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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Material Syllabus

Chapter One: Vector Analysis


1. Vector Algebra
2. Gradient
3. Vector Integration
4. The Divergence of a Vector and Gauss Theorem
5. The Curl and Stocks theorem
6. The Vector differential Operator
7. Single and Double Del Operations
8. Problems

Chapter Two: Electrostatic


1. Electric Charge
2. Coulomb's Law
3. The electric Field
4. Charge Density
5. Fluxes and Gauss Law
5.1 Integral form of Gauss Law
5.2 Derivation Form of Gauss Law
6. Application of Gauss Law
7. The electrostatic
8. Conductors and Insulators
9. The Electric Dipole
10. Multiple Expansion of Electric field
11.Problems

Chapter Three: Electrostatic Boundary Value Problems


1. Poison's equation
2. Laplace's equations
3. Uniqueness of Solutions to Electrostatic Problems

Chapter Four: Electrostatic Field in Dielectric Media


1. Polarization and Dipole Moment Density
2. Field Outside of dielectric Medium
3. The electric Field Inside a Dielectric
4. Gauss's Law in a dielectric – the Electric Displacement
5. Electric Susceptibility and Dielectric Constant
6. Point Charge in a dielectric Fluid
7. Boundary conditions on the field Vectors
8. Boundary – Value problems Involving Dielectrics

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

9. Dielectric Sphere in a Uniform Electric Field


10.Force on a point Charge Embedded in a Dielectric
11.Problems

Chapter Five: The Electric Current


1. Nature of the current
2. Current density. Equation of continuity
3. Ohm's Law: Conductivity
4. Resistance networks
5. Electromotive force
6. Steady currents in media without sources of emf
7. Approach to electrostatic equilibrium
8. Problem

Chapter Six: The Magnetic Field Of Steady Currents


1. The definition of magnetic induction
2. Forces on current-carrying conductors
3. The Law of Biot and Savart
4. Elementary applications of the Biot and Savart law
5. Ampere's circuital law
6. The magnetic vector potential
7. The magnetic field of a distant circuits
8. The magnetic scalar potential
9. Magnetic flux
10.Problem

Chapter Seven: Magnetic Properties of Matter (Ch10-Retiz)


1. Magnetization
2. The magnetic field produced by magnetized density.
3. Magnetic scalar potential and magnetic density
4. Sources of magnetic field
5. Magnetization density
6. The field equations
7. Magnetic susceptibility and permeability
8. Hysterias
9. Boundary conditions on the field vectors
10.Problems

Chapter Eight: Microscopic Theory of Magnetism


1. Molecular field inside matter.
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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

2. The origin of diamagnetism.


3. The origin of paramagnetism.
4. Ferromagnetic domains.
5. Antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism (Ferreted).
6. Problems.

Chapter Nine: Maxwell′s Equations


1. The generalization of Ampere’s law and displacement current.
2. Maxwell′s equations and their empirical basis
3. Electromagnetic energy.
4. Boundary conditions.
5. The wave equation.
6. The wave equation with sources.
7. Problems.

References:
I-Text
1) Foundation of Electromagnetic Theory- John R. Rietz and Frederick J.
Milford.

II-Assistant Texts
2) Introduction to Electrodynamics- Daivd J. Griffiths.
3) Classical Electromagnetic Theory- Jack Vanderlinde.
4) Theory and Problems of Electromagnetic- Schaum’s Outline.

Lecturer:
Prof. Dr. Hassan N. Al-Obaidi
Lec. Dr. Adnan H. Mohammed

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Chapter One
Vector Analysis

In the study of Electricity and Magnetism a great saving in complexity


of notation may be accomplished by using the notation of vector analysis.
However this is the purpose of this chapter in order to give a brief
exposition of the basic vector analysis and to provide the rather utilitarian
knowledge of the field which is required for the treatment of electricity
and magnetism.

1.1 Definitions
In the study of elementary physics several kinds of quantities have
been encountered. In fact, they are mainly divided into mainly two kinds;
which are scalars and vectors.
A scalar is a quantity which is completely characterized by its
magnitude. Example for this sort are; mass, time, volume … etc. A
simple extension of the idea of scalar is a scalar field, which is defined
as; a function of position that is completely specified by its magnitude at
all points in space.
A vector quantity may be defined as; a quantity which is completely
characterized by its magnitude and direction. As an example for vector
we cite a position from a fixed point, velocity, acceleration, force … etc.
The generalization to a vector field gives a function of position which is
completely specified by its magnitude and direction at all points in space.

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

1.2 Vector Algebra


The operation of addition, subtraction and multiplication familiar in
the algebra of numbers are, with suitable definition, comparable of
extension to the algebra of vectors. The following definitions are
fundamental:
1. Two vectors 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ are equal if they have the same magnitude
and direction regardless of their initial points, as shown in fig.1.
⃑A⃑
⃑⃑
B

Fig.1
2. A vector having direction opposite to that of the vector 𝐴⃑ but with
the same magnitude is denoted by −𝐴⃑, as shown in fig.2.
⃑⃑
A
⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑
−A

Fig.2
3. The sum or resultant of vectors 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ is a vector 𝐶⃑ = 𝐴⃑ + 𝐵
⃑⃑,
⃑⃑ on the terminal point of 𝐴⃑
which is formed by placing the initial of 𝐵
and joining the initial point of 𝐴⃑ to the terminal point of 𝐵
⃑⃑. This
definition is equivalent to the parallelogram law for vector addition, as
in fig. 3.

⃑⃑
A ⃑⃑⃑
A
⃑⃑
B ⃑⃑
B
⃑B⃑
𝐂⃑ = 𝐀
⃑⃑ + 𝐁
⃑⃑⃑

⃑⃑ A
A ⃑⃑
𝐶⃑ = 𝐴⃑ + 𝐵
⃑⃑ ⃑B⃑ ⃑A⃑

Fig. 3.

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

H. W.: Find the sum or resultant 𝐸⃑⃑ of vectors: 𝐴⃑, 𝐵


⃑⃑, 𝐶⃑ and 𝐷
⃑⃑, that has
shown in fig. 4.
⃑⃑C
C ⃑⃑
⃑⃑
B ⃑D⃑⃑
⃑D
⃑⃑ ⃑⃑
B
⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑
D
⃑⃑
C A
⃑⃑
A
E ⃑⃑ + B
⃑⃑ = A ⃑⃑ + D
⃑⃑ + C ⃑⃑⃑
Fig. 4.

