroughfares Module if the tables are merely advisory.
(formerly Table 4C). Bicycle lanes and other bikeways that widen the right-
If any part of this Module is used, the appropriate defini- of-way are not advised for new thoroughfares designed
tions should be added to Article 7 during calibration. for the urban contexts of T-3, T-4, T-5, and T-6. They
are, however, useful for retrofitting overwide existing
thoroughfares.
The Existing Thoroughfares Module is helpful for codes
that apply only to already urbanized areas, i.e., the G-4
Sector. For such codes, the sections here may be correlated
to that Module, albeit with different numbering, and then
into the final code.

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS


5.9 PARKING & DENSITY CALCULATIONS
5.10 PARKING LOCATION STANDARDS
If any tables of this Module are to be mandatory or advi-
sory for the private realm, they should be activated using
this or similar language in the code text.

SCM4 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE BiCYCLING STANDARDS
Municipality

ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS


1.3 INTENT
1.3.1 The Region
i That development should provide contextual Bikeways for both short and long
distance movement, as well as bicycle parking facilities for short and long term
storage.
j. That the regional Bikeway network should be well-integrated with the regional
and local transit network.
1.3.2 The Community
j. That Civic, institutional, and Commercial destinations should adapt their facilities
to accommodate bicyclists.
k. That bicycle parking types may correspond to the rural-to-urban Transect, but
should be efficiently allocated by land use type, building size, and/or number of
residents/employees.
l. That bicycling should be recognized as an essential form of transportation and
recreation within neighborhoods and throughout the region.
m. That the local Bikeway network should be well-integrated with regional and local
transit network.
n. That new Thoroughfares in urban contexts should be designed to target speeds
that are safe for bicyclists without dedicated Bicycle Lanes.

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY PLANS


3.7 Thoroughfare Standards
3.7.2 Vehicular Lanes
b. A Bikeway network consisting of shared use Bicycle Trails, shared use Bicycle
Paths, Bicycle Routes, and/or Bicycle Lanes shall be provided throughout the
community, as defined in Article 7 Definitions of Terms and allocated according
to Table B2.
c. All Thoroughfares shall permit bicycling, with the exception of limited-access
Highways.
d. All Bikeway and Countermeasure pavement markings and safety and wayfind-
ing signing shall adhere to the same standards as automobile Vehicular Lane
markings and signing.
e. Bicycle Trails and Bicycle Paths shall be physically separated from motor vehicle
Thoroughfares, except for intersection crossings.
3.7.3 Public Frontages
a. Specific to zones T4, T5, T6
iv. Within the Public Frontages, the prescribed types of bicycle parking facilities
shall be as shown in Table B4 and Table B5.

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS


5.9 PARKING AND DENSITY CALCULATIONS
5.9.3 Bicycle Parking Requirements general to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. The amount of bicycle parking required per lot shall be regulated by Table B3.
5.10 PARKING LOCATION STANDARDS
5.10.6 Bicycle Parking Location Standards specific to zones T4, T5, T6
d. Location and type of bicycle parking shall be regulated by Table B4 and Table B5.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC5


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

TABLE B1. Bikeway & FACILITY TYPE


SUMMARY
This table coordinates 18 types of Bikeways, Bicycle
Parking Facilities, and Countermeasures (which mitigate
unsafe or unappealing bicycling conditions) for construct-
ing new thoroughfares or retrofitting existing ones. These
techniques and measures are by no means comprehensive,
as site specific design is encouraged and local calibration
essential. Some known bicycling accommodations are
intentionally omitted from this module because they com-
promise other aspects of urbanism. For example, Wide
Curb Lanes unnecessarily expand roadway width, thereby
encouraging automobile speeding, while not meaningfully
attracting bicycle use - probably for that very reason.
Each of these 18 types is applied to one or more of the
Transect Zones, yet existing conditions or other limitations
may require one or more of them to be deleted, or other
types added, in the calibration.
For example, the more intensive Bikeway design tech-
niques, including bicycle lanes, are not necessary within
the more urban zones of a greenfield site because urban
thoroughfares based on the SmartCode are designed from
the beginning to be safe for bicycling. However, in exist-
ing urbanism it is often advisable to convert excessive
space dedicated to automobiles to space for pedestrians
and bicyclists. Therefore some Bikeways are marked as
suitable for retrofit only.

Additional Resources:
Bicycle Boulevard Planning and Design Guidebook, Ini-
tiative for Bicycle and Pedestrian Innovation <www.ibpi.
usp.pdx.edu/guidebook.php>
Cycle Tracks: Lessons Learned, Alta Planning + Design
<www.altaplanning.com/cycle+tracks.aspx>
FHWA Rails-With-Trails: Lessons Learned Report, Federal
Highway Administration <www.fhwa.dot.gov/environ-
ment/rectrails/rwt/>
BIKESAFE: Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System
<www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikesafe/>
Cities for Cycling, National Association of City Transporta-
tion Officials <www.nacto.org/workshops.html>

SCM6 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Bikeway & Facility TYPE SUMMARY
Municipality

Table B1: Bikeway & Facility Type Summary - This table prescribes opportunities for the placement of Bikeways, facilities, and Countermeasures
across the Transect.

Note: All requirements


in this Table are subject
to calibration for local
context.

natural RURAL
T1 zone T2 zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL
URBAN T5 URBAN
CENTER T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict
zone zone
a. Bikeway Types
Shared Use Bicycle Trail permitted permitted permitted
Shared Use Bicycle Path permitted permitted permitted Warrant Warrant
Bicycle Lane (Conventional) permitted permitted permitted retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant Warrant
Shared Vehicular Lanes permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant
b. Bicycle Parking
Bicycle Rack (standard) Warrant permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant

Bicycle Rack (decorative, public art) Warrant Warrant Warrant Warrant permitted permitted Warrant
Bicycle Shelter Warrant permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant

Bicycle Locker Warrant permitted Warrant Warrant permitted permitted Warrant


Bicycle Station Warrant permitted Warrant
c. Bikeway Countermeasures
Safety and Route Signing permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant
Peg-a-Track Warrant permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant

Shared Vehicular Lane Marking (Sharrow) permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant

Bicycle Inductor Loop Warrant permitted permitted permitted permitted Warrant

Physically-Separated Bicycle Lane Warrant Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant Warrant

Contra-Flow Bicycle Lane Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant Warrant

Buffered Bicycle Lane Warrant Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant Warrant
Bicycle Box Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant retrofit by Warrant Warrant
Shoulder permitted permitted Warrant Warrant

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC7
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

BIKEWAY TYPES For example, a physically-separated bicycle lane (cycle


This table prescribes placement of the basic types of track) provides a high level of service, but is only appro-
Bikeways across the Transect. They may or may not priate where intersections and curb cuts are limited and/
be part of a marked Bicycle Route. They include: two or where turning conflicts can be mitigated with Coun-
types of shared use facilities to be used equitably with termeasures, like the two-stage signalized left-turn that
pedestrians, including runners, and other non-motorized includes bicycle queuing space, or other similar design
transport, i.e., Bicycle Trails in more rural Transect techniques.
Zones, and Bicycle Paths in more urban Transect Zones; In this Module, Shared Use facilities may be either
various types of Bicycle Lanes (conventional, buffered, Bicycle Trails or Bicycle Paths. The two terms are often
physically-separated, etc.), and all Shared Vehicular used interchangeably, but there are important distinctions
Lanes, including Bicycle Boulevards. Specific subtypes in detailing and use that correspond to the Transect. A
are shown in the Assemblies and Definitions sections of Bicycle Trail is more appropriate for rural environments
this Module. Bicycle Lanes are appropriate for the retrofit where it is used mainly for recreational purposes, as fewer
of existing overwide thoroughfares, but if added to new destinations exist along its trajectory. Bicycle Trails may
thoroughfares in urban contexts, they may have nega- follow more meandering, scenic routes, may use a wider
tive impacts on safety by increasing thoroughfare width variety of surface treatments (pavement or a more pervi-
and therefore automobile speed and pedestrian crossing ous material such as compact gravel or dirt), and typically
distance, and by increasing intersection conflicts. intersect with fewer thoroughfares than their more urban
The language on the right side of this table is regulatory. counterparts. Bicycle Trails generally attract less use than
Some localities may require or prefer that regulatory Bicycle Paths, and may be as narrow as a single-track
language appear in the main text. mountain bike trail.
As with the SmartCode's thoroughfares for motor vehicles, A Bicycle Path is more urban in character, is almost always
a Bikeway consists of the Riding Surface (the actual paved with asphalt or concrete, and is used for utility and
roadbed or pathway on which the bicycle travels) and its commuting as well as recreation. It typically requires more
Public Frontage, if the latter is specific to the Bikeway. intensive stormwater considerations, lighting, and detailed
In the case of a Bicycle Lane, because it is already part pavement markings. Other SmartCode Modules are helpful
of a multi-use thoroughfare, the Public Frontage speci- in this regard, including Light Imprint, Sustainable Urban-
fied in the Assemblies of this Module matches that for ism, Light Levels, Lighting Design, and Landscape.
the associated Complete Thoroughfare for Table 4C. See Bicycle Paths are appropriate within greenways, parks,
also Table 4A of the base code. Calibrators must take and waterfronts in urban Transect Zones, and alongside
care to reconcile the various options. some urban rail right-of-ways. Thoroughfare crossings
New Bikeways should provide identifiable and safe con- may occur, but should be unobtrusive so that movement
nections to an existing regional or community-scale Bike- may remain safe and as continuous as possible.
way network, and should increase access to recreation, Although the conversion of underutilized railroad right-of-
employment, education and commercial amenities. They ways to shared use Bikeways is increasingly common due
should also connect to the existing transit network. to the Rails-to-Trails movement, rail infrastructure should
A complete Bikeway network includes a rich tapestry of be preserved for future use as transit. The preferred "Rails-
types that accommodate the many skill levels and prefer- with-Trails" include their own design standards (See:
ences of bicyclists. It is especially important to attract FHWA Rails-With-Trails: Lessons Learned Report).
those who want to bicycle, but have been deterred by the In North America, innovative Countermeasure applica-
perception - and reality - of unsafe conditions. tions, many inspired by success in Europe, are in various
When selecting a Bikeway type, the existing vehicular stages of experimentation. Shared Vehicular Lane Markings
thoroughfare width, traffic speed and volume, land use, (Sharrows) were recently adopted into the 2009 Manual
urban form, etc. must be analyzed. Next, a communal on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Two
vision for future urban character must be coordinated with new Countermeasures include bicycle boxes and colored
thoroughfare type and vehicular movement to determine bicycle lanes. A full understanding of these types should
which Bikeway type is appropriate. be achieved prior to their calibration and implementation,
using the Resource list in this Module.

SCM8 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Bikeway Types
Municipality

Table B2: Bikeway Types - This table describes opportunities for the placement of several Bikeway types across the Transect. A Bicycle Route may
be comprised of any or all of these physical types. Bicycle Lanes should be used primarily for retrofit of existing overwide Thoroughfares.

a. (Shared use) T1 T2 T3 T3 T4 T5
Bicycle TRAIL
and
BICYCLE Path

Bikeway Type Bicycle Trail (BT) Bicycle Path (BP)


Riding Surface Width 8 - 12 ft 10 - 14 ft
Movement dual direction dual direction
Intersection Detailing signed signed, signalized
Bicycle Parking rack, Bicycle Shelter rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker

b. BiCYCLE LAne
( in T4, T5, T6
T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
recommended
for retrofit only)

Bikeway Type Conventional Bicycle Lane (BLC) Bicycle Lane with Bicycle Box (BLX) Physically Sep. Bicycle Lane (BLP) Buffered Bicycle Lane (BLB) 2-way Buffered Bicycle Lane (BLB2)
Riding Surface Width 5 ft min. w/parking, 4ft min. w/o parking 5 ft min each way, box depth 14 ft 5 ft min/2 ft min barrier 5 ft min each way/2 ft min striped buffer 5 ft min each way/3 ft min striped buffer
Movement with traffic or Contra-flow with traffic with traffic or dual direction with traffic dual direction
Intersection Detailing signalized, dashed, Peg-a-Track, signalized, dashed, Peg-a-Track, signalized, dashed, Peg-a-Track, signalized, Peg-a-Track, colored, signalized, Peg-a-Track, colored,
colored, Bicycle Box colored, Bicycle Box colored, Bicycle Box Bicycle Box Bicycle Box
Bicycle Parking rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Station

c. Shared
Vehicular
T1 T2 T3 T3 T4 T5 T6 T3 T4
Lanes

Bikeway Type Shoulder (BLS) Shared Vehicular Lane w/ Sharrow (SL) Bicycle Boulevard (BB)
Riding Surface Width 6 ft min same as Vehicular Lane same as Vehicular Lane
Movement with traffic with traffic with traffic
Intersection Detailing signed, signalized signed, signalized signed, signalized
Bicycle Parking opportunistic, rack, Bicycle Shelter opportunistic, rack, Bicycle Shelter opportunistic, rack, Bicycle Shelter

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC9
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

BICYCLE PARKING REQUIREMENTS uses. Such plans or codes should also provide site planning
Bicycle Parking Requirements, as they are associated with standards that include rack/locker design and placement
Article 5 Building Scale Plans, are applicable to both New requirements, especially within the public frontage.These
Communities and Infill/Retrofit. details may be added to this Module as needed.
This table may be locally calibrated and incorporated into Because bicycling is not yet a popular mode of transporta-
the Building Function & Parking Calculations tables in tion in most North American contexts, Table B3 is geared
the base code. The goal is to provide the adequate facility towards cities with a bicycle mode share of 5% or less.
enhancement and the appropriate bicycle parking ratios (By comparison, as of late 2009 Copenhagen had a 37%
for the general land uses in each Transect Zone. bicycle mode share for commuting, and an even higher
Bicycle parking should not be calculated as a portion of share among city residents.) In places demonstrating a
automobile parking requirements because supply and higher mode share, higher bicycle parking ratios may
demand for that mode are not an adequate indicator of be needed. Bicycle parking ratios should be reviewed in
actual bicycle parking need. Furthermore, if a municipality conjunction with bicycle master plan updates, or at least
adopts automobile parking maximums, or later reduces every five years, to ensure that supply meets demand.
such parking requirements, the amount of bicycle parking
would also be reduced when the opposite may be neces-
sary. Therefore, bicycle parking ratios should be based on
Building Function (e.g., a gym needs more bicycle parking
than a lumberyard) and quantifiable indicators like unit
count, employee count, or building square footage. Table
B3 coordinates these elements for common land use types
across the Transect.
Transect Zones with higher densities and higher degrees
of mixed-use generally require higher ratios of bicycle
parking.
Civic Zones and some Special Districts, especially schools
and universities, vary widely in their placement and func-
tion, and with their large populations of active young people,
may attract heavy bicycle use. Therefore, the bicycle park-
ing ratios in Table B3 for these areas is very general, and
should be further calibrated to local conditions. The same
is also true for Transit Stops and Industrial Uses.
For small scale lodging, office, and retail buildings, bicycle
parking requirements may be waived if adequate and adja-
cent short and long term parking facilities are provided by
the municipality within the public frontage. Threshholds
should be locally calibrated.
While the provision of bicycle parking and shower
facilities are included in the LEED and LEED-ND rating
system, they are not required. Thus, municipalities with or
without LEED regulations should consider incentivizing
or rewriting land use codes to ensure that adequate bicycle
parking facilities are included where appropriate.
In general, a good bicycle parking plan should specify the
number of bicycle parking spaces by Building Function,
require long-term parking for all workplaces, transit sta-
tions and multi-unit residential or mixed-use buildings, and
require adequate short-term parking for almost all other land

SCM10 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE BICYCLE PARKING Requirements
Municipality

Table B3: Bicycle Parking Requirements - This table prescribes minimum parking ratios within each Transect Zone and assumes a bicycle mode
share of 5% or less. Requirements may be met within the building, Private Frontage, Public Frontage, or a combination thereof.

SHORT TERM PARKING (See Table 10)

T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
RESIDENTIAL
Single-Family no spaces required no spaces required n/a

Multi-Family n/a Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces


.05 spaces / bedroom .10 spaces / bedroom
OFFICE no spaces required Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add. 20,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add.15,000 sq. ft.
RETAIL Min. 2.0 space, Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add.10,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 5,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 5,000 sq. ft.
INDUSTRIAL TBD TBD TBD
CIVIC
Non-Assembly Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft.

Assembly Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add. 20,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 15,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft.
SCHOOL
Elementary/ Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
High School 1.0 / add. 25 students 1.0 / add. 20 students 1.0 / add. 20 students

University
Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add. 20 students 1.5 / add. 20 students 1.0 / add. 10 students
TRANSIT STATION TBD TBD TBD

LONG TERM PARKING (See Table 10)

T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
RESIDENTIAL
Single-Family no spaces required no spaces required n/a

Multi-Family n/a Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces


.15 spaces / bedroom .20 spaces / bedroom
OFFICE no spaces required Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft. 1.5 / add. 10,000 sq. ft.

RETAIL Min. 2.0 space, Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft. 1.0 / add. 10,000 sq. ft.

INDUSTRIAL TBD TBD TBD


CIVIC
Non-Assembly Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add.15 employees 1.0 / add.15 employees 1.0 / add.10 employees

Assembly Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add.20 employees 1.0 / add.20 employees 1.5 / add.10 employees
SCHOOL
Elementary/ Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
High School 1.0 / add. 20 students 1.0 / add. 20 students 1.0 / add. 20 students

University
Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces Min. 2.0 spaces
1.0 / add.15 students 1.5 / add. 10 students 1.5 / add. 10 students
TRANSIT STATION TBD TBD TBD

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC11
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

BICYCLE PARKING FACILITY TYPES Bicycle Rack: The most simple, recognizable, and effec-
Bicycle Parking Facility Types are applicable to both New tive form for short term parking is the "inverted U-rack."
Communities and Infill/Retrofit. They may be associated A single rack provides two bicycle parking spaces and
with either the Public Frontage (see the Bikeway Assem- allows the bicycle's frame to be secured with at least
blies of this Module) or private lots. two points of contact—a pre-requisite for all acceptable
Bicycle Parking is often excluded or insufficiently addressed bicycle rack types.
in the planning, urban design and development process. Bicycle Shelter: Shelters provide all-weather protection,
As a result, accessible, attractive, and lockable parking and are intended for longer term use within areas of higher
facilities for short and long term use are often undersup- intensity, like transit stops, fitness gyms, civic buildings
plied or poorly located. When done well, both private and and civic space, trail heads, and educational institutions.
public bicycle parking initiatives complement the Bikeway Shelters should be simple to use, well-lit, and highly rec-
network by encouraging more people to bicycle. Decision ognizable. Shelters also provide an opportunity to display
makers must take bicycle parking into consideration during a map of the regional and local bicycle network, as well
the initial planning and design process. as any other relevant information.
To be truly effective, bicycle parking solutions must take Bicycle Locker: Bicycle Lockers provide an all-weather,
the needs, behaviors, and preferences of people who high-security, and long term parking solution. Lockers
bicycle into account. Meeting these needs will encourage are ideal for transit stops, park and rides, civic buildings,
and increase bicycle use and avoid haphazard solutions educational institutions, and large apartment buildings/
that reinforce anarchic parking behavior, threaten bicycle commercial towers. Bicycle Lockers should be well-
security, and ultimately deter use. maintained and monitored.
Municipalities should create and oversee bicycle parking Bicycle Station: Stations provide the highest level of service
plans at the scale of the city and in conjunction with county for medium and long term parking. They are intended to
and/or state and owned rights-of-way and the officials who be regional hubs of bicycling activity and are therefore
oversee them. However, such plans should be implemented ideal for the most urban Transect Zone, T-6. Bicycle Sta-
and maintained at the scale of the neighborhood. Certain tions often include shower and changing facilities, bicycle
Special Districts, areas of high activity, and neighborhoods repair and rental, attended or automated parking, and food
of unique character may provide opportunities to make use and beverage services.
of bicycle parking facility designs that reinforce an existing
built or natural aesthetic, or help define a new one. So-called
Additional Resources:
"decorative" racks must be be readily identifiable and built
Bicycle Parking Guide, Association of Pedes-
to the same standards as other bicycle racks so that their
trian and Bicycle Professionals, 2010 <www.apbp.
design does not compromise the intended function.
org/?page=Publications>
Once implemented, bicycle parking must be well main-
tained, so that all parking areas remain clean, orderly and Bicycle Parking Manual, Danish Cyclists Federation, 2008
free of abandoned or vandalized bicycles. <www.dcf.dk/composite-848.htm>
Bicycle parking is to be allocated across the Transect by Bicycle Parking Guide, City of Cambridge, MA, 2008
type, but detailed in quantity and location by land use, <www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/bike/bike_pkng_bro-
demand, and building size. As an example, a civic space, chure.pdf>
a movie theatre, and a transit station may be in the same
Transect Zone, but each requires its own bicycle parking
solution. Regardless, bicycle parking must be placed as
close as possible to the associated destination, at least as
close as any related automobile parking.
Bicycle parking facility types and styles are numerous.
Several common types are shown in Table B4.

SCM12 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE BICYCLE PARKING FACILITY TYPES
Municipality

TABLE B4: Bicycle Parking Types. This table shows five common types of Bicycle Parking facilities. Standards should be calibrated to the
needs of each municipality.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Standards

Bicycle Rack (Inverted "U," post and ring, etc.) Racks shall be capable of securing
bicycles with at least two points of
contact. Simple, easily identifiable
forms should be used. Racks may be
▫ ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ placed in the Private Frontage, Public
Frontage, or within buildings.

Bicycle Rack (decorative, public art) Decorative racks shall be recognizable


as bicycle parking facilities and shall
be held to the same performance
standards as other bicycle racks.
▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ Such racks may be provided for Civic
Buildings, Civic Spaces, and other
locations of historic, social, or cultural
importance.

Bicycle Shelter Shelters shall be highly recognizable


and integrated with transit and/or
related land uses requiring medium or
long term bicycle parking needs. Each
▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▫ shelter shall include bicycle parking
racks capable of securing bicycles with
at least two points of contact.

Bicycle Locker Bicycle Lockers shall be placed in a


highly visible and well-lit location, but
shall not disrupt the function and order
of the public realm. They should be
▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▫ monitored and maintained to discour-
age vandalism.

Bicycle Station Bicycle Stations should be located in


highly visble locations, ideally near
transit. They should offer a variety
of services that may include repair,
▫ ▪ ▫ rental, cafe, lockers, showers, and
storage facilities.

▪ By Right
▫ By Warrant

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC13
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

BICYCLE PARKING
GENERAL LOCATION STANDARDS
The placement and location of bicycle parking and other
end-of-trip facilities is crucial in making bicycling more
attractive and feasible. Bicyclists want to park as closely
and conveniently to their destination as possible. In this
regard, they are no different from motorists, as searching
for bicycle parking can be equally frustrating as searching
for motor vehicle parking. Short term facilities, like bicycle
racks and shelters, should be located as close as possible to
the destination(s) they serve. This is especially important
for public spaces served by retail uses and transit stops.
Long term parking, such as bicycle lockers and stations,
should also be as convenient as possible. However, the
protection from inclement weather and the enhanced level
of safety/service that long term facilities afford the user can
make up for a less convenient location. Similarly, shower,
changing rooms, and locker facilities need not be located
inside the destination they serve.
Table B5, which was adapted from the Danish Cycling
Federation's Guide to Bicycle Parking, demonstrates the
general relationship between short term and long term
parking, as well as the desired distance and level of service
required to meet the needs of bicyclists.

SCM14 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Bicycle Parking - General Location STANDARDs
Municipality

Table B5: Bicycle Parking - General Location Standards - This table prescribes the general relationship among the distance from parking facility
to destination, the parking duration, and the parking facility type provided.

24 hours Bicycle Station


12 hours
8 hours

24 hour/overnight parking
Locker

Parking Facility
4 hours
Time

2 hours

Day Parking
1 hours
Shelter
Short term

30 min.
10 min.
5 min.
Rack
0 15 30 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300+

Distance from Bicycle Parking Facility to Destination (Feet).


Adapted from the Danish Cyclists Federation

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC15


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Any of these Bicycle Module terms used in a calibration
of a SmartCode should be incorporated into Article 7 of
the base code. Some definitions appear here for terms that
are already in the base code (e.g., Bicycle Lane), but the
definitions in this Module are more specific. Calibrators
should modify any disparities according to local intent.

SCM16 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Municipality

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


BiCYCLE MODULE

Bicycle Boulevard: a Thoroughfare with shared Vehicular Lanes that introduces


traffic calming and wayfinding solutions to give movement priority to bicyclists.
Bicycle Box: a section of pavement designed to give bicyclists using a Bicycle Lane
a head start at signalized intersections. A Bicycle Box is often colored and includes
a standard white bicycle pavement marking. It improves visibility between motorists
turning right and cyclists traveling through the intersection. (Syn: advance stop
line)
Bicycle Inductor Loop: a coil of wire embedded in a Thoroughfare surface that
detects the presence of a bicycle and prioritizes an intersection signal for it.
Bicycle Lane: a lane reserved for bicycle travel within a vehicular Thoroughfare.
Bicycle Locker: an enclosed and secured locker that provides bicycle parking for
long term use.
Bicycle Path: a dual-direction Bikeway that is physically separated from vehicular
Thoroughfares, usually shared with pedestrians, runners, and rollerbladers and
detailed for the more urban Transect Zones. (Var: shared use path)
Bicycle Route: a route marked with signs to be amenable to bicycling, often comprised
of one or more types of Bikeways over its trajectory.
Bicycle Shelter: a roofed shelter that provides multiple bicycle racks for public
use.
Bicycle Station: a building that provides self-service, attended indoor valet, or
automated bicycle parking services, often accompanied by showers, lockers, bicycle
repair and rental facilities.
Bicycle Trail: a dual-direction Bikeway that is physically separated from vehicular
Thoroughfares, usually shared with pedestrians, runners, and rollerbladers and
detailed for the more rural Transect Zones. (Var: shared use path)
Bikeway: a continuously designated segment of the Right of Way that provides
exclusive, preferential, or equal priority for bicycle travel. It includes the Riding Surface
and any Curbs, markings, and protective barriers, and any plantings, lighting, and
furniture that are specific only to the Bikeway.
Buffered Bicycle Lane: a Bicycle Lane separated from vehicular travel and/or park-
ing lanes by striped pavement markings which function as a buffer. (Syn: enhanced
bicycle lane)
Contra-Flow Bicycle Lane: a designated Bicycle Lane marked to allow bicyclists to
travel against the flow of traffic.
Conventional Bicycle Lane: a Bicycle Lane for which the only separation from
vehicular traffic is pavement striping.
Countermeasure: a design technique or facility intended to mitigate unsafe or unap-
pealing bicycling conditions.
Diverter: a design intervention that limits vehicular traffic from entering all or part of
a Thoroughfare but that enables bicycles to pass through.
Peg-a-Track: parallel dashed pavement markings that continue a Bicycle Lane
through an intersection. (Var. Peg-a-Trak)

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC17


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

SCM18 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE
Municipality

Physically-Separated Bicycle Lane: a uni- or bi-directional Bicycle Lane separated


from the motor vehicle travel lanes by Curbs, railings, plantings, parked cars, and/
or grade separation. (Var: cycle track, sidepath)
Riding Surface: the portion of a Bikeway used for cycling, the equivalent of the
Vehicular Lanes or roadbed for motor traffic
Shared Vehicular Lane Marking: a pavement marking featuring a bicycle symbol
and chevron, applied to a Thoroughfare too narrow to accommodate Bicycle Lanes
and with vehicular target speeds slow enough to allow cyclists to move safely with
motor vehicles. (Syn: Sharrow)
Sharrow: see Shared Vehicular Lane Marking.
Shoulder: a paved portion of a Thoroughfare that exists outside of its Vehicular
Lanes.
Shy Zone: a painted buffer between parked cars and a Bicycle Lane.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC19


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

TABLE 4C. BIKEWAY ASSEMBLIES


Included here are ten assemblies with detailed Bikeway Standards for the separations on Physically-Separated
standards that may be added to the base SmartCode during Bicycle Lanes are not given because the materials and
local calibration, and others may be created as necessary widths vary depending on context - curbs, planters, bol-
using the same template. They replicate closely the thor- lards, raised pavement or other tools may be used.
oughfare standards of municipal public works manuals and Bicycle Boulevards are a new and highly specific street
are intended to supplement the Complete Thoroughfares type to be used for retrofitting corridors where primarily
Module (Table 4C). Assemblies in all SmartCode trans- residential land uses abut the thoroughfare.The Bicycle
portation modules have specific measurements because Boulevard assembly drawn here shows a partial diverter
they are meant to refer to an exact place. They should be and specific pavement markings to communicate the pri-
considered examples and may be calibrated. ority movement of bicyclists. In reality, diverters should
The Bikeways drawn here are to scale and include support- be used sparingly, and are just one of many techniques
ing information below them. These assemblies combine used to articulate a Bicycle Boulevard. Other measures
a vehicular thoroughfare similar to those found in the include wayfinding signs, reduced speed limits, medians
SmartCode Complete Thoroughfares Module with a Bike- designed for cyclists, neighborhood traffic circles, and the
way type selected from this module. In the final calibrated removal of stop signs along the corridors. Please refer to
code, the assembly may be extended to include one or the Bicycle Boulevard Planning and Design Guidebook
more Transit types, if applicable. A complete thoroughfare for further information on where this bikeway type is
designed from scratch would require all transportation most applicable.
provisions to be considered together, along with drain-
age, which also must be correlated to the Transect. (See
LightImprint.org, the Natural Drainage Module, and the
Landscape Module for techniques.)
The assemblies in this module that include bicycle lanes in
the higher T-zones are intended only for retrofit of existing
thoroughfares, as noted on the assembly table. Properly
designed thoroughfares in New Urbanist communities
have low target speeds so bicycle lanes are generally not
necessary. In fact, they may be counter-productive to a
safe pedestrian and bicycling realm, widening the curb-
to-curb crossing distance as well as the sense of spatial
enclosure that slows down motorists. When bicyclists are
not present, bicycle lanes actually may cause motorists to
feel safer driving faster (they are farther from parked cars
and trees), which in turn makes bicyclists less likely to
use that thoroughfare for bicycling. Sharing traffic lanes
with very slow-moving traffic is safer. For example, the
vehicular lanes for the Bicycle Path assembly are wider
than advised for New Urbanist design in the T-zones shown,
making the path a good solution for cycling.
While parking lanes in the Complete Thoroughfares
Module may be 7' for narrower ROWs and therefore slower
target speeds, restriping of an overwide thoroughfare may
call for 8' parking lanes when placed between a conven-
tional (striped only) bicycle lane and the curb. This helps
reduce the likelihood of the motorist "dooring" the cyclist.
A wider-than-minimum bicycle lane is also indicated in
this case. Again, these are retrofit strategies only.

