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com  30,  2019 -  7

Find the height of the tower?

Maths Senior Faculty

10th Class
10  30,  2019 - 

10 Class Maths (Paper-1) Model Paper


K. Kumar
Sr. Faculty,
94929 56214
16 Á‹tyÓ˛ ÚflO˝ßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍßä˛ ∑ ∫$´ßÊ˛–ÈΔÊˇÖ 30 fØ˲–ö˛« 2019 .
www.andhrajyothy com

What is the least number which...

B.Krishna Kishore
Senior Faculty

IBPS PO & Clerk Prelims

Answers with Explanation

www.andhrajyothy com . ÚflO˝ßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍßä˛ ∑ ∫$´ßÊ˛–ÈΔÊˇÖ 30 fØ˲–ö˛« 2019 Á‹tyÓ˛ 17

The stems of herbaceous plants have...

G.Srawana Chandra
UNIT 2 Senior Faculty
Exchange of Gases
For aerobic respiration; organisms need a
continuous supply of oxygen, and carbon
dioxide produced during the process needs to
be removed from the body. Different organ-
isms use different methods for intake of oxy-
10th - BIOLOGY
gen and expulsion of carbon dioxide. part of throat between the mouth and wind
Diffusion is the method which is utilized by pipe is called pharynx. From the nasal pas-
unicellular and some simple organisms for sage, air enters into pharynx and then goes
this purpose. In plants also, diffusion is uti- into the wind pipe. Trachea does not collapse
lized for exchange of gases. In complex ani- even when there is no air in it because it is
mals, respiratory system does the job of supported by rings of soft bones called carti-
exchange of gases. Gills are the respiratory lage.
organs for fishes. Fishes take in oxygen; The trachea runs down the neck and divides
which is dissolved in water; through gills. into two smaller tubes called bronchi at its
Since availability of oxygen is less in the lower end. The bronchi are connected to the
aquatic environment so the breathing rate of two lungs. The lungs lie in the chest cavity or
aquatic organisms is faster. Insects have a thoracic cavity which is separated from
system of spiracles and tracheae which is the leaves takes place by the process of diffu- Amoeba lives in water. This water has oxy- abdominal cavity by a muscular partition
used for taking in oxygen. sion through stomata. gen dissolved in it. The oxygen from water called diaphragm. Each bronchus divides in
Respiration In Plants Net gaseous exchange in the leaves of diffuses into the body of Amoeba through its the lungs to form a large number of still
the plant cell membrane. Since the amoeba is very smaller tubes called ‘bronchioles’. The
Like animals, plants also need energy. The
small in size, so the oxygen spreads quickly pouch-like air sacs at the ends of the smallest
plants get this energy by the process of respi- During day time, when photosynthesis into the whole body of Amoeba. This oxygen bronchioles are called alveoli. The walls of