4. The subtraction of vectors 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵


⃑⃑ is represented by the vector

𝐶⃑ = 𝐴⃑ − 𝐵
⃑⃑, where 𝐶⃑ is defined as that vector which deduced by adding
⃑⃑ to 𝐴⃑. i.e. 𝐴⃑ + (−𝐵
𝐵 ⃑⃑). However, when |𝐴⃑| = |𝐵
⃑⃑| then 𝐶⃑ is null or zero.

5. Multiplication of a vector 𝐴⃑ by a scalar m produce a vector 𝑚𝐴⃑


which has a magnitude |𝑚| times the magnitude of 𝐴⃑ and its direction is
the same as or opposite to that of 𝐴⃑ according to the sign of m wither it
being positive or negative.

H.W.: When m=0, what is the of 𝑚𝐴⃑ and what does it called?

1.2.1 Laws of Vector Algebra


If m and n are scalar and 𝐴⃑, 𝐵
⃑⃑ and 𝐶⃑ are vectors, then;

1. 𝐴⃑ + 𝐵 ⃑⃑ + 𝐴⃑
⃑⃑ = 𝐵 (commutative law for addition)
2. 𝐴⃑ + (𝐵
⃑⃑ + 𝐶⃑) = (𝐴⃑ + 𝐵
⃑⃑) + 𝐶⃑ (associative law for addition)

3. 𝑚(𝑛𝐴⃑) = 𝑛(𝑚𝐴⃑) (associative law for addition)

4. (𝑚 + 𝑛)𝐴⃑ = 𝑚𝐴⃑ + 𝑛𝐴⃑ or 𝑚(𝐴⃑ + 𝐵


⃑⃑) = 𝑚𝐴⃑ + 𝑚𝐵
⃑⃑ (distributive law)

5. 𝑚(𝐴⃑ + 𝐵
⃑⃑) = 𝑚𝐴⃑ + 𝑚𝐵
⃑⃑ (distributive law)

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

1.2.2 Components of a Vector


Any vector 𝐴⃑ in a 3 – D. can be represented with initial point at the
origin 0 of rectangular coordinates system, fig.5. Let (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 ) be the

rectangular coordinates of the terminal point of vector 𝐴⃑ with initial point


at 0.
z

● (𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 , 𝐴𝑧 )
⃑A⃑
𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂
𝐴𝑥 𝑖̂ 𝑦y

𝐴𝑦 𝑗̂
𝑥
Fig. 5.
The vectors 𝐴𝑥 𝑖̂, 𝐴𝑦 𝑗̂ and 𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂ are called the rectangular component

vectors or component vectors of 𝐴⃑ in the x, y and z directions,


respectively. 𝐴𝑥 , 𝐴𝑦 and 𝐴𝑧 are called the rectangular components or

components of 𝐴⃑ in x, y and z directions, respectively.


⃑⃑ is the vector 𝐴⃑, so that we
The sum or resultant of 𝐴𝑥 𝑖⃑, 𝐴𝑦 𝑗⃑ and 𝐴𝑧 𝑘
can write:
𝐴⃑ = 𝐴𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝐴𝑦 𝑗̂ + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂

The magnitude of 𝐴⃑ is:

𝐴 = |𝐴⃑| = √𝐴2𝑥 + 𝐴2𝑦 + 𝐴2𝑧

In particular, the position vector or radius vector 𝑟⃑ from 0 to (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧)is


written:
𝑟⃑ = 𝑥𝑖̂ + 𝑦𝑗̂ + 𝑧𝑘̂
𝑟 = |𝑟⃑| = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Example: Prove that the vector directed from M(x2, y2, z2) to N(x1, y1, z1)
is given by; (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )𝑖̂ + (𝑦1 − 𝑦2 )𝑗̂ + (𝑧1 − 𝑧2 )𝑘̂.
Solution:
z

𝑧
M(x2, y2, z2)
N(x1, y1, z1)

𝑟2
⃑⃑⃑⃑
𝑟⃑1

𝑦y

𝑟⃑1 = 𝑥1 𝑖̂ + 𝑦1 𝑗̂ + 𝑧1 𝑘̂
𝑟⃑2 = 𝑥2 𝑖̂ + 𝑦2 𝑗̂ + 𝑧2 𝑘̂
𝑟⃑1 = 𝑟⃑2 + 𝑟⃑21
𝑟⃑21 = 𝑟⃑1 − 𝑟⃑2
𝑟⃑21 = 𝑥1 𝑖̂ + 𝑦1 𝑗̂ + 𝑧1 𝑘̂ − 𝑥2 𝑖̂ − 𝑦2 𝑗̂ − 𝑧2 𝑘̂
𝑟⃑21 = (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )𝑖̂ + (𝑦1 − 𝑦2 )𝑗̂ + (𝑧1 − 𝑧2 )𝑘̂

H.W.:
1) What will be the result if the vector is directed from N to M?
2)Given that 𝑟⃑1 = 3𝑖̂ + 5𝑗̂ + 4𝑘̂ and 𝑟⃑2 = 𝑖̂ + 3𝑗̂ + 𝑘̂, what will be the
values of 𝑟⃑1 and 𝑟⃑2 ?

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

1.2.3 Dot (Scalar) Product


The dot or scalar product of two vectors 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ denoted by 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ is

defined as the product of the magnitudes of 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵


⃑⃑ times the cosine of
the angle between them; i.e.
𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ = |𝐴⃑||𝐵
⃑⃑|𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 0≤𝜃≤𝜋

Note that 𝐴⃑. 𝐵


⃑⃑ is a scalar and not vector. The following rules are valid:

1. 𝐴⃑. 𝐵 ⃑⃑. 𝐴⃑
⃑⃑ = 𝐵 commutative law for dot product.
⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ + 𝐶⃑) = 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
2. 𝐴⃑. (𝐵 ⃑⃑ + 𝐴⃑. 𝐶⃑ distributive law = = =.
3. 𝑚(𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑) = (𝑚𝐴⃑). 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 𝐴⃑. (𝑚𝐵
⃑⃑) = (𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑)𝑚, where: m is a scalar.

4. 𝑖̂. 𝑗 = 𝑗̂. 𝑗̂ = 𝑘̂. 𝑘̂ = 1, 𝑖̂. 𝑗̂ = 𝑗̂. 𝑘̂ = 𝑘̂. 𝑖̂ = 0

H.W:
5. If 𝐴⃑ = 𝐴𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝐴𝑦 𝑖̂ + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂ , 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 𝐵𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝐵𝑦 𝑖̂ + 𝐵𝑧 𝑘̂, Then find:

𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑, 𝐴2 and 𝐵2 ?