SCM20 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Bikeway assemblIES - New or Retrofit
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type
Right of Way Width
Pavement Width
Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Road: RD
Street: ST
Drive: DR
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Boulevard: BV
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Bikeway TYPES
Bicycle Trail (Shared Use): BT
Bicycle Path (Shared Use): BP
Bicycle Lane: BL
Conventional BLC
Buffered BLB
Buffered - Two-Way BLB2
Physically Separated BLP
Shoulder BLS
With Bicycle Box BLX
Shared Vehicular Lane: SL
Bicycle Boulevard: BB
TransitWay TYPES See TOD Module

Assembly Designation BT-V-10 BP-V-10


Thoroughfare Type Bicycle Trail (Shared Use) Bicycle Path (Shared Use)
Right-of-Way Width varies varies
Pavement Width 10 feet 10 feet
Transect Zone Assignment T1, T2, T3 T3, T4, T5
Public Frontage
Drainage Type Swale Swale, Curb
Curb Radius n/a n/a
Walkway Type n/a n/a
Planter Type n/a n/a
Landscape Type naturalistic naturalistic, planted
Median Width n/a n/a
Vehicular Lanes
Traffic Lane Width n/a 11 feet
Parking Lane Width n/a one side @8 feet marked
Target Speed n/a n/a
Pedestrian Crossing Time n/a n/a
Bikeway Type BT - Bicycle Trail (Shared Use) BP - Bicycle Path (Shared Use)
Riding Surface Width 10 feet 10 feet
Movement dual direction dual direction
Intersection Treatment signed signed, signalized
Bicycle Parking rack, Bicycle Shelter rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker
Transitway Type n/a n/a

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC21
SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Bikeway assemblIES - New or Retrofit
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type
Right of Way Width
Pavement Width
Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Road: RD
Street: ST
Drive: DR
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Boulevard: BV
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Bikeway TYPES
Bicycle Trail (Shared Use): BT
Bicycle Path (Shared Use): BP
Bicycle Lane: BL
Conventional BLC
Buffered BLB
Buffered - Two-Way BLB2
Physically Separated BLP
Shoulder BLS
With Bicycle Box BLX
Shared Vehicular Lane: SL
Bicycle Boulevard: BB
TransitWay TYPES See TOD Module

Assembly Designation HW-66-40-BLS CS-60-32-SL


Thoroughfare Type Highway with Shoulder Commercial Street w/ Shared Lane Marking (Sharrow)
Right-of-Way Width 66 feet 60 feet
Pavement Width 40 feet 32 feet
Transect Zone Assignment T1, T2 T3, T4, T5, T6
Public Frontage
Drainage Type Swale 4" raised Curb
Curb Radius 15 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type n/a 14 foot Sidewalk both sides
Planter Type 13 foot continuous Swale 6 foot tree wells
Landscape Type naturalistic trees at 30' o.c. avg.
Median Width n/a n/a
Vehicular Lanes
Traffic Lane Width 12 feet 9 feet
Parking Lane Width n/a both sides @ 7 feet marked
Target Speed over 35 mph 25 mph
Pedestrian Crossing Time 12 seconds 10 seconds
Bikeway Type BLS - Bicycle Lane / Shoulder SL - Shared Vehicular Lane (Sharrow)
Riding Surface Width 8 feet 9 feet
Movement with traffic with traffic
Intersection Treatment signed, signalized signed, signalized, Bicycle Inductor Loops
Bicycle Parking opportunistic, rack, Bicycle Shelter rack, Bicycle Shelter
Transitway Type See Transit Module See Transit Module

© M ike L ydon andZ achary A delson 2010


SC22 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Bikeway assemblIES - Retrofit
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type
Right of Way Width
Pavement Width
Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Road: RD
Street: ST
Drive: DR
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Boulevard: BV
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Bikeway TYPES
Bicycle Trail (Shared Use): BT
Bicycle Path (Shared Use): BP
Bicycle Lane: BL
Conventional BLC
Buffered BLB
Buffered - Two-Way BLB2
Physically Separated BLP
Shoulder BLS
With Bicycle Box BLX
Shared Vehicular Lane: SL
Bicycle Boulevard: BB
TransitWay TYPES See TOD Module

Assembly Designation CS-76-48-BLC ST-52-32-BB


Thoroughfare Type Commercial Street with Conventional Bicycle Lane Street as Bicycle Boulevard
Right-of-Way Width 76 feet 52 feet
Pavement Width 48 feet 32 feet
Transect Zone Assignment (retrofit) T3, T4, T5 (retrofit) T3, T4
Public Frontage
Drainage Type 4" raised Curb 4" raised Curb
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 14 foot Sidewalk both sides 5 foot Sidewalk both sides
Planter Type 4 foot tree well 5 foot continuous planter
Landscape Type trees at 30' o.c. avg. trees at 30' o.c. avg.
Median Width n/a n/a
Vehicular Lanes
Traffic Lane Width 10 feet 9 feet
Parking Lane Width both sides @ 8 feet both sides @ 7 feet marked
Target Speed 30 mph 20 mph
Pedestrian Crossing Time 13 seconds 10 seconds
Bikeway Type BL - Bicycle Lane BB - Bicycle Boulevard
Riding Surface Width 6 feet 9 feet
Movement with traffic with traffic
Intersection Treatment signed, signalized, dashed, Peg-a-Trak, colored signed, signalized, Bicycle Inductor Loops, Diverter
Bicycle Parking rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter

Transitway Type See Transit Module See Transit Module

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC23
SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Bikeway assemblIES - Retrofit
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type
Right of Way Width
Pavement Width
Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Road: RD
Street: ST
Drive: DR
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Boulevard: BV
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Bikeway TYPES
Bicycle Trail (Shared Use): BT
Bicycle Path (Shared Use): BP
Bicycle Lane: BL
Conventional BLC
Buffered BLB
Buffered - Two-Way BLB2
Physically Separated BLP
Shoulder BLS
With Bicycle Box BLX
Shared Vehicular Lane: SL
Bicycle Boulevard: BB
TransitWay TYPES See TOD Module

Assembly Designation AV-84-56-BLX CS-104-76-BLB


Thoroughfare Type Avenue with Bicycle Lane with Bicycle Box Commercial Street with Buffered Bicycle Lanes
Right-of-Way Width 84 feet 104 feet
Pavement Width 56 feet 76 feet
Transect Zone Assignment (retrofit) T3, T4, T5 (retrofit) T5, T6
Public Frontage
Drainage Type 4" raised Curb 4" raised Curb
Curb Radius 10 feet. 10 feet
Walkway Type 14 foot Sidewalk both sides 14 foot Sidewalk both sides
Planter Type 6 foot tree wells 6 foot tree wells
Landscape Type trees at 30' o.c. avg. tree wells 30' o.c. avg.
Median Width 10 feet. n/a
Vehicular Lanes
Traffic Lane Width 10 feet, turn lane10 feet 10 feet
Parking Lane Width both sides @ 8 feet marked both sides @ 7 feet marked
Target Speed 35 mph above 35 mph
Pedestrian Crossing Time 16 seconds 24 seconds
Bikeway Type BLX - Bicycle Lane with Bicycle Box BLB - Buffered Bicycle Lane
Riding Surface Width 5 feet with 14' deep box 5 feet with 4' striped buffer and 2' Shy Zone
Movement with traffic with traffic
Intersection Treatment signalized, Bicycle Box signalized, Peg-a-Track, colored, Bicycle Box, Bicycle Inductor Loops

Bicycle Parking rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker, Bicycle Station
Transitway Type See Transit Module See Transit Module

© M ike L ydon andZ achary A delson 2010


SC24 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Bikeway assemblIES - Retrofit
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type
Right of Way Width
Pavement Width
Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Road: RD
Street: ST
Drive: DR
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Boulevard: BV
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Bikeway TYPES
Bicycle Trail (Shared Use): BT
Bicycle Path (Shared Use): BP
Bicycle Lane: BL
Conventional BLC
Buffered BLB
Buffered - Two-Way BLB2
Physically Separated BLP
Shoulder BLS
With Bicycle Box BLX
Shared Vehicular Lane: SL
Bicycle Boulevard: BB
TransitWay TYPES See TOD Module

Assembly Designation CS-98-70-BLP DR-68-40-BLB2


Thoroughfare Type Commercial Street with Physically-Sep. Bicycle Lane Drive with 2-Way Buffered Bicycle Lane
Right-of-Way Width 98 feet 68 feet
Pavement Width 70 feet 40 feet
Transect Zone Assignment (retrofit) T5, T6 (retrofit) T4, T5, T6
Public Frontage
Drainage Type 4" raised Curb 4" raised Curb
Curb Radius 10 feet. 10 feet
Walkway Type 14 foot Sidewalk both sides 14 foot Sidewalk both sides
Planter Type 6 foot tree wells 6 foot tree wells
Landscape Type trees at 30' o.c. avg. tree wells 30' o.c. avg
Median Width n/a n/a
Vehicular Lanes
Traffic Lane Width 10 feet 10 feet
Parking Lane Width both sides @ 7 feet marked one side @ 7 feet marked
Target Speed 35 mph 30 mph
Pedestrian Crossing Time 20 seconds 12 seconds
Bikeway Type BLP - Physically-Separated Bicycle Lane (Cycle Track) BLB2 - Two-Way Buffered Bicycle Lane
Riding Surface Width 6 feet with 2 ft barrier 5 feet each way with 3 ft striped buffer
Movement with traffic dual direction
Intersection Treatment signalized, Peg-a-Track, colored signalized, Peg-a-Track, colored,Bicycle Box, Bicycle Inductor Loops

Bicycle Parking rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker, Bicycle Station rack, Bicycle Shelter, Bicycle Locker, Bicycle Station
Transitway Type See Transit Module See Transit Module

© M ike L ydon and Z achary A delson 2010


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC25
Canal Urbanism
SmartCode Module
Prepared by Dan Bartman

_____________________________________________

Where the conflicting influences of man and nature meet


a harmonious silence reigns - perceived in the water's
surface reflecting the vertical and horizontal lines it
seems to support.

Umberto Franzoi
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Smartcode module - Canal urbanism 1.4 process


1.4.X
This SmartCode Module establishes Waterside standards The success of development that encroaches close to a canal
for Civic Zones and Civic Spaces, Public Frontages and is dependent upon a good relationship between developers
Private Frontages, Thoroughfares, and the configuration and city officials and the agency with authority over the
of private lots adjacent to canals and canalized rivers for waterway. Including a conditional representative from
SmartCode-based jurisdictions. This text of the module this organization on the Consolidated Review Committee
should be inserted in the base code with subsequent for waterside projects should remove the need for any
sections properly renumbered. If the Module is used for supplementary review.
the Neighborhood Conservation Code, the numbers and
placement of tables will be different. Both templates may 3.5.X waterside civic zones
be downloaded as freeware at www.transect.org.
3.5.X.a.i
Waterside Civic Zones should always include Waterside
Civic Frontage along the entire extent of a canal. When
this frontage type is used as part of a coordinated system, a
canal will function as part of the pedestrian network of an
urban or rural area. Because this module is Transect-based,
the Waterside Civic Frontage can adjust to the context of
surrounding urbanism and serve different needs.
3.5.X.b.i
Waterside Civic Frontage, a type of Public Frontage, is
civic in nature because the adjacent waterbody attracts
pedestrian activity, provides civic views of the city and
can in most cases be used for recreational activities. It can
be understood as the interface between two environments,
one urban and one aquatic.
3.5.x.b.iii
Waterside Civic Frontage normally features some type
of wood, metal or stone railing, parapet, columns or
bollards, or change in pavement type along the Bulkhead
or embankment of a Canal that allows for the encroachment
of urban features while taking into consideration the safety
of pedestrians.
3.5.X.d.iii
It is common for businesses or even residents to place
cafe table and chairs in the walkway of Waterside Civic
Frontage. This should not be discouraged, yet permitted
only where appropriate. A 5’ sidewalk cannot support cafe
seating while at the same time accommodating movement
along the water.

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ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS


1.4 PROCESS
1.4.X Waterside projects adjacent to Canals may be subject to supplementary review by
the appropriate Local, State or Federal Water Authority.

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS


3.2 SEQUENCE OF COMMUNITY DESIGN
3.2.X Canal standards shall be laid out according to Section 3.X.

3.5 CIVIC ZONES


3.5.3 Civic Space (CS) Specific to T3-T6 Zones
f. Each Civic Space shall have a minimum of 50% of its perimeter enfronting a
Thoroughfare or Canal, except for playgrounds.
3.5.X Waterside Civic Zones
a. General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
i. Waterside Civic Zones dedicated for public use shall be required for all
Canals within a Community Unit and designated on the New Community
Plan as Waterside Civic Frontage (WCF), Civic Space (CS), and the Ca-
nal.
ii. A Waterside Civic Zone may be permitted by Warrant if it does not occupy
more than 20% of a Pedestrian Shed, otherwise it is subject to the creation
of a Special District. See Section 3.6.
iii. Waterside Civic Zones may count toward the Civic Space requirements of
Article 3 by Warrant. If the Canal itself is not available for public boating,
swimming or fishing, its area would be excluded from the calculation.
b. Waterside Civic Frontage (WCF) General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
i. Waterside Civic Frontage contributes to the character of the waterfront
in each Transect Zone and includes the types of Sidewalk, Curb, Planter
and trees.
ii. The Sidewalk of Waterside Civic Frontage shall be designed for use by
pedestrians, shall provide access to Lots and Open Spaces, and shall
facilitate movement along the waterfront.
iii. Waterside Civic Frontage shall provide appropriate infrastructure as a
safety feature to alert pedestrians to the presence of, or impede direct
access to, the water.
c. Waterside Civic Frontage (WCF) Specific to Zones T4, T5, T6
i. Waterside Civic Frontage and Waterside Private Frontage shall be
considered Coordinated Frontage with a single coherent landscape
and pavement design. (See Section 5.7). Exemptions are granted by
Warrant.
ii. A new Community Plan may designate Mandatory and/or Recommended
Retail Frontage for Lots abutting Waterside Frontage.
d. Waterside Civic Frontage Design Standards
i. Waterside Civic Frontage shall be designed as shown in Table 4a and
allocated within Transect Zones as specified in Table 14x.
ii. The Sidewalk of Waterside Frontage shall be constructed of non-slip paving
materials at a constant elevation, and shall be accessible to handicapped
persons throughout the entire length of the waterfront.

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3.5.X.d.vi
If a railing, wall or similar feature is provided as a safety
feature in the Waterside Frontage, it may be designed
without a flat surface at its top to prevent people and
objects from being knocked into the water. This decision
should be locally calibrated.

3.7.1 Thoroughfare Standards


3.7.1.f
Thoroughfares that terminate at canals must be carefully
designed. While they provide views of the canal or
waterway for certain lots, the lack of a bridge crossing
would create a dead end unless connection to a Waterside
Thoroughfare is also supplied.
3.7.1.g
This permits three options for the disposition of private
lots along canals. Lots may either directly enfront a
canal, Waterside Civic Frontage, or a Thoroughfare. Lots
enfronting Waterside Civic Frontage recreate examples
from Venice, Italy; San Antonio, Texas, and Los Angeles,
California. An appropriately scaled thoroughfare may be
disposed between the canal and private lots, recreating
the urban form of Amsterdam; New Town St. Charles,
Missouri, and St. Petersburg, Russia. Finally, lots may be
disposed so as to directly enfront an canal, although this
is not recommended practice.
3.7.1.k
The percolation of water behind a canal Bulkhead or
embankment threatens the structural integrity of the
canal.

3.7.3 Public Frontages


3.7.3.a.iv
When a Thoroughfare is adjacent to the embankment or
bulkhead of a canal, its Public Frontage adjacent to the
canal is considered part of the Waterside Civic Frontage
and held to the same standards.
3.X Canal Standards
3.X.1.a
“Variable” is used here in place of the multiple types of
canals that exist. The term should be replaced by a locally
calibrated identification. Most canal types will support
urban activity along their banks, save for irrigation canals
and canals used for heavy shipping and ocean-scaled
vessels. These two types are identified as Class 2 and Class
3 Canals, and would have separate regulations. Standards
in the calibrated code must not conflict with them.

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iii. Obstructions to movement that reduce the clear width of the Sidewalk shall
be approved by Warrant.
iv. In the absence of a Waterside Buffer or Tree Lawn, the Sidewalk shall
have a slight grade away from the Waterside edge to direct storm water
away from the Canal.
v. Within the Waterside Civic Frontage, the prescribed types of Public Planting
and Public Lighting shall be shown in Table 4a. Spacing may be adjusted
by Warrant to accommodate specific site conditions.
vi. The top of any railing should be at a constant elevation for the length of
the Waterside Frontage.
vii. If called for by Table 4a Waterside Civic Frontage or Table 13 Waterside
Civic Space, landscape and tree plantings within the Waterside Civic
Frontage shall conform to the standards of Section 3.7.3.
viii. Waterside Civic Frontage may function as a quay or dock with the provision
of boat or ship mooring infrastructure as part of the Waterside Frontage,
bulkhead or embankment.
e. Waterside Civic Space (CS) General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
i Waterside Civic Spaces shall be generally designed as described in Table
13a.
ii. Where it does not feature its own design for the waterfront, Waterside
Civic Space shall carry the design of adjacent Waterside Civic Frontage
across its extent.

3.7 THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS


3.7.1 General
f. All Thoroughfares shall terminate at other Thoroughfares, forming a network.
Internal Thoroughfares shall connect wherever possible to those on adjacent
sites. Thoroughfares terminating at a Canal and Cul-de-sacs shall be subject to
approval by Warrant to accommodate specific site conditions only.
g. Each Lot shall Enfront a vehicular Thoroughfare, Waterside Frontage or Canal,
except that 20% of the lots within each Transect Zone may Enfront a Passage.
k. Drainage Swales along Waterside Thoroughfares are permitted by Warrant.
3.7.3 Public Frontages
a. General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
iv. The Public Frontage of Waterside Thoroughfares that Enfront a Canal shall be
considered Waterside Civic Frontage subject to the prescriptions of Section
3.5.x.

3.X CANAL STANDARDS


3.X.1 General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. There shall be three classes of Canals: Class 1 Variable, Class 2 Irrigation, and
Class 3 Shipping.
i. The Waterside Frontage along Class 2 Irrigation Canals shall be set back
the distance of any utility or maintenance Easement maintained by Water
Authority.
ii. The utility or maintenance Easement of Class 2 Irrigation Canals may be
used for authorized pedestrian activities by Variance only.
iii. Class 3 Shipping Canals shall have a 150 foot wide Buffer on each side.

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5.7 Building Configuration


5.7.1.x
The best example of lots in this situation is along the
Riverwalk in San Antonio, Texas. The more formalized
Primary Frontages of buildings face the street, while the
more ‘natural’ and informal Secondary Frontages face
the Riverwalk.
5.7.1.x
The Waterside Civic Frontage is often at a different
elevation from the Public Frontage of  corner Lots that
enfront both a Thoroughfares and a Canal. This condition
is present when, for example, the Waterside Civic Frontage
continues under a bridge that crosses over a Canal. This
provision ensures a connection between the two public
walkways and is required even when a Thoroughfare
terminates at the Canal. Along the San Antonio Riverwalk,
this connection is either an elevator or a ramp.

5.X waterside private frontage


design standards
Additional design standards may be added to this section
as desired. Some of the descriptions from Table 7 of
this Module may be adapted or expanded to become
regulatory.
5.x.1.b
This statement is advisory. It is intended to create active
facades along the canal waterfront.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Canal Urbanism
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Buffers shall be maintained free of structures or other modification to


the natural landscape, including agriculture, with the exception of Canal
operations infrastructure which shall be zoned as a Special District.
b. Boats moored or anchored along the embankment or Bulkhead of a Canal
shall not take up more than 20% of the Canal width measured at the water’s
surface.
c. Boats shall not moor or anchor longer than 12 hours at a Public Mooring Area.
d. Space to moor or anchor a boat shall not be offered for rent along any unimproved
lot abutting any Canal.
e. Installation of water features within the Right-of-Way of Class 1 Canals shall be
permitted by Warrant.

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS


5.7 BUILDING CONFIGURATION
5.7.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
x. The Private Frontage of buildings on Waterside Lots and Lots adjacent to
Waterside Civic Frontage shall conform to and be allocated in accordance
with Table 7a, Table 14j, and Section 5.x: Waterside Private Frontage Design
Standards.
x. Waterside Lots disposed between a Thoroughfare and Waterside Civic Frontage
shall have a Principal Frontage facing the Thoroughfare and a Secondary
Frontage facing the water, as shown in Table 17x.
x. Corner Lots Enfronting both a Thoroughfare and a Canal shall provide a
handicapped accessible pedestrian connection from the Public Frontage of the
Thoroughfare to the Waterside Civic Frontage along the Canal.

5.x WATERSIDE PRIVATE FRONTAGE DESIGN STANDARDS


5.X.1 Specific to zones T4, T5, T6
a. A secondary entrance shall be provided for all buildings with a Waterside
Secondary Frontage.
b. Waterside Private Frontage and building Facades should emphasize spatial
connections among the building, the Waterside Civic Frontage, and the Canal.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Canal Urbanism
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TABLE 4A: Waterside Civic Frontage (adjacent to Lots). Waterside Civic Frontage is the area between the private Lot line and the edge of a Canal.
The diagrams of this table are only illustrative; specific designs would be prepared in accordance with individual sites.The text describes the general
character of the type. It may be adapted as either Definitions or regulatory standards if desired.
PLAN
LOT ► ◄ CANAL R.O.W.
PRIVATE FRONTAGE ► ◄ WATERSIDE FRONTAGE

a. Waterside Path: a beaten Path, cinder trail, or paved walkway. May consist of natural vegetation in simple
planter strips or a significant Waterside Buffer along the water.
T1
T2
T3
T4
b. Boardwalk: characterized by wooden or similarly styled planking; often on pilings or floating on pontoons.
A standard boardwalk is built on land with railings on one or both sides of the walkway and is generally
T1
positioned above a Bulkhead or embankment, but occasionally may extend over the water. . T4
T5
T6
c. Waterside Planter: features a Sidewalk and individual or continuous Waterside Planters and a metal, wood
or stone railing, parapet, columns or bollards, and/or a change in pavement along the water. Landscaping
T3
consists of trees of a single or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee. T4
T5
T6
d. Frontage Line Planter: features a Sidewalk, individual or continuous planters along the Frontage Line,
and a metal or stone railing, parapet, columns or bollards, and/or a change in pavement along the water.
T4
Landscaping consists of trees of a single or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee, sometimes
with other plantings.
T5
T6

e. Waterside Tree Wells: features a Sidewalk, Waterside Tree Wells, and a metal or stone railing, parapet,
columns or bollards, and/or a change in pavement along the water. Landscaping consists of trees of a single
T4
or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee. T5
T6

f. Canalwalk: features a wide to very wide Sidewalk and a metal, wood or stone railing, parapet, columns or
bollards, and/or a change in pavement along the water. May be combined with a Gallery or Arcade Private
T4
Frontage. T5
T6

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TABLE 4A - WATERSIDE CIVIC FRONTAGE


(adjacent to Thoroughfares)
This table indicates parking on the side of the thoroughfare
opposite the Waterside Civic Frontage (WCF). In lower
Transect Zones and where the WCF is relatively narrow,
parking will mainly serve the residents of the block and
is thereby more useful on the building side. In addition,
when the side along the WCF is free of parked cars, the
view to the water is more accessible for those passing
by, whether by car, transit, bicycle, or foot. To retrofit an
overwide thoroughfare, a bikeway may occupy a portion
of the vehicular lane along the WCF. Onstreet parking on
both sides, with or without a bikeway, facilitates traffic
calming if justified by the housing density.
In higher T-zones, especially T-5 and T-6, the Waterside
Civic Frontage is more likely to serve as a Common
Destination, attracting visitors from outside the
neighborhood and region, for recreation and events. In
some cases, the WCF (or Waterside Civic Space as shown
on Table 13A) may face a one-sided mixed-use shopping
street, or larger mixed-use zone, where onstreet parking
is important to serve multiple uses.
For more complex combinations of travel modes in
combination with Public Frontages, refer to the Complete
Thoroughfares, Transit-Oriented Development, and
Bicycling Modules at www.transect.org.

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TABLE 4A: Waterside Civic Frontage (adjacent to Thoroughfares). This Public Frontage type adjacent to a Thoroughfare is considered part of the
Canal Right-of-Way. The diagrams of this table are only illustrative; specific designs would be prepared in accordance with individual sites. The text
describes the general character of the type. It may be adapted as either definitions or regulatory standards if desired.
PLAN
THOROUGHFARE ► ◄ WC Frontage
R.O.W. ► ◄ CANAL R.O.W.

g. Buffer: a vegetative Waterside Civic Frontage acting as a Buffer between a Thoroughfare, Lots, or Open
Spaces and the Bulkhead or embankment of the Canal. Landscaping consists of trees of a single or alternating
T2
species aligned in a regularly spaced allee or arrayed in naturalistic clusters in more rural conditions. May
include a metal, wood or stone railing, parapet, and/or columns or bollards. Onstreet parking is usually
T3
opposite the Waterside Frontage, on the building side. T4

h. Double Planter: features a central Walkway, a continuous Planter along the Curb, a continuous Waterside
Planter, and a metal, wood or stone railing, parapet, columns or bollards, and/or a change in pavement along
T2
the water. Landscaping consists of street trees of a single or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced
Allee. Onstreet parking is usually opposite the Waterside Civic Frontage, on the building side.
T3
T4

i. Curbside Planter: features a Sidewalk, a continuous Planter along the Curb, and a metal or stone railing,
parapet, columns or bollards, and/or a change in pavement along the water. Landscaping consists of street
T3
trees of a single or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee. Onstreet parking is usually
opposite the Waterside Civic Frontage in lower Transect Zones, on the building side.
T4
T5

j. Curbside Tree Wells: features a Sidewalk, Tree Wells along the Curb, and a metal or stone railing, parapet,
columns or bollards, and/or a change in pavement along the water. Landscaping consists of street trees of
T4
a single or alternating species aligned in a regularly spaced Allee. Onstreet parking may be one-sided or
two-sided in higher Transect Zones.
T5
T6

k. Canalwalk: features a wide to very wide Sidewalk and a metal or stone railing, parapet, columns or bollards,
and/or a change in pavement along the water. Onstreet parking may be one-sided or two-sided in higher
T5
Transect Zones. T6

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SMARTCODE MODULE Canal Urbanism
Municipality
TABLE 7A: Waterside Private Frontages. The Private Frontage is the area between the building Facades and the Lot lines. The diagrams
of this table are only illustrative; specific designs would be prepared in accordance with individual sites. The text is explanatory only. It may be
adapted as either definitions or regulatory standards if desired.

SECTION PLAN
LOT ► ◄ CANAL R.O.W. LOT ► ◄ CANAL R.O.W.
PRIVATE ► ◄ WATERSIDE PRIVATE ► ◄ WATERSIDE
FRONTAGE FRONTAGE FRONTAGE FRONTAGE
a. Yard & Private Dock: a planted Frontage wherein the Facade is set back
from the Frontage Line with an attached porch permitted to encroach. In the
T2
presence of adjacent yards, the front yard remains unfenced and is visually T3
continuous with the adjacent yards, supporting a common landscape. A
private dock provides space for the mooring of boats and may be parallel
or perpendicular to the shoreline.

b. Waterside Yard & Fence: a planted Frontage wherein the Facade is set
back from the Frontage Line to provide a yard and is separated from the
T3
Sidewalk with a short wall, fence or shrub row that provides spatial definition T4
to the Waterside Frontage.

c. Waterside Patio & Fence: the Facade is set back from the Frontage Line to
provide a patio and is separated from the Sidewalk with a short wall, fence
T3
or shrub row that provides spatial definition to the Waterside Frontage. T4

d. Waterside Terrace: the Facade is set back from the Frontage Line by an
elevated Terrace. This type buffers Residential use from urban Sidewalks
T4
and removes the private yard from public encroachment. A short wall, fence
or shrub row may be present to provide spatial definition to the Waterside
T5
Frontage. The Terrace type is suitable for conversion to outdoor cafes.

e. Direct Stoop: the Facade is aligned directly along the Frontage Line, adjacent
to the shoreline of a Canal. The entrance to the building is accessed by
T4
exterior steps and/or a landing or dock encroaching into the water. T5

f. Zaguan: the Facade is aligned directly along the Frontage Line, adjacent
to the shoreline of a Canal. A private passage leads into the building
T4
providing access to internal doors and/or a Thoroughfare, Alley, Passage
on the opposite side of the building or a Courtyard internal to the Block.
T5
The entrance to the building is accessed by exterior steps and/or a landing
or dock encroaching into the water.

g. Private Portal: a colonnade-supported habitable space that overlaps the


Setback of the Facade of the first Story, which remains behind the Frontage
T4
Line. The portal is accessed by exterior steps encroaching into the water. T5

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SMARTCODE MODULE Canal Urbanism
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TABLE 13A: Waterside Civic Space. The intended types of Waterside Civic Space are diagrammed and described in this Table. The diagrams are
only illustrative; specific designs should be prepared in accordance with individual sites. The text describes the general character of the type. It may be
adapted as either definitions or regulatory standards if desired.

a. Civic Basin: an Open Space available for unstructured recreation and Civic purposes. A Civic Basin is
organized around a Canal Basin and defined spatially by buildings and/or landscaping. Water features or
T4
public art are often located at the center of the basin. T5
T6

b. Waterside Square: an open space available for unstructured recreation and Civic purposes. A Waterside
Square is normally defined on two sides by building Frontages. Its landscape shall consist of paths, lawns,
T4
and trees, formally disposed. Waterside Square disposition serves to provide pedestrian connectivity
between the Public Frontage of a nearby Thoroughfare and the Waterside Frontage along a Canal. Public
T5
art is located at the center, most likely a water feature. T6

c. Cross Water Odeon: an open space available for unstructured recreation and Civic purposes. A Cross
Water Odeon utilizes both banks of a Canal and is spatially defined by buildings or landscape and vegetation.
T5
An audience side of terraced seating directs pedestrian attention toward a stage or civic building across T6
the water. Landscape shall consist primarily of pavement. The stage side functions as performance space
and may encroach over the water 20% of the width of the water body.

d. Waterside Plaza: an open space available for Civic Purposes and commercial activities. A Waterside
Plaza is normally defined on two sides by building Frontages. Its landscape shall consist primarily of
T5
pavement. Waterside Plaza disposition serves to provide pedestrian connectivity between the Public T6
Frontage of a nearby Thoroughfare and the Waterside Frontage along a Canal. Public art is located at the
center, most likely a water feature.

e. Waterside Staircase: a space designed to facilitate pedestrian movement from one elevation to another.
Civic Staircases always face the water and pedestrians should not be prevented from using the steps as
T5
seating space for unstructured recreation. Well-designed staircases provide steps and landings for sitting T6
and steps for traffic flow. Waterside Staircases serve to connect the Waterside Frontage along a Canal or
the edge of the water to adjacent Civic Spaces or Lots found at a different elevation.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Canal Urbanism
Municipality
TABLE 13: Waterside Civic Space The intended types of Waterside Civic Space are diagrammed and described in this Table. The diagrams are
only illustrative; specific designs should be prepared in accordance with individual sites. The text describes the general character of the type. It may
be adapted as either definitions or regulatory standards if desired.

f. Waterside Greenway: a linear Civic Space enfronting a Canal or other waterbody, available for unstructured
recreation and spatially defined by landscape rather than building Frontages. Usually includes shared use
T1
Paths and a Buffer along the Bulkhead or embankment. It may connect with more urban Promenades or T2
Esplanades, and may feature periodic Viewing Stations for overlooking the water.
T3
T4

g. Promenade: a controlled pedestrian sequence designed to be an aesthetic experience. A Promenade is


sometimes covered or screened from the sun and may feature periodic Viewing Stations for overlooking
T4
the water. Design elements are formally disposed. T5
T6

h. Esplanade: a controlled pedestrian sequence similar in function to a Promenade that features adjacent
or integrated Plazas, Squares, Bikeways and/or in rare cases a vehicular Thoroughfare. Esplanades are
T4
more significant in design and width than Promenades. See Promenade. T5
T6

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SMARTCODE MODULE TABLE 14. SmartCode Summary
Municipality

Note: All requirements


in this Table are subject
to calibration for local
context.

natural RURAL SUB-URBAN GENERAL URBAN URBAN CENTER URBAN Core SPECIAL
T1 zone T2 zone T3 zone T4 zone T5 zone T6 zone SD dIStrict

e. CIVIC SPACES (see Table 13)


Waterside Greenway permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Civic Basin not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Waterside Square not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Promenade not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Esplanade not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Cross Water Odeon not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
Waterside Plaza not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
Waterside Staircase not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
f. Waterside Civic Frontage (see Table 13b)
Waterside Path permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Buffer not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Double Planter not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Curbside Planter not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Waterside Planter not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted
Boardwalk permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Frontage Line Planter not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Curbside Tree Wells not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Waterside Tree Wells not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted permitted
Canalwalk not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted
j. Private Frontages (see Table 7)
Yard & Private Dock not permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted
Walled or Fenced Yard not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Patio & Fence not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted not permitted
Full Terrace not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Waterside Stoop not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Waterside Zaguan not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Private Portal not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted permitted not permitted
Article 5
Article 3

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Table 17 definitions illustrated


A. Lot Layers and Frontages
ii. Lots Enfronting Waterside Civic Frontage and a
Thoroughfare
Lots disposed between a Thoroughfare and Waterside Civic
Frontage feature a Principal Frontage of higher pedestrian
importance toward the Thoroughfare and a Secondary
Frontage of lesser pedestrian importance toward the
waterbody. In the base SmartCode, parking is permitted
in the second and third layers of most Transect Zones; this
may require further regulation in the calibration if parking
visible from the Waterside Civic Frontage compromises
the civic experience.

B. Waterside Civic Frontage Sections


i. Lots Enfronting Waterside Thoroughfares
On occasion the civic nature of the waterbody attracts so
much attention and use that adjacent thoroughfares can be
temporarily claimed as Civic Space themselves, blocked
off for festivals, races, or just car-free zones. For example,
MLK Drive along Philadelphia’s Schuylkill River is closed
to automobile traffic for a 4-mile stretch every weekend
most of the year. Such temporary Civic Space should not
count toward the Civic Space minimum in Article 3.