ration. Plants also use oxygen of air for respi- occurs, oxygen is produced. The leaves use is used for respiration inside the Amoeba cell. alveoli are very thin and they are surrounded
ration and release carbon dioxide. The respi- some of this oxygen for respiration and rest of The process of respiration produces carbon by very thin blood capillaries. It is in the alve-
ration in plants differs from the animals in the oxygen diffuses out into air. dioxide gas continuously. This carbon diox- oli that gaseous exchange takes place.
three respects: Again, during the day time, carbon dioxide
Respiration in plants ide gas diffuses out through the membrane of
produced by respiration is all used up in pho-
All the parts of a plant(like root, stem and tosynthesis by leaves. Even more carbon
amoeba into the surrounding water.
Respiration in Earthworm
"5h' sÒ˝M>≤Ài"ÃZ
leaves) perform respiration individually. dioxide is taken in from air.
During respiration in plants, there is a little
transport of respiratory gases from one part of
Thus, net gas exchange in leaves during day
time is: O2 diffuses out; CO2 diffuses in.
The earthworm exchanges the gases through
its skin. The earthworm absorbs
ºGã‹GØå˛GÃå˝ Ô≥i yÏ˛¥˜œ–ö˛*
the plant to the other. At night time, when no photosynthesis occurs the oxygen is needed for respiration through A¥ÎΔÊˇ A–ö˛-M>-‘È-À$Ø˲≤ sÒ˝ÕMÊ¸Ö ΔÊˇÖVʸÖÃZ "5h' sÒ˝M>≤-Ài
The respiration in plants occurs at a slow rate. and hence no oxygen is produced, oxygen is moist skin. The oxygen is then transported ô˲”ΔÊˇÃZ AÖßÊ˛$-ªÍ-r$-ÃZMϸ Δ>Ø˲$Ø˲≤ ô˲ΔÊˇ$-◊˝ÖÃZ ºGã-‹-G-Øå˛-
Respiration in animals from air diffuses into leaves to carry out res- to all the cells of the earthworm by its blood GÃå˝ "Ô≥i yÏ˛¥˜œ–ö˛* CØå˛ sÒ˝ÕMÊ¸Ö sÒ˝M>≤-Ài AÖyä˛ –Û˛$ØÛ˛-
An animal performs respiration as a single piration. And carbon dioxide produced by where it is used in respiration. The carbon gå˝-–˛$Ö-så˝(-Ì≥-h-yÏ˛-sÏ˝-sÏ˝GÖ)" M¯ΔÊˇ$fiØ˲$ BÁúΔäˇ ^Û˛›˘¢Ö®. ºGã-‹-
unit. respiration diffuses out into air. dioxide produced during respiration is carried G-Øå˛-G-Ãå˝Mʸ$ ^˛Ö®Ø˲ EØ˲≤ô˲ ›Î¶Δˇ$$ –Û˛$ØÛ˛-gå˝-–˛$Öså˝ {sÒ˝Δˇ$$-
Respiratory gases are usually transported Thus, net gas exchange in leaves at night is: back by the blood. This CO2 is expelled from
over long distance inside an animal during O2 diffuses in; CO2 diffuses out. the body of the earthworm through its skin.
∞ÖVä¸ Ú‹ÖrΔäˇ AΔˇ$$Ø˲ GØå˛-G-sÏ˝-Gã-ú-Gã-úGÖ (ØÛ˛ÁŸ-Ø˲Ãå˝
respiration. AM>-yÊ˛“$ Bãú sÒ˝ÕMÊ¸Ö ÚúOØÈØå˛fi AÖyä˛ –Û˛$ØÛ˛gå˝ –˛$Öså˝)
Respiration in Animals Respiration in Fish ßë”Δ> Ú‹Ö{rÃå˝ ƒÊ˝$*∞-–ö˛-«fisÓ˝ Bãú ÚflO˝ßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍ-ßä˛(-Úfl˝-^å˛-
The respiration in animals occurs at a much