6. If 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 0, and 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ are not null vectors, then proof that 𝐴⃑ and
⃑⃑ are perpendicular.
𝐵

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

1.2.4 Cross or Vector Product


The cross or vector product of 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ is a vector 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑. The

magnitude of 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑ is defined as the product of the magnitudes of 𝐴⃑ and
⃑⃑ times the sine of the angle between them. The direction of the vector
𝐵
𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑ is perpendicular to the plane of 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ and such that 𝐴⃑, 𝐵
⃑⃑ and 𝐶⃑
from a right-handed system. In symbols;
𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑ = |𝐴⃑||𝐵
⃑⃑|𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑢̂ 0≤𝜃≤𝜋

where 𝑢̂ is a unite vector indicating the direction of 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵


⃑⃑. The following
rules are valid:
1. 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵 ⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑
⃑⃑ = −𝐵 (commutative law for cross product)
⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ + 𝐶) = 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
2. 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵 ⃑⃑ + 𝐴⃑ × 𝐶 (distributive law = = =)
3. 𝑚(𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑) = (𝑚𝐴⃑) × 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 𝐴⃑ × (𝑚𝐵
⃑⃑) = (𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑)𝑚, where: m is a

scalar.
4. 𝑖̂ × 𝑗 = 𝑗̂ × 𝑗̂ = 𝑘̂ × 𝑘̂ = 0, 𝑖̂ × 𝑗̂ = 𝑘̂, 𝑗̂ × 𝑘̂ = 𝑖̂, 𝑘̂ × 𝑖̂ = 𝑗̂

5. If 𝐴⃑ = 𝐴𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝐴𝑦 𝑖̂ + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂ , 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 𝐵𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝐵𝑦 𝑖̂ + 𝐵𝑧 𝑘̂, Then:

𝒊̂ 𝒋̂ ̂
𝒌
⃑⃑⃑ × 𝑩
𝑨 ⃑⃑⃑ = |𝑨𝒙 𝑨𝒚 𝑨𝒛 |
𝑩𝒙 𝑩𝒚 𝑩𝒛

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

6. |𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑| the area of parallelogram with sides 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑.

H.W: Give the Physical meaning of |𝐴⃑ × 𝐵


⃑⃑| = 0 when 𝐴⃑ ≠ 𝐵
⃑⃑ and both 𝐴⃑

⃑⃑ are not null.


and 𝐵

Example: Prove that|𝐴⃑ × 𝐵


⃑⃑|represent the area of a parallelogram with

sides 𝐴⃑ and 𝐵
⃑⃑.
Solution:
Area of parallelogram=Height x Base. i.e.
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = ℎ ∙ |𝐴⃑|
⃑⃑|𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 ∙ |𝐴⃑|
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = |𝐵
⃑⃑||𝐴⃑|𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = |𝐵

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = |𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑|

H.W:

1) If 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵 ⃑⃑| ? |𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑ what about |𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑ ≠ 𝐵 ⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑|.
=
2) Give the physical meaning of |𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑| = 0 when 𝐴⃑ ≠ 𝐵
⃑⃑ and the

vectors are not null.


3) Given 𝐴⃑ = 3𝑖̂ − 𝑗̂ + 2𝑘̂ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 2𝑖̂ + 3𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂ find 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑.

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

1.2.5 Triple Product

The following rules are valid;


1. (𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑)𝐶⃑ ≠ 𝐴⃑(𝐵
⃑⃑. 𝐶⃑)

2. 𝐴⃑. (𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) = 𝐵
⃑⃑. (𝐶⃑ × 𝐴⃑) = 𝐶⃑. (𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑) = the volume of a

parallelepiped having ⃑A⃑, B


⃑⃑ and 𝐶⃑ as edges, where;
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
𝐴⃑. (𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) = | 𝐵𝑥 𝐵𝑦 𝐵𝑧 |
𝐶𝑥 𝐶𝑦 𝐶𝑧

3. 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) = (𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑) × 𝐶⃑ , associative law for cross product.

4. 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) = (𝐴⃑. 𝐶⃑)𝐵
⃑⃑ − (𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑)𝐶⃑

(𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑) × 𝐶⃑ = (𝐴⃑. 𝐶⃑)𝐵 ⃑⃑. 𝐶⃑)𝐴⃑
⃑⃑ − (𝐵

Notes:
a. The product 𝐴⃑. (𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) is sometimes called the scalar triple

product or box product; why?


b. The product 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) is called the vector product.

H.W: Why the parentheses in the box products 𝐴⃑. (𝐵


⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) can be

omitted, while, it is not valid for the vector triple product; 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵


⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑)?

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Example: Prove that 𝐴⃑. (𝐵


⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) is in absolute value equal to the volume

of parallelepiped with sides 𝐴⃑, 𝐵


⃑⃑ and 𝐶⃑.
Solution:
Volume=height (h) x area parallelogram
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑|)
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 (|𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑|)
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝐴 ∙ 𝑛̂ (|𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑|𝑛̂)
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝐴 ∙ (|𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝐴 ∙ 𝐵

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

1.3 Derivative
Assume we have a function of one variable say 𝑓(𝑥), the derivative
𝑑𝑓
will measure how rapidly the function 𝑓(𝑥) varies when we change the
𝑑𝑥

argument 𝑥 by a tiny amount 𝑑𝑥, i.e.


𝑑𝑓
𝑑𝑓 = ( ) 𝑑𝑥 . . . (1-1)
𝑑𝑥

In other words, when we change 𝑥 by an amount 𝑑𝑥, then 𝑓 will


change by an amount 𝑑𝑓. Hence, the derivative being a proportionality
factor. For example in the figure 6-a below, the function varies slowly
with 𝑥 and hence the corresponding derivative will be small.

Fig.6
In part (b) from the previous fig., 𝑓 increases rapidly with 𝑥 and the
derivative is large as we move away from 𝑥 = 0. The geometrical
interpretation of the derivative 𝑑𝑓/𝑑𝑥 is that it is the slope of the graph of
𝑓versus 𝑥.