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SMARTCODE MODULE TABLE 17. DEFINITIONS ILLUSTRATED
Municipality

A. Lot Layers and Frontages B. Waterside Civic frontage sections

i. Lots Enfronting a Waterside Thoroughfare i. Lots Enfronting a Waterside Thoroughfare (Class 1 Canal)

3rd Layer

Secondary Frontage

20 feet
2nd Layer

Principal Frontage 1st Layer

Waterside Frontage

Waterside Frontage
2nd & 3rd

1st Layer
Layer

Canal

Waterside
Civic Zone

ii. Lots Enfronting Waterside Civic Frontage and a Thoroughfare ii. Lots Enfronting Waterside Civic Frontage (Class 1 Canal)

Principal Frontage 1st Layer


Secondary Frontage

2nd & 3rd


Layer

Secondary Frontage 1st Layer


Waterside Frontgae

Waterside Frontgae
Canal
2nd & 3rd

1st Layer
Layer

Waterside
Civic Zone

iii. Lots Enfronting Waterside Civic Frontage iii. Lots Enfronting Waterside Civic Frontage (Class 2 - Irrigation Canal)

3rd Layer
Secondary Frontage

20 feet

2nd Layer

Principal Frontage 1st Layer


Maintenance

Maintenance
Waterside Frontage

Waterside Frontage
Easement

Easement

Canal

Waterside
2nd & 3rd

1st Layer
Layer

Civic Zone

C anal U rbanism v 1.0 ©2010 D an B artman


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

C anal U rbanism v 1.0 ©2010 D an B artman


SMARTCODE MODULE Canal Urbanism
Municipality

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Basin: an area alongside or at the end of a Canal, wider than the general width of the Canal, designed
for the mooring or turning of boats without impeding the progress of other water traffic.
Bulkhead: a retaining wall or riprap revetment constructed along a shoreline to control scour, water
and ice erosion.
Buffer: a vegetated area, including trees, shrubs, and/or other herbaceous vegetation, that exists
or is established to protect a stream system, lake, reservoir, coastal estuarine area or Canal.
Canal: an artificial linear waterway or artificially improved river used for travel, recreation, shipping,
or irrigation that is between 20 and 300 feet in width.
Civic Basin: a Civic Space type for unstructured recreation, enfronting a Basin.
Cross Water Odeon: a Civic Space type enfronting both banks of a Canal for Civic purposes and
public theatrical productions.
Esplanade: a controlled pedestrian sequence designed to be an aesthetic experience. Esplanades
are more significant in design and width than Promenades. See Promenade.
Frontage, Principal: the Frontage facing the public space such as a Thoroughfare or Canal of
higher pedestrian importance and designated to bear the address and the Principal Entrance to the
Building.
Frontage, Secondary: the Frontage facing the public space such as a Thoroughfare or Canal that
is of lesser pedestrian importance.
Frontage Line: a Lot line bordering a Public Frontage, Waterside Frontage, or Canal. Facades
facing Frontage Lines define the public realm and are therefore more regulated than the Elevations
facing other Lot lines. See Table 17.
Promenade: a controlled pedestrian sequence designed to be an aesthetic experience.
Public Mooring Area: a publicly accessible embankment or Bulkhead for the mooring or anchoring
of boats.
Viewing Station: a platform, deck or bumpout for scenic viewing.
Waterside: adjacent to a Canal or other waterbody.
Waterside Civic Frontage: the area dedicated for public use between the Curb of a Vehicular Lane
and the Bulkhead or embankment of a Canal, or between a Frontage Line and the Bulkhead or
embankment of a Canal.
Waterside Civic Space: Open Space dedicated as a publicly accessible waterfront including a
Canal or other waterbody.
Waterside Greenway: a linear Civic Space type enfronting a Canal or other waterbody, available
for unstructured recreation and non-vehicular commuting.
Waterside Staircase: a Civic Space type enfronting a Canal or other waterbody that provides
pedestrian movement from one elevation to another, unstructured recreation, and/or audience seat-
ing on steps.
Zaguan: a Private Frontage featuring an entryway passage leading to internal doorways for one or
more private residences.

C anal U rbanism v 1.0 ©2010 D an B artman


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
Complete Streets
T h o r o u g h f a r e A ss e m b l i e s
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o . with C h e s t e r (R i c k ) C h e l l m a n , P.E.;
R i c h a r d A. H a l l , P.E.; P e t e r S w i f t , P.E.

_____________________________________________

Only connect!

E.M. Forster

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

TABLE 4C: COMPLETE STREETS


THOROUGHFARE ASSEMBLIES
Thoroughfares are assembled from the Vehicular Lane
elements that appear in Table 3A and Table 3B and the
Public Frontages of Table 4A and Table 4B. Twenty-two
typical assemblies are presented here for convenience.
These may be added to the base SmartCode for the local
calibration, and others may be created as necessary using
the same template. They replicate closely the thoroughfare
standards of municipal public works manuals.
If Thoroughfare Assemblies are used, one or more of the
Vehicular Lane or Public Frontage Tables may be removed.
Calibrators should take care that provisions listed on the
Table 4C Assemblies do not conflict with provisions on
the remaining Vehicular Lane or Public Frontage Tables,
or with Section 3.7.
The thoroughfares here are drawn to scale with the support-
ing information below them. The identification key gives
the thoroughfare type followed by the right-of-way width,
followed by the pavement width, and in some instances
followed by specialized transportation capability. They
are organized in the Module first by type, then by ROW
width, then by Vehicular Lanes overall width.
If a regulating plan uses two thoroughfares with the same
name, e.g., if the calibration has two street sections called
ST-50-26 with different parking arrangements, they should
be given different names to avoid confusion. If one of them
is a yield street it could be called ST-50-26-Y.
There are several one-way streets included in this Module.
They should be used rarely, especially if blocks are long, as
they are less connective than two-way streets. If low traffic
volumes are expected, consider using the two-way yield
movement instead. Specifying a one-way thoroughfare and
later allowing it to become two-way with verified usage
is a method for securing more appropriately narrow thor-
oughfares than some jurisdictions will allow initially.
Because walkability is so important to good urbanism,
any paths or trails intended for runners and long-distance
walkers should not be paved with concrete. Asphalt has
less impact on the joints and feet.
For Bicycle Thoroughfares and facilities, please see the
Bicycling Module at www.transect.org.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULEtable 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

RL-24-12 RA-24-24
Thoroughfare Type Rear Lane Rear Alley
Transect Zone Assignment T3 T4, T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 24 feet 24 feet
Pavement Width 12 feet 24 feet
Movement Yield Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 10 MPH 10 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 3.5 seconds 7 seconds
Traffic Lanes n/a n/a
Parking Lanes None None
Curb Radius Taper Taper
Walkway Type None None
Planter Type None None
Curb Type Inverted Crown Inverted Crown
Landscape Type None None
Transportation Provision None None

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

RD-50-14 RD-50-18
Thoroughfare Type Road Road
Transect Zone Assignment T1, T2, T3 T1, T2, T3
Right-of-Way Width 50 feet 50 feet
Pavement Width 14 feet 18 feet
Movement Yield Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 15 MPH 15 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 4 seconds 5.1 seconds
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 2 lanes
Parking Lanes None None
Curb Radius 25 feet 25 feet
Walkway Type Path optional Path optional
Planter Type Continuous Swale Continuous Swale
Curb Type Swale Swale
Landscape Type Trees clustered Trees clustered
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

SCA4 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

RD-50-24 ST-40-19
Thoroughfare Type Road Street
Transect Zone Assignment T1, T2, T3 T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 50 feet 40 feet
Pavement Width 24 feet 19 feet
Movement Slow Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 20 MPH 20 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 6.8 seconds 5.4 seconds
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 1 lane
Parking Lanes None One side @ 7 feet marked
Curb Radius 25 feet 15 feet
Walkway Type Path optional 13/8 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type Continuous Swale 4x4’' tree well
Curb Type Swale Curb
Landscape Type Trees clustered Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

ST-50-26 ST-50-28
Thoroughfare Type Street Street
Transect Zone Assignment T4, T5, T6 T4, T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 50 feet 50 feet
Pavement Width 26 feet 28 feet
Movement Free Movement Yield Movement
Design Speed 20 MPH 20 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 7.4 seconds 7.6 seconds
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 2 lane
Parking Lanes One side @ 8 feet marked Both sides @ 8 feet unmarked
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 5 foot Sidewalk 5 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 7 foot continuous Planter 6 foot continuous Planter
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

SCA6 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

ST-50-30 ST-60-34
Thoroughfare Type Street Street
Transect Zone Assignment T3, T4 T3, T4, T5
Right-of-Way Width 50 feet 60 feet
Pavement Width 30 feet 34 feet
Movement Slow Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 20 MPH 20 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 8.5 seconds 9.7 seconds
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 2 lanes
Parking Lanes Both sides @ 7 feet unmarked Both Sides @ 7 feet marked
Curb Radius 10 feet 15 feet
Walkway Type 5 foot Sidewalk 6 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 5 foot continuous Planter 7 foot continuous Planter
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

CS-50-22 CS-55-29
Thoroughfare Type Commercial Street Commercial Street
Transect Zone Assignment T5, T6 T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 50 feet 55 feet
Pavement Width 22 feet 29 feet
Movement Slow Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 20 MPH 20 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 6.2 seconds 8.2 seconds
Traffic Lanes 1 lane 1 lane
Parking Lanes One side @ 8 feet marked Both sides @ 7 feet marked
Curb Radius 15 feet 15 feet
Walkway Type 18/10 foot Sidewalk 13 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 4x4’' tree well 4x4’' tree well
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

SCA8 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

CS-60-34 CS-80-44
Thoroughfare Type Commercial Street Commercial Street
Transect Zone Assignment T5, T6 T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 60 feet 80 feet
Pavement Width 34 feet 44 feet
Movement Slow Movement Free Movement
Design Speed 20 MPH 25 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 9.7 seconds 8 seconds at corners
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 2 lanes
Parking Lanes Both sides @ 7 feet marked Both sides @ 8 feet marked
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 13 foot Sidewalk 18 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 4x4’' tree well 4x4’' tree well
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

CS-80-54 CS-100-64
Thoroughfare Type Commercial Street Commercial Street
Transect Zone Assignment T5, T6 T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 80 feet 100 feet
Pavement Width 54 feet 64 feet
Movement Slow Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 25 MPH 25 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 5.7 seconds at corners 8.5 seconds at corners
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 2 lanes
Parking Lanes Both sides angled @ 17 feet marked Both sides angled @ 17 feet marked
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 13 foot Sidewalk 18 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 4X4’ tree well 4X4’ tree well
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

SCA10 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

AV-75-40 AV-90-56
Thoroughfare Type Avenue Avenue
Transect Zone Assignment T3, T4, T5 T3, T4, T5
Right-of-Way Width 75 feet 90 feet
Pavement Width 40 feet total 56 feet total
Movement Slow Movement Slow Movement
Design Speed 25 MPH 25 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 5.7 seconds - 5.7 seconds 5.7 seconds - 5.7 seconds at corners
Traffic Lanes 2 lanes 4 lanes
Parking Lanes Both sides @ 8 feet marked Both sides @ 8 feet marked
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 6 foot Sidewalk 6 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 7 foot continuous Planter 7 foot continuous Planter
Curb Type Curb or Swale Curb or Swale
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

BV-115-33 BV-125-43
Thoroughfare Type Boulevard Boulevard
Transect Zone Assignment T5, T6 T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 115 feet 125 feet
Pavement Width 20 feet - 33 feet - 20 feet 20 feet - 43 feet - 20 feet
Movement Free Movement (inner lanes) Free Movement (inner lanes)
Design Speed 35 MPH 35 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 5.7 seconds - 9.4 seconds - 5.7 seconds 5.7 seconds - 12.2 seconds - 5.7 seconds
Traffic Lanes 3 lanes, one turning lane & two one-way slip roads 4 lanes & two one-way slip roads
Parking Lanes 8 feet 8 feet
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 6 foot Sidewalk 6 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 7 foot continuous Planter 7 foot continuous Planter
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

SCA12 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE table 4C Thoroughfare assemblIES
Municipality

Key ST-57-20-BL
Thoroughfare Type

Right of Way Width

Pavement Width

Transportation

Thoroughfare TYPES
Highway: HW
Boulevard: BV
Avenue: AV
Commercial Street: CS
Drive: DR
Street: ST
Road: RD
Rear Alley: RA
Rear Lane: RL
Bicycle Trail: BT
Bicycle Lane: BL
Bicycle Route: BR
Path: PT
Passage: PS
Transit Route: TR

BV-135-33 BV-135-53
Thoroughfare Type Boulevard Boulevard
Transect Zone Assignment T5, T6 T5, T6
Right-of-Way Width 135 feet 135 feet
Pavement Width 30 feet - 33 feet - 30 feet 20 feet - 53 feet - 20 feet
Movement Free Movement Free Movement
Design Speed 35 MPH 35 MPH
Pedestrian Crossing Time 8.5 seconds - 9.4 seconds - 8.5 seconds 5.7 seconds - 15.1 seconds - 5.7 seconds
Traffic Lanes 3 lanes, one turning lane & two one-way slip roads 5 Lanes, one turning lane & two one-way slip roads
Parking Lanes 8 feet 8 feet
Curb Radius 10 feet 10 feet
Walkway Type 6 foot Sidewalk 6 foot Sidewalk
Planter Type 7 foot continuous Planter 7 foot continuous Planter
Curb Type Curb Curb
Landscape Type Trees at 30' o.c. Avg. Trees at 30' o.c. Avg.
Transportation Provision see Bicycling Module see Bicycling Module

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Crime Prevention
SmartCode Module
Prepared by R a n d y I. A t l a s , P h D, AIA, CPP
C r i m e P r e v e n t i o n T h r o u g h E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n (CPTED)

__________________________________________

The best way to bring security to streets is to make


them delightful places that honorable and decent
citizens will want to walk in.

James Howard Kunstler

Prepared by Farr Associates: Leslie Oberholtzer, Doug Farr


with assistance from Monica Richart and April Hughes.
SmartCode Module CRIME PREVENTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS

STANDARDS FOR ARTICLES 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ....................................................... 5

TABLES:

TABLE CP1 - MULTI-UNIT RESIDENTIAL & MIXED-USE BUILDINGS ........ 9

TABLE CP2 - CIVIC SPACES AND THOROUGHFARES ............................ 11

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS ................................................................................ 13

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M3
SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.
The tables are also advisory unless activated by text.

CRIME PREVENTION SMARTCODE MODULE ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS


Crime Prevention generally addresses one of three condi- 1.3 INTENT
tions: The CPTED program addresses 14 principles that support
1.Personal Security - protection from assault or other forms crime prevention. See the annotations for Table CP-1.
of attack that injure, and from theft The SmartCode supports neighborhood crime preven-
2.Property Security - protection of property from burglary tion by coding for walkable thoroughfares, attractive and
or damage plentiful civic spaces, and frontages that provide “eyes on
3.Emergencies - the functioning of spaces during a natural the street.” However, its Intent section does not specifi-
disaster, crime response (often ongoing, such as a hostage cally mention crime prevention other than at the Block
situation or shooting where the subject is at large) or a and Building Scale (1.3.3c). Calibrators should consider
terrorist attack. adding the two new principles provided here.
From a design perspective, personal security is the most The phrase “evenly implemented” should be interpreted
important factor, although it often overlaps with the other by honoring the characteristics of different Transect Zones.
two. Like many other urban characteristics, it is the result of Retail and apartments will usually require more attention,
a complex mix of ingredients.  Security cannot be achieved and even different strategies, as reflected in other parts
by “target-hardening” alone; nor are such measures likely of this Module. Generally, places with retail (T5 and T6)
to be conducive to other urban goals like walkable thor- that draw people and showcase valuable goods should be
oughfares.  Instead, crime prevention should be achieved more secure. Apartment buildings, courtyard buildings
through context-sensitive design. and bungalow courts require strategies that emphasize
The best-known such program, Crime Prevention Through “ownership” of semi-private or semi-public areas. The
Environmental Design (CPTED), has evolved over time. ownership problem is less acute where the common domain
While many of the techniques refined in CPTED have been is the public sidewalk, or where individual dwellings have
in use for hundreds of years, they have been transformed individual yards that are well-marked using the principle
in the last few decades by the work of urban scholars such of Territoriality.
as Jane Jacobs and Oscar Newman, who have described a ARTICLE 2. REGIONAL SCALE PLANS
more precise relationship between the built environment Crime risk should be analyzed regionally, city-wide, or at
and criminal behavior.  Out of their work have come strate- least across several neighborhoods, to account for what is
gies such as encouraging “eyes on the street” (Jacobs) and known in CPTED as Displacement. Design improvements
creating “defensible space” (Newman).  The tools in this at the block scale and even the neighborhood scale may
module build on these and related insights. simply displace crime to another location.
As the quotation on the Module cover suggests, the nor- ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS
mative principles of New Urbanism and traditional town
3.1.8 In many jurisdictions CPTED is the beginning of
planning are already the foundation for safe environments.
a partnership with local law enforcement to get them
The principles and standards in this Module were chosen to
involved in the design of the community. The Consolidated
complement and reinforce those in the base SmartCode.
Review Committee (CRC) should include a local police
representative.
3.X CRIME PREVENTION
3.X.2 SPECIFIC TO ZONES T3, T4, T5, T6
The provisions to secure the alleys and the gaps between
buildings are included in case of severe crime or terrorism
threat. Even if there is no crime problem, local conditions
can change; these provisions support adaptability.
However, New Urbanist principles do not permit the gating
of entire neighborhoods. Gated communities undermine
healthy mixed use, because retail and lodging depend
(continued)

MA4 ©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Module CRIME PREVENTION

Article 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS

1.3 INTENT
1.3.1 The Region
i. That crime prevention strategies should be evenly implemented throughout the
region to prevent Displacement.
1.3.2 The Community
i. That crime prevention strategies should be evenly implemented throughout each
neighborhood to prevent Displacement.

Article 2. REGIONAL SCALE PLANS

2.1 INSTRUCTIONS
2.1.5 Guidance from Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (“CPTED”) profes-
sionals should be provided during the preparation of Regional Plans.

Article 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS

3.1 INSTRUCTIONS
3.1.8 New Community Plans shall include a CPTED-based Risk Assessment report, to
be submitted with preliminary site plans. The CRC shall determine the review entity
for the Risk Assessment.
3.X. CRIME PREVENTION
3.X.1 General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and SD
a. New Communities and their buildings, Private Frontages, Thoroughfares and
Civic Spaces should be designed and constructed using CPTED principles and
techniques, as provided in Section 5.X Crime Prevention and on Table CP-1 and
Table CP-2.
b. Crime prevention methods should not conflict with Section 1.3 Intent.
c. If water retention areas, including swales, are fenced for child safety or habitat
protection, fencing shall be visually permeable.
3.X.2 Specific to zones T3, T4, T5, T6
a. A block should be designed for rapid future adaptation to a securable perimeter
using barriers that seal gaps between buildings at or near their Facades. Such
barriers may include, but are not limited to, fences, gates, or Barrier Plants.
b. Rear Alleys and Rear Lanes shall be potentially securable at both ends.
c. Trees in the Public Frontage shall be trimmed to create a six feet minimum clear
area above ground.
3.X.3 Specific to zones T4, T5, T6
d. Berms are not permitted in the Public Frontage.
3.X.4 Specific to Civic Spaces
a. Civic Spaces should be located to be generally visible from one or more of the
windows of their enfronting buildings.
b. Trees in Greens, Squares, Pocket Parks, and Plazas shall be trimmed to create
a six feet minimum clear area above ground.
c. Trees in Parks within 20 feet of a walkway or bikeway should be trimmed to
create a six feet minimum clear area above ground.

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M5
SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.
The tables are also advisory unless activated by text.

3.X.2 cont.
upon customers from outside the neighborhood. It under-
mines the notion of public space, including public streets
and civic freedom. It undermines connectivity between
neighborhoods and therefore transportation options.

Subsection 3.X.2 calls for only the alley and yards to be


gated into a secure commons. The character of the private
frontage is still supportive of the Transect Zone and there
are still eyes on the public realm. Securing the alley is ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS
of limited use to prevent property crime if access to side The Article 5 standards are divided here in two main
and rear yards is not also controlled, but the standards are sections to indicate different ways to create a calibration.
separated here because alley closure is easier to design and These are:
manage. It may be implemented to restrict illegal parking 1. All Crime Prevention Module standards could be listed
and loitering, which in turn may reduce the likelihood of under a separate Crime Prevention section. This format is
certain crimes occurring in that particular block. used in several other Modules.
However, many urbanists oppose even block-level security. 2. All Crime Prevention Module standards could be assimi-
Reasons range from the inhibition of mobility, commerce lated into the base SmartCode’s existing sections, such as
and sociability to questions about its effectiveness as a Building Configuration and Parking Location.
crime preventer. This is not just a design issue; a common 3. The Crime Prevention Module standards (and others
perimeter requires common management. This view holds that may be added) could be split, as they are here, into
that the weakest link on a block decides its security, and different kinds of sections.
that with multiple property owners there is likely to be a
Consult with the local code administrator(s) to determine
security breach. It only works under ideal circumstances,
what would work best for the current or proposed review
with cooperative property owners or a high degree of
process.
coercion.
Others believe that securable walls/fences/gates perform a
filter function. This view acknowledges that any security 5.X CRIME PREVENTION
system has some degree of porosity, but that the defenses 5.X.1 c. Parking lots are crime targets for obvious reasons.
provided here are capable of reducing crime in any given If everyone on a block shares a single parking lot, the
area by filtering it. However, displacement is still an issue. lot is not really public, yet nobody who lives there takes
See 1.3.2i Intent above. ownership. The area may not be adequately maintained
and monitored. Safer options include individual parking
in the rear and onstreet parking in the front. The base
SmartCode provides essential location standards for park-
ing lots and garages, and their relationship to walkable
thoroughfares.

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SmartCode Module CRIME PREVENTION

Article 4. INFILL COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS

4.1 INSTRUCTIONS
4.1.X Infill Regulating Plans shall include a CPTED-based Risk Assessment report, to be
submitted with preliminary site plans.
4.1.3 x. locations at risk for crime where CPTED techniques are advised or required,
as determined by the Consolidated Review Committee based on a Risk Assess-
ment.

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS

5.X CRIME PREVENTION


5.X.1 Specific to Multi-Unit Residential and Mixed-use buildings in zones T4, T5, T6 and SD
a. Where CPTED techniques have been required by the Consolidated Review Com-
mittee as shown on an adopted Regulating Plan, property owners shall address
Territoriality, Access Control, Natural Surveillance, Activity Support, and Image,
as provided on Table CP-1.
b. Crime prevention methods should not conflict with Section 1.3 Intent.
c. Where shared outdoor parking areas are present, each building shall have at least
one window from which the parking lot is visible on each story of the elevation(s)
facing the lot. Parking spaces should be assigned to residents and located close
to the resident’s unit, but not marked with their unit number. Visitor parking should
be designated separately.
d. Recreation areas such as pools, tennis courts, clubhouses and playgrounds
should be generally visible from one or more of the windows of the buildings
they serve.

5.7 BUILDING CONFIGURATION


5.7.X Specific to zones T3, T4, T5, T6
x. Each Principal Building and each Outbuilding containing an Accessory Apartment
or Home Occupation shall have at least one window on each story of a Facade
from which its adjacent Public Frontage is visible.
x. Where Rear Alleys or Rear Lanes are present, each Principal Building and each
Outbuilding containing an Accessory Apartment or Home Occupation should have
at least one window on the rear elevation, through which a person or vehicle
moving through a part of the alley or lane would be visible. This window may look
out from any room type. CCTV surveillance may substitute for this requirement
by Warrant.
x. In the absence of securable windows, Barrier Plants should be planted below
windows to ground floor Common Rooms, extending at least twelve (12) inches
to each side of a window but no higher than its sill. Vegetation shall not hinder
the egress requirements for emergency exit from sleeping areas.
x. Outbuildings shall be lockable.
5.7.X Specific to zones T3, T4
x. Each Principal Building and each Outbuilding containing an Accessory Apart-
ment or Home Occupation shall have at least one window on each elevation
from which at least 25% of the adjacent yard is visible, where a yard is present.
Each window for this purpose shall look out from a Common Room.

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M7
SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.
The tables are also advisory unless activated by text.

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SmartCode Module CRIME PREVENTION

5.7.X Specific to zones T4, T5, T6


x. Security grates on Facades shall be visually permeable from the Public Frontage,
above the height of 3 feet.
x. For Retail uses, at least one checkout counter should be located at the front of
the store and visible from the Public Frontage.

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M9
SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.
The tables are also advisory unless activated by text.

Table CP-1 . MULTI-UNIT RESIDENTIAL AND the street,” making a place risky for offenders who wish
MIXED-USE BUILDINGS. to commit crime with impunity. Public areas are safer if
The Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design they are visible to legitimate users and observers of those
(CPTED) program addresses 14 principles. Some are spaces, and if it is also obvious to would-be criminals that
oriented toward a positive result, while others are named they can be seen. Crimes against people usually take place
for negative conditions. As the SmartCode is primarily a in areas hidden from view; victims accosted in public view
prescriptive code, this table and Table CP-2 are marked may be taken to secluded areas. Citizens in the street feel
with the five positive principles described in these notes. safer if they can see and be seen by other people. Creating
Two other positive principles, Land Use Mix and Con- clear sightlines through thoroughfare design, landscap-
nectivity, are not included here because they already apply ing, lighting, and site design optimizes the potential for
to normative urbanism at all scales of development, and natural surveillance. Porches and transparent windows
should be assumed to be present or planned for all inhabited facing public thoroughfares and civic spaces are especially
Transect Zones. effective. Natural Surveillance is different from Formal
Surveillance, e.g., organized surveillance (security patrols
For information about all 14 principles, see Safe Growth
including Neighborhood Watch groups) and mechanical
and CPTED in Saskatoon, Crime Prevention Through
surveillance (closed circuit television). Those methods may
Environmental Design Guidelines: an Illustrated Guide to
ultimately be required in some places; however, Natural
Safer Development in Our Community, by Gregory Saville
Surveillance based on the SmartCode and CPTED methods
AlterNation LLC., and Elisabeth Miller City of Saskatoon
should make them unnecessary.
Planning and Development (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
Canada. June 2010). Activity Support is the concept of filling an area with
legitimate users by facilitating and scheduling activities
Territoriality is the concept of creating and fostering places
like sporting events, outdoor music, block parties, flea
that are adopted by the legitimate users of the space (i.e.,
markets, farmers’ markets, mural painting, etc. Both
they take ownership), making it less likely for people to
regularly scheduled and randomly occurring activities
engage in criminal or nuisance behavior at that location.
decrease opportunities for offending with impunity. Places
This can be achieved by clearly marking public, private,
and facilities that are underutilized have a higher potential
and semi-public areas through landscaping. Other methods
for criminal activity. A compatible variety of activities
may include installing signage, beautifying an area with
makes an area safer by bringing in different legitimate user
street art or informal civic spaces, or extending restaurants
groups, adding “eyes in the street” and capable guardians.
onto sidewalk cafes. People are more likely to feel a sense
Zoning that separates land uses may leave areas deserted
of ownership and exhibit Territoriality in a neighborhood if
and intimidating at certain times of the day or week, such
there is a close relationship among physical, political, and
as a main street that empties out every evening because
social systems or networks. City-wide design decisions,
no one lives above the stores. A significant byproduct
such as locating a major highway or transit line, can sup-
of Activity Support is that it gives would-be criminals
port a community’s sense of ownership by reinforcing a
something more productive to do.
neighborhood boundary. (If poorly placed, however, it can
erode a community by isolating it or destroying its integ- Image refers to the appearance of the public realm, and how
rity.) When a place is well defined, it is easier to identify it is instrumental in creating a sense of place or territorial-
with, care about, and know when visitors or strangers are ity for legitimate users. A place that does not appear to be
in the neighborhood. In addition, design can help define a cared for may indicate to criminals that property owners
neighborhood by giving it recognizable character. and legitimate users of that place tolerate criminal activity,
while well-maintained places communicate ownership and
Access Control refers to controlling who goes in and
safety. Regular cleanups, graffiti vandalism removal, weed-
out of a neighborhood, civic space, building, and other
ing of vacant lots, litter pickup and creation of informal
places. Access Control includes focusing on formal and
public art and gardens are a few ways to enhance image.
informal entry and exit points in buildings or parking areas
Image improvement requires effective management and
using fencing, access gates, intercoms, etc., and signifying
maintenance strategies that hold landlords and property
entrances to civic spaces and neighborhoods with hedging,
managers accountable to keep properties up to code and
archways and other types of landscaping or design.
reinforce a sense of ownership, pride and involvement.
Natural Surveillance is the concept of putting “eyes on

MA10 ©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Module CRIME PREVENTION
MULTI-UNIT RESIDENTIAL & MIXED-USE BUILDINGS
Table CP-1: Multi-Unit Residential and Mixed-Use Buildings. This table provides methods that are recommended for the three Transect Zones
where multi-unit structures are normally permitted, plus Special District. The cells below the Transect Zones are marked with the CPTED principles
supported by the methods, as described in the annotations for this table. At the community site plan level, some interventions in T2 and T3 may support
crime prevention for the higher zones. Risk Assessment is essential for all multi-unit sites to determine whether CPTED techniques are necessary.

CPTED PRINCIPLES
T Territoriality
AC Access Control
NS Natural Surveillance
AS Activity Support
I Image

COMMUNITY SCALE SITE PLANNING


T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
Site lighting (1) T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I
Access Control for vehicles T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC
Boundary Definition (plantings, fences) (2) T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I
Wayfinding & signage (3) T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I
Building Frontage on Thoroughfares (4) T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I
Building Frontage on Civic Spaces (4) T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I
CPTED landscaping & plantings (5) All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles
BUILDING EXTERIOR
Doors – burglary resistance AC AC AC AC
Windows – burglary resistance AC AC AC AC
Shutters – forced entry protection AC AC AC AC
Access Control system AC AC AC AC
Perimeter protection – vehicle barriers AC AC AC AC
CCTV Formal Surveillance systems T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC
Restricted access to roof (from exterior) AC AC AC AC
CPTED landscaping & plantings (5) T - AC - NS - I T - AC - NS - I T - AC - NS - I T - AC - NS - I
BUILDING INTERIOR
Alarm systems – intrusion detection AC AC AC AC
CCTV control room AC AC AC AC
Building security lighting T - AC - AS T - AC - AS T - AC - AS T - AC - AS
Restricted access to roof (from interior) AC AC AC AC
CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Protection of mechanical spaces AC AC AC AC
Protection against CBRNE* attack AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS
Protection against blasts AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS
Protection of utilities AC - NS AC - NS T - AC - NS T - AC - NS T - AC - NS T - AC - NS
CCTV surveillance (for any of above) T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC

*Chemical, Biological, Radiological, (1) see Public Darkness table of Sustainable Urbanism Module
Nuclear, high-yield Explosive (2) see Section 5.7 of SCv9.2 and Fences & Walls Module
(3) see Section 5.12 of SCv9.2 and Sign Module
(4) see Section 5.6 and Section 5.7 of SCv9.2
(5) see Section 5.11 of SCv9.2 and Landscape Module

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M11
SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.
The tables are also advisory unless activated by text.

Table CP-2.
CIVIC SPACES AND THOROUGHFARES
The same five positive CPTED principles are used in Table
CP-2 that are described on the previous annotation page.
A sixth principle, Movement Predictors, applies to linear
parks and some thoroughfare types, such as bikeways,
walking/running trails, alleys and passages or paths to and
from parking lots. A Movement Predictor is a route that
channels pedestrians or cyclists in a predictable direction
and/or to a predictable destination. This makes legitimate
users vulnerable to crime because criminals can wait for
them to come along, or follow them to a remote spot. In
such public areas, lighting is particularly important, as is
Natural Surveillance. The Risk Assessment may recom-
mend mechanical surveillance and/or emergency call
boxes with locator numbers along Movement Predictors
such as Greenways.

Access to Greenway visible from buildings:


This standard is vague, as it cannot be expected that every
window from every building have a view of the greenway
or its access route. Risk Assessment is necessary to deter-
mine whether there is enough Natural Surveillance from
buildings. There are more specific standards on Page 5
and 7 at Sections 3.X.4, 5.X.1 and 5.7.X .
Access to buildings limited from Greenway:
There is no designation for this item on the table for the
higher T-zones, because most buildings in T-5 and T-6
zones are mixed use and should permit public access
from thoroughfares and linear parks. That would support
connectivity between a bike path, for example, and useful
destinations. Even in those zones, however, the Risk
Assessment may recommend that less-used rear entrances
near Movement Predictors get special attention, such as
CCTV formal surveillance.

MA12 ©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Module CRIME PREVENTION
CIVIC SPACES AND THOROUGHFARES

Table CP-2: Civic Spaces and Thoroughfares. This table provides methods that are appropriate for Transect Zones where Civic Spaces occur and
where Thoroughfares and Greenways (linear parks) pass through. The cells below the Transect Zones are marked with the CPTED principles sup-
ported by the methods, as described in the annotations for Table CP-1. Risk Assessment is essential for all public areas to determine whether CPTED
techniques are necessary.