faster rate. Different animals have different modes of The fish has special organs for breathing Ì‹-ƒÊ˝$$)ô¯ MʸÕ-Ì‹ D M¯ΔÊˇ$fiØ˲$ ∞ΔÊˇ”-Ìfl˝-›˘¢Ö®. Hyë® M>À-
respiration. called ‘gills’. The fish has gills on both the –ö˛≈-–ö˛´® EØ˲≤ D M¯ΔÊˇ$fiØ˲$ ßÊ˛*ΔÊˇ —ßë≈ —´ßë-Ø˲ÖÃZ AøÊ˝≈-
Plants get Oxygen by Diffusion Animals Respiratory organ sides of its head. The fish lives in water and
Plants have a branching shape, so they have
Ì‹Ö-^˲-–ö˛^˲$a. ΔˇÖyÊ˛$ Ú‹—$-Á‹t-ΔÊˇœÃZ M¯ΔÊˇ$fiØ˲$ Á≥N«¢ ^Û˛ı‹
Unicellular animals Cell membrane this water contains dissolves oxygen in it. “À$Ö-r$Ö®. {Á≥Ü Ú‹—$-Á‹tΔÊˇ$ _–ö˛Δ¯œ BΔÊˇ$ Δ¯kÀ {¥ÎMÓ¸t-
quite a large surface area in comparison to like Amoeba, Planaria The fish breathes by taking in water through
their volume. Therefore, diffusion alone can Earthworm Skin its mouth and sending it over the gills. When
MʸÃå˝fi ßë”Δ> AøÊ˝≈-«¶Mϸ A–ö˛-Á‹-ΔÊˇ-–˛$OØ˲ ›ÎÖMÛ¸-ÜMʸ —gÍqØ˲Ö
supply all the cells of the plants with as much Aquatic animals like Gills water passes over gills, the gills extract dis- AÖßÊ˛$-ô˲$Ö®. ºGã-‹-G-Øå˛-GÃå˝ —Á‹¢ñô˲ Ø˛så˝-–ö˛ΔäˇP, ÃÍ≈ªå˝fi,
oxygen as they need for respiration. Diffusion Fish, Prawns solved oxygen from this water. The water ØÛ˛ΔÊˇ$V> ºsÏ˝-Gã‹, KGã-úÌ‹ {sÍØå˛fi-—$-ÁŸØå˛ Ì‹Á‹t-–í˛$Ú≥O AøÊ˝≈-ΔÊˇ$¶-
occurs in the roots, stems and leaves of Insects like Spiracles and then goes out through the gill slits. The ÀMʸ$ {¥ÎMϸt-MʸÃå˝fi ∞ΔÊˇ”-Ìfl˝-›Î¢ΔÊˇ$. Cô˲ΔÊˇ ßÊ˛*ΔÊˇ —ßë≈ —´ßë-
plants. Grasshopper, Cockroach tracheae extracted oxygen is absorbed by the blood Ø˲ÖÃZ ∞ΔÊˇ”-Ìfl˝-Á‹$¢Ø˲≤ M¯ΔÊˇ$fi-Àô¯ ¥˘ÕaôÛ˛ D M¯ΔÊˇ$fi
Respiration in Roots Land animals like Lungs and carried to all the parts of the fish. The car- ¿Ø˲≤ÖV>, A´ßÊ˛$-ØÈ-ô˲-Ø˲ÖV> EÖr$Ö®. {Á≥Ü Ú‹—$-Á‹t-ΔÊˇ$Mʸ$
Air occurs in soil interspaces. Root hairs of Humans, Birds bon dioxide produced by the respiration is ΔÊˇ*.20,000 M¯ΔÊˇ$fi ÔúkV> EÖr$Ö®. ßÊ˛ΔÊˇ-RÍÁ‹$¢, Cô˲ΔÊˇ
the roots are in direct contact with them. All the respiratory organs have three brought back by the blood into the gills for Á≥N«¢ —–ö˛-Δ>-ÀMʸ$ –˛ªå˝-Ú‹O-
Oxygen of the soil air diffuses through root common features expelling into the surrounding water. så˝Ø˲$ ^˲*yÊ˛-–ö˛^˲$a. M¯ΔÊˇ$fiÃZ ^Û˛ΔÊˇ-yë-∞Mϸ _–ö˛« ôÛ˛©: 2019
hair and reaches all internal cells of the root Note: Diffusion is insufficient to meet the
All the respiratory organs have a large surface oxygen requirements of large multicellular
Ìú{∫-–ö˛« 28.
for respiration. Carbon dioxide produced by area to get enough oxygen. All the respiratory
root cells diffuses in the opposite direction. In organisms like humans because the volume of
organs have thin walls for easy diffusion and human body is so big that oxygen cannot dif-