⃑⃑)
1.3.1 The Gradient (𝛁
Let us assume now that the function 𝑓 of a three variables say (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧)
instead of one (𝑥). Here again, the derivative measures how fast the
function f varies if we move a little distance. But the situation now is
more complicated because it depends on what direction we move.
Correspondingly, the theorem on partial derivative may describe this
situation, i.e.
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𝑑𝑓 𝑑𝑓 𝑑𝑓
𝑑𝑓 = ( ) 𝑑𝑥 + ( ) 𝑑𝑦 + ( ) 𝑑𝑧 . . . (1 – 2)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑧

This equation state that how the function f changes when we alter all
three variables by the infinitesimal amounts 𝑑𝑥, 𝑑𝑦 and 𝑑𝑧. However, this
equation reminiscent of dot product;
𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
𝑑𝑓 = { 𝑖̂ + 𝑗̂ + 𝑘̂} . (𝑑𝑥𝑖̂ + 𝑑𝑦𝑗̂ + 𝑑𝑧𝑘̂)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
⃑⃑𝑓. 𝑑𝑙⃑
=∇ . . . (1 – 3)
⃑⃑𝒇 = 𝒊̂ 𝝏𝒇 + 𝒋̂ 𝝏𝒇 + 𝒌
Where; {𝛁 ̂ 𝝏𝒇} is the gradient of 𝑓. Actually ∇
⃑⃑𝑓 is a
𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒛

vector quantity with three components.


The geometrical interpretation of the gradient may thought as in the
following. The gradient like any vector has a magnitude and direction. To
determine its geometrical meaning lets rewrite the dot product in equation
(1 – 3) in the following form;
⃑⃑𝑓. 𝑑𝑙⃑ = |∇
𝑑𝑓 = ∇ ⃑⃑𝑓|. |𝑑𝑙⃑|𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

⃑⃑𝑓 and d𝑙⃑. Now by fixing the magnitude


where 𝜃 is the angle between ∇
|𝑑𝑙⃑| and search around in various directions (that is vary 𝜃), one may
found that the maximum change in 𝑓 evidentially occurs when 𝜃 =
0 , 𝑖. 𝑒. (𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 1). This mean, however, for a fixed distance |𝑑𝑙⃑|, 𝑑𝑓 is

greatest when 𝑑𝑙⃑ move in the same direction as ∇


⃑⃑𝑓. Thus; "the gradient

𝛻⃑⃑ 𝑓 points in the direction of maximum increase of the function and the
magnitude |𝛻⃑⃑ 𝑓| gives the slope (rate of increase) along this maximal
direction". Or we can define the gradient as;
"The gradient of a scalar function f is a vector whose magnitude is the
maximum directional derivative at the point being considered and whose
direction is the direction of the maximum directional derivative at the
point".

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⃑⃑𝑓 = 0?
H.W: What would be the meaning of ∇

Example: Find the gradient for the magnitude of the position vector: 𝑟 =
√𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2 .
Solution:
𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟
⃑⃑𝑟 =
∇ 𝑖̂ + 𝑗̂ + 𝑘̂
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
1 2𝑥 1 2𝑦 1 2𝑧
⃑⃑𝑟 =
∇ 𝑖̂ + 𝑗̂ + 𝑘̂
2 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2 2 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2 2 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2

𝑥𝑖̂ + 𝑦𝑗̂ + 𝑧𝑘̂ 𝑟⃑


⃑⃑𝑟 =
∇ = = 𝑟̂ ≡ 𝑛̂
√𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2 𝑟

This result means that the distance from the origin increases most rapidly
in the radial direction and the rate of increase is 1.

H.W:
1. Find the gradient of the following functions;
a. 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) = 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 3 + 𝑧 4
b. 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) = 𝑥 2 𝑦 2 𝑧 2
2. Let 𝑟⃑ be the separation vector from a fixed point (𝑥́ , 𝑦́ , 𝑧́ ) to the
point (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) and r be its length. Show that;
⃑⃑(𝑟 2 ) = 2𝑟⃑
a. ∇
⃑⃑(1⁄𝑟) = − 𝑟⃑⁄ 3
b. ∇
𝑟
1 3𝑟⃑
⃑⃑
c. ∇ =−
𝑟3 𝑟5

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Remarks:
1. The del operator is not a vector in the usual sense because it is without
specific meaning until we provide it with a function to act upon.
2. An ordinary vector 𝐴⃑ can multiply in three ways;
a. 𝑎𝐴⃑ (multiplication by a scalar 𝑎)
b. 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ (multiplication by another vector via dot product)

c. 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑ (multiplication by another vector via cross product)
⃑⃑ can act namely;
Accordingly, there are three ways the operator ∇
⃑⃑𝑓 → 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡.
a. On a scalar function 𝑓 ∶ ∇
⃑⃑ via the dot product: ∇
b. On a vector function 𝑉 ⃑⃑. 𝑉
⃑⃑ → 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒.

⃑⃑ via the cross product: ∇


c. On a vector function 𝑉 ⃑⃑ × 𝑉
⃑⃑ → 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙.

⃑⃑ ∙)
1. 3.2 The Divergence (𝛁
⃑⃑ is written ∇
The divergence of a vector 𝑉 ⃑⃑. 𝑉
⃑⃑ and defined as;
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
⃑⃑. 𝑉
∇ ⃑⃑ = ( 𝑖̂ + 𝑗̂ + 𝑘̂) (𝑉𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝑉𝑦 𝑗̂+𝑉𝑧 𝑘̂)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝑉𝑥 𝜕𝑉𝑦 𝜕𝑉𝑧
⃑⃑. 𝑉
∇ ⃑⃑ = + +
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
⃑⃑ is a scalar
It can be seen that, the divergence of a vector function 𝑉
⃑⃑. 𝑉
quantity. The geometrical interpretation for ∇ ⃑⃑ is that it measure how
⃑⃑ is spread out (divergences) from the point in question.
much the vector 𝑉
For example the vector function in part (a) from the following figure has
a large (positive) divergence. In fact when the arrows are pointed in, it
would be a large negative divergence. Anyway, the function in part (b)
from the same figure has a zero divergence, while that in part (c) from it
has a positive divergence.

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“Diverge” means to move away from, which may help you,


remember that divergence is the rate of flux expansion (positive div) or
contraction (negative div).