CPTED PRINCIPLES
T Territoriality
AC Access Control
NS Natural Surveillance
AS Activity Support
I Image

CIVIC SPACES (see Table 13 of SCv9.2)


T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
Lighting (1) T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - A - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I
Boundary Definition – plantings, fences (2) T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I T - AC - I
Wayfinding & signage – branding, rules (3) T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I
Limited hours (gated at night) T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC
Civic Space Frontage on Thoroughfares (4) T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I
Building Frontage on Civic Spaces (4) T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I
Facilities: water and rest rooms AS AS AS AS AS AS
Seating (benches, picnic/game tables) AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I
CPTED landscaping & plantings (5) All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles
GREENWAYS (LINEAR PARKS)
Lighting (1) AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I
Wayfinding & signage (branding, rules) (3) T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I
Emergency call boxes T - AS T - AS T - AS T - AS T - AS T - AS
Access to Greenway visible from buildings NS NS NS NS NS
Access to buildings limited from Greenway T - AC T - AC
CCTV Formal Surveillance (parking areas) T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC
Facilities: water and rest rooms AS AS AS AS AS AS
Maintenance of bikeway/walkway surface AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I
CPTED landscaping & plantings (5) All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles All Principles
THOROUGHFARES (including Passages, bridges)
Lighting (1) AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I
Wayfinding & signage (3) T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I T - AS - I
Buildings Enfronting Thoroughfares T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T - NS - AS - I T- NS - AS - I
Pedestrian-oriented design AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I AS - I
BRIDGES (CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE)
Protection of structural elements T - AC - NS T - AC - NS T - AC - NS T - AC - NS T - AC - NS AC - NS
Protection against CBRNE* attack AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS
Protection against blasts AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS
Protection of mechanicals AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS AC - NS
CCTV Formal Surveillance (for above) T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC T - AC

*Chemical, Biological, Radiological, (1) see Public Darkness table of Sustainable Urbanism Module
Nuclear, high-yield Explosive (2) see Section 5.7 of SCv9.2 and Fences & Walls Module
(3) see Section 5.12 of SCv9.2 and Sign Module
(4) see Section 5.6 and Section 5.7 of SCv9.2
(5) see Section 5.11 of SCv9.2 and Landscape Module

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M13
SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.
The tables are also advisory unless activated by text.

MA14 ©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Module Definitions OF TERMS

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS - CRIME PREVENTION

Access Control: a technique or techniques for limiting and/or identifying who may
have access to a site.
Activity Support: the filling of public areas, or spaces near public areas, with
legitimate users.
Barrier Plant: plant with a dense vegetation structure and thorns or needles.
Berm: a manmade mound or wall of earth or sand for screening a building or parking
lot, or for landscape design.
Boundary Definition: the act of establishing Territoriality, or the defined edge itself.
(Syn: edge definition)
CBRNE: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, high-yield Explosive.
CCTV: see Closed Circuit TV.
Closed Circuit TV: a camera and television system allowing guardians to watch
activity in another room, another part of the same room, or outdoors. It also records
activity for later analysis.
Common Room: one of the main rooms in a dwelling or business, including but
not limited to the following types or any combination of them: kitchen, dining room,
living room, family room, recreation room, office, studio, lobby, or retail shop.
CPTED: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, a professional safety
organization and their set of techniques.
Displacement: the movement of criminal activity from one location to another as
the first location becomes inhospitable for it.
Formal Surveillance: in contrast to Natural Surveillance, a mechanical system
and/or professional guardian(s) watching over a site.
Movement Predictors: places that channel the movement of people along a
predictable route or path.
Natural Surveillance: in contrast to Formal Surveillance, the ability of non-
professionals to look out over or into public areas and report crime, or prevent it by
their obvious presence.
Risk Assessment: professional evaluation of a site to help determine which crime
prevention strategies are most appropriate.
Territoriality: the concept of creating and fostering places that are adopted by the
legitimate users of the space (i.e., they take ownership), making it less likely for people
who do not belong to engage in criminal or nuisance behavior at that location.
Visible: able to be seen by a human being with normal vision unaided by binoculars,
telescope, or Closed Circuit TV.

©R andy I. A tlas 2011 D raft M odule v 1.0 based on S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M15
Thoroughfare Standards
Replacement
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o m pa n y with Sandy Sorlien

_____________________________________________

To find new things, take the path you took yesterday.

John Burroughs

© D uany P later -Z yberk & C ompany with S andy S orlien , V ersion 1.0
S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS
REPLACEMENT MODULE
The Thoroughfare Standards Replacement Module is This Module is intended to be numbered as Article 2
regulatory. It is written with "shall" language to be inserted after the removal of the Base Code's Article 2, Article 3,
into the Base Code with little or no modification. and Article 4. It would be used only in codes where all
The extent to which this content may be implemented Transect Zone mapping has already been done, when the
is subject to state law and local political support. If the code will be adopted only for that Regulating Plan. In the
municipality is unable to mandate these standards, they resulting Transect Zoning SmartCode, there is no need to
may be changed to "should" language, especially where include standards for Regional Scale Plans or Community
"shall" appears in colored text, or included in a separate Scale Plans.
set of design guidelines. However, it is still necessary to regulate the Thoroughfares.
Even in existing urbanism, there is always the potential for
future streetscape improvements, traffic calming, road diets,
new street trees, new natural drainage, restriping of lanes,
and new parking patterns. Some plans may even call for
new thoroughfares to break up overlarge blocks.
All Tables referenced in this Module should be included
in the final assembled code. They can be found in the
Base Code.
Delete any Transect Zones that do not appear in the
Regulating Plan (Transect Zoning Map), and change table
numbers as necessary.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS
Municipality

REPLACEMENT MODULE FOR TRANSECT ZONING SMARTCODE, TO REPLACE


ARTICLE 2, ARTICLE 3, AND ARTICLE 4 OF THE BASE CODE.

Article 2.  THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS
2.1  INSTRUCTIONS
2.1.1 Thoroughfares are intended for use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to provide
access to Lots and Civic Spaces. Thoroughfares shall generally consist of Vehicular
Lanes and Public Frontages.
2.1.2 Thoroughfares shall be designed in context with the physical form and desired
design speed of the Transect Zones through which they pass. The Public Frontages
of Thoroughfares that pass from one Transect Zone to another should be adjusted
accordingly or, alternatively, the Transect Zone may follow the alignment of the
Thoroughfare to the depth of one Lot, retaining a single Public Frontage throughout
its trajectory. See Table 4C.
2.1.3 Within the more urban zones (T3 through T6), pedestrian comfort shall be a primary
consideration of the Thoroughfare. Design conflict between vehicular and pedestrian
movement generally shall be decided in favor of the pedestrian.
2.1.4 All Thoroughfares shall terminate at other Thoroughfares, forming a network. Cul-de-
sacs shall be subject to approval by Warrant to accommodate specific site conditions
only.
2.1.5 Each Lot shall Enfront a vehicular Thoroughfare, except that 20% of the Lots within
each Transect Zone may Enfront a Passage.
2.1.6  Designated B Streets may be exempted by Warrant from one or more of the specified
Public Frontage or Private Frontage requirements.
2.1.7  Standards for Paths and Bicycle Trails shall be approved by Warrant.
2.1.8  Standards for Thoroughfares within Special Districts shall be determined by Vari-
ance.
2.2 VEHICULAR LANES
2.2.1 General To All Zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Thoroughfares may include vehicular lanes in a variety of widths for parked
and for moving vehicles, including bicycles. The standards for vehicular lanes
shall be as shown in Table 3A.
b. A bicycle network consisting of Bicycle Trails, Bicycle Routes and Bicycle Lanes
should be provided throughout the community. The community bicycle network
shall be connected to existing or proposed regional networks wherever pos-
sible.
2.3  PUBLIC FRONTAGES
2.3.1  General To All Zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. The Public Frontage contributes to the character of the Transect Zone, and
includes the types of Sidewalks, Curbs, planters, Bikeways, and street trees.
b. Public Frontages should be designed as shown in Table 4A and Table 4B and
allocated within Transect Zones as specified in Table 14d.
c. Within the Public Frontages, the prescribed types of Public Planting and Public
Lighting shall be as shown in Table 4A, Table 4B, Table 5 and Table 6. The

© D uany P later -Z yberk & C ompany with S andy S orlien , V ersion 1.0
S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

SUPPLEMENTARY MODULES
One or more of these Supplementary Modules, or parts
of them, may be added to the Thoroughfare Standards as
necessary.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS
Municipality

spacing may be adjusted by Warrant to accommodate specific site conditions.


2.3.2  Specific To Zones T1, T2, T3
a. The Public Frontage shall include trees of various species, naturalistically clus-
tered, as well as understory.
b. The introduced landscape shall consist primarily of native species requiring
minimal irrigation, fertilization and maintenance.
2.3.3  Specific To Zones T4, T5, T6
a. The introduced landscape shall consist primarily of durable species tolerant of
soil compaction.
2.3.4  Specific To Zone T4
a. The Public Frontage shall include trees planted in a regularly-spaced Allee pattern
of single or alternated species with shade canopies of a height that, at maturity,
clears at least one Story.
2.3.5  Specific To Zones T5, T6
a. The Public Frontage shall include trees planted in a regularly-spaced Allee pat-
tern of single species with shade canopies of a height that, at maturity, clears at
least one Story. At Retail Frontages, the spacing of the trees may be irregular,
to avoid visually obscuring the Shopfronts.
b. Streets with a Right-of-Way width of 40 feet or less shall be exempt from the tree
requirement.

SUPPLEMENTARY MODULES PERTAINING TO THOROUGHFARES:


BICYCLING
LANDSCAPE
LIGHT IMPRINT
LIGHTING DESIGN
LIGHT LEVELS
NATURAL DRAINAGE
SPRAWL REPAIR
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM – STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE URBANISM - TREE CANOPY COVER
TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT

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DEFINITIONS
This version of the Definitions has had all terms removed
that occur only in Article 2, Article 3, and Article 4 of
the Base Code. It is intended to be inserted after the cali-
brated Transect Zoning Code. Some terms may need local
calibration, some may require deletion after the code is
finished, and new terms may be added as necessary. Do
not include any terms that do not appear in the final code
to be adopted.
All terms appearing in this Definitions section should be
capitalized in the code text.

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

DEFINITIONS
This Article provides definitions for terms in this Code that are technical in nature or
that otherwise may not reflect a common usage of the term. If a term is not defined in
this Article, then the CRC shall determine the correct definition. Items in italics refer
to Articles, Sections, or Tables in the SmartCode.

Accessory Building: an Outbuilding with an Accessory Unit.
Accessory Unit: an Apartment not greater than 440 square feet sharing owner-
ship and utility connections with a Principal Building; it may or may not be within an
Outbuilding. See Table 10 and Table 17. (Syn: ancillary unit)
Affordable Housing: dwellings consisting of rental or for-sale units that have a
rent (including utilities) or mortgage payment typically no more than 30% of the
income of families earning no more than 80% of median incomes by family size for
the county. (Alt. definition: rental or for-sale dwellings that are economically within
the means of the starting salary of a local elementary school teacher.)
Allee: a regularly spaced and aligned row of trees usually planted along a Thor-
oughfare or Path.
Apartment: a Residential unit sharing a building and a Lot with other units and/or
uses; may be for rent, or for sale as a condominium.
Arcade: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use wherein the Facade is a
colonnade supporting habitable space that overlaps the Sidewalk, while the Facade
at Sidewalk level remains at the Frontage Line.
Attic: the interior part of a building contained within a pitched roof structure.
Avenue (AV): a Thoroughfare of high vehicular capacity and low to moderate speed,
acting as a short distance connector between urban centers, and usually equipped
with a landscaped median.
Backbuilding: a single-Story structure connecting a Principal Building to an Out-
building. See Table 17.
Bed and Breakfast: an owner-occupied Lodging type offering 1 to 5 bedrooms,
permitted to serve breakfast in the mornings to guests.
Bicycle Lane (BL): a dedicated lane for cycling within a moderate-speed vehicular
Thoroughfare, demarcated by striping.
Bicycle Route (BR): a Thoroughfare suitable for the shared use of bicycles and
automobiles moving at low speeds.
Bicycle Trail (BT): a bicycle way running independently of a vehicular Thorough-
fare
Bikeway: any designated Thoroughfare or part of a Thoroughfare for bicycling.
See Bicycle Lane, Bicycle Route, and Bicycle Trail.
Block: the aggregate of private Lots, Passages, Rear Alleys and Rear Lanes,
circumscribed by Thoroughfares.
Block Face: the aggregate of all the building Facades on one side of a Block.
Boulevard (BV): a Thoroughfare designed for high vehicular capacity and moderate
speed, traversing an Urbanized area. Boulevards are usually equipped with Slip
Roads buffering Sidewalks and buildings.

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

By Right: characterizing a proposal or component of a proposal for a Building Scale


Plan (Article 3) that complies with the SmartCode and is permitted and processed
administratively, without public hearing. See Warrant and Variance.
CRC: Consolidated Review Committee.
Civic: the term defining not-for-profit organizations dedicated to arts, culture, educa-
tion, recreation, government, transit, and municipal parking.
Civic Building: a building operated by not-for-profit organizations dedicated to
arts, culture, education, recreation, government, transit, and municipal parking, or
for use approved by the legislative body.
Civic Parking Reserve: Parking Structure or parking lot within a quarter-mile of
the site that it serves. See Section 3.9.2.
Civic Space: an outdoor area dedicated for public use. Civic Space types are defined
by the combination of certain physical constants including the relationships among
their intended use, their size, their landscaping and their Enfronting buildings. See
Table 13.
Civic Zone: designation for public sites dedicated for Civic Buildings and Civic
Space.
Commercial: the term collectively defining workplace, Office, Retail, and Lodging
Functions.
Common Yard: a planted Private Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from
the Frontage line. It is visually continuous with adjacent yards. See Table 7.
Configuration: the form of a building, based on its massing, Private Frontage, and
height.
Consolidated Review Committee (CRC): Usually part of the Planning Office, a
CRC is comprised of a representative from each of the various regulatory agencies
that have jurisdiction over the permitting of a project, as well as a representative of
the Development and Design Center. See Section 1.4.3.
Corridor: a lineal geographic system incorporating transportation and/or Greenway
trajectories. A transportation Corridor may be a lineal Transect Zone.
Cottage: an Edgeyard building type. A single-family dwelling, on a regular Lot, often
shared with an Accessory Building in the back yard.
Courtyard Building: a building that occupies the boundaries of its Lot while internally
defining one or more private patios. See Table 9.
Curb: the edge of the vehicular pavement that may be raised or flush to a Swale.
It usually incorporates the drainage system. See Table 4A and Table 4B.
Density: the number of dwelling units within a standard measure of land area.
Design Speed: is the velocity at which a Thoroughfare tends to be driven without
the constraints of signage or enforcement. There are four ranges of speed: Very
Low: (below 20 MPH); Low: (20-25 MPH); Moderate: (25-35 MPH); High: (above
35 MPH). Lane width is determined by desired Design Speed. See Table 3A.
Developable Areas: lands other than those in the O-1 Preserved Open Sector.
Development and Design Center (DDC): A component of the Planning Office
assigned to advise on the use of this Code and to aid in the design of the communi-
ties and buildings based on it.

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

Disposition: the placement of a building on its Lot. See Table 9 and Table 17.
Dooryard: a Private Frontage type with a shallow Setback and front garden or patio, usu-
ally with a low wall at the Frontage Line. See Table 7. (Variant: Lightwell, light court.)
Drive: a Thoroughfare along the boundary between an Urbanized and a natural
condition, usually along a waterfront, Park, or promontory. One side has the urban
character of a Thoroughfare, with Sidewalk and building, while the other has the
qualities of a Road or parkway, with naturalistic planting and rural details.
Driveway: a vehicular lane within a Lot, often leading to a garage. See Section 3.10
and Table 3B-f.
Edgeyard Building: a building that occupies the center of its Lot with Setbacks on
all sides. See Table 9.
Effective Parking: the amount of parking required for Mixed Use after adjustment
by the Shared Parking Factor. See Table 11.
Effective Turning Radius: the measurement of the inside Turning Radius taking
parked cars into account. See Table 17.
Elevation: an exterior wall of a building not along a Frontage Line. See Table 17.
See: Facade.
Encroach: to break the plane of a vertical or horizontal regulatory limit with a struc-
tural element, so that it extends into a Setback, into the Public Frontage, or above
a height limit.
Encroachment: any structural element that breaks the plane of a vertical or hori-
zontal regulatory limit, extending into a Setback, into the Public Frontage, or above
a height limit.
Enfront: to place an element along a Frontage, as in “porches Enfront the
street.”
Estate House: an Edgeyard building type. A single-family dwelling on a very large
Lot of rural character, often shared by one or more Accessory Buildings. (Syn:
country house, villa)
Facade: the exterior wall of a building that is set along a Frontage Line. See Eleva-
tion.
Forecourt: a Private Frontage wherein a portion of the Facade is close to the
Frontage Line and the central portion is set back. See Table 7.
Frontage: the area between a building Facade and the vehicular lanes, inclusive
of its built and planted components. Frontage is divided into Private Frontage and
Public Frontage. See Table 4A and Table 7.
Frontage Line: a Lot line bordering a Public Frontage. Facades facing Frontage
Lines define the public realm and are therefore more regulated than the Elevations
facing other Lot Lines. See Table 17.
Function: the use or uses accommodated by a building and its Lot, categorized
as Restricted, Limited, or Open, according to the intensity of the use. See Table 10
and Table 12.
Gallery: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use wherein the Facade is
aligned close to the Frontage Line with an attached cantilevered shed or lightweight
colonnade overlapping the Sidewalk. See Table 7.

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

Green: a Civic Space type for unstructured recreation, spatially defined by landscap-
ing rather than building Frontages. See Table 13.
Greenway: an Open Space Corridor in largely natural conditions which may include
trails for bicycles and pedestrians.
Home Occupation: non-Retail Commercial enterprises. The work quarters should
be invisible from the Frontage, located either within the house or in an Outbuilding.
Permitted activities are defined by the Restricted Office category. See Table 10.
House: an Edgeyard building type, usually a single-family dwelling on a large Lot,
often shared with an Accessory Building in the back yard. (Syn: single.)
Infill: noun - new development on land that had been previously developed, includ-
ing most Greyfield and Brownfield sites and cleared land within Urbanized areas.
verb- to develop such areas.
Inn: a Lodging type, owner-occupied, offering 6 to 12 bedrooms, permitted to serve
breakfast in the mornings to guests. See Table 10.
Layer: a range of depth of a Lot within which certain elements are permitted. See
Table 17.
Lightwell: A Private Frontage type that is a below-grade entrance or recess designed
to allow light into basements. See Table 7. (Syn: light court.)
Liner Building: a building specifically designed to mask a parking lot or a Parking
Structure from a Frontage.
Live-Work: a Mixed Use unit consisting of a Commercial and Residential Function.
The Commercial Function may be anywhere in the unit. It is intended to be occupied
by a business operator who lives in the same structure that contains the Commercial
activity or industry. See Work-Live. (Syn.: flexhouse.)
Lodging: premises available for daily and weekly renting of bedrooms. See Table
10 and Table 12.
Lot: a parcel of land accommodating a building or buildings of unified design. The
size of a Lot is controlled by its width in order to determine the grain (i.e., fine grain
or coarse grain) of the urban fabric.
Lot Line: the boundary that legally and geometrically demarcates a Lot.
Lot Width: the length of the Principal Frontage Line of a Lot.
Main Civic Space: the primary outdoor gathering place for a community.The Main
Civic Space is often, but not always, associated with an important Civic Building.
Manufacturing: premises available for the creation, assemblage and/or repair of
artifacts, using table-mounted electrical machinery or artisanal equipment, and
including their Retail sale.
Meeting Hall: a building available for gatherings, including conferences, that
accommodates at least one room equivalent to a minimum of 10 square feet per
projected dwelling unit within the Pedestrian Shed in which it is located.
Mixed Use: multiple Functions within the same building through superimposition
or adjacency, or in multiple buildings by adjacency, or at a proximity determined by
Warrant.
Net Site Area: all developable land within a site including Thoroughfares but exclud-
ing land allocated as Civic Zones.

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

Office: premises available for the transaction of general business but excluding
Retail, artisanal and Manufacturing uses. See Table 10.
Open Space: land intended to remain undeveloped; it may be for Civic Space.
Outbuilding: an Accessory Building, usually located toward the rear of the same
Lot as a Principal Building, and sometimes connected to the Principal Building by
a Backbuilding. See Table 17.
Park: a Civic Space type that is a natural preserve available for unstructured rec-
reation. See Table 13.
Parking Structure: a building containing one or more Stories of parking above
grade.
Passage (PS): a pedestrian connector, open or roofed, that passes between build-
ings to provide shortcuts through long Blocks and connect rear parking areas to
Frontages.
Path (PT): a pedestrian way traversing a Park or rural area, with landscape match-
ing the contiguous Open Space, ideally connecting directly with the urban Sidewalk
network.
Planter: the element of the Public Frontage which accommodates street trees,
whether continuous or individual.
Plaza: a Civic Space type designed for Civic purposes and Commercial activities in
the more urban Transect Zones, generally paved and spatially defined by building
Frontages. 
Principal Building: the main building on a Lot, usually located toward the Frontage.
See Table 17.
Principal Entrance: the main point of access for pedestrians into a building.
Principal Frontage: On corner Lots, the Private Frontage designated to bear the
address and Principal Entrance to the building, and the measure of minimum Lot
width. Prescriptions for the parking Layers pertain only to the Principal Frontage.
Prescriptions for the first Layer pertain to both Frontages of a corner Lot. See Front-
age.
Private Frontage: the privately held Layer between the Frontage Line and the
Principal Building Facade. See Table 7 and Table 17.
Public Frontage: the area between the Curb of the vehicular lanes and the Front-
age Line. See Table 4A and Table 4B.
Rear Alley (RA): a vehicular way located to the rear of Lots providing access to
service areas, parking, and Outbuildings and containing utility easements. Rear
Alleys should be paved from building face to building face, with drainage by inverted
crown at the center or with roll Curbs at the edges.
Rear Lane (RL): a vehicular way located to the rear of Lots providing access to
service areas, parking, and Outbuildings and containing utility easements. Rear
Lanes may be paved lightly to Driveway standards. The streetscape consists of
gravel or landscaped edges, has no raised Curb, and is drained by percolation.
Rearyard Building: a building that occupies the full Frontage Line, leaving the rear
of the Lot as the sole yard. See Table 9. (Var: Rowhouse, Townhouse, Apartment
House)

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

Regulating Plan: a Zoning Map or set of maps that shows the Transect Zones, Civic
Zones, Special Districts if any, and Special Requirements if any, of areas subject
to, or potentially subject to, regulation by the SmartCode.
Residential: characterizing premises available for long-term human dwelling.
Retail: characterizing premises available for the sale of merchandise and food
service. See Table 10 and Table 12.
Retail Frontage: Frontage designated on a Regulating Plan that requires or recom-
mends the provision of a Shopfront, encouraging the ground level to be available
for Retail use. See Special Requirements.
Road (RD): a local, rural and suburban Thoroughfare of low-to-moderate vehicular
speed and capacity. This type is allocated to the more rural Transect Zones (T1-T3).
See Table 3A.
Rowhouse: a single-family dwelling that shares a party wall with another of the
same type and occupies the full Frontage Line. See Rearyard Building. (Syn:
Townhouse)
Secondary Frontage: on corner Lots, the Private Frontage that is not the Principal
Frontage. As it affects the public realm, its First Layer is regulated. See Table 17.
Setback: the area of a Lot measured from the Lot line to a building Facade or
Elevation that is maintained clear of permanent structures, with the exception of
Encroachments listed in Section 3.7. See Table 14g. (Var: build-to line, build-to
zone.)
Shared Parking Factor: an accounting for parking spaces that are available to
more than one Function. See Table 11.
Shopfront: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use, with substantial glazing
and an awning, wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line with the
building entrance at Sidewalk grade. See Table 7.
Sidewalk: the paved section of the Public Frontage dedicated exclusively to pedes-
trian activity.
Sideyard Building: a building that occupies one side of the Lot with a Setback on
the other side. This type can be a Single or Twin depending on whether it abuts the
neighboring house. See Table 9.
Special Requirements: provisions of Section 3.9, Section 4.7, and Section 5.3 of
this Code and/or the associated designations on a Regulating Plan or other map
for those provisions.
Square: a Civic Space type designed for unstructured recreation and Civic purposes,
spatially defined by building Frontages and consisting of Paths, lawns and trees,
formally disposed. See Table 13.
Stoop: a Private Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line
with the first Story elevated from the Sidewalk for privacy, with an exterior stair and
landing at the entrance. See Table 7.
Story: a habitable level within a building, excluding an Attic or raised basement.
See Table 8.
Street (ST): a local urban Thoroughfare of low speed and capacity. See Table 3B
and Table 4B.

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

Streetscreen: a freestanding wall built along the Frontage Line, or coplanar with the
Facade. It may mask a parking lot from the Thoroughfare, provide privacy to a side
yard, and/or strengthen the spatial definition of the public realm. (Syn: streetwall.)
See Section 3.7.5f.
Substantial Modification: alteration to a building that is valued at more than 50%
of the replacement cost of the entire building, if new.
Swale: a low or slightly depressed natural area for drainage.
T-zone: Transect Zone.
Terminated Vista: a location at the axial conclusion of a Thoroughfare. A building
located at a Terminated Vista designated on a Regulating Plan is required or recom-
mended to be designed in response to the axis.
Thoroughfare: a way for use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to provide
access to Lots and Open Spaces, consisting of Vehicular Lanes and the Public
Frontage. See Table 3A, Table 3B and Table 17a.
Townhouse: See Rearyard Building. (Syn: Rowhouse)
Transect: a cross-section of the environment showing a range of different habitats.
The rural-urban Transect of the human environment used in the SmartCode tem-
plate is divided into six Transect Zones. These zones describe the physical form
and character of a place, according to the Density and intensity of its land use and
Urbanism.
Transect Zone (T-zone): One of several areas on a Zoning Map regulated by the
SmartCode. Transect Zones are administratively similar to the land use zones in
conventional codes, except that in addition to the usual building use, Density, height,
and Setback requirements, other elements of the intended habitat are integrated,
including those of the private Lot and building and Public Frontage. See Table 1.
Turning Radius: the curved edge of a Thoroughfare at an intersection, measured
at the inside edge of the vehicular tracking. The smaller the Turning Radius, the
smaller the pedestrian crossing distance and the more slowly the vehicle is forced
to make the turn. See Table 3B and Table 17.
Urbanism: collective term for the condition of a compact, Mixed Use settlement,
including the physical form of its development and its environmental, functional,
economic, and sociocultural aspects.
Urbanized: generally, developed. Specific to the SmartCode, developed at T-3
(Sub-Urban) Density or higher.
Variance: a ruling that would permit a practice that is not consistent with either a
specific provision or the Intent of this Code (Section 1.3). Variances are usually
granted by the Board of Appeals in a public hearing. See Section 1.5.
Warrant: a ruling that would permit a practice that is not consistent with a specific
provision of this Code, but that is justified by its Intent (Section 1.3). Warrants are
usually granted administratively by the CRC. See Section 1.5.
Work-Live: a Mixed Use unit consisting of a Commercial and Residential Func-
tion. It typically has a substantial Commercial component that may accommodate
employees and walk-in trade. The unit is intended to function predominantly as
work space with incidental Residential accommodations that meet basic habitability
requirements. See Live-Work. (Syn: Live-With.)

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SMARTCODE MODULE DEFINITIONS
Municipality

Yield: characterizing a Thoroughfare that has two-way traffic but only one effec-
tive travel lane because of parked cars, necessitating slow movement and driver
negotiation. Also, characterizing parking on such a Thoroughfare.
Zoning Map: the official map or maps that are part of the zoning ordinance and
delineate the boundaries of individual zones and districts. See Regulating Plan.

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F i r e M i t i g at i o n
in the Wildland Urban Interface
SmartCode Module
Prepared by D r e i l i n g Te r r o n e s A r c h i t e c t u r e , M a r t i n D r e i l i n g

________________________________________

To study fire is to inquire into one of the informing


processes of the earth. To manage fire is to perform
one of the defining acts of human beings. That, dis-
tilled, is the sufficient and necessary reason to under-
stand fire.

Steve Pyne
1996

Prepared by Farr Associates: Leslie Oberholtzer, Doug Farr


with assistance from Monica Richart and April Hughes.
SmartCode Module Fire Mitigation in THE WUI
Municipality

General to all plans................................................................................... x


fire hazard assessment.............................................................................. X
fire hazard mitigation measures . ......................................................... x

regional scale plans.................................................................................. x


Set Aside Lands................................................................................................ X
Sector Designations..................................................................................... X

community scale plans............................................................................... x


Set Aside Lands................................................................................................ X
Community UNIT Type...................................................................................... X
Transect zones............................................................................................... X
thoroughfare standards.......................................................................... X

building scale plans.................................................................................... x


BUILDING DISPOSITION...................................................................................... X
BUILDING FUNCTION........................................................................................... X

TABLES................................................................................................................. X
FM-1. Common zone of defense: FUEL TREATMENTS............................. X
FM-2. Common zone of defense: COMMUNITY SCALE PATTERNS......... X
FM-3. conversion of the wui to aui.......................................................... X

Definitions OF TERMS..................................................................................... X

F ire M itigation in the WUI v 1.0 ©2010 D reiling T errones A rchitecture for S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 M3
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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

FIRE MITIGATION
IN THE WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE
SMARTCODE Module
This Module should be used for any planning area that
includes Fire Hazard Severity Zones or equivalent.
Such zones should be identified for each state. The infor-
mation should be available from state or local agencies
that deal with fire protection.
The term “Fire Hazard Severity Zone” should be changed
to the terminology used by the regulating body.
Many local jurisdictions already require a Fire Hazard
Mitigation Plan or equivalent when development is pro-
posed in a Fire Hazard Severity Zone. This Module is
intended to modify some of the requirements normally
stipulated for those plans that are in conflict with principles
of good urban design. The primary tool introduced is the
Common Zone of Defense.
This Module, therefore, should be used not only to address
actual plan proposals or desirable outcomes, but to tacti-
cally address fire mitigation issues that may be embedded
in current codes, policies or simply local practice.
Zones of Defense
The purpose of a Zone of Defense is to prevent fire from
moving easily from one fuel type to another, or to other-
wise modify the fire type to one of lower intensity. For
example, an active crown fire may shift to a ground fire.
Zones of Defense can be effective simply by reducing
the intensity of vegetation such that a fire is substantially
modified as it crosses into a Zone of Defense.
Zones of Defense are typically covered by state and local
codes. Care should be taken when reviewing these codes
to ensure that their Zones of Defense do not force extreme
separation of buildings or the creation of landscape areas
that are largely devoid of plants. Local interpretations
of these codes can result in removal of all substantial
vegetation. In some cases, such as Brush / Scrubland,
such clearing is warranted, and agricultural uses should
be considered in these areas. But many Fuel Models can
achieve adequate treatment simply by restoring conditions
that allow natural fires to manage the fuels.

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SmartCode Module Fire Mitigation in THE WUI
Municipality

Article 1. general to all plans


Fire Mitigation in the WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE

1.X fire hazard assessment


Each plan submitted under this code that includes lands listed by state or local
agencies as Fire Hazard Severity Zones (FHSZ) shall include an assessment of
specific fire hazard elements present. Assessment shall include the following:
a. Identification and location of existing Fuel Models based on the 1978 National
Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) Fuel Model system.
b. Identification of historic weather patterns affecting fire behavior, including most
likely direction of fire origination and propagation.
c. Identification of the fire history pertinent to the plan area, including location
and age of prior burns and Fuel Treatments.
d. Identification of appropriate Fire Hazard Mitigation Measures for the specific
design elements of the plan.

1.X FIRE HAZARD MITIGATION MEASURES


All plans submitted under this code that include lands within a Fire Hazard Severity
Zone shall provide Fire Hazard Mitigation Measures. They shall include specific
actions within the plan as well as the set aside of lands on which development may
not occur due to high fire hazard. Fire Hazard Mitigation Measures shall include,
as a minimum, the following:
1.X.1 Zones of Defense
a. Zones of Defense shall be located between natural areas that are prone to wildfire
and buildings and related development.
b. Zones of Defense shall be configured in direct response to the adjacent Fuel
Models present and shall reflect appropriate treatments and dimensions for those
models.
c. Zones of Defense shall not be required to be devoid of vegetation or forest cover.
Vegetation shall be reduced or otherwise managed such that approaching fires
are adequately stopped or stalled such that structures within the ZD do not ignite,
and such that firefighters can work safely to fight fires that may enter the Zone
of Defense and approach structures.
d. Dimensions for Zones of Defense shall be provided as follows, such that fire
encroachment will be restricted for the existing Fuel Model.
i. The width of a standard Zone of Defense shall be 100 feet minimum and shall
include a Reduced Fuel Zone of 70 feet minimum and a Critical Defense Zone
of 30 feet minimum.
ii. Reduced Fuel Zones shall include Fuel Treatments that reduce the native
Fuels while maintaining native landscape character.
iii. Critical Zones shall include Fuel treatment or removal such that advancing
fires are stopped.
iv. Zones of Defense should be decreased or increased in response to specific
local conditions of Fuels, topography and weather.
v. Zones of Defense may include noncombustible architectural elements, such
as walls, both to increase defensive capability and to reduce or modify the
overall dimension of the zone, where the adjacent Fuel Model permits.