water-logged conditions, soil air becomes exchange of respiratory gases. All the respira-
deficient. In the absence of oxygen, metabol- fuse into all the cells of the human body
ic activity of the root declines and the plant
tory organs like skin gills, and lungs have a
rich blood supply for transporting respiratory
quickly. ΔÛˇÁ≥sÏ˝ Ø˲$Ö_ "_[ÀzØå˛fi BΔäˇt Úúã‹t'
may wither. gases. Terrestrial animals can breathe the oxy- Respiratory system in Humans
ªÍÀ-ÃZœ∞ Á‹ñf-ØÈ-ô˲√-Mʸ-ô˲Ø˲$ {¥˘ô˲fi-Ìfl˝Ö-^Û˛Ö-ßÊ˛$Mʸ$ "_{ÀtØå˛fi
Respiration in Stems gen in the atmosphere, but animals that live in In human beings, many organs take part in BΔäˇt Úúã‹t&2019'Ø˲$ _ÀâØå˛fi ÚúOØå˛ BΔäˇt V>≈À» B´ßÊ˛”-ΔÊˇ≈ÖÃZ
The stems of herbaceous plants have stomata. water (aquatic animals) need to use the oxy- the process of respiration. These organs are
gen dissolved in water.Since the amount of called organs of respiratory system. The main
fØ˲-–ö˛« 31 Ø˲$Ö_ Ìú{∫-–ö˛« 2 –ö˛ΔÊˇMʸ$ ÚflO˝ßÊ˛-Δ>-ªÍ-ßä˛-ÃZ∞
The oxygen from air diffuses into the stem of ô˛ÀÖ-V>◊˝ ı‹tså˝ ÚúOØå˛ BΔäˇt V>≈À-»ÃZ ∞ΔÊˇ”-Ìfl˝-Á‹$¢-ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$.
a herbaceous plant through stomata and dissolved oxygen is fairly low compared to organs of human respiratory system are:
reaches all the cells for respiration. The car- the amount of oxygen in the air, the rate of Nose, Nasal passage, Trachea(wind pipe), Á‹$–ö˛*ΔÊˇ$ 5000 –ö˛$Ö® ªÍÀ-Àô¯ ¥Îr$ ı≥ΔˆÖ-®Ø˲
bon dioxide gas produced during respiration breathing in aquatic organisms is much faster Bronchi, Lungs and Diaphragm. The human –˛$ÖsÍΔÊˇ$œ, sÓ˝^˲ΔÊˇ$œ ô˲®-ô˲-ΔÊˇ$À$ D Eô˲fi-–ö˛ÖÃZ ¥ÎÃüY-Ø˲-Ø˲$-
diffuses out into the air through the same than that seen in terrestrial organisms. respiratory system begins from the nose. The ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. D Eô˲fi-–È∞≤ IÌ≥-Gã‹ A´®-M>« yëMʸtΔäˇ BΔäˇ.-Gã-‹.-{Á≥-
stomata. In woody stems, the bark has Respiration in Amoeba air then goes into nasal passage. The nasal “-◊ä˝-Mʸ$-–ö˛*Δäˇ {¥ÎΔÊˇÖ-¿Ö-^˲-Ø˲$-ØÈ≤ΔÊˇ$. 14 Ø˲$Ö_ 16 Á‹Ö–ö˛-ô˲fi-
lenticels for gaseous exchange. passage is lined is lined with fine hair and Δ>À –ö˛ƒÊ˝$-Á‹$Ø˲≤ ªÍÀ-ªÍ-Õ-MʸÀ$ D M>ΔÊˇ≈-{Mʸ-–ö˛$ÖÃZ ¥ÎÃüY-
Amoeba is single-celled animal. Amoeba mucus. When air passes through the nasal
Respiration in Leaves depends on simple diffusion of gases from Ø˲-–ö˛^˲$a. {Á≥–Û˛‘Ë˝ ΔÊˇ$Á‹$Ö ΔÊˇ*.200. Á≥N«¢ —–ö˛-Δ>-ÀMʸ$
passage, the dust particles and other impuri- 9014611326, 9014657808 ∏˘Øå˛ Ø˛Ö∫-ΔÊˇœÃZ Á‹Ö{Á≥-®Ö-^˲-
The leaves of a plant have tiny pores called breathing. The exchange of gases in Amoeba ties present in it are trapped by nasal hair and
stomata. The exchange of respiratory gases in takes place through its cell membrane. mucus so that clean air goes into lungs. The
12 ãT<Ûäyês¡+ 30.1.2019