Fig.
Example: Calculate the divergence of the following vector functions;
⃑⃑𝑎 = 𝑥𝑖̂ + 𝑦𝑗̂ + 𝑧𝑘̂
⃑⃑. 𝑉
1. ∇
⃑⃑𝑏 = 𝑘̂
2. 𝑉
⃑⃑𝑐 = 𝑧𝑘̂
3. 𝑉
Solution:
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
⃑⃑. 𝑉
1. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑎 = (𝑥) + (𝑦) + (𝑧) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
⃑⃑. 𝑉
2. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑏 = (0) + (0) + (1) = 0 + 0 + 0 =0
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
⃑⃑. 𝑉
3. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑐 = (𝑥) + (𝑦) + (𝑧) = 0 + 0 + 1 = 1
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

H.W:
1. Calculate the divergence of the following vectors;
⃑⃑𝑎 = 𝑥 2 𝑖̂ + 3𝑥𝑧 2 𝑗̂ + 3𝑥𝑧𝑘̂
a. 𝑉
⃑⃑𝑏 = 𝑥𝑦𝑖̂ + 2𝑦𝑧𝑗̂ + 3𝑧𝑥𝑘̂
b. 𝑉
⃑⃑𝑐 = 𝑦 2 𝑖̂ + (2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑧 2 )𝑗̂ + 2𝑦𝑧𝑘̂
c. 𝑉

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𝑟̂
⃑⃑ =
2. Find the divergence of the vector function; 𝑉 and explain the
𝑟2

result.

⃑⃑ ×)
1. 3. 3 The Curl (𝛁
⃑⃑ is written ∇
The curl of a vector V ⃑⃑ × V
⃑⃑ or (curl V
⃑⃑) and defined as;

𝑖̂ 𝑗̂ 𝑘̂
⃑⃑ × 𝑉
∇ ⃑⃑ = |𝜕⁄𝜕𝑥 𝜕⁄𝜕𝑦 𝜕⁄𝜕𝑧|
𝑉𝑥 𝑉𝑦 𝑉𝑧

⃑⃑ = 𝑖̂ (𝜕𝑉𝑧 − 𝜕𝑉𝑧) + 𝑗̂ (𝜕𝑉𝑥 − 𝜕𝑉𝑧 ) + 𝑘̂ (𝜕𝑉𝑦 − 𝜕𝑉𝑦 )


⃑⃑ × 𝑉
∇ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

⃑⃑ , is like any cross product, is


It is seen that the curl of a vector function 𝑉
a vector. Actually one cannot have a curl for a scalar quantity since it has
no direction and hence the result being of a meaningless.
⃑⃑ × 𝑉
The geometrical interpretation for the curl process (∇ ⃑⃑) is that it is a
⃑⃑ will curl
differential process which measure how much the vector 𝑉
(rotate) around the point in question. Thus, all vectors shown in previous
figure have a zero curl. Whereas the function shown in the following
figure have a curl pointing in the z-direction.

H.W:
1. Calculate the curl of the following vectors;
⃑⃑𝑎 = −𝑦𝑖̂ + 𝑥𝑗̂
a. 𝑉
⃑⃑𝑏 = 𝑥𝑦
b. 𝑉

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1. 3 Coordinate Systems
Actually different kinds of coordinates systems usually used in
physics. The most often used ones are Cartesian, Cylindrical, and
Spherical. A point P may described by these three coordinates as shown
in the figure below;

The order of specifying the coordinates is important an should carefully


be followed. The angle φ is the same in both cylindrical an spherical
systems. But in the order of the coordinates, φ appears in the second
position in cylindrical (r, φ, z) and third position in spherical (r, θ, φ). The
same symbol r is used in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates but
for two quit different things. In cylindrical coordinate r measure the
distance from z-axis to a plane normal to the xy-plane. While in the
spherical system r measure the distance from the origin to the point p(r, θ,
φ).

Remarks:
1) The domain of the coordinates are as follows;

Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical


−∞ ≤ 𝑥 ≤ +∞ 0≤𝑟≤∞ 0≤𝑟≤∞
−∞ ≤ 𝑦 ≤ +∞ 0 ≤ 𝜑 ≤ 2𝜋 0≤𝜃≤𝜋
−∞ ≤ 𝑧 ≤ +∞ −∞ ≤ 𝑧 ≤ +∞ 0 ≤ 𝜑 ≤ 2𝜋

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2) The transformation equations from cylindrical to Cartesian


coordinates are;
𝑥 = 𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
𝑦 = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑧=𝑧
3) The transformation equations from spherical to Cartesian coordinates
are;
𝑥 = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑
𝑦 = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜑
𝑧 = 𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
4) The components forms of a vector in three systems are;
𝐴⃑ = 𝐴𝑥 𝑖̂ + 𝐴𝑦 𝑗̂ + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂ (𝐶𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑎𝑛)
𝐴⃑ = 𝐴𝑟 𝑟̂ + 𝐴𝜑 𝜑̂ + 𝐴𝑧 𝑘̂ (𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙)
𝐴⃑ = 𝐴𝑟 𝑟̂ + 𝐴𝜃 𝜃̂ + 𝐴𝜑 𝜑̂ (𝑆𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙)

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Question: What will happened when a point p (x, y, z) is expanded to


(x+dx, y+dy, z+dz) or (r+dr, φ+dφ, z+dz) or (r+dr, θ+dθ, φ+dφ)?
Answer:
As show in the figures;

1) A differential volume dV is formed;


𝑑𝑉 = 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧 (Cartesian)
𝑑𝑉 = 𝑟𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜑𝑑𝑧 (Cylindrical)
𝑑𝑉 = 𝑟 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜑 (Spherical)
2) A differential area dS is formed;
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦, = 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑧, = 𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧 (Cartesian)
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑟𝑑𝑧, = 𝑟𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜑, = 𝑟𝑑𝜑𝑑𝑧 (Cylindrical)
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑟𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃, = 𝑟 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜑, = 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜑 (Spherical)
3) A differential line dℓ is formed;
𝑑𝑙⃑ = 𝑑𝑥𝑖̂ + 𝑑𝑦𝑗̂ + 𝑑𝑧𝑘
⃑⃑ (Cartesian)
𝑑𝑙⃑ = 𝑑𝑟𝑟̂ + 𝑟𝑑𝜑𝜑̂ + 𝑑𝑧𝑧̂ (Cylindrical)
𝑑𝑙⃑ = 𝑑𝑟𝑟̂ + 𝑟𝑑𝜃𝜃̂ + 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝜑𝜑̂ (Spherical)
However;
𝑑𝑙 2 = 𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑑𝑦 2 + 𝑑𝑧 2 (Cartesian)
𝑑𝑙 2 = 𝑑𝑟 2 + 𝑟 2 𝑑𝜑2 + 𝑑𝑧 2 (Cylindrical)
𝑑𝑙 2 = 𝑑𝑟 2 + 𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃 2 + 𝑟 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃𝑑𝜑 2 (Spherical)

⃑⃑ and ∇
H.W.: What are the forms of ∇ ⃑⃑2 in these three coordinates systems?