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SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Common Zone of Defense


This section introduces “Common Zone of Defense,” a
new term for the concept of collective Zones of Defense
around a cluster of structures such as a hamlet (CLD in the
SmartCode). Rather than have numerous redundant Zones
of Defense generating sprawl patterns, a Common Zone
will address the same fire modification and fire fighting
issues as a standard Zone of Defense, while facilitating
more compact development.
It is important to understand that clustered buildings will
necessarily be more fire resistant due to other require-
ments of standard building codes and, therefore, support
the goals of wildfire mitigation.
There will likely be resistance to this from firefighters
who will still require space between buildings for fire
fighting.
Since a Common Zone of Defense offers greater social
and environmental benefits to a community, while gen-
erating more efficient development patterns, calibrators
can offer these larger zones of defense as a means to
mitigate concerns over clustered buildings, and better
isolate CLD from wildfire environments.
Fuel ModelS
Fuel Models refer to the particular collection of plant
species and plant residual materials that are relevant in
a given area. Fuel Models have been identified for most
fire-prone areas of the U.S., in accordance with several
accepted systems of modeling. The most common is
the 1978 NFDRS Fuel Model System; however, other
systems have been developed and may be in use by local
agencies.
Assignment of local Fuel Models may be determined
by State or Local agencies. Alternately, Fuel Models
present in a planning area can be determined according
to USDA Guidelines, per USDA Technical Report INT-
122, Anderson 1982.
For some plans, simplified Fuel Models may be adequate
for calibration. In such cases simplified Fuel Models as
listed herein should be clearly identified and acceptance
by local agencies should be verified. However, if Fuel
Models have not been assigned at a fine enough scale
to be useful in the development of the plan, it may be
necessary to further refine the assignment according to
these categories, or by using one of the accepted models
in use that includes more diverse categories.

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1.X.2 Common Zone of Defense


a. For all Fire Hazard Severity Zones, any planned development patterns shall
include a Common Zone of Defense as the primary means to isolate developed
areas from high fire risk conditions in the surrounding landscape.
b. A Common Zone of Defense shall protect multiple buildings, compounds, TND
edges adjacent to wildlands, and the Urbanized areas of CLD Community
Units.
c. A Common Zone of Defense shall be required for any development within or
immediately adjacent to a FHSZ and shall generally comply with state and local
regulations regarding standard Zones of Defense for individual buildings, but
shall be designed to isolate groups of multiple buildings from adjacent fire hazard
areas.
d. The Common Zone of Defense shall serve multiple purposes beyond the purpose
of Fire Modification, including the following:
i. Agricultural uses that substantially reduce the risk of fire spreading from native
Fuel types to Fuel types within the area of development.
ii. Recreational or other natural area that includes a Fuel type modified for low
risk.
iii. Natural Zones of Defense treated for Fuel reduction such that approaching
fires would either reduce in intensity or cease progress when the Zone of
Defense is encountered.
e. The Common Zone of Defense shall include adequate access for fire fighting
equipment within the proposed Thoroughfare system.
f. Individual Zones of Defense around isolated buildings shall be utilized where
isolated buildings are permitted by this Code. Such individual Zones of Defense
shall be designed per state and local requirements and shall be contiguous with
public Thoroughfares.

1.X.3 Specific Response to Fuel Models present


a. Development shall be directly responsive to the Fuel Models present in the plan
area. Fuel Models present shall be identified as part of the Fire Hazard Mitigation
Measures.
b. When Fuel Models have not been assigned as part of a FHSZ, or via other
mechanisms by local or regional jurisdictions, development areas shall be dif-
ferentiated among the following three Fuel types as a minimum:
i. Grassland
ii. Brush / Scrubland
iii. Forest Lands
c. Fuel Treatment shall be designed to respond directly to the Fuel Models present.
All Fuel Treatment shall be designed to isolate development areas from areas
where wildfire may occur. Fuel treatment shall also be designed to reduce risk
of wildfire ignition caused by escaping structure fires.
d. Fuel Treatment shall not require the full removal of natural vegetation, landscape
materials or agricultural planting in or near the development area or within the
Zone of Defense, except as may be required for a specific Fuel type as provided
in Section 1.X.4 below.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

1.X.4 General Requirements for


Basic Fuel Types

Grassland Fuel Models


Grassland fires are usually easier to fight than other fuel
types. Development in areas of grassland fuels shall
anticipate fast-moving ground fires with lower height and
lower risk of spotting. Fires may recur at high frequency
and development shall anticipate regular recurring fire
at the scale of seasons.
a. ii This may require multiple treatments per season
as growth recurs.

Brush / Scrubland Fuel Models


Development in areas of brush / scrubland pose the highest
fire threat as these lands burn often based on quick fuel
growth. Brushlands can burn very hot and frequently;
brushland species often regenerate quickly and fuel loads
can accumulate rapidly. There may be greater effects from
topography including rapid and random fire spread, high
frequency of spotting and high energy release.
Expect high annual fuel accumulation, ongoing and
frequent Fuel Treatment and high difficulty for fire
fighting.
b. ii This may require multiple treatments per season
as growth recurs.

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1.X.4 General Requirements for Basic Fuel Types

a. Grassland Fuel Models : General Requirements


i. Development should include a low to moderate level of isolation between
development areas and areas prone to wildfire.
ii. Development shall anticipate horizontally advancing fires and shall utilize
Fuel Treatment as the primary mitigation of threat to structures. Fuel Treat-
ment shall occur as often as needed to remove or reduce natural grass
regeneration.
iii. Fuel Treatment shall not require full removal of vegetation, but shall reduce
plant material via mowing to levels that will not allow wildfire to progress or
develop high heat.
iv. Agricultural operations are permitted, provided that adequate firebreaks
occur between grasslands and agricultural installations, and between ag-
ricultural areas and development areas. Agricultural planting shall not add
to the Fuel Load in the treatment areas and shall include diverse species
exhibiting different Fuel characteristics, including seasonal maturation that
does not coincide with the likely fire season.
v. Development shall anticipate the possibility of light airborne ash and sparks,
and shall include Fuel Treatments internal to the development areas adja-
cent to grasslands.
vi. Development shall include roof and material selections designed to reduce
risk of structure fire from low temperature ash.
vii.Extent of Fuel Treatment may be reduced by the used of noncombustible
walls and other landscape elements that will impede fire progress and
isolate development from likely wildfire areas.

b. Brush / Scrubland Fuel Models: General Requirements


i. Development should include a high level of isolation between development
areas and areas prone to wildfire.
ii. Development shall anticipate fast moving, horizontally advancing fires of
high heat and shall include Fuel Treatment as the primary mitigation of threat
to structures. Fuel Treatment shall occur as often as needed to remove or
reduce natural brush / scrub regeneration.
iii. Development shall anticipate that fires will recur frequently in the same
area, possibly on an annual basis, and shall require frequent and ongoing
Fuel Treatment appropriate to the Fuels present.
iv. Fuel Freatment shall require full removal of brush and scrub in critical por-
tions of the treatment area to ensure that fire spread does not approach
development areas. Replacement by grasses and low landscaping shall be
permitted provided regular treatment occurs, and provided that landscape
materials are highly varied and carry low risk of ignition.
v. Agricultural operations are permitted, provided that adequate firebreaks
occur between brushlands and agricultural installations, and between ag-
ricultural areas and development areas. Agricultural planting shall not add
to the Fuel Load in the treatment areas and shall include diverse species
exhibiting different Fuel characteristics, including seasonal maturation that
does not coincide with the likely fire season.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Forest Land Fuel Models


Forests lands present the most complex fire management
challenges because fire has been suppressed for so long
that fuel accumulations are large and unbalanced with
any natural fire resistance capabilities. In fire adapted
landscapes, fire typically manages the understory fuel
loads on a regular basis in such a way that intense fires
rarely ignite and older trees can generally resist fire
damage.
Crown Fires are the most devastating in a forest set-
ting. Fuel Treatments will seek to reduce Crown Fires
by eliminating Ladder Fuels and to modify an existing
Crown Fire so that it drops back down to the ground
(by reducing understory fuels).
c. ii This may require multiple treatments per season
as growth recurs.

1.X.5 Topography
Restrictions based on topography will likely harmonize
with other environmental concerns including stormwater,
geotechnical considerations and seismic considerations.
Many places that offer high risks for wildfire also offer
high risks for at least one of these other concerns.
Additionally, in certain locations recurring wildfire is often
coupled with landslides caused by removal of vegetation.
This is typical for scrublands where thin soils may be
present and underlying stability is low.
The primary focus for topography should be on fires
that can move upslope rapidly. This concern increases
as slope increases, and mitigation should increase in
severity concomitantly, to the limit that no development
should occur on, or at the top of, steep slopes, draws, or
canyons.

1.X.6 Weather patterns


Consideration of weather patterns requires fine grained
observation of specific sites and will not necessarily
generate regional-scaled information.
Specific weather events, such as lightning strikes, are
hard to predict, particularly when the weather at the
moment of the event may be highly variable. In general,
site planning consideration for weather will address other
issues such as stormwater, flooding, and/or high winds as
they affect structures and access. Appropriate response to
these items will generally deliver an adequate response
to fire as well.

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vi. Development shall anticipate the possibility of light to heavy airborne ash and
sparks of moderate to high temperatures, and shall include Fuel Treatments
internal to the development areas adjacent to brush / scrubland areas.
vii.Development shall include roof and material selections designed to reduce
risk of structure fire from high temperature ash.

c. Forest Land Fuel Models: General Requirements


i. Development should include a moderate level of isolation between develop-
ment areas and areas prone to wildfire, coupled with both Fuel Treatment
and wider areas of Fuel reduction. When appropriate, wide area Fuel
Treatment as part of a forest stewardship program shall be included in the
plan area.
ii. Development shall anticipate horizontally advancing fires and shall utilize
Fuel Treatment as the primary mitigation of threat to structures. Develop-
ment in Forest Lands shall assume fire threats from all types of fire, including
Crown Fires, Ground Fires, Spotting and Firebrands. Fuel Treatment shall
occur as often as needed to remove or reduce Understory materials and
Ladder Fuels.
iii. Development shall anticipate intermittent fires with long spans of time be-
tween fire events and shall include a mechanism for ongoing Fuel Treatment
and Fuels Maintenance spanning seasons and possibly decades.
iv.Fuel Treatment shall not require the full removal of plant materials. Materials
shall be removed or reduced such that forest character is maintained, yet
Fuel Loads are reduced such that a fire would be adequately modified to
reduce or eliminate threat to development.
v. Agricultural operations are permitted provided adequate Fuel Treatment
occurs in adjacent Forest Lands to modify an advancing fire to one of lower
intensity, or to prevent advance into areas of differing Fuels.
vi. Agricultural planting shall not add to the Fuel Load in the treatment areas
and shall include diverse species exhibiting different Fuel characteristics
including seasonal maturation that does not coincide with the likely fire
season.
vii.Development patterns shall include high levels of Fuel Treatment coupled
with complex Zones of Defense that provide isolation from intense fire types,
while preserving forest amenities that provide assets for development and
promote forest health.
1.X.5 Restricted Development based on Topography
Development shall not be permitted in areas that exhibit high fire risk based on
topography. See Table FM-1d. These areas shall include:
a. steep slopes of xx percent minimum grade where convection can generate
increased winds, updraft and upslope fire progression
b. draws and canyons where convection can generate extreme drafts coupled
with high radiant heat from constrained geography
c. areas where historic fire patterns reflect repeated fire occurrence.
1.X.6 Restricted Development based on prevailing Weather Patterns
Development shall not be permitted where historic weather patterns generate high
risk of fire, either via fire propagation or ignition. See Table FM-1de. Considerations
shall include:

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Fuel Treatment
Fuel Treatment requirements for landowners will be
covered by other local or regional regulations. These
codes should be reviewed for potential conflicts with
the development goals of this code and addressed as
part of this calibration. Specific attention should be
paid to local codes that favor non-native landscaping or
irrigated turf . 1.X.7 INItial fuel treatment
While not necessarily addressed by local codes, Fuel Treat- Initial Fuel Treatments, prior to development, may be
ments should be aimed at returning existing landscapes required and the limits of those treatments will likely be
to a condition that mimics natural conditions, where fire the subject of negotiation. For non-conventional devel-
has not been suppressed but has been allowed. opment patterns like those supported by transect-based
Moisture of Extinction is a value specific not only to each codes, the extent and pattern of Fuel Treatments may pose
fuel type but to the arrangement of the fuel. In typical conflicts with regard to resource and habitat preservation
wildfire regulations, for each fuel model there will be a in adjacent areas, as well as the general landscape qualities
defined Moisture of Extinction above which fire safety sought for the plan area. Fuel Treatments proposed should
goes up. Local climate and weather patterns play a part. be finely tuned to the specific Fuel Models and the local
This is how the fire severity signs are set, such as “Fire climate, such that over-treatment does not occur.
Hazard Today: Low.”

O-1 PRESERVED OPEN SECTOR set aside lands


This section allows for Fuel Treatment activities that may This section assumes that within the WUI there will be
be sensible or required in otherwise preserved lands. In lands identified as part of the Fire Hazard Assessment
many cases, strategic Fuel Treatments may make sense that are not suitable for development specifically due to
some distance away from an area of development to wildfire considerations.
prevent fire from moving into certain higher risk topo-
graphic settings. This is an issue of overall wildland fire
management, but may occur within a plan area.
At a finer scale, this section also addresses the problem
of difficulties arising with Fuel Treatment on public and
private lands adjacent to development. This should be
calibrated, depending on the nature of the plan, to require
access to adjacent lands, even if already developed, for
Fuel Treatment from a systems point of view.
This suggests that each private property within a plan O-2 RESERVED OPEN SECTOR
area shall provide access for Fuel Treatments when sub- This section provides for Fuel Treatment as part of stew-
sequent development, as identified in the plan, occurs. It ardship activities that can return lands to a condition of
essentially establishes “treatment rights” for all develop- natural fire management as a means to protect the WUI as
ment identified in the plan. It also reduces the ability of well as restore particular lands to natural performance.
adjacent land owners to limit planned development based The O-2 Sector is intended for lands that should be pre-
on refusal to allow fuels treatment. However, inclusion of served, but are privately owned and not yet preserved. It
this section requires careful definition of “Treatment”in is typically a temporary designation. It may be reassigned
the adopted code such that environmental, cultural and to O-1 or G-1 during the course of a planning charrette
social values are preserved. or over a series of revised plans, or years later.

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a. high risk of lightning strikes on ridgelines, knolls, and other exposed loca-
tions
b. prevailing winds coupled with topographic features that will likely increase
rapid fire movement should ignition occur, including draws, steep slopes facing
prevailing winds, or upslope conditions relative to likely wildfire advance
c. specific climate zones, typical Fuels moisture during highest risk fire seasons,
and typical Moisture of Extinction for the Fuel Models present.
1.X.7 Initial Fuel Treatment
a. For all SFHZ areas where development may occur, Initial Fuel Treatments
shall be included as part of the Fire Hazard Mitigation Measures.
b. Initial Fuel Treatments shall comply with state and local codes.
c. Initial Fuel Treatments shall be coordinated with the specific configuration and
dimensions of the Common Zone of Defense specified for each plan area.
1.X.8 Fuel Maintenance
a. Plans shall include an operational strategy for ongoing Fuel Maintenance, in
accordance with and subject to enforcement by state and/or local statutes.


ARTICLE 2. Regional Scale Plans
2.X. Set Aside lands
a. Lands in a Fire Hazard Severity Zone that are set aside for the purpose of fire
hazard mitigation, and that are not designated for agricultural uses or currently
in private ownership for agricultural uses, shall be permanently assigned to the
O-1 Preserved Open Sector. Such lands in private ownership shall be assigned
O-2 Reserved Open Space Sector for intended reassignment to O-1 through
Transfer of Development Rights or other compensatory actions, or to the G-1
Restricted Growth Sector, allowing only CLD development in the future.

2.X. Sector Designations


a. Undeveloped lands in Fire Hazard Severity Zones shall be limited to designation
as O-1, O-2, G-1, or G-2. Developed lands in the FHSZ shall be assigned to the
G-4 Infill Growth Sector.
2.X.1 O-1 Preserved Open Sector
a. Lands in Fire Hazard Severity Zones designated O-1 may include Fuel Treat-
ments at Sector boundaries adjacent to other Sectors where structures may
be present, and in other locations where Fuel Treatments provide a strategic
advantage for fire hazard mitigation for existing and proposed development and
for general stewardship purposes.
b. Lands in Fire Hazard Severity Zones designated O-1 may include agricultural
production and structures, timber production and structures, and parklands
facilities and structures by Warrant.
2.X.2 O-2 Reserved Open Sector
a. Fuel Treatment in O-2 and O-1 shall return undeveloped lands within the
Sector to a condition in which naturally occurring fires generate ongoing Fuels
Maintenance.
2.X.3 G-1 Restricted Growth Sector and G-2 Controlled Growth Sector
a. Lands in Fire Hazard Severity Zones designated G-1 or G-2 may include agri-
cultural production and related structures.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

3.4 SPECIFIC TO ZONE T-2 3.4 SPECIFIC TO ZONE T-3


This section is intended for Community Scale Plans In most communities developed and protected under
where O-2 and G-1 Sectors or T-2 agricultural and stew- this Code, T-3 will be the primary development zone
ardship zones are identified and development potential associated with the WUI. The T-3 zone, if protected
is present. While T-2 lots may be very large (20 acres by a Common Zone of Defense on the outer edges, is
minimum in the model SmartCode), in the FHSZ, effectively a transition between wildland fire risks and
buildings are disposed near public thoroughfares. This the more intensely developed T-4 zone where wildland
satisfies much of the fire fighting concern because the fire is likely to be irrelevant and urban fire fighting tech-
structures are readily accessible. niques come into play. This is particularly the case in
Additionally, it seeks to establish individual property larger villages and towns, such as the TND Community
patterns in traditional ways such that, should develop- Unit type or several adjacent TNDs.
ment intensify, these T-2 patterns closely associated with Additionally, this section allows for T-3 / T-4 levels of
public roads may generate opportunities for transition development as part of a CLD (hamlet) pattern that is
to the CLD (hamlet) scale. entirely surrounded by a Common Zone of Defense. In
this case the T-3 need not be on the edges only.
The Common Zone of Defense is intended to isolate
wildfire from clustered development in the first place
by generating a larger overall Zone of Defense than
would be generated by sprawl development patterns.
The goal is to eliminate the WUI by creating, instead,
an Agricultural-Urban Interface (AUI) at the T-2 / T-3
boundary. The T-3 development then requires no dif-
ferent fire mitigation than any urban development.Thus
buildings may be closely spaced with the understanding
that building codes (health/safety codes) already require
increased fire resistance for such configurations.
It is also the intent of this section to require access for
fire fighting via a street and alley system, but to link the
requirements for those thoroughfares back to the other
provisions of the SmartCode, rather than deferring to
typical agency standards for their dimensions. It is not
appropriate to include street and alley standards here, as
they should be considered as systems rather than isolated
responses to individual concerns. See Section 3.7 of the
base code and the Complete Thoroughfares Module.

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Article 3. Community Scale Plans

3.X Set Aside Lands


a. Lands mapped in a Community Plan that occur in a Fire Hazard Severity Zone
and are set aside for the for the purpose of fire hazard mitigation, and that are not
designated for agricultural uses or currently in private ownership for agricultural
uses, shall be permanently assigned to Civic Space or the O-1 Preserved Open
Sector.

3.3 COMMUNITY UNIT TYPES


3.3.X General
a. Development occurring in or adjacent to a Fire Hazard Severity Zone shall be
limited to the following:
i. TND where the existing or proposed WUI occurs, provided the WUI is modified
via a Common Zone of Defense per Article X.
ii. CLD as regulated in Section 3.3.1 of the SmartCode and including a Common
Zone of Defense per Section 3.3.X below.
3.3.X Specific to CLD
a. If any part of the Urbanized area of a planned CLD falls inside or adjacent to a
Fire Hazard Severity Zone, the entire Urbanized area shall be subject to a Common
Zone of Defense separating it from the Fire Hazard Severity Zone. The required
50% T1/T2 zone in the CLD may act as part of the Common Zone of Defense if it
satisfies the other requirements of this Code for a Zone of Defense.

3.4 Transect Zones


3.4.X Specific to zone T2 within a Fire Hazard Severity Zone
a. Individual structures permitted by this Code that are justified within the FHSZ in
support of land management, stewardship, agricultural production, and related
residential and industrial structures shall include individual Zones of Defense and
shall be located adjacent to public roads for ease of access for fire fighting.
b. Multiple structures comprising a compound shall utilize a Common Zone of
Defense such that clusters of buildings are isolated from adjacent fire hazards
as a group. The Common Zone of Defense may be increased in dimension to
ensure isolation and to protect structures without requiring individual Zones of
Defense.
c. Multiple, but separate, individual structures or compounds that may be permitted
by this Code (such as farmsteads) shall be located in close proximity to each
other such that Zones of Defense or Common Zones of Defense overlap or occur
directly across roadways as a means to facilitate fire fighting and discourage a
pattern of sprawl. See Table FM-2.

3.4.X Specific to zone T3 within or adjacent to a Fire Hazard Severity Zone
a. Any T-3 zone at the edge of a TND shall be located such that a Common Zone
of Defense occurs between the T-3 zone and any T-2 zone, T-1 zone or O-1 Pre-
served Open Sector that includes areas listed as Fire Hazard Severity Zones. The
Common Zone of Defense shall separate the wildlands from the edge of T-3 and
eliminate the need for special consideration of T-3 with regard to wildfire.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Article 5: BUILDING SCALE PLANS


Rather than develop a full set of slightly varied require-
ments for individual buildings (or specifically combat
those required by standard codes), the Module uses the
Common Zone of Defense method to make the case that
buildings in the development area are, as a clustered
unit, sufficiently separate (and easily protected) from
severe wildfire risks. This requires careful delineation of
the Common Zones of Defense so that they are, in fact,
defensible when reviewed by fire protection officials.
Emphasis on conversion of the WUI to an AUI (or
equivalent) is intended to shift the conversation from
incidental fire protection of development to intentional
modification of fuel types such that fire does not approach
development in a threatening manner.
However, in the T-2 zone, or T-1 or Civic Space (CS)
by Warrant or Variance, there may be isolated buildings
that are permitted by the SmartCode within a Commu-
nity Plan, but which would require individual Zones of
Defense. Ideally, advance planning with careful place-
ment (disposition) of such buildings and facilities would
allow normal T-2 development within a Common Zone
of Defense, though this is not always possible. See Table
FM-2 and Table FM-3.
The Common Zone of Defense rationale should establish BUILDING DISPOSITION
that the resulting buffer is somewhat larger (community Specific TO ZONES T1, T-2, CZ
scaled) than a typical Zone of Defense, and thus provides This section expands relevant issues for T-2 partly to
far better fire protection and access for whatever fire support specific development patterns and partly to
fighting may be necessary. defend against other codes that encourage sprawl.
It reinforces street friendly locations for development
partly to support fire fighting efforts and partly to
reinforce the natural succession of Transect Zones for
future intensification, following the traditional settle-
ment patterns of Article 3 and Article 4 of the base
SmartCode.

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3.7 Thoroughfare Standards
3.7.X General to Development within or adjacent to Fire Hazard Severity Zones
a. In Fire Hazard Severity Zones, public Thoroughfares shall be the primary means
of accessing private Lots for fire fighting access.
b. Common Zones of Defense that protect CLD and TND Community Unit types
shall include access and connectivity per the Intent of this Code, Section 1.3.

ARTICLE 5. LOT AND BUILDING SCALE PLANS

5.X BUILDING DISPOSITION


5.X.1 General to all zones
a. Buildings that are protected by a Common Zone of Defense shall not require
individual Zones of Defense.
a. Buildings shall be disposed such that they can be easily accessed for fire fighting
and shall favor site locations adjacent to streets, roads or other public Thorough-
fares.
5.X.2 Fuel Treatment and Fire Resistance
a. Fuel Treatment as required on Lots shall extend to the public Thoroughfare. See
Table FM-1.
b. Individual buildings shall be designed per the applicable building codes for fire
resistance. Clustered buildings shall be designed for fire resistance to the extent
required by the applicable building codes for buildings in close proximity to each
other that are not within a Fire Severity Hazard Zone.
5.X.3 Specific to zones T1, T2, Civic Zones (CZ)
a. Individual structures permitted by this Code, by Right or by Warrant, that are
not part of a CLD Community Unit and that are justified in support of land man-
agement, stewardship, agricultural production, related residential and industrial
structures, etc. shall require individual Zones of Defense.
b. Multiple structures comprising a compound shall be clustered so that a Common
Zone of Defense may protect all structures.

5.X BUILDING FUNCTION


5.X.1 Specific to zone T2
a. Marshalling yards, animal and product handling and other agricultural uses may
occupy portions of the Common Zone of Defense.

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TABLE FM-1
COMMON Zone of Defense
FUEL TREATMENTS
Zones of Defense should be explicitly tuned to the fuel
types present in the plan area, as different fuel types will
result in somewhat different fire patterns. As fire moves
through a landscape and encounters different fuel types its
character changes. The goal of wildland fire suppression
is not necessarily to extinguish a fire, but to modify it
such that its intensity matches the natural fire resistance
(and adaptation) of the subject landscape.
Fuel includes living trees and plant material, dead and
decaying material on the ground including duff and
slash, buildings and appurtenances, vehicles, chemicals,
agricultural products, etc.
All Zones of Defense, whether Common or not, should
be calibrated to each plan area, and should address the
existing codes regarding dimensions as well as desirable
dimensions.
The language in this table is regulatory. It may be modi-
fied to be advisory (“should” instead of “shall”) as local
politics require.

Slope Issues / Climate Issues


Responses to topographic and climate / weather issues are
highly sensitive to local conditions and are best informed
by fire history in the plan area. Code elements addressing
these items should focus on development / no develop-
ment settings, as there are minimal responses available
to better suit development for these circumstances. The
primary tool is expansion of the Zone of Defense (a de
facto “no-development” response).

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SmartCode Module TABLE FM-1: COMMON ZONE OF DEFENSE
Municipality FUEL TREATMENT

a. Common Zone of Defense: Forest Land Fuel Types Fuel Treatment shall be implemented as follows:
• Understory treatment throughout the Zone of Defense
• tree reduction or removal in the Critical Zone
• conversion to agriculture in the Critical Zone
• trees shall be permitted in the Critical Zone and within the
development area when Ladder Fuels are managed.

Reduced Fuel Zone Critical Zone


Fire Hazard
Severity Area Common Zone of Defense (dimension) Development Area

b. Common Zone of Defense: Scrub / Brushland Fuel Type Fuel Treatment shall be implemented as follows:
• Fuel reduction throughout the Zone of Defense
• conversion to agriculture in the Critical Zone
• trees shall be prohibited in the Critical Zone
• trees shall be permitted within the development area when
Ladder Fuels and Crown Fuels are managed.

Reduced Fuel Zone Critical Zone


Fire Hazard
Severity Area Common Zone of Defense (dimension) Development Area

c. Common Zone of Defense: Grassland Fuel Type Fuel Treatment shall be implemented as follows:
• Fuel Reduction and Fuel Management throughout Zone
of Defense
• conversion to agriculture in the Critical Zone
• trees shall be permitted in Critical Zone and within the
development area when Ladder Fuels are managed
• Critical Zone may be reduced by Warrant via inclusion of
Critical walls, grade breaks, and other barriers.
Reduced Fuel Zone Zone

Fire Hazard Severity Area Common Zone of Defense (dim.) Development Area

d. Common Zone of Defense: Slope Issues Reduced Fuel • Where topography includes slopes, draws, canyons and
in development other features that focus wind effects, the Zone of Defense
at critical edges shall be increased.

• Development shall be prohibited on slopes, and limited


to benches, ridges and other locations where fire fighting
in the Critical Zone is facilitated.

Reduced Fuel Zone Critical Zone • Within development, Fuel sources shall be reduced at
Increase by 100% Increase by 100% edges adjacent to increased Zone of Defense

e. Common Zone of Defense: Climate Issues • Where prevailing winds (during fire season) coincide
Reduced Fuel with wildland Fuel sources, the Zone of Defense shall
Prevailing winds during fire season
in development be increased.
at windward
edges
• The reduced Fuel zone shall be limited to grasses or
agrarian production.

• Within development, Fuel sources shall be reduced at


Reduced Fuel Zone Critical Zone edges adjacent to the increased Zone of Defense (see
Increase by 100% Increase by 100%
diagram).

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SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

TABLE FM-2
COMMON ZONE OF DEFENSE
COMMUNITY SCALE PATTERNS
This table provides a basic sampling of plan types in
which Common Zones of Defense are relevant. It con-
trasts a small cluster where each building has its own
Zone of Defense with a small ag compound pattern that
would enable a Common Zone of Defense. Larger clus-
ters and CLD (hamlets) should use this pattern as well.
The edge of a TND is also appropriate for a Common
Zone of Defense.
A basic review of the literature on both fire mitigation
and fire behavior is recommended before entering into
a discussion of the specific use of, and dimensions for,
the Common Zone of Defense for each group of build-
ings or full neighborhood.
All Zones of Defense, whether Common or not, should
be calibrated to each plan area, and should address the
existing codes regarding dimensions as well as desir-
able dimensions.
The language in this table is regulatory. It may be modi-
fied to be advisory (“should” instead of “shall”) as local
politics require.

MA20 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Module TABLE FM-2: COMMON ZONE OF DEFENSE
Municipality COMMUNITY SCALE PATTERNS

a. Prohibited Pattern: Conventional Sprawl

• Conventional sprawl patterns shall not be permitted that generate redundant Zones of Defense, increased building
spacing, and/or complex fire fighting situations.

b. Individual Buildings, Compounds, Farmsteads, Agricultural / Stewardship, Proto-Hamlets:

• Zones of Defense shall be provided around single structures.


• Multiple structures shall be clustered per this Table, items b, c, and d.
• Common Zones of Defense shall be provided around clusters of multiple structures.
• Structures shall be located close enough to public Thoroughfares for direct fire fighting access.
• Zones of Defense shall be contiguous with public Thoroughfares.
• Multiple buildings and compounds under separate ownership shall be located in close proximity to each other to
reduce the total quantity of individual Zones of Defense and to initiate development patterns that favor emergent
CLD development. In such cases, Zones of Defense may overlap.

c. CLD with Common Zone of Defense:

• For CLD Community Unit types, Common Zones of Defense shall be provided to isolate development from Fire
Hazard Severity Zones. See Section 3.3.X.
• Common Zones of Defense shall provide adequate isolation from likely wildfire threats via distance, Fuel Treatment
and fire fighting access, such that resulting development shall be regulated by this Code and the local Building Codes
and shall not require more restrictive regulation in response to proximity to Fire Hazard Severity Area.

d. Common Zone of Defense at Edge of TND; Agrarian Urban Interface (AUI):

• For TND Community Unit types, Common Zones of Defense shall isolate development from Fire Hazard Severity
Zones.
• Common Zones of Defense shall extend between relevant edges of TND and the Fire Hazard Severity Zone.
• WUI shall be converted to AUI, thus separating wildland fire fighting requirements from urban fire fighting require-
ments.
• Farmsteads and related agrarian compounds may occur within the Agrarian Urban Interface per item b. above. T-3 / TND sketch

Fire Severity AUI TND


Zone

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SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

TABLE FM-3
WUI CONVERSION to AUI
This table provides a diagram of the interrelated aspects
of some basic development types that may occur within a
plan area. It contrasts recent conventional scattered “sub-
urban” development with older patterns that traditionally
separated development and wildfire risks.
Table FM-2 and Table FM-3 both reflect the overall
intent of this Module, which is to separate development
from fire risk at the scale of the community rather than
the scale of the building.

MA22 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Module TABLE FM-3: WUI CONVERSION TO AUI
Municipality

a. Prohibited Pattern:

• Dispersed development that requires numerous and


redundant Zones of Defense and increases the extent of
the WUI shall not be not permitted.

b. Permitted Pattern:

• Conversion of the WUI to AUI at the edge of existing or


planned development shall be permitted.
• For isolated development, compounds with Common
Zones of Defense located adjacent to public Thoroughfares
shall be permitted.
• For CLD and other clustered development, as well as the
edges of TND, Common Zones of Defense that convert
WUI to AUI shall be permitted.

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SMARTCODE ANNOTATED These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


Fire fighting and fire management activities utilize a
number of terms not commonly used in other areas of
land management. Since the application of this module
will likely require debate with fire officials regarding
appropriate mitigation methods, some terms have been
selected specifically to harmonize with the language that
will likely be used in coordination with these officials.
While these may seem counterintuitive, or there may be
lay terms available, this Module, when used in a code,
will likely be scrutinized heavily by groups that speak
this language.