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CIFAR Azrieli Global kÕÿ\sYwæ|t‡ ing class 10-12, graduation, Educat ion and Science,
diploma, vocational training and Denmark is giving scholarships
Scholars Program post-graduation. Candidates must to certain applicants in recogni-
Category: Talent Based Last Date to apply: February 05, 2019 have scored 50% in their previ- tion of the important investment
Scholarship: CIFAR Azrieli Application: Online applications ous annual examination. that overseas students make dur-
Global Scholars Program 2019 only. Prizes & Rewards: ing their education.
Description: Short Source URL: http:// Up to INR 6000 for class 10-12 Eligibility: The applicant must
Canadian Institute of Advanced and up to INR 18000 for higher have Bachelor's degree and have
Research is inviting applications studies. Special incentive of up to an offer of place of study in
from researchers currently study- CLP India Scholarship INR 5000 for girls and INR 2500 University of Southern Denmark.
ing within the first five years of a Category: Means Based
Scholarship: CLP India Schola for boys is also available. Total Prizes & Rewards: The selected
full-time academic position in 850 students will receive scholar- students will receive a full tuition
order to provide funds, support rship Scheme 2019
Description: CLP India has ships. fee waiver and a grant, to help
and essential skills to the schol- Last Date to apply: March 31, 2019 cover living costs amounting to
ars. announced scholarships for the
students pursuing their higher Application: Online applications DKK 6090 per month before
Eligibility: Ph.D. degree holder are accepted. taxes and accommodation.
having work experience of five- education from class 10 to post
graduation, including diploma Short Source URL: http:// Last Date to apply: February 01,
years in academic position with nava/CIS10 2019
fluency in written and spoken and vocational training. This
Application: Applications can be
English can apply. scheme provides a partial finan-
cial support to aspiring students
Danish Government made online only.
Prizes&Rewards: CAD 1,00,000
for research support, travel expe for their study with added Scholarship Short Source URL:
emphasis on girl students. Category: International Level
nse coverage for personal two-
day interview and special train- Eligibility: Candidates residing Scholarship: Danish Governm
ing to develop leadership and in CLP plant locations in 7 states ent Scholarship 2019-20 Courtesy: /
communication skills. including Telangana and pursu- Description: Ministry of Higher Call: 08448709545, 08527484563
ãT<Ûäyês¡+ 30.1.2019 13