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1.4 Vector Integration


In fact three types of integrals one may consider namely; linear, surface
and volume integrals according to the nature of the differential element
appearing in the integral. The integral may be either vector or scalar.
1. Line integral
These are integrals along lines or curves, open or closed(∫ 𝑜𝑟 ∮). The
line integral of a vector ⃑F⃑ is written;
𝑏
∫𝑐 𝐹⃑ . 𝑑𝑙⃑ . . . (1 – 4)
𝑎

Where 𝑐 is the curve along which the integration is performed, 𝑎 and 𝑏


are the initial and final positions on the curve, and 𝑑𝑙⃑ is an infinitesimal
vector displacement along the curve 𝑐.

Since 𝐹⃑ . 𝑑𝑙⃑ is a scalar quantity so the line integral is a scalar quantity.


the definition of line integral can be thought as follows; if the segment of
the curve 𝑐 is divided into a large number of small increments ∆𝑙⃑𝑖 . For
each increment there will be a corresponding value of the vector 𝐹⃑ , i.e. 𝐹⃑𝑖 .
Then the line integral is defined as the limit of the sum for the scalar
product (𝐹⃑𝑖 . ∆𝑙𝑖 ) as the number of increments goes to zero, i.e.;
𝑏 𝑛

∫𝑐 𝐹⃑ . 𝑑𝑙⃑ = lim ∑ 𝐹⃑ . ∆𝑙⃑𝑖


𝑛→∞
𝑎 𝑖=1

Remarks:
1. Line integral depends on the end points 𝑎and 𝑏.
2. Line integral depends on curve along which the integration is
performed.
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3. The line integral around a closed curve is denoted by;

∮ 𝐹⃑ . 𝑑𝑙⃑
𝑐

which may or may not be zero.

2. Surface Integral:
The surface integral of a vector 𝐹⃑ is defined as the integral of the scalar
product of 𝐹⃑ with the unit vector that normal on infinitesimal area 𝑑𝑎 of
the surface 𝑆. i.e.

∫ 𝐹⃑ . 𝑛̂ 𝑑𝑎
𝑆

Remarks:
1. The surface integral of 𝐹⃑ over a closed surface s is denoted by;

∮ 𝐹⃑ . 𝑛̂ 𝑑𝑎
𝑠

2. The surface integral is a scalar quantity.


3. The surface integral usually depends on the surface S.

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3. Volume Integral:
The volume integral for a vector 𝐹⃑ and a scalar 𝜑 over a volume V is
defined as;
⃑⃑ = ∫ 𝐹⃑ 𝑑𝑉 and 𝐽 = ∫ 𝜑𝑑𝑉
𝑘 𝑉 𝑉

⃑⃑ is a vector and J is a scalar.


Where 𝑘

1.5 Divergence and Divergence Theorem


The divergence of a vector 𝐹⃑ is a derivative that measure how much
this vector will spread or diverged from point to point in space. However,
this process may defined as follows;
“ the divergence of a vector is the limit of its surface integral per unit
volume as the volume enclosed by the surface goes to zero. i.e.
𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹⃑ = ∇ ∙ 𝐹⃑ = lim 𝑉1 ∮𝑆 𝐹⃑ ∙ 𝑛
̂ 𝑑𝑎 . . . (1 – 5)
𝑉→0

Obviously the divergence is a scalar field and it is defined at the limit


point of the surface integration.
The divergence theorem is an important one that involving divergence
which state;
“ The integral of the divergence of a vector over a volume V is equal to
the surface integral of the normal component of the vector over the
surface bounding V”. i.e.
⃑⃑. 𝐹⃑ 𝑑𝑉 = ∮ 𝐹⃑ . 𝑛̂ 𝑑𝑎
∫𝑉 ∇ . . . (1 – 6)
𝑠

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1.6 The Curl and Stokes’ Theorem


The curl operator is also a derivative process by which the rotation of a
vector is measured. However, it is defined as follows;
“ The curl of a vector is the limit of the ratio of the integral of its cross
product with the outward drawn normal, over a closed surface, to the
volume enclosed by the surface as the volume goes to zero”. i.e.
𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝐹⃑ = ∇ × 𝐹⃑ = lim 𝑉1 ∮𝑆 𝑛̂×𝐹⃑ 𝑑𝑎 . . . (1 – 7)
𝑉→0

As with the divergence, we encounter an important useful theorem


involving the curl, known as Stokes’ theorem, which defined as;
“The line integral of a vector around a closed curve is equal to the
integral of the normal component of its curl over any surface bounded by
the curve’. i.e.

∮𝑐 𝐹⃑ . 𝑑𝑙⃑ = ∫𝑠 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙𝐹⃑ ∙ 𝑛̂ 𝑑𝑎 = . . . (1 – 8)

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Solved Problems
Q.1: Show that the vector directed from 𝑀(𝑥1 , 𝑦1 , 𝑧1 ) to 𝑁(𝑥2 , 𝑦2 , 𝑧3 ) in
the figure below is given by: (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑖̂ − (𝑦2 − 𝑦1 )𝑗̂ − (𝑧2 − 𝑧1 )𝑘̂
Solution:
M and N are the two locations (in Cartesian coordinate) of those points
in three dimensions. The two position vectors for them can be denoted
by𝐴⃑and 𝐵
⃑⃑, respectively. Then:

𝐴⃑ = 𝑥1 𝑖̂ + 𝑦1 𝑗̂ + 𝑧1 𝑘̂ is the position vector from the origin to the M and :


⃑⃑ = 𝑥2 𝑖̂ + 𝑦2 𝑗̂ + 𝑧2 𝑘̂ is the position vector from the origin to the N. So
𝐵
the vector directed from M to N is given by the subtraction of 𝐴⃑ from 𝐵
⃑⃑
which gives:
⃑⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑖̂ + (𝑦2 − 𝑦1 )𝑗̂ + (𝑧2 − 𝑧1 )𝑘̂
𝐵

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Q.2: Find the vector 𝐴⃑ directed from (2, −4,1) to (0, −2,0) in Cartesian
coordinates and find the unite vector along 𝐴⃑.
Solution:
The required position vector is:
𝐴⃑ = (0 − 2)𝑖̂ + [−2 − (−4)]𝑗̂ + (0 − 1)𝑘̂ = −2𝑖̂ + 2𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂
|𝐴⃑| = √(−2)2 + (2)2 + (−1)2 = √9 = 3

𝐴⃑ 2 2 1
→ 𝐴̂ = = − 𝑖̂ + 𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂
|𝐴⃑| 3 3 3