MA24 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Module ARTICLE 7. Definitions OF TERMS
Municipality

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Agrarian Urban Interface (AUI): the geographic area where urban development, even at low
intensities, interfaces directly with low Fuel agricultural lands. It includes former wildlands in a
Fire Severity Hazard Zone that have been modified to reduce fire risk by supporting agriculture,
i.e., crop lands, grazing lands and support facilities. The AUI buffers wildlands from development
such that a Wildland Urban Interface no longer exists.
Brush / Scrubland Fuel: areas of short to tall brush, chaparral and/or loosely spaced small
trees accompanied with other brushland shrubs.
Common Zone of Defense: a Zone of Defense surrounding a collection of buildings rather
than only one building.
Critical Zone: the designated portion of the Zone of Defense closest to development. See
Table FM-1.
Crown Fire: fire that moves through the crown of trees in a continuous tree canopy, whether
supported by heat from a Surface Fire below or a fire that is expanding solely via the crown.
Crown Fuel: combustible plant material in the tree canopy.
FHSZ: see Fire Hazard Severity Zone.
Firebrand: rolling or falling debris already burning.
Fire Extinction: the complete extinguishing of a fire via elimination of Fuel, changes in weather
or actual suppression.
Fire Hazard Severity Zone (FHSZ): specific area designated by state or local agencies as
prone to severe fire occurrence and related risks. The designation results from prior federal
and state fire hazard assessment and planning, and calibrates specific areas to applicable
codes.
Fire Modification: the changing of a fire type, usually from an intense type to one of lower
intensity, either by direct suppression, or by Fuel Treatment along the course of a fire.
Forest Lands Fuel: any woodlands, from small deciduous trees to thick conifer climax
forests.
Fuel: any material, natural or human-made, that is combustible during a wildfire event.
Fuel Load: the quantification of Fuel in a particular area.
Fuel Maintenance: the regular cutting, thinning, trimming and removal of Fuels on a repeated
basis as a means to implement long-term Fuel Management
Fuel Management: the cutting, thinning or removal of Fuels as a means to reduce the spread
of a wildfire or modify its particular characteristics.
Fuel Model: a description of a particular collection of varied Fuels that occur in specific
geographic areas. Fuel Models can describe regional scale or very localized conditions
depending on the nature of the subject area and the variability of Fuels within the area. Fuel
Models typically have a relationship to the type of fire that can be expected, and are used to
describe geographic conditions for the purpose of Fire Modification.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

MA26 S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Module Fire Mitigation in THE WUI
Municipality

Fuel Reduction: the removal of accumulated Fuels to reduce the spread of wildfire or modify
an approaching fire to a lower level of intensity.
Fuel Treatment: the task of reducing, maintaining or otherwise modifying the Fuel Loads in
a given area.
Grassland Fuel: Fuelcharacterized by grasslands and intermittent shrub areas with isolated
trees or wooded areas. Grassland Fuel types can burn often with relatively low long-term
damage.
Ground Fire: fire that progresses at or below the ground surface via combustion of duff, debris,
deep slash or peat.
Initial Treatment, Initial Fuel Treatment: the first Fuel Treatment to occur in conjunction with
a development area, usually done before any construction begins.
Ladder Fuels: Fuels that allow a Surface Fire to climb up through the tree canopy and possibly
generate a Crown Fire.
Moisture of Extinction: the Fuel moisture content at which a fire will not spread, or spreads
only sporadically and predictably.
Reduced Fuel Zone: the designated portion of the Zone of Defense between wildlands and
the Critical Zone. See Table FM-1.
Spotting, Spot Fires: fires that are started as a result of airborne ash and sparks from a nearby
fire front, or from Firebrands.
Surface Fire: fire that moves along the ground surface via combustion of grasses, shrubs
and slash.
Understory: Shrubs, grasses, and young trees that grow below established trees in older
forests.
Urbanized: developed at the intensity of the T-3 zone or higher.
Wildland Urban Interface (WUI): the geographic area where urban development, even at
low intensities, interfaces directly with wildlands. It includes areas where older traditional
development has approached the edge of wildlands, but particularly where more recent suburban
and exurban development has penetrated into wildlands that were not previously utilized for
agriculture or some other form of human settlement.
Zone of Defense: an area of substantial or complete Fuel Treatment, creating a fire break
between buildings and approaching fires and a safe zone in which fire fighters may operate.
See Common Zone of Defense.

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Municipality

Flood Hazard Mitigation


SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by W i l l i a m W r i g h t , B a l c h & B i n g h a m LLP

_____________________________________________

Adapt or perish, now as ever, is nature's inexorable


imperative.

H. G. Wells

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS


Including the specific term “hazard mitigation” in the
code may help municipalities qualify for Federal and State
funding for planning.
Sections may require renumbering if previous Modules
are not included.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Flood HAZARD MITIGATION Standards
Municipality

ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS


1.9 SPECIAL TREE PROVISIONS
1.9.1 Each plan submitted under this Code shall include a site plan showing and describing
in detail by species and size all existing trees, including any trees proposed to be
removed, and all proposed new trees, shrubs and other landscape components.
Compliance of the plan with the existing tree ordinance shall be subject to the
approval of the Planning Commission.

1.10 PRE-EXISTING AND POST-EMERGENCY CONDITIONS


1.10.1 If a building, structure, or other improvement has been or is damaged or destroyed
by any event commencing or following [disaster date] and resulting in the declaration
of an emergency or disaster applicable to the City, by the Governor of the State or
President of the United States, the owner of record on the date of the event may
repair or rebuild such building, structure or other improvement on the same building
site and with the same building footprint by right. To qualify, the building, structure, or
other improvement must have lawfully existed prior to the declaration and neither the
lot, use, building, improvement, structure nor condition may be added to or altered
in any way, except to remedy the effects of such damage or destruction, and/or to
conform more closely with the provisions of this Code.

ARTICLE 2. REGIONAL SCALE PLANS


2.4 (O-2) RESERVED OPEN SECTOR
2.4.4 Lands in any Special Flood Hazard Area that are designated to be set aside for the
purpose of hazard mitigation shall become permanent Civic Space By Right regard-
less of size, subject to the Special District provisions herein, and shall count toward
the required Civic Space allotment for Pedestrian Sheds including them. Areas too
small to be coded as Special District shall conform to the Civic Space standards of
Table 13 for one or more of any adjacent habitable Transect Zone(s).

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS


3.5 CIVIC ZONES
3.5.2 b. Lands in any Special Flood Hazard Area that are designated to be set aside for
the purpose of hazard mitigation shall become permanent Civic Space regardless
of size, subject to the Special District provision herein, shall be designated Civic
Space Hazard Mitigation on the Community Plan, and shall count toward the
required Civic Space allotment for Pedestrian Sheds including them. Areas too
small to be coded as Special District shall conform to the Civic Space standards
of Table 13 for one or more of any adjacent habitable Transect Zone(s).

ARTICLE 4. INFILL COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS


4.4 CIVIC ZONES
4.4.2 b. Lands in any Special Flood Hazard Area that are designated to be set aside for
the purpose of hazard mitigation shall become permanent Civic Space regard-
less of size, subject to the Special District provision herein, shall be designated
Civic Space Hazard Mitigation on the Regulating Plan, and shall count toward the
required Civic Space allotment for Pedestrian Sheds including them. Areas too
small to be coded as Special District shall conform to the Civic Space standards
of Table 13 for one or more of any adjacent habitable Transect Zone(s).

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS


FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
5.7 FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and
Advisory Base Flood Elevation (ABFE) maps affect and
overlay the configuration of buildings, particularly regard-
ing their elevation above sea level or ground level. These
elevation requirements may be directly incorporated into
the code and Regulating Plan, or alternatively may be per-
mitted to be overlaid by reference to the FEMA standards,
as is done in this provision.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Flood HAZARD MITIGATION Standards
Municipality

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS


5.7 BUILDING CONFIGURATION
5.7.3 Specific to T3
d. All specified Building Heights may be increased by the difference between the
actual lot elevation and the base elevations required by applicable FEMA stan-
dards, provided that any first level space shall be designed for use as
(i) parking or storage space set into the structure into the second and deeper
Layers, concealed from view of all streets or
(ii) an open market, a loggia or porch or combination thereof, or other open-air
area for recreation, relaxation or gathering, to the extent permitted by ap-
plicable FEMA requirements, or other use permitted by the Planning Com-
mission.
5.7.5 Specific to T4, T5, T6
g. All specified Building Heights may be increased by the difference between the
actual lot elevation and the base elevations required by applicable FEMA stan-
dards, provided that any first level space shall be designed for use as
(i) parking or storage space set into the structure into the second and deeper
Layers,concealed from view of all streets,
(ii) an open market, a loggia or porch or combination thereof, or other open-air
area for recreation, relaxation or gathering, or
(iii) enclosed Commercial or Retail space, to the extent permitted by applicable
FEMA requirements, or other use permitted by the Planning Commission.

5.19 COMPLIANCE WITH BUILDING CODE AND FEMA REQUIREMENTS


5.19.1 Each structure or other improvement installed, constructed or built in the City shall
comply with the [Municipality] Building Code and applicable FEMA requirements,
as the same may be amended and in effect at the time of installation, construction
or building.

5.20 SPECIAL EMERGENCY PROVISIONS


5.20.1 Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Article 5 or the Existing
Local Codes, following any declaration of emergency or disaster by the Governor
of the State or the President of the United States of America that is applicable to
[Municipality], the following shall pertain:
a. The owner of any lot whose residence is destroyed or rendered uninhabitable
by the event causing the emergency may place a travel trailer on such lot for a
period not to exceed two (2) years from the date of the event, provided that an
application for a building permit is being made to the building official within one
year of the time that the structure was destroyed.
b. Any structure pre-approved by the Planning Commission for interim housing
following an emergency may be placed on such lot pending completion of the
permanent structure on the lot. In addition, travel trailers may be located for no
longer than two (2) years on any other location designated by the [Legislative
Body] for such purposes.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
These terms should be added to Article 7 if they appear
in the calibrated code.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Flood HAZARD MITIGATION Standards
Municipality

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


FLOOD HAZARD MITIGATION STANDARDS
Advisory Base Flood Elevation (ABFE): the Base Flood Elevation on a FEMA
Flood Insurance Rate Map that has not yet been adopted.
Base Flood Elevation (BFE): the height at or above which the lowest structural
member of a building must be raised, according to an adopted FEMA Flood Insur-
ance Rate Map.
Civic Space Hazard Mitigation: Lands in any Special Flood Hazard Area that are
designated to be set aside for the purpose of hazard mitigation.
FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Special Flood Hazard Area: a designation by the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) that may include the V (Velocity) Zones and Coastal A Zones
where building construction is forbidden, restricted, or contingent upon raising to
the Base Flood Elevation. (BFE)

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULES TABLE OF CONTENTS

Incentives
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o . and Sandy Sorlien

_____________________________________________

Correction does much, but encouragement does more.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

1.7 Incentives
If the SmartCode is adopted as a parallel code (i.e., mapped
and available as an option by right, with the old code also
available), or as a floating zone (unmapped, a code without
a regulating plan), it is advisable to incentivize its use.
Each of these provisions should be discussed and accepted
dependent on local circumstances, for they may not prove
to be true incentives, nor politically feasible.
1.7.1 The phrase “to the extent authorized by state law”
should be superfluous in a properly calibrated code. It
should be possible to determine whether the municipality
can legally grant an incentive. Subsections (a) through
(h) are types of incentives that have been used in various
jurisdictions, but the calibrator should not avoid research
and wordsmithing, while being aggressive and creative.
1.7.1a Whether a public hearing is required or optional
is typically a matter of state law. For the SmartCode, the
ideal process concludes that the required hearings were,
in effect, complied with in the process of the adoption of
the code by the Legislative Body. Therefore if a plan fol-
lows the code without need of Warrants or Variances, it
has been effectively approved under the authority of the
code-approval hearings. These conditions must therefore
be verified by an attorney.
Many state codes have mandatory time periods in which
applications must be heard. Care must be taken not to
delay non-SmartCode projects past those deadlines.
1.7.1 g & h Tax relief is specific to local authority.

1.8 AFFORDABLE HOUSING Incentives


See also the notes for 1.7.1a, g & h above. Other incen-
tives may be added particular to the local situation. For
example, if there are oversized lots in an area where the
community supports adding affordable housing, a sub-
division incentive may be possible, whereby a property
owner can create a substandard lot if it is dedicated to a
deed-restricted affordable unit.
Municipalities may want to specify a percentage of afford-
able housing after which the incentives would apply.
It is important to design affordable units so that there is no
discernable outward difference between them and nearby
market rate units.
For more detailed policy provisions, see the Affordable
Housing Policy Module at www.transect.org.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Incentives
Municipality

ARTICLE 1. GENERAL TO ALL PLANS


1.7 Incentives
1.7.1 To encourage the use of this Code, the Legislative Body grants the following incen-
tives, to the extent authorized by state law:
a. Applications under this Code shall be processed administratively by the CRC
rather than through public hearing.
b. Applications under this Code shall be processed with priority over those under
the existing conventional zoning code, including those with earlier filing dates.
c. The municipality shall waive or reduce review fees.
d. The municipality may increase Density by the subsidized Transfer of Develop-
ment Rights.
e. The municipality shall waive the traffic impact report.
f. The municipality shall construct and maintain those internal Thoroughfares that
through-connect to adjacent sites.
g. The municipality shall maintain property taxes at the level prior to the approval,
until such time as a certificate of occupancy has been issued for each build-
ing.
h. The municipality shall provide tax relief to first-time buyers of dwellings and newly
created businesses within Zones T4, T5 and T6.

1.8 AFFORDABLE HOUSING INCENTIVES


1.8.1 To encourage the provision of Affordable Housing, the Legislative Body grants the
following incentives:
a. Applications containing Affordable Housing that meets this Code shall be pro-
cessed administratively by the CRC. Others shall be processed by Variance.
b. Applications containing Affordable Housing shall be processed with priority over
others, including those with earlier filing dates, providing that other applications
are not pushed past their deadlines.
c. Highest priority for processing and for approval shall be given to applications
involving partnership with a community land trust or other non-profit organization
responsible for ensuring the long-term retention of the Affordable Housing.
d. The municipality shall waive or reduce review fees for applications containing
Affordable Housing.
e. The municipality may increase Density for projects containing Affordable Hous-
ing.
f. The municipality may waive or reduce parking requirements for Affordable Hous-
ing units located within a quarter mile of a transit stop.
g. The municipality shall provide a property tax exemption for Affordable Housing
units meeting established criteria.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Landscape
SmartCode Module
Prepared by PlaceMakers, LLC: Susan Henderson
with assistance from Paul Westhelle

___________________________________

The landscape should belong to the people


who see it all the time.

LeRoi Jones
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

SCM2 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
Municipality

LandscapE Standards For Article 3


FOR ARTICLE 4
FOR ARTICLE 5

PUBLIC PLANTING TABLE FOR ARTICLES 3, 4


CIVIC SPACE PLANTING TABLE FOR ARTICLE 3
NATIVE PLANTING TABLE FOR ARTICLES 3, 4, 5
Definitions For Article 6

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC3


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

LandscapE STANDARDS
This optional Module contains full Landscape Standards
for Public Frontages, Private Frontages, Civic Spaces and
parking lots. These standards are meant to fully replace
existing municipal landscape ordinances for SmartCode
jurisdictions. However, they are not intended to replace the
Sustainable Urbanism module dealing with tree canopy
cover, or the Light Imprint module dealing with stormwa-
ter management. They are intended to produce a healthy,
xeric, native plant environment, and only mildly enhance
local sustainability issues.
Numbering may include an "X" where the order of sections
is undetermined. Some sections have full numbers to indi-
cate exactly which existing section of the base SmartCode
would accommodate these new subsections. Even in the
latter case, there may be renumbering necessary for the
final calibration, depending upon what else is added.
Definitions of terms capitalized on the code side (right side)
on this Module may be found at the end of the Module.

3.X.2 The requirement to prepare Landscape Plans here


combines the Community Scale and the first Layer, which
is normally the Lot and Building Scale. This section may
be moved to one or more of the Instructions sections of
the calibrated code, along with other plan requirements.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
Municipality

3.X landscape standards


3.X.1 Intent
A transect-based Landscape Plan provides many aesthetic, ecological, functional and
health/safety benefits. The standards of this section promote public health, safety
and welfare by establishing minimum standards for the design, construction and
maintenance of landscape improvements for Public Frontages and Private Front-
ages, lots, buildings, Civic Spaces, Thoroughfares and Special Requirements.
a.Aesthetics/Walkability. These standards should enhance the overall aesthetic
condition of communities, neighborhoods and the public realm with landscaping
by:
i. coordinating Public Frontages and Private Frontages
ii. providing spatial definition to the public realm
iii. providing screening of unsightly places and/or mitigation of conditions that
are incongruent with Section 1.3 of this code, including but not limited to the
edges of Special Districts.
b. Health/Safety. These standards should enhance comfort, safety and utilization
of the public realm by moderating the local microclimate through the application
of Trees and landscaping to:
i. improve air quality
ii. mitigate noise pollution
iii. provide seasonal shade, sun and temperature regulation
iv. reduce reflected light
v. mitigate wind gusts
vi. provide a partial barrier between Sidewalks and vehicular lanes
vii.provide areas for the convenient removal and storage of snow
c. Ecology/Energy. These standards should provide ecological benefits including
but not limited to:
i. conservation of energy used in buildings though strategic shading and wind
breaks
ii. interception of precipitation by vegetative canopies
iii. percolation of precipitation through pervious landscape areas
iv. reduction in the insolation of pavements and other hard surfaces associated
with urban heat islands through vegetative canopy cover
v. conservation of soil and prevention of soil erosion through vegetative cover,
root growth and wind breaks
vi. conservation of water through Xeriscape design strategies including but not
limited to:
• the application and maintenance of landscape mulch to retain soil mois-
ture
• the limiting of Turfgrass areas and reduction of water use, fertilizers and
labor associated with their maintenance and upkeep
• the selection of low-water-use and drought tolerant plants
• the design and operation of efficient irrigation systems.
3.X.2 Landscape Plan Required
a. Landscape Plans shall be prepared in conjunction with the design development
and construction documents for Special Requirements, and the First Layer of
Lots
b. Landscape Plans shall contain sufficient information regarding existing and

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC5


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

SCM6 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
Municipality

proposed landscape elements as needed to meet with the requirements of this


code and for approval by the CRC.
c. Alternative Compliance and Credit
3.X.3 Landscape Construction Standards
a. All plant materials shall meet with the minimum container size, class and other
requirements outlined in American Standard for Nursery Stock (ANSI Z60.1-2004)
published by the American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA)
b. Open Spaces and Civic Space shall be protected with a temporary construction
fence during all Thoroughfare and site work construction activities unless altera-
tions to them are otherwise specified by landscape grading plans.
c. The soil structure of planting strips shall be protected from compaction with a
temporary construction fence. Standards of access, excavation, movement,
storage and backfilling of soils in relation to the construction and maintenance
of deep utilities and manholes shall be specified.
d. The topsoil within the construction area’s limits of disturbance shall be removed,
stored and amended as recommended by a landscape soils test.
e. Wind erosion shall be mitigated and controlled though dust abatement and similar
practices during the period of site work and construction.
f. Landscape soils that have been compacted during construction activities shall
be loosened and aerated to a depth of at least six (6) inches before planting.
g. Plants shall have normal, well-developed branches and vigorous root systems.
h. Temporary spray irrigation systems may be used to establish seeded areas for
grass and groundcover.
i. Stormwater detention and retention ponds shall be integrated landscape features,
rather than single-purpose flood control and stormwater management ponds.
j. Stormwater detention and retention ponds shall be planted with appropriate
Trees, Shrubs and grasses. Plants in basin areas prone to submersion shall be
hydrophilic.
3.X.4 Landscape Maintenance
a. All grass and vegetation shall be lightly fertilized to avoid fertilizer pollution to
groundwater, streams and ponds.
b. No disturbed ground shall be left exposed. Turfgrass and other approved and
appropriate groundcovers or mulch shall cover all non-paved and non-built
developed areas.
c. It shall be the responsibility of the property owner(s) or his assigned agent(s)
to:
i. Maintain and keep all screening and fencing in good condition at all times;
and
ii. Maintain landscaping by keeping Turfgrass lawns properly mowed and
edged, plants properly pruned and disease-free, and planting beds mulched,
groomed and weeded, except in the T1 zone, the T2 zone , and other areas
of naturally occurring vegetation and undergrowth.
iii. Replace any required planting(s) that are significantly damaged, missing,
infested, disease-ridden, or dead, within one year or the next planting sea-
son, whichever occurs first, except in T1, T2 and areas of naturally occurring
vegetation and undergrowth.

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SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

3.5 CIVIC ZONES


If the Civic Space Module is used in the calibration, it
should be coordinated with this section of the Landscape
Module.

3.7 THOROUGHFARE STANDARDS


This section is numbered to replace or continue the same
numbering sequence in Section 3.7 of the base code.
Subsections (d) and (e) here do not include the canopy
height standard that is in the base code because there are
more specific canopy height standards in this Module at
3.7.3vii.

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3.5 Civic Zones


3.5.1 General
f. Landscape plans shall be submitted for existing and proposed landscape elements
in compliance with Article 5.11, Table 6B Civic Space Planting Table and Table
6C Public Planting Native Status Table for all Civic Space Zones.
3.5.5 Specific to Parks
a. Turfgrass area and grass fields shall be planted or managed with appropriate
low care and drought tolerant grasses that are mown to a high cut height or left
uncut to provide a grass meadow.
3.5.6 Specific to Greens
a. Turfgrass area shall be planted or managed with appropriate low care and drought
tolerant grasses that are mown to a high cut height.
3.5.7 Specific to Squares
a. Turfgrass area shall be carefully graded, leveled, and planted with sod.
3.5.8 Specific to Playing Fields
a. Turfgrass recreational fields and high use areas shall be carefully graded, leveled,
and sodded or seeded with an appropriate playfield turfgrass mix.
3.7 Thoroughfare Standards
3.7.3 Public Frontages
a. General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
iv. Landscape Plans shall be prepared for existing and proposed landscape
elements in conjunction with the design development and construction docu-
ments for Thoroughfares.
v. Within the Public Frontages, the prescribed types of Public Planting and Public
Lighting shall be as shown in Table 4A, Table 4B, Table 6A and Table 6B.
The spacing may be adjusted by Warrant to accommodate specific site
conditions.
vi. Proposed Street Tree height and type shall be appropriate for the Frontage
conditions, with canopy branching height following the clearance require-
ments of 3.7.3.vii. Measurements shall be taken at the bottom of the main
canopy.
vii. Trees with existing or potential canopy covering sidewalks, driveways, Paths,
Plazas, Alleys, Lanes, parking space or Street pavements shall be of a type
that, at maturity or with minor pruning at installation, provide a clear height of
eight (8) feet for sidewalks and paths, twelve (12) feet for driveways, parking
spaces and Streets, and fifteen (15) feet for loading areas, exclusive of Tree
grates or planting areas with gravel mulch. Evergreen trees shall be 18 – 24”
minimum clear of any sidewalk or pavement edge at the Lot line.
b. Specific to zone T4
ii. The Public Frontage shall include trees planted in a regularly-spaced Allee
pattern of single or alternated species.
c. Specific to zones T5, T6
iii. The Public Frontage shall include trees planted in a regularly-spaced Allee
pattern of single species. At Retail Frontages, the spacing of the trees may
be irregular, to avoid visually obscuring the shopfronts.this code and for ap-
proval by the CRC.

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SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

ARTICLE 4. CIVIC ZONES


This section is brief because Article 4 is dependent on
Article 3 for many standards. The SmartCode is frequently
adopted to be available as a "floating zone" for urban-
ized areas that are as yet unmapped and that will require
the use of Article 4 to guide future infill plans. In such
cases, all or most of Article 3 should also be included to
be available for parcels that meet the minimum acreage
standards for its use.
However, if the code is adopted along with its regulating
plan (zoning map) and no further community scale plan-
ning is intended, then the calibration should only include
Article 1, Article 5, and Article 6 plus the Replacement
Module for Thoroughfares. That includes the elements
of Article 3 and Article 4 that apply to existing urbanism,
and a reduced set of Definitions. The Article 3 and Article
4 standards of this Landscape Module should be included
within the new Thoroughfare Article.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
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4.4 Civic Zones


4.4.1 General
d. Landscaping plans shall be submitted in compliance with Article 5.11, Table 6B
Civic Space Planting Table and Table 6C Public Planting Native Status Table
for all Civic Space Zones.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

ARTICLE 5. LandscapE STANDARDS


This Intent Section is identical to the one in Article 3, in case
Article 3 is not included in the calibrated code. If Article
3 remains n the calibration, delete this Intent section from
Article 5. See the annotations for Article 3.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
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5.X landscape standards


5.X.1 Intent
A transect-based Landscape Plan provides many aesthetic, ecological, functional and
health/safety benefits. The standards of this section promote public health, safety
and welfare by establishing minimum standards for the design, construction and
maintenance of landscape improvements for Public Frontages and Private Front-
ages, lots, buildings, Civic Spaces, Thoroughfares and Special Requirements.
a. Aesthetics/Walkability. These standards should enhance the overall aesthetic
condition of communities, neighborhoods and the public realm with landscaping
by:
i. coordinating Public Frontages and Private Frontages
ii. providing spatial definition to the public realm
iii. providing screening of unsightly places and/or mitigation of conditions that
are incongruent with Section 1.3 of this code, including but not limited to the
edges of Special Districts.
b. Health/Safety. These standards should enhance comfort, safety and utilization
of the public realm by moderating the local microclimate through the application
of Trees and landscaping to:
i. improve air quality
ii. mitigate noise pollution
iii. provide seasonal shade, sun and temperature regulation
iv. reduce reflected light
v. mitigate wind gusts
vi. provide a partial barrier between Sidewalks and vehicular lanes
vii. provide areas for the convenient removal and storage of snow
c. Ecology/Energy. These standards should provide ecological benefits including
but not limited to:
i. conservation of energy used in buildings though strategic shading and wind
breaks
ii. interception of precipitation by vegetative canopies
iii. percolation of precipitation through pervious landscape areas
iv. reduction in the insolation of pavements and other hard surfaces associated
with urban heat islands through vegetative canopy cover
v. conservation of soil and prevention of soil erosion through vegetative cover,
root growth and wind breaks
vi. conservation of water through Xeriscape design strategies including but not
limited to:
• the application and maintenance of landscape mulch to retain soil mois
ture
• the limiting of Turfgrass areas and reduction of water use, fertilizers and
labor associated with their maintenance and upkeep
• the selection of low-water-use and drought tolerant plants
• the design and operation of efficient irrigation systems.
5.11.1 General to zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
b. Landscape Clearing and Modification
c. Landscape Design Standards
i. The spacing and placement of plants shall be adequate and appropriate for the
typical size, shape and habit of the plant species at maturity.

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
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ii. Proposed Trees and Understory Trees shall be centered horizontally and
minimally:
1. Two (2) feet from walkways, curbing, and other impervious pavements
when planted in a tree well or continuous planter;
2. Three (3) feet from walkways, curbing and other impervious pavements
when planted in a continuous swale;
3. Five (5) feet from street lights, underground utilities, utility meters and
service lines, fences, walls and other ground level obstructions;
4. Six (6) feet from porch eaves, and awnings and similar overhead obstruc-
tions associated with the ground level of buildings;
5. Eight (8) feet from balconies, verandas, building eaves and cornices,
and similar overhead obstructions associated with the upper stories of
buildings.
iii. Proposed Trees shall be a minimum height of ten (10) feet and / or three (3)
inches in caliper.
iv. Proposed Understory Trees shall be a minimum of eight (8) feet in height
and/ or two-and-one-half (2-1/2) inches in caliper.
v. Proposed Shrubs shall be of a five (5) gallon container minimum. Shrubs shall
be 18” – 24” minimum clear from any sidewalk or pavement edge at the Lot
line.
vi. Ground vegetation or Shrub plantings with spines, thorns or needles that may
present hazards to pedestrians, bicyclists or vehicles are prohibited in the
first two (2) feet of the first Layer.
vii. Bare and exposed ground on the site and / or in landscaped areas shall be
covered with live plant materials and/or mulch, with the following excep-
tions:
1. Naturally occurring dunes, creek beds/ arroyos, rock outcroppings or
similar landscape features typically lacking in vegetation.
2. Agricultural fields seasonally tilled for cultivation.
3. Hiking trails and/or traces.
4. Clay or sand surfaces associated with recreation fields and facilities.
viii. Artificial plants or artificial turf are prohibited, excluding active recreation
Sports Fields that are typically subject to intense use and soil compaction
which prohibits the establishment of turfgrass, and where paving or grass
paving systems will not suffice given the area’s purpose and level of use.
ix. All required Landscape Areas shall be irrigated by an automatic underground
irrigation system.
1. Where possible and practical, bubbler, drip irrigation, and soaker hose
emitters shall be utilized.
2. Each irrigation system shall be equipped with a meter, backflow preventer
and a suitable controller.
xii. Constructed water features such as fountains, streams and ponds that operate
with water recirculation systems shall be designed to prevent seepage and
leaks.
xiii. Buffers and screening elements shall be used to screen parking areas from
public view, to screen service yards and other places that are unsightly.

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SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

d. This section contains some of the Landscape Contruc-


tion Standards that appear in Article 3, because they
apply to both the Public Frontage and the first Layer of
the Private Lot.

e. This section is identical to the Landscape Maintenance


Standards that appear in Article 3, because they apply to
both the Public Frontage and the first Layer of the private
lot. If the calibration includes both Base Modules (Articles),
both sets of standards should remain because different
entities may be responsible for them.

5.11.2 These subsections may be added after (a) in this


section of the base code.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
Municipality

d. Landscape Construction Standards


i. All plant materials shall meet with the minimum container size, class and
other requirements outlined in American Standard for Nursery Stock (ANSI
Z60.1-2004) published by the American Nursery and Landscape Association
(ANLA) or other local Nursery Association Standards.
ii. The soil structure of planting strips shall be protected from compaction with a
temporary construction fence. Standards of access, excavation, movement,
storage and backfilling of soils in relation to the construction and maintenance
of deep utilities and manholes shall be specified.
iii. The topsoil within the construction area’s limits of disturbance shall be re-
moved, stored and amended as recommended by a landscape soils test.
iv. Wind erosion shall be mitigated and controlled though dust abatement and
similar practices during the period of site work and construction.
v. Landscape soils that have been compacted during construction activities
shall be loosened and aerated to a depth of at least six (6) inches before
planting.
vi. Plants shall have normal, well-developed branches and vigorous root sys-
tems.
vii. Temporary spray irrigation systems may be used to establish seeded areas
for grass and groundcover.
e. Landscape Maintenance
i. All grass and vegetation shall be lightly fertilized to avoid fertilizer pollution
to groundwater, streams and ponds.
ii. No disturbed ground shall be left exposed. Turfgrass and other approved and
appropriate groundcovers or mulch shall cover all non-paved and non-built
developed areas.
iii. It shall be the responsibility of the property owner(s) or his assigned agent(s)
to:
1. Maintain and keep all screening and fencing in good condition at all times;
and
2. Maintain landscaping by keeping Turfgrass lawns properly mowed and
edged, plants properly pruned and disease-free, and planting beds
mulched, groomed and weeded, except in T1, T2, and areas of naturally
occurring vegetation and undergrowth; and
3. Replace any required planting(s) which are significantly damaged,
removed, infested, disease ridden, or dead within one year or the next
planting season, whichever occurs first, except in the T1 zone, the T2 zone
and other areas of naturally occurring vegetation and undergrowth.
5.11.2 Specific to zones T2, T3, T4
b. The minimum required landscape area shall be thirty (30) percent of the first
Layer of the Principal Frontage and the Secondary Frontage. The Article 5b
application shall not have less than twenty (20) percent landscaped area for the
entire site.
c. Preservation of on-site existing trees and vegetation is encouraged and may be
used to fulfill the landscape requirements.
i. The root zones of existing Trees and vegetation to be preserved shall be
protected from clearing or construction activities.
ii. Natural Communities and/or areas naturalized vegetation may be exempt

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SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

5.11.3 This is a more detailed set of provisions for this


section and may replace the entire section.