Á>±+&é bòÕ<äsY Ä|òt Ç+&çj·THé H˚wüq*»+>± me]ì |æ*#˚yês¡T?

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f¯]lÐ]lÇ l 30 l 2019 11

The book written by Adolf Hitler was...

A. Tsar.
MýS*¯ésìæ VýS$Æý‡$-§ólÐé çÜ$Æó‡‹Ù 3. What is civil war?
´ëuý‡Åç³#çÜ¢MýS Æý‡^èlƇ¬™èl, Multiple Choice Questions
A. A war between the people and the
çÜ*PÌŒæ AíÜòÜt…sŒæ, hÌêÏ ç³Ç-çÙ™Œl E¯]l²-™èl -´ë-uý‡- government in a country. 1. Three R's with reference to the 'New
Ô>Ë, FÆý‡…§ýl*Æý‡$, _™èl*¢Æý‡$ hÌêÏ. 4. Name the International Organisation Deal'?
formed by the communists? A) Religion, Reform, Recovery
WORLD BETWEEN WARS-1900-1950-II A. Commintern. B) Relief, Recovery, Reform
ii. Observe the timeline chart and answer the C) Racism, Revolution, Religion
questions given below. (AS3) D) Rural, Reform, Revolution
One Mark Questions 2. The New Deal policy was announced by:
1. What does the term "Great Depression“ Proclamation of the weimar
Nov. 9th
A) Roosevelt B) Lincoln
A. 1) There was a World wide economic
ÝùçÙÌŒæ çÜtyîl‹Ü (C….Ò$.) Republic 1918 C) Jefferson D) Nelson
3. Germany's 'Genocidal war' was against:
decline triggered by a decline in Hitler becomes chancellor of Jan. 30th 1. Gypsies 2. Polish civilians
demand and fall in prices. It was called functioning in India today? (AS1) Germany 3. Jews 4. Disabled
"Great Depression". 6. “A world based on equality, freedom and Germany invedes Poland. Sept. 1st
A) 1, 2 only B) 3,4 only
2) The Great Depression began around the prosperity is successful like USSR”. Do Begining of the World War-II 1939 C) 1, 3, 4 only D) 1,2,3,4
end of 1929 and lasted almost till 1939. you agree? (AS2) 4. Match the following:
2. When the British women got the right to 7. Do you think it is justified to execute Germany invedes USSR June 22nd i. Communism a. Nuremberg trials
vote after a long struggle? (AS1) thousands of people for the sake of such ii. DIET b. Japan
A. 1918 experiments? June 23rd
iii. Nazi leaders c. MN Roy, Tagore, Nehru
3. When was established the United Nations (AS1) iv. Duma d. Russia
Mass murder of Jews begins
Organisation? (AS1) 8. What were the new alternative models of A) i-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d
A. 24th Oct, 1945 national development after the experience The USA joins World War-II Dec. 8th B) i-c, 2-b, 3-a, 4-d
4. What is Socialism? (AS1) of war and depression? (AS1) C) i-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a
A. The system of production, distribution and 9. What challenges did the Russian society D) i-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b
Soviet troops liberate Jan. 27th
exchange are owned by the government. face after the revolution? (AS1) Auschwitz 1945 5. _____ played an important role in
5. What was the demand of 1917 Russian 10. “In every country some people are 'Commintern'
revolution? (AS1) differentiated because of their identity”. Allied victory in Europe May 8th A) Tagore B) Nehru
A. ‘Peace and Bread’. Do you agree?(AS4) 1945 C) M. N.Roy D) All
6. Which country escaped from the effect of 11. What challenges were faced by Germany 6. ____ countries emerged after World War -
the Depression? How? (AS1) during great depression? (AS1) 1. In which country the Weimar republic was II
A. USSR was able to escape the effect of the established? 1. Japan 2. France 3. England
Depression because it was not integrated Four Mark Questions A. Germany. 4. USA 5. Russia
with the international market and a 1. How the Nazi party was raised in Germany? 2. What is the immediate cause for the World A) 1, 2, 3 B) 3,4,5
planned economy. (AS1) War – II? C) 4,5 only D) All
7. Who wrote the famous satire novel 2. Revolution brought many changes in the A. Germany invades Poland on Sept. 1, 1939. 7. The book written by Adolf Hitler was
"Animal Farm"? (AS1) Russian society. What were they? (AS1) 3. Expand USSR. ____
A. George Orwell wrote the famous satire 3. What were the results of the Great A. Union of Soviet Socialist Republic- A) Mein Kampf B) Animal farm
‘Animal Farm’ to highlight how the ideals Depression? Russia. C) lnPraise of Folly D) None
of Russian Revolution were compromised (AS1) 4. Who was the cause for the mass murders 8. ____ suffered least during Depression
in USSR. 4. How far the Soviet experiment was of the Jews? A) Russia B) Germany
8. What is Relief - Recovery – Reform? successful after 1924? (AS1) C) Britain D) USA
(AS1) MAPPING SKILL (AS-5) 9. ______ led the Bolshevik group in Russia
A. Relief: Immediate action taken to halt the INFORMATION SKILL (AS-3) i. Observe the above map and answer the A) Lenin B) Karl Marx
economies deterioration. i. Observe the timeline chart and answer the questions. C) Louis Blanc D) None
Recovery: Temporary programs to restart questions given below. (AS3) 10. Russian Parliament is known as _____.
the flow of consumer demand. A) Diet B) Duma
Reform: Permanent programs to avoid C) Reichstag D) Assembly
another depression. Debets over socialism in 1850s - 11. ____ started collective farming in Russia.
9. What is Enabling Act? (AS1) Russia A) Stalin B) Lenin
A. On 24th March 1933, the famous Enabling Formation of the Russian Social C) Putin D) Karl Marx
Act gave Hitler dictatorship in Germany. Democratic Workers Party 1898
10. What is Marshall Plan? (AS1) ANSWERS
A. USA came up with Marshall Plan to fund The bloody sunday and the
their economic revival. USSR came up with Revolution 1) B 2) A 3) D 4) B 5) C
a package for the revival of East European 6) C 7) A 8) A 9) A 10) B
2nd March - Abdication of the Tsar. 24th
countries. 1917
11) A
Two Mark Questions
October Bolshevik uprising in the Petrograd
1. Write any two countries which were under
Japan control.
1. What is your response on “that women The Civil War 1920 A. Burma and Thailand.
should confine house hold work? (AS6) 2. Name the area of China
2. “Often people argue that a single powerful was under Japan control.
leader can resolve the problems of a A. Manchuria.
Formation of Comintern
country”. Based on the experiences of 3. Write any two countries
Nazi Germany how do you respond? Begining of Collectivisation 1929
which were notunder
(AS4) Japan control.
3. Do you think men and women can A. India, USSR
participate equally in all aspects of life? 1. Which country introduced Socialism first 4. Write any two islands
(AS1) in the world? which were underJapan
4. How Hitler policies were responsible for A. Russia. control.
the Second World War? (AS1) 2. What was the name of the Russian A. Indonesia and Philippines.
5. What are the welfare programmes emperor?