Q.3: Find the distance between (5,3𝜋/2,0), and (5, 𝜋/2,10) in


cylindrical coordinates.
Solution:
Let: 𝑀 = (5,3𝜋/2,0), and 𝑁 = (5, 𝜋/2,10). The transformation
equations from cylindrical to Cartesian coordinates are given as; 𝑥 =
3𝜋
𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑 , 𝑦 = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜑 , 𝑧 = 𝑧. Thus for point M: 𝑥 = 5 cos ( ) = 0, 𝑦 =
2
3𝜋
5 sin ( ) = −5, 𝑧 = 0. So M will be (0, −5,0) in cylindrical
2
𝜋 𝜋
coordinate. Also, for N: 𝑥 = 5 cos ( ) = 0, 𝑦 = 5 sin ( ) = 5, 𝑧 = 10,
2 2

thus N will be (0, 5, 10) in cylindrical coordinate. Accordingly, the


position vector from the origin to M is: 𝐴⃑ = −5𝑗̂ and the position vector
⃑⃑ = 5𝑗̂ + 10𝑘̂.
from the origin to N is: 𝐵

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

- The position vector from M to N in Cartesian coordinate then


calculates as:
⃑⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = 5𝑗̂ + 10𝑘̂ − (−5𝑗̂) = 10𝑗̂ + 10𝑘̂,
𝐵
- Then, the required distance between the two points is;
|𝐴⃑ − 𝐵
⃑⃑| = 10√2

Q.4: Show that the two vectors: 𝐴⃑ = 4𝑖̂ − 2𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂ and 𝐵


⃑⃑ = 𝑖̂ + 4𝑗̂ − 4𝑘̂
are perpendicular.
Solution:
For the two vectors: 𝐴⃑ = 4𝑖̂ − 2𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂ and 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 𝑖̂ + 4𝑗̂ − 4𝑘̂ we have:

𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ = |𝐴⃑||𝐵
⃑⃑|𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝐴𝑥 . 𝐵𝑥 + 𝐴𝑦 𝐵𝑦 + 𝐴𝑧 𝐵𝑧 = 4 − 8 + 4 = 0

Since the dot product contains 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃, a dot product of zero from any two
nonzero vectors implies that the two vectors are perpendicular (𝜃 =
90𝑜 ), i.e:
|𝐴⃑| = √42 + (−2)2 + (−1)2 = √21, |𝐵
⃑⃑| = √12 + 42 + (−4)2 = √33
𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠
∴ 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ = √21. √33𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 0 → 𝜃 = 90𝑜 .

⃑⃑ = 6𝑖̂ − 4𝑘̂, find the smaller angle


Q.5: Given; 𝐴⃑ = 2𝑖̂ + 4𝑗̂ and 𝐵
between them using: a) the cross product and b) the dot product.
Solution:
𝑖̂ 𝑗̂ 𝑘̂
⃑⃑ = |2 4 0 | = −16𝑖̂ + 8𝑗̂ + 12𝑘̂
(a) 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
0 6 −4
|𝐴⃑| = √(2)2 + (4)2 + (0)2 = 4.47
⃑⃑| = √(0)2 + (6)2 + (4)2 = 7.21
|𝐵

|𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑| = √(−16)2 + (8)2 + (12)2 = 21.54, then;

since: |𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑| = |𝐴⃑||𝐵
⃑⃑|𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

21.54
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = = 0.668 or 𝜃 = 41.9𝑜
(4.47)(7.21)

(b) 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ = (2)(0) + (4)(6) + (0)(−4) = 24
𝐴⃑.𝐵
⃑⃑ 24
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = = = 0.745 or 𝜃 = 41.9𝑜
|𝐴⃑||𝐵⃑⃑| (4.47)(7.21)

Q.6: Given; 𝐹⃑ = (𝑦 − 1)𝑖̂ + 2𝑥𝑗̂, find the vector at (2,2,1) and its
⃑⃑ = 5𝑖̂ − 𝑗̂ + 2𝑘̂
projection on B, where 𝐵
Solution:
𝐹(2,2,1) = (2 − 1)𝑖̂ + (2)(2)𝑗̂
= 𝑖̂ + 4𝑗̂
As indicated in fig., the projection of one vector on a second vector is
obtained by expressing the unite vector in the direction of the second
vector and taking the dot product.
𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑗. 𝐴⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝐵
⃑⃑ = 𝐴⃑. 𝑎𝐵 =
⃑⃑|
|𝐵
Thus, at (2,2,1)
𝐹⃑ . 𝐵
⃑⃑ (1)(5) + (4)(−1) + (0)(2) 1
⃑⃑ =
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑗. 𝐹 𝑜𝑛 𝐵 = =
|𝐵⃑⃑| √30 √30
⃑⃑ = 𝑖̂ + 2𝑘̂ and 𝐶⃑ = 2𝑗̂ + 𝑘̂, a) find (𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
Q.7: Given; 𝐴⃑ = 𝑖̂ + 𝑗̂, 𝐵 ⃑⃑) × 𝐶⃑

and compare it with 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵


⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑), b) find 𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑ and compare it with

𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑. 𝐶⃑.
Solution:
(a)
𝑖̂ 𝑗̂ 𝑘̂
⃑ ⃑⃑
𝐴 × 𝐵 = |1 1 0| = 2𝑖̂ − 2𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂
1 0 2
Then;

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

𝑖̂ 𝑗̂ 𝑘̂
⃑ ⃑⃑ ⃑
(𝐴 × 𝐵) × 𝐶 = |2 −2 −1| = −2𝑗̂ + 4𝑘̂
0 2 1
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑) = 2𝑖̂ − 2𝑗̂ + 3𝑘̂. Thus the
A similar calculation gives 𝐴⃑ × (𝐵
parentheses that indicate which cross product is to be taken first are
essential in the vector triple product.
(b)
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑ = −4𝑖̂ − 𝑗̂ + 2𝑘̂. Then;
𝐵
𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑ = (1)(−4) + (1)(−1) + (0)(2) = −5
⃑⃑ = 2𝑖̂ − 2𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂. Then;
We have: 𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑. 𝐶⃑ = (2)(0) + (−2)(2) + (−1)(1) = −5
Parentheses are not needed in the scalar triple product since it has
meaning only when the cross product is taken first. In general, it can be
shown that:
𝐴𝑥 𝐴𝑦 𝐴𝑧
𝐴⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑ × 𝐶⃑ = |𝐵𝑥 𝐵𝑦 𝐵𝑧 |
𝐶𝑥 𝐶𝑦 𝐶𝑧
As long as the vectors appear in the same cyclic order the result is
the same. The scalar triple products out of this cyclic order have a change
in sign.
Q.8:Expresss the unit vector which points from (𝑧 = ℎ) on the z-axis
toward (𝑟, 𝜑, 0) in cylindrical coordinates.
Solution:
Since,
𝑟⃑1 = 𝜑𝑎̂𝜑 + ℎ𝑘̂
And
𝑟⃑2 = 𝑟𝑎̂𝑟 + 𝜑𝑎̂𝜑
Thus,
𝑅⃑⃑ = 𝑟⃑2 − 𝑟⃑1 = 𝑟𝑎̂𝑟 − ℎ𝑘̂