5.11.4 This is a more detailed set of provisions for this


section and may replace the entire section.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
Municipality

from the installation irrigation systems.


iii. Noxious or invasive plants species identified on the prohibited plant list shall
be removed.
iv. The size and limits of existing vegetation shall be indicated on the landscape
plan.
v. Priority shall be given to preserving and protecting significant Trees that pro-
vide screening, buffering, wildlife habitat and/or linkages to wildlife habitat.
1. The applicant may remove mature, healthy, non-invasive Trees only within
areas of a lot that are inside the proposed footprint of the primary structure,
and only by warrant.
2. The applicant shall replace mature Trees that are removed on the site with
Trees of the same or similar species whose combined Caliper dimensions
equal that of the Tree removed.
vi. During construction, the root zone of existing vegetation to be preserved shall
be enclosed by a temporary protective fence.
d. Open spaces and Civic Space shall remain fenced and protected during all
adjacent site work and construction activities unless alterations to them are
otherwise specified by the plans.
f. All landscape areas compacted during construction activities shall be retiled and
reconditioned to provide an arable topsoil layer that can support the long term
health and vitality of landscaping.
g. The topsoil within the construction area’s limits of disturbance shall be removed,
stored and amended with organic soil additives as recommended by a landscape
soils test prior to being redistributed.
5.11.3 Specific to zone T3
a. One (1) Tree shall be planted within the first Layer for every 800 square feet of
Landscape Area (per 5.11.3.b), or any portion thereof. (Table 17d)
i. Substitutions:
1. One (1) Tree may be substituted for two (2) Understory Trees;
2. One (1) Understory Tree may be substituted for ten (10) Shrubs.
ii. Tree Preservation Credit:
1. One (1) Tree may be substituted for an existing Tree to be preserved
provided that:
It is four (4) Inches DBH or greater;
Possesses a healthy and full canopy;
Has an unmolested CRZ;
Has incurred no damage that would undermine it's long-term vitality and
quality.
2. One (1) additional Tree may be substituted for each additional (3) Inches
DBH of existing Tree to be preserved in accordance with 5.11.4.a.ii.1
(above).
b. Trees may be of single or multiple species as shown on Table 6.
c. Trees shall be naturalistically clustered in conjunction with adjacent street
Trees.
d. Turfgrass shall be permitted by Warrant.
5.11.4 Specific to zone T4
a. A minimum of one (1) Understory Tree or ten (10) Shrubs shall be planted within
the first Layer for every 500 square feet of first layer Landscape Area. (Table
17d):

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

5.11.5 These subsections may be added after (a) and (b)


in this section of the base code.

5.11.6 This section may be added after 5.11.5 in the base


code.

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SMARTCODE MODULE LANDSCAPE Standards
Municipality

i. Next-door Neighbor Tree Credit:


Trees or Understory Trees planted in a next door neighbor's first layer may
count lot's first layer Tree may be used to satisfy this requirement.
b. Trees, if planted, should match the species of adjacent Street Trees on the Public
Frontage, or as shown on Table 6.
c. Turfgrass lawn shall be permitted by Warrant.
d. Parking spaces shall be broken with landscape islands every twenty (20)
spaces.
e. The landscape islands shall be distributed throughout the lot and may be combined
as a component of a stormwater management plan to facilitate water harvesting.
Landscape islands may be omitted for solar panel installations or other shading
structures of equal or greater coverage.
f. Parking areas that exceed one hundred and twenty (120) spaces shall include
a minimum of eight (8) foot wide pedestrian walkway. The pavements of such
walkways shall be differentiated from parking area pavement through a change
in surface texture, material, style, and/or color.
g. Porous paving materials are encouraged in order to increase storm water infiltra-
tion on site.
5.11.5 Specific to zones T5, T6
c. Landscape islands in interior parking lots shall only occur at the end of drive
aisles. Islands should be the minimum size for healthy growth for the specific
species of Tree.
d. Porous paving materials should be used in order to increase storm water infiltra-
tion on site.
5.11.6 Specific to Special Districts
a. Buffers and screening elements shall be used to screen parking areas from public
view, to screen service yards and other places that are unsightly, and to buffer
between the Special District and the adjacent Transect Zone.
i. A Frontage Landscape Buffer, which may also include the Sidewalk, shall be
a minimum of ten (10) feet in depth, measured from the Frontage Line and
running its full width.
1. A minimum of one (1) Tree shall be planted within the first Layer for every
700 square feet of Frontage Landscape Buffer.
2. Fifty (50) percent or more of the Frontage Landscape Buffer must have
Shrubs and vegetative cover.
ii. An Interior Landscape Buffer located along common property lines shall be
required between a SD and an adjacent T-zone.
1. A minimum of one (1) Tree shall be planted within the side and rear setbacks
for every 700 square feet of Interior Landscape Buffer.
2. Fifty (50) percent of the Interior Landscape Buffer shall be covered with
vegetation.
iii. Shrubs shall be five (5) gallon container and twenty-four (24) inches height
minimum, and of a type that, at maturity, will provide a continuous opaque
screen at least thirty-six (36) inches in height.
iv. Trees shall be four (4) inches caliper minimum, or in the case of Evergreen
Trees, twelve (12) feet minimum height.

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SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Landscaping TABLES
All the Landscaping Tables need further calibration with
the appropriate local species. Spaces left blank would
mean that a Variance (public process) would be required
for the species or location. These tables currently show
which Transect Zones are appropriate in terms of habitat
character and design.
Table 6A Public Planting
This table must be filled out by the local planning office
and/or landscape architect. The guiding principals should
be trees that are compatible with the appropriate Thor-
oughfare types based on size, shape, fruit, growth form,
allergenic potential, etc. Particular care should be given
to Commercial Streets where the priority should be the
signage and visual clarity of the Storefonts.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Table 6A. Public Planting
Municipality

TABLE 6A: Public Planting. This table shows six common types of Street Tree shapes and their appropriateness relative to Thoroughfare
type, which are relative to Transect Zones. The local planning office selects species appropriate for the bioregion.

HW RD ST ST DR DR AV AV CS BV BV Common Name Botanic Name


T1 T1 T3 T5 T3 T5 T3 T5 T5 T3 T5
T2 T2 T4 T4 T6 T4 T6 T6 T4 T6
T3 T3
Columnar

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Oval

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Rounded

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Conical

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Spreading

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Vase

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Palm

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

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Table 6B Civic Space Planing


This table must be filled out by the local planning office
and/or landscape architect. The guiding principles should
be trees that are compatible with the appropriate spaces
based on size, shape, fruit, growth form, allergenic poten-
tial, etc.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Table 6b. Civic Space Planting
Municipality

Civic Space Planting. This table the appropriateness of plant materials relative to Civic Space type, which are relative to Transect Zones.
The local planning office selects species appropriate for the bioregion.

Botanic Name Common Name Park Green Square Plaza Playground Sports Fields
a. Trees - Decidious

b. Trees - Evergreen

c. Shrubs

d. Groundcovers

e. Grasses

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Table 6C Public Planting Native


Status
This table may be used if the local planning office chooses
to encourage the use of Native Species.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Table 6c. Public Planting - Native Status
Municipality

Public Planting Native Status. This table shows location of Native and Non-native Species within the Transect.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
Native Species - site specific ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Native Species ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Adventive Species ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Exotic Species ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Invasive Species

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Article 7. Definitions of Terms
Municipality

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS - LANDSCAPING STANDARDS

Adventive Species: a plant that may be native to the continent or greater bioregion
but is found growing outside its natural range; a species not regionally or locally
native nor fully established, but locally present or temporarily naturalized.
Caliper: diameter of a Tree trunk. The term "caliper" is used for Trees less than
twelve (12) inches in diameter. For Trees less than four (4) inches in diameter, it
its measured six (6) inches from the ground. For Trees between four (4) inches
and twelve (12) inches in diameter, it is measured twelve (12) inches from the
ground.
Critical Root Zone (CRZ): a circular area centered on the trunk of an existing Tree
that has a radius of twelve (12) inches to every inch of Diameter at Breast Height
(DBH) of the Tree.
Diameter at Breast Height (DBH): a standard method of expressing the diameter
or the trunk or bole of a standing (existing) Tree measured 4.5 feet [1.3 m] above
ground in existing Tree surveys.
Deciduous: a Tree or Shrub which sheds its foliage at the end of each growing
season.
Endangered Plant: any plant species which is in danger of extinction throughout
all or a significant part of its range.
Evergreen: a Tree or Shrub whose foliage persists year round. Plants typically
associated with the upright conical or pyramidal Tree forms and needle foliage of
coniferous Trees (i.e. pine, spruce, fir, etc.), but which may also include plants with
broadleaf foliage and rounded or spreading Tree forms (i.e., Yaupon Holly, Live
Oak, etc.).
Exotic Species: a plant introduced from another geographic region to an area
outside its natural range. For the purpose of this code, this term shall be used
primarily to describe conventionally cultivated and hybridized species of non-native
plants that are non-invasive and regarded as suitable for and applicable to local
landscaping.
Exotic Invasive Species: a noxious exotic plant reproducing outside its natural
range and outside cultivation that disrupts naturally occurring plant communities
by altering structure, composition, natural processes or habitat quality.
Irrigation System: a permanent underground piping and distribution system
designed using industry standard methods to provide efficient irrigation coverage
over a landscaped area.
Landscape Area: the area of a lot or parcel exclusive of building footprints, driveway
and walkway pavements, and other impervious hardscape areas, and inclusive of
ponds, pools and water features.
Mulch: a protective covering consisting of organic materials customarily used in
landscaping and placed around plants to retain soil moisture, retard erosion, shield
roots from freezing, and inhibit weed growth.
Native Species: a plant occurring within local jurisdictional boundaries prior to
foreign contact, according to the best scientific and historical documentation. This
includes species that are considered indigenous, occurring in natural associations
with habitats that existed prior to significant anthropogenic impacts and alteration

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itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

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SMARTCODE MODULE Article 7. Definitions of Terms
Municipality

to the landscape.
Natural Community: a distinct and recurring assemblage of populations of plants,
animals, fungi and microorganisms naturally associated with each other and their
physical environment.
Shrub: a deciduous or evergreen woody plant with single or multiple trunks or
multiple leaders and with a mature height generally not expected to exceed fifteen
(15') feet.
Sports Field: Civic Space designed for structured play.
Tree: a woody plant with an expected mature height of thirty feet or more and
possessing either a single trunk or multiple trunks. Trees are often described in
subcategories by common attributes and the functions they serve, such as:
i. Canopy Tree: a redundant term as all Trees have canopies; analogous to the
term Shade Tree.
ii. Coniferous Tree: any Tree with needle leaves and a woody cone fruit.
iii.Ornamental Tree: an Understory Tree planted primarily for its aesthetic value
and as a landscape focal point, as opposed to its function of shading or screening
even though it may perform all three functions.
iv. Shade Tree: typically a deciduous Tree - rarely an evergreen - planted primarily
for its overhead canopy and the quality of the shade it provides.
v. Small/ Medium/ Large (Tree or Shrub): a means of categorizing Trees or Shrubs
based upon their canopy or spread at maturity assuming proper maintenance
and normal growing conditions and which serves the purpose of allowing for their
proper spacing in landscape plans.
vi. Street Tree: a Tree planted that is an element of a Thoroughfare assembly.
vii.Specimen Tree: a particularly impressive or unusual example of a species due
to its size, shade, age, or any other trait that epitomizes the character of the
species.
viii.Understory Tree: a small to medium sized Tree with an expected mature
height less than thirty feet and a canopy which may or may not offer a sufficient
clearance height for pedestrians beneath.
Turfgrass: a continuous plant coverage consisting of a grass species that is regularly
mowed to maintain a desired height.
Xeriscape: a method of landscaping that emphasizes water conservation, accom-
plished by following sound horticultural and landscaping practices, such as planning
and design, soil improvement, limited turf areas, use of mulches, use of low-water
demand plants, efficient irrigation practices and appropriate maintenance.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC31


SMARTCODE MODULE
Municipality

Light Imprint
Stormwater Matrix
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by T o m L o w / D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o m pa n y

_____________________________________________

All the water that will ever be is, right now.

National Geographic, 1993

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC1


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

LIGHT IMPRINT STORM DRAINAGE MATRIX


This table summarizes a comprehensive strategy that can
supplement the basic Natural Drainage Standards in this
volume. The Light Imprint initiative coordinates over sixty
tools and resources for environmental, infrastructural, and
cost efficiency concerns. Because it is transect-based, all or
part of Light Imprint may be adopted with a SmartCode,
or provided as an auxiliary set of guidelines for develop-
ers. Definitions will be necessary for some terms on this
table. Full descriptions of all the tools, along with a com-
prehensive introduction and set of case studies, are located
in the complete Light Imprint Handbook. Information is
available at www.lightimprint.org.

SCA2 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Light Imprint Storm Drainage Matrix
Municipality

Note: All requirements


in this Table are sub-
ject to calibration for
local context.

natural RURAL SUB-URBAN GENERAL URBAN URBAN CENTER URBAN Core SPECIAL
T1 zone T2 zone T3 zone T4 zone T5 zone T6 zone SD dIStrict
a. PAVING Maint. Cost
Compacted Earth ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Wood Planks ▪ ▪ ▪ H $$$
Plastic Mesh/Geomat ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Crushed Stone/Shell ▪ ▪ ▪ M $
Cast/Pressed Concrete Paver Block ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Grassed Cellular Plastic ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
Grassed Cellular Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
Pervious Asphalt ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Asphalt ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Pervious Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Stamped Asphalt ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$$
Stamped Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$$
Pea Gravel ▪ ▪ ▪ M $
Stone/Masonry Paving Blocks ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$$
Wood Paving Blocks on Concrete ▪ ▪ L $$$
Asphalt Paving Blocks ▪ ▪ M $$
b. CHANNELING
Natural Creek ▪ ▪ L $
Terracing ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$
Vegetative Swale ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Drainage Ditch ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Stone/Rip Rap Channels ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Vegetative/Stone Swale ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Grassed Cellular Plastic ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
Grassed Cellular Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
Soakaway Trench ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
Slope Avenue ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
French Drain ▪ ▪ ▪ M $
Shallow Channel Footpath/Rainwater Conveyor ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Concrete Pipe ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Gutter ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Planting Strip Trench ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Masonry Trough ▪ ▪ L $$
Canal ▪ ▪ ▪ H $$$
Sculpted Watercourse, i.e. cascades ▪ ▪ M $$$
Concrete Trough ▪ ▪ L $$
Archimedean Screw ▪ ▪ L $$$
c. STORAGE
Irrigation Pond ▪ ▪ L $
Retention Basin with Sloping Bank ▪ ▪ L $$
Retention Basin with Fence ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Retention Hollow ▪ ▪ M $
Detention Pond ▪ ▪ L $
Vegetative Purification Bed ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$
Flowing Park ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$
Retention Pond ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$
Landscaped Tree Well ▪ ▪ L $$
Pool/Fountain ▪ ▪ ▪ H $$$
Underground Vault/Pipe/Cistern-Corrugated Metal ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Underground Vault/Pipe/Cistern-Precast Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Underground Vault/Pipe/Cistern-Cast in place Concrete ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$
Grated Tree Well ▪ ▪ L $$
Underground Vault/Pipe/Cistern-Plastic ▪ ▪ L $$$
Paved Basin ▪ ▪ M $$$
d. FILTRATION
Wetland/Swamp ▪ ▪ L $
Filtration Ponds ▪ ▪ L $$
Shallow Marsh ▪ ▪ ▪ M $
Surface Landscape ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Natural Vegetation ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $
Constructed Wetland ▪ ▪ M $
Bio-Retention Swale ▪ ▪ M $$
Purification Biotope ▪ ▪ ▪ H $$
Green Finger ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ L $$$
Roof Garden ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ M $$$
Rain Garden ▪ ▪ M $$
Detention Pond ▪ ▪ L $
Grassed Cellular Plastic ▪ ▪ M $$$
Grassed Cellular Concrete ▪ ▪ M $$$
Waterscapes ▪ ▪ ▪ H $$$
*NOTE - Maintenance is denoted as L=Low, M=Medium and H=High.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC3


L i g h t L e v e ls
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o .

____________________________________________

How beautiful is night!


A dewy freshness fills the silent air;
No mist obscures; nor cloud, nor speck, nor stain,
Breaks the serene of heaven:
In full-orbed glory, yonder moon divine
Rolls through the dark blue depths;
Beneath her steady ray
The desert circle spreads
Like the round ocean, girdled with the sky.
How beautiful is night!

Robert Southey

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

5.15 LIGHT LEVELS


Lighting type and color can be adjusted according to the
Transect. Fixtures and other specifications should be listed
on Table 5, while performance-based standards may be
listed in the code text, as the foot-candle levels are in this
Module.
There are many issues to consider when lighting the public
realm: the color, the color of the shadows cast, the contrast
(hardness/softness of light and shadow), the reflectance of
the area being illuminated, cost, maintenance, etc.
Attention to transect-based Dark Sky provisions and
energy efficiency must be among the considerations.
The International Dark-Sky Association advises using
full cutoff (fully shielded) luminaires in all zones. Look
for manufacturers supplying IDA-Approved fixtures. The
current draft (early 2009) of the Dark Sky Model Lighting
Ordinance is easily correlated to the Transect, as it has five
zones of intensity. The fifth zone can apply to T5 and T6
for a complete transect.
For more detailed transect-based attention to lighting and
public darkness, also see the Sustainable Urbanism Module
and the Lighting Design Module at www.transect.org.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Light LEVELS
Municipality

5.15 Light LEVELs


5.15.1 General to All Zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Streetlights shall be of a general type illustrated in Table 5.
5.15.2 Specific to Zone T1
a. No lighting level measured at the building Frontage Line shall exceed 0.5 fc.
5.15.3 Specific to Zones T2, T3, T4
a. No lighting level measured at the building Frontage Line shall exceed 1.0 fc.
5.15.4 Specific to Zone T5
a. No lighting level measured at the building Frontage Line shall exceed 2.0 fc.
5.15.5 Specific to Zone T6
a. No lighting level measured at the building Frontage Line shall exceed 5.0 fc.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Natural Drainage
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by P l a n G r e e n - M a ry V o g e l

________________________

Water is the driver of Nature.

Leonardo da Vinci

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS


The Natural Drainage Standards may be incorporated into
the Riparian and Wetland Buffers Module for Article 3,
or, if that Module is not used, then into the Public Front-
age Standards that are already in the base SmartCode.
Alternatively, they may be added to the base Code as an
addendum. The numbers provided here are for incorpora-
tion into the Public Frontage Standards. Note that there is
“should” language in green type which may be changed to
the mandatory “shall.” For more detailed drainage strate-
gies, see the Sustainable Urbanism Module and the Light
Imprint Matrix at www.transect.org.
3.7.3c This provision becomes letter c. The calibrator must
reletter the rest of the subsection if inserting it there.
5.13.1a If this provision is included, make sure it does not
conflict with any requirements for sloped (pitched) roofs in
the same T-zone. If sloped roofs are required in the code,
it is possible to incentivize green roofs by allowing flat
roofs only if they are green roofs. Some green roofs are
possible on roofs with gentle pitch. See the Sustainable
Urbanism Module for pitch recommendations.

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMs


NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS
These terms should be added to Article 7 if they appear
in the calibrated code.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE NATURAL DRAINAGE Standards
Municipality

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS


NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS
3.7.3 a. General to all zones T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
iv. Trees should be planted below the grade of the sidewalk and the street in struc-
tural cells with sufficient root space.
v. Rain Gardens and Bioswales should be installed to infiltrate runoff from parking
lots, Thoroughfares, Plazas and other impervious surfaces.
vi. Where vegetative solutions are not feasible, porous concrete or porous asphalt should
be specified for Sidewalks, parking lots, and Plazas to infiltrate stormwater.
3.7.3 c. Specific to zones T3, T4
i. Native plant perennial landscapes should replace turf grass where possible and
be very diverse.They should be placed lower than walkways, not mounded up.

ARTICLE 5. BUILDING SCALE PLANS


5.13 NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS
5.13.1 General to Zones T3, T4, T5, T6
a. Buildings should be equipped with roofs of shallow 4-inch soils and drought-
tolerant plants. Buildings approved for Intensive Green Roofs may hold soils
deeper than 4” and larger plants and trees.
b. Balconies should be equipped with planter boxes designed to capture runoff from
the balcony.
c. Green walls, if provided, shall be restricted to non-invasive species.
d. Cisterns may be used to capture and recirculate stormwater from buildings.
5.13.2 Specific to Zone T3
a. The landscape installed shall consist primarily of native species requiring minimal
irrigation, fertilization, and maintenance
5.13.3 Specific to Zones T3, T4
a. Native plant perennial landscapes should replace turf grass wherever possible and
be highly diverse. These should be placed lower than walkways, not mounded
up.
5.13.4 Specific to Zones T4, T5, T6
a. The landscape installed shall consist primarily of durable species tolerant of soil
compaction.
b. Planter boxes should be bottomless, flow-through boxes with native plants, placed
next to buildings and designed to capture building runoff. They may be placed
in courtyards or adjacent sidewalks with runoff sent to them via French drains
or hidden pipes.

ARTICLE 7. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS - NATURAL DRAINAGE STANDARDS


Bioswale: an extended Rain Garden that sometimes runs the length of the
block.
Green Roof: see Definitions for Sustainability Tables.
Intensive Green Roof: see Definitions for Sustainability Tables.
Rain Garden: sunken garden using native plants and sometimes trees.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Place Types
SmartCode Module
D u a n y P l a t e r -Z y b e r k & C o . and Sandy Sorlien
with Robert Alminana, Kevin Colin & Ann Daigle, translated from the

Smart Growth Strategy Regional Livability Footprint Project

_____________________________________________

Most of the problems of our settlements have a single


root cause. Instead of growing organically by means of
the multiplication or duplication of autonomous quar-
ters, twentieth-century cities suffer from various forms
of monofunctional overexpansion, which create chaos in
terms of their structure, use and appearance.

Léon Krier
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
Municipality itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Place types Place types / TRANSECT ZONES


The Place Types tables are not regulatory. They are provided The translations on this table are not necessarily one-to-one
as a guide to more precise planning and coding. correspondences. Single-use areas are not part of normative
The term Place Types originated in the Bay Area of Cali- walkable urbanism unless they occur in a neighborhood-
fornia several years ago. The simplicity of the term was scale structure (i.e., a Community Unit) adjacent to mixed
appealing and Place Types are now found in codes and use areas. This translation table indicates the Transect
vision documents in other parts of the country. However, Zones that can potentially either accommodate or com-
they have been problematic because in many such docu- prise the Place Types listed at left, depending on scale.
ments they are a mix of different scales and development See Table 1A of the SmartCode for general descriptions
patterns. Some Place Types may be single-use areas, no of the T-zones. For standards regulating their elements,
different from conventional zoning districts, or they may see Base Module 5.
be too large in area for coding for walkability. Some docu- The Density categories and their descriptions in the left
ments have even taken the SmartCode’s T-zone numbers two columns of this table appeared in the Smart Growth
and applied them at too large a scale. They do not usually Strategy Regional Livability Project report from the
recognize the fine grain of urbanism at which the elements Association of Bay Area Governments. Since number of
of different habitats should be coded. By contrast, the stories is not the only determinant of density, and these
SmartCode draws sharp distinctions between compact, heights are generally higher than those found in the habi-
walkable patterns and sprawl patterns, and Transect Zones tats described, the translations begin with some flawed
are mapped at a fine grain using the well-integrated ele- premises. This is another weakness of the Place Types
ments of the SmartCode. currently used in planning.
The three Tables in this Module provide approximate The three sets of examples listed in each cel are from,
translations from some commonly-used Place Types into respectively, the San Francisco Bay Area, Philadelphia
Community Units, Transect Zones, or Sprawl Types. and the Delaware Valley, and New Orleans and environs.
For Sprawl Types, see Table SR1 of the Sprawl Repair Some repetition occurs because the original Place Types
Module. listed on the left side of the table are too coarse. By contrast,
a local transect is analyzed, and transect-based zoning is
applied, at a finer grain, with many elements regulated down
to the building scale. By the same token, the Community
Units of the SmartCode encompass more than one kind of
habitat, i.e., more than one Transect Zone.
The purpose of the translations is to plug the SmartCode
categories into existing Place Types paradigms. This may
be necessary if existing state or local programs and policies
are already correlated to Place Types. See the Interactive
Planning System (IPS) for how cities using Transect Zones
and Community Units may be quantified for carbon emis-
sions, VMT, stormwater and other sustainability metrics,
with or without using a Place Types translation.

SCA2 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE PLACE TYPES / TRANSECT ZONES
Municipality

1. PRIMARILY RESIDENTIAL
Land Use Description Ex. Bay Area; Philadelphia; New Orleans
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
Very High Twenty or more Stories of Residential with support- - portions of downtown San Francisco
ing Commercial. - portions of Center City near City Hall, S. Broad
Density
- Proposed Poydras CBD projects (none now) ▪
High Eight Story average of Residential with supporting - Golden Gateway; Pacific Heights / Alta Plaza
Commercial. - Center City along Walnut; Rittenhouse Square
Density
- Riverfront Waterhouse District, Lafayette Square ▪ ▪
Medium High Four Story average of Residential with supporting - S. Beach midrise; San Jose River Oaks Village
Density Commercial. - Spruce/Pine St Center City; University City
- French Quarter Edge, Warehouse District ▪
Medium Three Story average Residential (apartments, - Mountain View (The Crossings); North Berkeley
townhouses and small-lot single family) with sup- - Northeast; Wynnefield; E.Mt. Airy; Wiss. Hills
Density
porting Commercial. -Marigny, Bywater, Uptown, MidCity, Old Metairie ▪
Low Single-family Houses, some two Story garden Apart- - Pleasanton, Livermore, San Ramon, Menlo Park,
ments, with supporting Commercial centers. Rohnert Park, Novato, Fairfield
Density
- W. Mt. Airy, Ardmore, Narberth ▪
- Garden District, Audubon Place, Metairie
Very Low Large-lot single family, with minimal Commercial. -Los Altos Hills, Alamo, Ross, Hillsborough
Density -Penn Valley, Gladwyne, Wyncote, Gulph Mills
-Lakefront, NOEast, Gentilly, Harahan, Chalmette ▪ ▪
Rural Residential Large acreage agriculture-oriented single family - Pope Valley, Alexander Valley, Bodega
Houses
(5 acre + typical), minimal Commercial.
- parts of Chester and Bucks Counties
- Fishing / grazing hamlets, surrounding Parishes ▪ ▪

2. PRIMARILY COMMERCIAL
Very High Twenty or more Stories of Commercial, Office and -Financial District
Residential buildings, highly intermixed. Some build- -Penn Center, Comcast Center
Density
ings with Office or Residential over Retail. -Poydras CBD, Riverfront Convention Center ▪
High Eight Story average Commercial, Office and Resi- -Van Ness Avenue corridor
dential buildings, highly intermixed. Some buildings -Chestnut Street in Center City
Density
with Office or Residential over Retail. -Historic CBD, Convention Center District ▪ ▪
Medium High Six Story average Commercial, Office and Residen- -Upper Market Street; downtown Berkeley
Density tial buildings, highly intermixed. Some buildings with
Office or Residential over Retail.
-Walnut Street in Center City
-Canal Street Downtown ▪
Medium Four Story average Commercial, Office and Resi- -Oakland: Piedmont Av & s. of Jack London Sq.
dential buildings intermixed. Some buildings with --Chinatown, Old City
Density
Office or Residential over Retail. -Magazine Street Corridor, Lower Carrollton ▪ ▪
Low Three Story average Commercial, Office and -San Mateo 25th Av area; Palo Alto Cal. Av area
Residential buildings intermixed. Some buildings -Upper Darby
Density
with Office or Residential over Retail. -Upper Carrollton, West End ▪ ▪
Very Low Two Story average Commercial, Office and Resi- -Santa Rosa Railroad Square
Density dential buildings intermixed. Some buildings with
Office or Residential over Retail.
-Ridge Pike, Main Line between towns, Route 1
-Metairie Road Corridor, Claiborne Corridor
▪ ▪
3. BALANCED COMMERCIAL/RESIDENTIAL
Very High Twenty or more Stories of Mixed Use buildings. - Downtown San Francisco
Density - Avenue of the Arts
- CBD Riverfront (proposed)

High Eight Story average of Mixed Use buildings. - Downtown Oakland; downtown San Jose
Density - Rittenhouse Sq, University City
- Historic CBD, Julia Street Corridor (Arts District)
▪ ▪
Medium High Five Story average of Mixed Use buildings, -Downtown Santa Rosa, Walnut Creek, Palo Alto
surrounded by one to four Story Residential -Chinatown, Old City
Density
buildings. - Arts District, French Quarter ▪ ▪ ▪
Medium Three Story average of Mixed Use buildings -Downtown Petaluma, Hayward, Fairfield
Density surrounded by one to four Story Residential
buildings.
-South Street, Italian Market, Baltimore Ave
-Irish Channel, Lower Garden District
▪ ▪ ▪
Low Two Story average of Mixed Use buildings - Downtown Pleasanton, Mill Valley, Vacaville
surrounded by one to three Story Residential - Germantown, Manayunk
Density
buildings. - Lakefront Marina, Bucktown ▪

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC3


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
Municipality itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Place types / COMMUNITY UNITS


These Place Types are based on the Lexicon of the New
Urbanism. They are large scale and refer to traditional
neighborhood patterns, not single use sprawl areas.
Approximate synonyms for the SmartCode Community
Unit types are given beneath the common names. For the
formal components of Community Units, see Article 2,
Article 3, and Article 4.
The Transect Zones marked here are those that are typically
found within the communities, not the other way around.
A transect-based community is never comprised of only
one T-zone, as that would undercut the goal of supporting
distinct habitats within a pedestrian shed.
The bottom portion of the chart lists several historical
Place Types and the Transect Zones that would usually
comprise them.

SCA4 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE PLACE TYPES / COMMUNITY UNITS
Municipality Author: Duany Plater-Zyberk & Co.
Draft: April 1, 2010
Land Use Description Ex. Bay Area, Del Val, New Orleans area
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
City Large community consisting of at least one downtown - San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose
and many other neighborhoods. The downtown has - Philadelphia, Camden
RCD+TND
urban intensity up to T6 Urban Core Zone. Usually - New Orleans, Baton Rouge ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
30,000+ residents.
Town Medium-sized community consisting of a small - San Anselmo, Los Gatos, Brisbane
downtown and two or more other neighborhoods. The - Doylestown, Norristown, Ardmore
RCD, TND
downtown usually has urban intensity only up to T5 - Covington, Mandeville ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫
Urban Center Zone, but may have local T6.
Village Small community consisting of one Main Street or - Fairfax, Hercules waterfront
TND town square, 2-3 stories, and surrounding or adjacent
residential fabric within pedestrian shed.
- Narberth, Swarthmore, Abington, Wayne
- Abita Springs ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪
Hamlet Very small, compact rural community with only a - Sunol
few mixed-use or commercial buildings. May be - Spring House, Coventryville, Devon
CLD, CAS
associated with agriculture and/or located at a - Manchac, Monsecour, Violet ▪ ▪ ▪
crossroads.

Downtown A town or city’s most intense neighborhood. Highest - San Francisco Downtown
RCD density, mixed use & pedestrian presence; best
transit connections; most business & culture.
- Philadelphia Center City
- New Orleans CBD ▫ ▪ ▪
Neighborhood Part of a town or city that includes two or more distinct - North Beach, Glen Park
RCD, TND habitats - a mostly residential area with corner stores,
and a mixed-use Main Street or center.
- Roxborough, Francisville, Tacony
- Gentilly Terrace, Garden District ▫ ▫ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▫
Transit Village A city neighborhood or village planned/evolved - Fruitvale-Oakland; Caltrain-Mountainview
around streetcar/light rail lines, BRT and/or com- - Chestnut Hill, U. Darby, Doylestown, Univ. City
TOD
muter rail. Higher density and mixed use near train - Canal & St. Charles/Carrollton Corridors ▪ ▪ ▪
station and all along any streetcar/LR line.
Main Street Linear mixed-use heart of village or town, or center or - 24th St. SF, Haight St. SF, 4th St. Berkeley
edge of city neighborhood. Usually a short corridor. - South St, Main St Manayunk, High St. Pottstown
T5 or T4-O Zone
Two-four stories, mostly retail frontages at ground - Magazine Street Corridor, Frenchmen St. ▫ ▪
floor, residential above. Bus stops.

Urban Village Neologism formulated by Patrick Geddes in the early


(British)
TND
20th century, used in the UK and Seattle. - see entries for Neighborhood
▪ ▪ ▪
Quartier A trans-national European term, later rationalized - Chinatown, Nob Hill, North Beach
by Léon Krier, for a more urban neighborhood, often - Society Hill, Bella Vista, Northern Liberties
(Krier)
TND without T3 composed exclusively of attached building types. - French Quarter (Vieux Carré),Commerce District ▪ ▪
Neighborhood Unit Influential US version planned by Clarence Perry for
the 1929 New York Regional Plan. Based on 1/4-mile - see entries for Village and Neighborhood
(Perry, 1920/1929)
TND radius and central school location. ▪ ▪ ▪

▪ Required
▫ Permitted

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC5


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
Municipality itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Place types / SPRAWL TYPES


Some of the following single-use Place Types may be
retrofitted into Community Units that contain Transect
Zones in the course of master planning, using Sprawl
Repair tools. See Section 3.2 and Section 4.1 for Com-
munity Unit standards and the role of the Pedestrian Shed.
The S- (Sprawl) designations on this table correlate to the
Sprawl Repair Tables.
Alternatively, these areas may be zoned as Special Dis-
tricts.