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

And
𝑅 = √𝑟 2 + ℎ2
So,
𝑅⃑⃑ 𝑟𝑎̂𝑟 − ℎ𝑘̂
𝑅̂ = =
|𝑅⃑⃑| √𝑟 2 + ℎ2

Q.9: Express the unite vector which is directed toward the origin from an
arbitrary point on the plane 𝑧 = −5, as shown in following figure.
Solution:
Since the problem in
Cartesian coordinates we can
use the two point formula in
example 1. Hence;
𝑅⃑⃑ = (0 − 𝑥)𝑖̂ + (0 − 𝑦)𝑗̂ +
(0 + 5)𝑘̂
Therefore;

𝑅⃑⃑ −𝑥𝑖̂ − 𝑦𝑗̂ + +5𝑘̂


𝑅̂ = =
|𝑅⃑⃑| √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 25

Q.10: Using the appropriate differential elements, show that: a) the


circumference of a circle of radius 𝜌𝑜 is 2𝜋𝜌𝑜 . b) the surface area of a
sphere of radius 𝑟𝑜 is 4 𝜋𝑟𝑜 . c) the volume of a sphere of radius 𝑟𝑜 is
(4/3) 𝜋𝑟𝑜
Solution:
(a)

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

2𝜋 2𝜋
𝐿 = ∫ 𝑑𝑙 = ∫ 𝜌𝑜 𝑑𝜙 = 𝜌𝑜 ∫ 𝑑𝜙 = 𝜌𝑜 [𝜙]2𝜋
0
0 0
𝑳 = 𝟐𝝅𝝆𝒐
(b)

𝑆 = ∬ 𝑑𝑠 = ∫ ∫ 𝑟𝑜2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙
𝜙=0 𝜃=0
2𝜋 𝜋
2
= 𝑟𝑜 ∫ ∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙
𝜙=0 𝜃=0
𝜋 2𝜋
2
= 𝑟𝑜 ∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝜃 ∫ 𝑑𝜙
𝜙=0 𝜃=0

= 𝑟𝑜2 [−𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃]Ι0𝜋 [𝜙]Ι02𝜋


= 𝑟𝑜2 (2)(2𝜋)
𝑺 = 𝟒𝝅𝒓𝟐𝒐

(c)

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

𝟒 𝟑
𝑽= 𝝅𝒓
𝟑 𝒐

Q.11: Obtain the expression for the volume of a sphere of a radius 𝑎


from the differential volume.
Solution:
From the fig.;

𝑑𝑉 = 𝑟 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙
2𝜋 𝜋 𝑎
4
𝑉=∫ ∫ ∫ 𝑟 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙 = 𝜋𝑎3
0 0 0 3

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

Q.12: Use the cylindrical coordinate system to find the area of the
curved surface of a right circular cylinder, where: 𝜌 = 2𝑚, ℎ = 5𝑚 and
30 ≤ 𝜙 ≤ 120. See the following fig.
Solution:
From the fig.; 𝜌 = 2𝑚, 𝑧 = 5𝑚 and 𝜙 = 30𝑜 𝑡𝑜120𝑜 .Then; the
differential surface element is:
𝑑𝑠 = 𝜌𝑑𝜙𝑑𝑧
5 2𝜋⁄
𝑆 = ∫0 ∫𝜋⁄ 3 2𝑑𝜙 𝑑𝑧
6
2
= 5𝜋 𝑚

Exercises:
I)

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Department of Physics/College of Education 2015-2016 Electromagnetic Theory/4th Class

II)
⃑⃑(V + 𝑉) = 𝛁V + 𝛁V
1. ∇
⃑⃑. (𝐴⃑ + 𝐵
2. ∇ ⃑⃑. 𝐴⃑ + ∇
⃑⃑) = ∇ ⃑⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑

⃑⃑ × (𝐴⃑ + 𝐵
3. ∇ ⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑ + ∇
⃑⃑) = ∇ ⃑⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑

⃑⃑. (𝑉𝐴⃑) = (∇
4. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑉). 𝐴⃑ + 𝑉(∇
⃑⃑. 𝐴⃑)

⃑⃑ × (𝑉𝐴⃑) = ∇
5. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑉 × 𝐴⃑ + 𝑉(∇
⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑)

⃑⃑. (𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
6. ∇ ⃑⃑) = 𝐵 ⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑) − 𝐴⃑. (∇
⃑⃑. (∇ ⃑⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑)

⃑⃑ × (𝐴⃑ × 𝐵
7. ∇ ⃑⃑) = (𝐵 ⃑⃑)𝐴⃑ − 𝐵
⃑⃑ . ∇ ⃑⃑. 𝐴⃑) − (𝐴⃑. ∇
⃑⃑(∇ ⃑⃑ + 𝐴⃑(∇
⃑⃑)𝐵 ⃑⃑. 𝐵
⃑⃑)

⃑⃑(𝐴⃑. 𝐵
8. ∇ ⃑⃑) = (𝐵 ⃑⃑)𝐴⃑ + (𝐴⃑. ∇
⃑⃑ . ∇ ⃑⃑)𝐵
⃑⃑ + 𝐵 ⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑) + 𝐴⃑ × ((∇
⃑⃑ × (∇ ⃑⃑ × 𝐵
⃑⃑)

⃑⃑. (∇
9. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑉) = ∇2 𝑉

⃑⃑ × (∇
10. ∇ ⃑⃑𝑉) = 0 the curl of gradient of 𝑉 is zero
⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑) = 0
⃑⃑. (∇
11. ∇ the divergence of the curl of 𝐴⃑ is zero

12. ∇ ⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑) = ∇
⃑⃑ × (∇ ⃑⃑(∇ ⃑⃑) − ∇2 𝐴⃑
⃑⃑. A

⃑⃑ × 𝐴⃑ = 0 , where 𝐴⃑ is a constant vector.


13. ∇

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