SCA6 S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE PLACE TYPES / SPRAWL TYPES
Municipality

Place Types / Sprawl Types: This table lists single use Place Types categorized in the SmartCode either as Sprawl Types or Special District. Sprawl
Types should evolve into complete neighborhoods using the Sprawl Repair tables. The uses designated SD in the left column below may remain Special
Districts but should introduce some Mixed Use to serve residents and/or employees.

Retail (SINGLE USE)


Land Use Description
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD
S-6 Convenience Store (isolated) Single small retail store offering a variety of daily
sundries and foodstuffs, isolated from a complete
neighborhood. ▪
S-6 Shopping Center, Strip Mall Consists of retail stores offering numerous choices
of goods and services. Category includes strip
retail and big box retail. ▪
S-8 Regional Shopping Center Consists of large structures and connected smaller
stores, enclosed or open air, dedicated to large
concentrations of retail offering a wide range of ▪
goods and services.
S-8 Regional Mall, Power Center Malls consist of large structures, enclosed or open
air, dedicated to large concentrations of retail.
Power Centers feature several big box stores. ▪

Residential (SINGLE USE)


S-3 Rural Subdivision Rural Subdivisions consist of single-family detached
houses located on 1/2 acre lots or larger. Setbacks
are relatively deep and the infrastructure is ▪
sporadic. Automobile access is crucial.
S-4 Single Family Subdivision Single Family Subdivisions consist predominantly
of single-family detached housing pods on small,
medium or large lots, segregated by market seg- ▪
ment. Medium front Setbacks yield front lawns
and relatively large backyard.
S-5 Multifamily Subdivision Multifamily Subdivisions consist of attached and
(Townhouse or Apartment Complex) detached multi-family housing. Townhouses
without towns, or auto-dependent apartment or ▪
condo buildings.

SD Cluster Small group of houses on a portion of the site


to preserve open space. Conventionally, resi-
dential only. ▪

Office (SINGLE USE)


S-7 Office Building (isolated) Isolated single building dedicated exclusively to
Office use.

S-7 Office Park, Business Park Consists of clusters of buildings dedicated exclu-
sively to commercial uses from Class A offices
to warehouses. ▪
S-7 Light Industrial Park Manufacturing and/or warehouse area that does
not produce noxious air or offensive noise.

Other (SINGLE USE)


S-7 Educational Campus, Medical Campus Isolated institutional campuses such as colleges
and hospitals.

SD Heavy Industry Manufacturing and/or warehouse area that pro-
duces noxious air and/or offensive noise so is
justified in being isolated from residences. ▪
SD Transportation Hub Large shipping area for loading, parking, and
interchange of trucks, ships, and/or rail cars.

SD Distribution Center Large area for transfer of goods from regional/
national transportation to local delivery trucks.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2 SC7


N o i s e L e v e ls
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by D u a n y P l at e r -Z y b e r k & C o .

______________________________

If music be the food of love, play on;


Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting,
The appetite may sicken, and so die.
That strain again! it had a dying fall:
O, it came o'er my ear like the sweet sound
That breathes upon a bank of violets,
Stealing and giving odour!

William Shakespeare

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

5.16 NOISE LEVELS


This sound ordinance is designed to protect rea-
sonable urban sound levels rather than to preclude
noise. Fully enforceable sound ordinances must
typically address where the measurement is taken,
how background sound is calculated, and which
part of the spectrum is being measured.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Noise Levels
Municipality

5.16 NOISE LEVELs


5.16.1 Specific to Zones T1, T2, T3, T4
a. Sound levels measured at the building Frontage Line shall not exceed 65 decibels
from sunrise to midnight and 55 decibels from midnight to sunrise.
5.16.2 Specific to Zones T5, T6
a. Sound levels measured at the building Frontage Line shall not exceed 70 decibels
from sunrise to midnight and 60 decibels from midnight to sunrise.

S mart C ode V ersion 9.2


Regional Watersheds
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by P a u l C r a b t r e e , PE • C r a b t r e e G r o u p , I n c .

_________________________________________

Don't you realize that the sea is the home of water?


All water is off on a journey unless it's in the sea,
and it's homesick, and bound to make its way home
someday.

Zora Neale Hurston


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

REGIONAL WATERSHEDS
FOR ARTICLE 2
This Module is numbered to correlate with Article 2 in the
base SmartCode. The current sections and subsections may
be replaced with these if the jurisdiction wishes to create a
more integrated regional planning scheme. Depending upon
the jurisdiction and the timing of code adoption, it may be
more effective to include the language from this Module
and/or the entirety of Article 2 in the Comprehensive/
General Plan rather than within the body of a calibration
of the SmartCode. If sections are used in both documents,
calibrators must ensure that the language matches or is
compatible. In any case, it is important that the language
be regulatory, not merely advisory.
(Note: If a later version than SmartCode Version 9.2 has
been released, it may already incorporate some or all of
this Module.)

Other Modules are available for Comprehensive/General


Plan "bridges" to the SmartCode. There are also several
Transect-based Modules by different authors addressing
stormwater issues. They include Natural Drainage Stan-
dards, the Light Imprint Stormwater Matrix, the Sustain-
able Urbanism Stormwater Table SU7, the Landscaping
Module, the Flood Hazard Mitigation Standards, and the
Riparian and Wetland Buffers Module.

In addition, the Complete Streets Thoroughfare Standards,


the Sprawl Retrofit Module, the Bicycling Module, and the
Public Frontage Standards in the base code may affect and
be affected by the standards in this Regional Watersheds
document. Although all are correlated to the Transect and
SmartCode, calibrators using multiple Modules should take
care not to create conflicts or redundancies in standards
and definitions, and should employ the strategies most
appropriate for their local and state sustainability and
stormwater programs.

For freeware downloads of the above-referenced Smart-


Code Modules, please visit the Center for Applied Transect
Studies (CATS) at www.Transect.org.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE REGIONAL WATERSHEDS
Municipality

ARTICLE 2. REGIONAL SCALE PLANS


REGIONAL WATERSHEDS
2.1.2 Regional Plans shall integrate the largest practical geographic area, overlapping
property lines as necessary and municipal boundaries if possible, and encompass-
ing the regional watersheds.
2.1.5 A Regional Watershed Management Plan ("RWMP") shall be prepared that analyzes
existing watershed patterns, delineates existing critical watershed issues and identi-
fies key remediation strategies for those issues. The RWMP shall provide incen-
tives for compact urban patterns, infill, and redevelopment and shall balance those
incentives through stricter requirements for lower density areas. The RWMP shall
provide methods for achieving overall improvements to the watershed character
and avoiding cumulative regional watershed hydromodification by development.
2.2.8 A system for the gradual Transfer of Stormwater Mitigation (TSM) shall be established
and administered for the purpose of transferring stormwater mitigation activities
from the Growth Sectors to the Open Sectors; from higher Transect Zones to lower
Transect Zones, or from Infill, Greyfield, or Brownfield sites to Greenfield sites.
2.2.9 Regional Watershed Management Plans ("RWMP") shall conform to the following
general sequence:
a. Adequate and appropriate base maps shall be compiled for the region showing

Draft
topography, soil types, cover types, rainfall distributions, parcel configurations,
development patterns, and known Stormwater Hazard Areas.
b. The existing conditions for the regional watersheds shall be modeled using
standardized hydrological methods such as the USDA’s Technical Release 55. At
a minimum, the 2-year, 25-year and 100-year Storm Events shall be modeled.
c. The Natural Cover Condition for the regional watersheds shall be modeled.
d. Stormwater Hazard Areas shall be identified through the analyses of subsections
2.2.9a, 2.2.9b, and 2.2.9c, and by historical records. These areas shall be ranked
by severity of potential damages to health, safety, and urban and environmental
welfare.
e. Appropriate community-based remediations for the highest ranked Stormwater
Hazard Areas shall be developed. This may require hydrological analysis and
value engineering of alternatives; and may involve short, medium, and long-term
solutions involving both private and public entities. The hydrological analysis
for these remediations should show significant hydrograph improvements as
compared to the existing condition for the watersheds, and show progress in
the direction of the Natural Cover Condition hydrograph in terms of time of con-
centration, runoff rate, runoff volume, and water quality.
f. Recommendations shall be made for the Sector Plan based on the RWMP results,
especially as regards lands recommended for Preserved Open Sector (2.3.2),
Reserved Open Sector (2.4.2) and Infill Growth Sector (2.8.2).
g. A stormwater analysis shall be conducted for New Community Plans (Article 3)
and Infill Community Plans (Article 4) by the procedures detailed in those Articles,
and the RWMP shall be revised and updated to incorporate those analyses and
regulations.
2.6.1 (add) These areas have a limited capability to support the infrastructure categories
of 2.8.2 without significantly impacting the environmental categories of 2.4.2.
2.7.1 (add) These areas have a high capability to support the infrastructure categories of

© C rabtree G roup , I nc . 2009


SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

REGIONAL WATERSHEDS
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Examples of Natural Cover Condition ratings may include
"oak-aspen, good condition", or "grassland or range, poor
condition".
Not every Stormwater Hazard Area would be considered
a Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) by FEMA, though
all SFHA is a subset of the designation Stormwater Hazard
Area. See the Flood Hazard Mitigation Module for transect-
based provisions for SFHAs.
SMARTCODE MODULE REGIONAL WATERSHEDS
Municipality

2.8.2 without significantly impacting the environmental categories of 2.4.2.


2.8.2 The Infill Growth Sector shall consist of the aggregate of the following categories:
a. Transit
b. Thoroughfare network
c. Water System
d. Sewer System
e. Stormwater System
f. Dry Utility Systems
g. Civic Spaces
h. Buildings

regional watersheds

Draft
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
FOR ARTICLE 7

Natural Cover Condition: conditions that existed prior to significant alterations by
humans.
Storm Event: a 24-hour rainstorm. Storm Events are rated as having a percentage
chance of occurrence in any given year. The 2-year Storm Event has a 50% chance,
the 25-year Storm Event has a 4% chance, and the 100-year Storm Event has a
1% chance.
Stormwater Hazard Areas: land areas that are subject to hazards due to precipi-
tation and that are subject to flooding, moisture-induced landslides, avalanches,
high groundwater, tidal waves, etc. The hazards may be either natural or caused
by humans.
Transfer of Stormwater Mitigation (TSM): a method of mitigating the hydrological
effects of Urbanization in one area by improving the hydrological performance of
another area of the same watershed.
TSM: see Transfer of Stormwater Mitigation

Renewable Resources
SmartCode Module
P r e pa r e d by Jaime Correa and A s s o c i at e s
with M a r i a B e n d f e l d t & J e n n i f e r H a m i lt o n

_____________________________________________

There is a universal tendency to good... nature has order


and form; nothing comes from nothing.

Aristotle

© J aime C orrea and A ssociates V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Renewable REsources Module


The Renewable Resource Module is regulatory. It is written These standards activate the Renewable Resources tables
with "shall" language to be inserted into the Base Code as regulatory. They may need further calibration with By
with little or no modification. Right and Warrant bullets, as local politics require. Spaces
The extent to which this content may be implemented left blank mean that a Variance (public process) would be
is subject to state law and local political support. If the required for the device or facility. These tables currently
municipality is unable to mandate these standards, they show which Transect Zones are appropriate in terms of
may be changed to "should" language, especially where habitat character and design, but do not take into account
"shall" appears in colored text, or included in a separate political realities, which are always local.
set of design guidelines. The Renewable Resources tables are not numbered because
they may be appropriate in various places in the calibrated
code. As always, the insertion of new tables will require
renumbering of subsequent tables and a Find/Replace of
those numbers throughout the code text.
These regulations are basic. It may be necessary to further
regulate the various agricultural farms, wind farms, and
solar farms in Article 3 and on the Civic Space table or
Civic Space Module. The building-scale energy devices
and food production uses and facilities belong in Article 5
and Table 12 Specific Function and Use. For more detailed
provisions regarding transect-based agriculture, see the
Agricultural Urbanism Module and, specifically for green
roofs, the Natural Drainage Module and the Sustainable
Urbanism Performance-based Module. New tables that
suit the purposes of the community may be assembled
from a combination of these resources.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Renewable REsources
Municipality

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS


3.X CIVIC ZONES
3.X.X General
x. Alternative energy production devices shall be permitted by Warrant within the
appropriate Civic Space for the Transect Zone, as provided on Table X Solar
Power and Table X Wind Power.
3.X.X. Civic Space (CS) Specific to Zones T3, T4, T5
x. Urban Farms and Community Gardens shall be permitted by Warrant as provided
on Table X Food Production. They may be counted toward the Civic Space alloca-
tion by Warrant if they are open to the neighborhood at predictable hours or are
visible from an adjacent Civic Space in a way that contributes to the enjoyment
of that Civic Space.

ARTICLE 4. INFILL COMMUNITY SCALE PLANS


4.X CIVIC ZONES
4.X.X. Civic Space Zones (CS)
x. Urban Farms and Community Gardens shall be permitted by Warrant as provided
on Table X Food Production.
4.X.X. Civic Building Zones (CB)
x. Alternative energy production devices shall be permitted by Warrant in Civic
Space as provided on Table X Solar Power and Table X Wind Power.

ARTICLE 5. Building Scale Plans


5.X BUILDING FUNCTION
5.X.X General To Zones T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
x. Alternative energy production shall be permitted by Warrant as provided on Table
X Solar Energy, Table X Wind Power, and Table 12 Specific Function and Use.
x. A Solar Roof should be large enough to generate at least one megawatt.
x. Agriculture shall be permitted by Warrant as provided on Table X Food Production
and Table 12 Specific Function and Use.

© J aime C orrea and A ssociates V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Renewable REsources -
Food Production
This table shows ways of incorporating types of local
food production along the Transect. Cities are increasingly
allowing urban agriculture and the raising of animals for
household use, to encourage lower-cost food supplies and
reduction in the energy consumption for food transport.
This code may be modified to require developers of infill
projects to purchase vacant lots and make them available
as community gardens for nearby residents.
A community garden, or allotment garden, provides a
locus of recreation and sociability greater than that of
the private yard, being one of the so-called third places.
They are also welcome by apartment-dwellers who may
enjoy gardening. Allotment gardens can be large enough
to hold habitable shacks as affordable surrogates for rural
weekend cottages. Allotment plots are not sold, but let
under municipal or private administration.
Green roofs are also opportunities for food production,
even as they mitigate carbon emissions and reduce storm
water runoff. They may be incentivized by giving devel-
opers bonuses for installing them.
As tree preservation and planting regulations are intro-
duced, fruit trees may be included and designated for local
food production.
For more detailed food production provisions, including
the raising of animals, see the Agricultural Urbanism
Module.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Renewable REsources - FOOD PRODUCTION
Municipality

Renewable Resources - Food Production. This table shows ways of incorporating types of food production along the Transect.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Specific

Farm

▪ ▪

Agricultural Plots

▪ ▪ ▪

Vegetable Garden

▪ ▪ ▪

Urban Farm

▪ ▪ ▪

Community Garden

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Green Roof
- Extensive ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

- Semi Intensive ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

- Intensive ▪ ▪ ▪

Vertical Farm

▪ ▪ ▪

© J aime C orrea and A ssociates V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Renewable REsources-Solar Energy


This table shows opportunities for the placement of types
of solar-powered devices within the Transect. Solar access
should be protected in the T2 and T3 zones; this may be
more difficult in T4-T6 density.
At the community scale, solar orientation should be con-
sidered when planning a hamlet or village, so that each
lot receives optimum exposure. If this is not feasible, the
code may require a percentage of lots, especially in the
T3 zone, to be oriented for solar energy.
A solar dish engine system utilizes collectors tracking the
sun on two axes, while concentrating the energy at the
focal point of a separate dish.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Renewable REsources - SOLAR ENERGY
Municipality

Renewable Resources - Solar Energy. This table shows opportunities for the placement of types of solar-powered devices along the Transect.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Specifics

Solar Farm

▪ ▪ ▪

Roof Mounted Solar Panels

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Public Furniture

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

© J aime C orrea and A ssociates V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Renewable REsources - Wind Power


This table prescribes opportunities for the placement of
types of wind-powered devices within the Transect. Wind
turbines must be placed where there is wind. The best
locations in general include shorelines and the edges of
open plains. In the urban Transect Zones, T3-4-5-6, this
usually means they must be placed quite high above the
buildings. Care should be taken installing wind turbines
near inhabited areas, as they tend to generate a steady
white noise that is disturbing to some.
The horizontal axis wind turbine is suited for the more
rural T-zones because it generally requires a large (20 foot)
radius for the rotating blades. In addition, the head must
rotate in order to receive wind from any direction.
The vertical axis wind turbine is suited for the more
urban T-zones because it is significantly smaller than the
horizontal axis type, sometimes only 4-5 feet in diameter,
and less noisy. These are designed to operate with non-
directional wind current, which makes them easier to
accommodate, and more attractive in urban areas when in
proximity to buildings. For further information see www.
quietrevolution.com.
The definitions for the Renewable Resources Module are
together on the page following them. If any part of this
Module is used, the appropriate terms should be added to
Article 6 Definitions during calibration.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Renewable REsources - WIND POWER
Municipality

Renewable Resources - Wind Power. This table prescribes opportunities for the placement of types of wind-powered devices along the Transect.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 SD Specifics

Wind Farm

▪ ▪ ▪

Horizontal Axis

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Vertical Axis

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Public Furniture

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

© J aime C orrea and A ssociates V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

ARTICLE 6. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


Renewable Resources
These terms should be added to the Definitions if they
appear in the calibrated code.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Renewable REsources
Municipality

ARTICLE 6. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


Renewable Resources
Extensive Green Roof: a building roof with a planting medium six inches in depth
or less, designed to be virtually self-sustaining and requiring a minimum of mainte-
nance. Such roofs are intended to function as an ecological protection layer. They
are planted with low-lying species designed to provide maximum cover achieving
water retention, erosion resistance, and transpiration of moisture.
Green Roof: a building roof partially or completely covered with vegetation and soil,
or a growing medium, over a waterproofing membrane. Green roofs are categorized
as Extensive, Semi-Intensive, or Intensive, depending on the depth of the plant-
ing medium and the amount of maintenance required. (Syn: eco-roof, living roof,
greenroof)
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine: a Wind Turbine with its rotor on the horizontal axis,
similar to an airplane propeller.
Intensive Green Roof: a building roof with a planting medium between 8 inches
and 4 feet. It can sustain elaborate plantings that include shrubs and trees. Intensive
Green Roofs are heavy and usually installed over concrete roof decks. They require
considerable maintenance. In addition to their role in carbon mitigation, they are
used for recreation or aesthetics, being park or garden-like.
Semi-Intensive Green Roof: a building roof with specifications between the Exten-
sive and Intensive Green Roof systems. This type requires more maintenance, has
higher costs, and weighs more than the Extensive Green Roof.
Solar Farm: a facility where solar powered devices, either photovoltaic (PV) or
turbine systems, are clustered.
Solar Roof: a building roof that supports an array of solar panels, including solar
shingles.
Sustainability: The basis upon which an organism or a community can manage
its own continuing viability, meeting the needs of the present without comproming
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Urban Farm: agricultural land dedicated to food production to be locally consumed
(by locavores).
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine: a Wind Turbine with its rotor on the vertical axis. Blades
are usually helical and the device is usually more compact than the Horizontal Axis
Wind Turbine. It does not have to rotate to face the prevailing wind.
Vertical Farm: agricultural production in buildings without yards, usually high and
mid-rise buildings.
Wind Turbine: a rotary device for converting wind energy into mechanical or electri-
cal energy.

© J aime C orrea and A ssociates V ersion 1.0


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
Retail Markets
S m a r t C o d e M o d ul e
Prepared by R o b e r t J. G i b b s , ASLA, CNU-A

_____________________________________________

When a citizen left the privacy of his home, wishing to


engage in public life, most likely he went to the agora.

John Carroll

I went to a general store but they wouldn't let me buy


anything specific.

Steven Wright

© 2010 R obert J. G ibbs , ASLA, CNU-A


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Retail MARKETS SMARTCODE Module ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY PLANS


The Retail Markets Module provides goals to return These sections activate the tables of this Module as regu-
neighborhoods, villages, towns and city centers to their latory, if desired.
historical role as the centers for commerce and trade
in their respective regions. American towns and cities
traditionally provided for the majority of their markets
and offered a wide range of goods and services includ-
ing groceries, hardware, apparel, and home furnishings,
in small shops as well as at least one major department
store. These stores contributed toward sustainable urban
centers that allowed for residents to walk or have only a 3.4 TRANSECT ZONES
short drive for most of the goods and services that they In order for a Retail type that is more intense than a Corner
desired or needed. In larger towns and cities, department Store to occur in a T-4 zone, the Function designation must
stores were often hundreds of thousands of square feet, be changed from Limited to Open, or the language for
covering entire blocks. Limited must be revised on Table 10. In the uncalibrated
Presently, shopping centers in sprawl areas capture the model SmartCode, the functional intensity is assigned as
vast majority of the retail spending of most communities, follows: T-2 and T-3 are Restricted, T-4 is Limited, and
resulting in an unsustainable land pattern. Urban residents T-5 and T-6 are Open. Using the Function assignments
must drive outside their neighborhood, village, town or for subzoning is a useful tool that was applied extensively
city for most of their goods and services. This reverse trip in the Miami 21 transect-based code.
often results in a lower quality of life for urban dwellers, Alternatively, the larger Retail type may become its own
while at the same time the locations of shopping centers higher T-zone.
and malls encourage people to move outside of towns and
cities. Both tendencies support more sprawl.
However, due to demographic trends toward urban living,
many leading retailers are now seeking urban locations to
deploy new stores. They have designed flexible formats
that can be adapted to historic buildings or smaller block
grids. Downtowns and urban centers have an opportunity
for rebirth as the center of commerce for their regions.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Retail MARKETS
Municipality

ARTICLE 3. NEW COMMUNITY PLANS

3.2 SEQUENCE OF COMMUNITY DESIGN


3.2.3 Areas of Transect Zones (Section 3.4) shall be allocated within the boundaries of
each Community Unit as appropriate to its type. TheT-5 zones and T-6 zones, if
present, shall occupy the most advantageous sites for a Retail Catchment as shown
on Table X.
3.2.9 Special Requirements for the Public Frontage and Private Frontage shall be assigned
to support Retail according to Table X. See Section 3.9.

3.4 TRANSECT ZONES


3.4.3 The T-4 General Urban Zone shall be considered for adjustment on Table 10 General
Function to increase the intensity of its Mixed Use to Open Function. Such adjustment
should be guided by the standards for Retail Catchments as shown on Table X.

© 2010 R obert J. G ibbs , ASLA, CNU-A


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

RETAILER TYPE ALLOCATION


This table categorizes the typologies of the shopping center
industry with the appropriate Transect Zones. Several of
these types have their own tables on following pages.
Most shopping centers fall into one of six primary proven
typologies. Each type of center appeals to a distinct
market segment and has a specific size, tenants, location
criteria and site plan standards. Although there are always
exceptions, centers that deviate from these industry stan-
dards and sizes are often considered risky and difficult
to finance or lease. Therefore the industry terms are used
here, although calibrators of the SmartCode may have
other meanings for Neighborhood Center, Community
Center, etc., that are not associated with retail. In the
final assembled code, calibrators must take care not to
use the same term for two different purposes.
The primary conventional shopping center types are:
Corner Store, Convenience Center, Neighborhood Cen-
ter, Community Center, Regional Center and Lifestyle
Center or "Town Center."
The Lifestyle Center is intended to appeal to those who
enjoy a traditional Main Street experience and are seek-
ing specific national or regional chain specialty shops.
However, most Lifestyle Centers do not include a mix
of uses; they are strictly retail and are thereby threatened
by conventional malls. They are unlike traditional Main
Streets where there are apartments over shops and civic
buildings on T-5 blocks, yet they have competed with
them and harmed historic downtowns. Infill strategies
for ailing Lifestyle Centers include adding complemen-
tary uses, i.e., residential and office in locations where
there are transit connections to other communities. See
the Sprawl Repair Module or the SR tables in the base
SmartCode.
The T-zones allocated for Retail types in this Module
indicate are those within which the retailer is best located
for transit and walking access. The associated square
footage that fits the context of that zone is adjusted along
the Transect.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Retailer Type Allocation
Municipality

T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict

Seasonal Open Shed ▪ ▪


Corner Store ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
Convenience Center ▪o ▪
Neighborhood Center ▪o ▪ ▪ ▪
Community Center ▪ ▪ ▪
Lifestyle Center ▪ ▪
Regional Center ▪ ▪ ▪
Discount Department Store ▪ ▪
Warehouse Retailer ▪

▪ o - with Open Function designation

© 2010 R obert J. G ibbs , ASLA, CNU-A


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Corner Store
The smallest and most useful retail type, the Corner
Store, ranges from 1500-3000 square feet. These small
stores offer beverages, food and sundries that are needed
on a regular basis by most households, workers and
travelers. Beer, bread, cigarettes, prepared sandwiches,
sundries and snacks represent the bulk of their sales.
Corner stores may be specialty shops, such as bakeries
or cafes, but this table applies to general stores. They
primarily offer convenience over selection and value,
and are often called convenience stores.
Corner Stores are ideally located along major local roads
at the busiest entry to the neighborhood. However, in
densely populated traditional communities, the Corner
Store can be sustainable within the neighborhood when
located along its primary street. The store also benefits
if located adjacent to community buildings, parks and
schools.
Approximately 1000 households are necessary to support
the average Corner Store. This number can be reduced
significantly if the store is located along a major road
with 15,000 cars per day or more. Corner Stores that also
sell gasoline are supportable with virtually no adjacent
homes.
Important: Parking minimums for Special Districts in
this module are based on conventional norms in the
shopping center industry. The minimums in the base
SmartCode and in the urban T-zones for this Module are
lower because they assume nearby mixed use, walkable
thoroughfares, transit-readiness, and shared parking strat-
egies. It may be necessary to negotiate parking amount
and type with the developers of retail within a TND or
RCD. An understanding of the numbers to which they are
accustomed in single-use contexts is helpful, as a starting
point from which to reduce the parking requirements in
new walkable communities and traditional downtowns.
The SmartCode's Table 10 waives parking requirements
for stores under 1500 sf in T-5 and T-6, to support mom-
and-pop survival. The same waiver is entered into the
tables of this Module.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Corner Store
Municipality

Single small-scale Retail


business, standalone or
part of a Mixed Use building,
typically supplying a limited
selection of food and sun-
dries. Offers convenience
instead of selection and
value.
T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict

major
major center of zone or main street or
Location n/a building corners B-Grid crossroads,
crossroads main entry road B-Grid
major anchor

Size n/a 1000 - 2000 sf 2000 - 3000 sf 1500 - 2000 sf 500 - 2500 sf 500 - 2500 sf 1000 - 2000 sf

freestanding freestanding
Building Type n/a freestanding freestanding attached attached
or attached or attached
Target Percent Capture of n/a 20% 20% 20% varies varies varies
Catchment Market Potential
Catchment Area n/a 2 – 8 miles 0.5 –1.0 miles 0.25 – 1.0 miles 1 – 5 blocks 1 – 5 blocks varies

3, waived for 3, waived for


Minimum Parking Amount
n/a 4–6 4 4 stores under stores under 5–8
spaces per 1000 sf
1500 sf 1500 sf
onstreet, onstreet,
Parking Type n/a surface all types all types all types
rear surface rear surface

© 2010 R obert J. G ibbs , ASLA, CNU-A


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Convenience Center
Convenience Centers offer an array of goods and ser-
vices geared towards the daily needs of the surrounding
neighborhoods.
These centers are often anchored with a small specialty
food market or pharmacy. Convenience Center tenants
offer a limited balance of food, personal services and
local offices.
Typical tenants may include a bagel store, bakery, bank,
coffee shop, dry cleaners, financial services, florists, food
market, ice cream, laundry center, mail center, package
liquor, personal services, pharmacy, real estate offices
or tailor.
A Convenience Center needs about 2000 households
to be supportable, or two TND neighborhoods. These
centers must be located along a major road, ideally at
the primary entry to both neighborhoods.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Convenience Center
Municipality

Non-anchored small-scale
shopping center, typically
no more than 30,000 sf.
Supplies banking, carry-out
foods, groceries, office, per-
sonal services, pharmacy,
etc. Limited selection of
goods and services located
in a convenient setting. T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict

primary
main street or
Location n/a n/a n/a neighborhood n/a n/a
B-Grid
entry
15,000 – 30,000 10,000 – 15,000
Average size n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
sf sf

Building Type n/a n/a n/a attached attached n/a n/a

Target Percent Capture of n/a n/a n/a 25% 20% n/a n/a
Catchment Market Potential
Catchment Area n/a n/a n/a 0.25 – 1.5 miles 0.25 – 0.5 miles n/a n/a

3, waived for
Minimum Parking Amount
n/a n/a n/a 4 stores under n/a n/a
spaces per 1000 sf
1500 sf
onstreet, onstreet,
Parking Type n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
rear surface rear surface

The T-4 zone requires an Open Function designation to accommodate this Retail type. See Table 10.

© 2010 R obert J. G ibbs , ASLA, CNU-A


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Neighborhood Center
Anchored with a supermarket, Neighborhood Centers
offer a offer a full range of food and useful goods and
services not available at smaller centers. The primary
anchor is a full sized supermarket typically ranging from
45,000 to 60,000 square feet. This major anchor is the
engine that supports most of the other smaller businesses,
so much so that when a supermarket closes, many of the
other tenants will immediately leave the center.
Neighborhood Centers generally require 6000 to 8000
households within their primary trade area. They are typi-
cally visited once or twice per week by most households
living within a one- to two-mile radius. However, in very
rural areas it is not unusual for residents to drive more
than 50 miles weekly to visit a Neighborhood Center.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Neighborhood Center
Municipality

A medium-scale shop-
ping center anchored by a
supermarket, typically with
apparel, carry-out foods,
coffee, cleaners, framing,
florist, gifts, hardware, mail,
personal services, office,
pharmacies, restaurants,
and/or shoes. T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict

major
Location n/a n/a n/a major crossroads A or B-Grid B-Grid
Thoroughfare
60,000 – 90,000 30,000 – 60,000 20,000 – 50,000 80,000 –150,000
Total Center Size n/a n/a n/a
sf sf sf sf
freestanding
Building Form n/a n/a n/a attached attached attached
or attached
Target Percent Capture of n/a n/a n/a 30% 40% 50% 10-15%
Catchment Market Potential
Catchment Area n/a n/a n/a 1 – 3 miles 6000 households 4000 households 5 – 7 miles

3, waived for 3, waived for


Minimum Parking Amount
n/a n/a n/a 4 stores under stores under 5
spaces per 1000 sf
1500 sf 1500 sf
onstreet, rear onstreet, rear
Parking Type n/a n/a n/a deck surface
surface, deck surface, deck

The T-4 zone requires an Open Function designation to accommodate this Retail type. See Table 10.

© 2010 R obert J. G ibbs , ASLA, CNU-A


S mart C ode V ersion 9.2
SmartCode Annotated These annotations are advisory only. The SmartCode
itself appears only on the right side of each spread.

Community Center
The backbone of the shopping industry, Community
Centers are larger than Neighborhood Centers but of-
ten include the same tenants. Community Centers pull
from a 3 to 6 mile trade area with a 50,000 or greater
population.
The centers often include value department stores,
home improvement centers, sporting goods, apparel,
booksellers, pharmacies, restaurants and supermarkets.
These centers are a challenge to plan in a pure new urban
model, although plans using an A-B Grid quality format
have proven acceptable by leading retailers, when demo-
graphics are favorable. See Section 3.9.1.a of the base
SmartCode for A- and B-Grid Thoroughfare standards.
Some of these centers' retailers can be adapted to urban
conditions, but others will require a separate Special
District location.

S mart C ode M anual V ersion 9.2


SMARTCODE MODULE Community Center
Municipality

A medium-scale shopping
center that includes one or
more value-oriented anchor
stores and/or a supermar-
ket; typically with stores
selling apparel, books,
crafts, office supplies, pet
supplies, and/or sporting
goods, and restaurants. T1 natural
zone T2 RURAL
zone T3 SUB-URBAN
zone T4 GENERAL URBAN
zone T5 URBAN
zone
CENTER
T6 URBAN
zone
Core
SD SPECIAL
dIStrict

major
Location n/a n/a n/a n/a A or B-Grid A-Grid
Thoroughfare
100,000 – 80,000 – 150,000 –
Average Size n/a n/a n/a n/a
250,000 sf 150,000 sf 350,000 sf

Building Type n/a n/a n/a n/a attached attached freestanding

Target Percent Capture of n/a n/a n/a n/a 20% 10% varies
Catchment Market Potential
30,000
Catchment Area n/a n/a n/a n/a 3 – 6 miles 4 – 8 miles