You are on page 1of 5



17 

Lab Exercise
1. Find the equivalent transfer function for the state space model
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
1 2 3 4
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
ẋ = ⎢4 5 6⎥ x + ⎢3⎥ u, y = 1 2 3 x
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
7 8 0 2

And also find the poles and zeros of the model.

2. Consider the following system


⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤
0 1 0 0
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
ẋ = ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ x + ⎢0⎥ u(t),
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
−6 −16 −8 1
⎡ ⎤
x
 ⎢ 1⎥
⎢ ⎥
y(t) = 6 8 2 ⎢x2 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
x3

Find the alternative state space canonical form of this system

3. Assume that in the typical feedback control structure, the blocks are given by

a)

211.87s + 317.6
G(s) =
(s + 20)(s + 94.34)(s + 0.1684)
169.6s + 400 1
Gc (s) = H(s) =
s(s + 4) 0.01s + 1

b)
35786.7s + 108444 1 1
G(s) = , Gc (s) = , H(s) = ,
(s + 4)(s + 20)(s + 74.04) s 0.01s + 1
Find state space model and transfer function of the overall system. Get the zero-pole-gain
representation of the system.

4. Assume that the models of the system are given by

a) ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
−9 −26 −24 0 1
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 
⎢1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0⎥
ẋ = ⎢

⎥ x + ⎢ ⎥ u,
⎥ ⎢ ⎥ y= 0 1 1 2 x
⎢0 1 0 0⎥ ⎢0⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
0 1 1 −1 0

18 

5.
2s2 + 18s + 16
G(s) =
s4 + 10s3 + 35s2 + 50s + 24
Try to check whether these models are minimally realized. If not, find the minimally realized
models and give an explanation from the transfer function point of view.

6. Consider the following system


⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
0 1 0
ẋ = ⎣ ⎦x + ⎣ ⎦u
−2 −3 1
 
y= 1 0 x
⎛ ⎞
1
with, x(0) = ⎝ ⎠ .
0

Using the lsim function obtain and plot the system response (for x1 (t) and x2 (t) when u(t) =
0.

7. Problem of the inverted pendulum mounted on a cart, as shown in Figure. The cart must be
moved so that mass m is always in an upright position. The state variables must be expressed
in terms of the angular rotation (t) and the position of the cart v(f). The differential equations
describing the motion of the system can be obtained by writing the sum of the forces in the
horizontal direction and the sum of the moments about the pivot point. Find the state space
representation of this system and write it in different alternative canonical form

24 

Lab Exercise
⎡ ⎤


−3 s − 4⎥⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
s+2 s+4
1. For a plant given by its transfer matrix, G(s) = s2 +s+4
, using MATLAB, determine

a) State space representation of the system

b) State transition matrix at time t=0.2 sec


⎡ ⎤
0
c) Time response solution of the plant for X(0) = ⎣ ⎦ and unit step inputs are applied over
0
time period t = [0:0.1:10] sec

d) Plot the time response solution

e) Check controllability and observability of your state space model

2. For systems given below determine controllability, observability and stability

i If s1 and s2 are connected in series

ii If s1 and s2 connected in parallel

iii if s2 is a negative feedback for s1

Where,

s1 : X1 = A1 x1 + B1 u1

s1 : X2 = A2 x2 + B2 u2
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
5 −1 1  
A1 = ⎣ ⎦ , B1 = ⎣ ⎦ , C1 = 1 −3 , D1 = [0]
1 0 0

A2 = [−1], B2 = [1], C2 = [−18], D2 = [5]

3. For systems given below determine its controllability, observability and stability

y¨1 + y˙1 + 3y˙2 + 4y2 = u1

y¨2 + y˙2 + 3y˙1 + 4y1 = u2



29 

P =
4.2625 2.4957 0.0143
2.4957 2.8150 0.1107
0.0143 0.1107 0.0676
E =
−5.0958
−1.9859 +1.7110 i
−1.9859 −1.7110 i

Lab Exercise

1. Obtain the necessary state-feedback gain matrix K with MATLAB for the following.
A regulator system has a plant

Y (s) 10
=
U (s) (s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3)

Define state variables as

x1 = y

x2 = ẋ1

x3 = ẋ2

By use of the state-feedback control u=-Kx, it is desired to place the closed-loop poles at
√ √
s = −2 + j2 3, s = −2 − j2 3, s =-10.

2. Consider the system shown in figure below. Design the minimum-order observers for the
plant. Assume that the desired closed-loop poles for the pole placement part are located at
√ √
s = −2 + j2 3 and s = −2 − j2 3

Assume that s=-8 for the minimum-order observer.



30 

3. The state-space equation for the system is given by ẋ = Ax + Bu. Where,


⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
0 1 0 0 0 θ
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 20.601 0 0 0⎥ ⎢−1⎥ ⎢ θ̇ ⎥
A=⎢ ⎢
⎥ B = ⎢ ⎥, x = ⎢ ⎥
⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢x⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
−0.4905 0 0 0 0.5 ẋ

We shall use the state-feedback control scheme, u = -Kx



Using MATLAB, determine the state-feedback gain matrix K = k1 k2 k3 k4 such that
the following performance index J is minimized:


J= (x∗ Qx + u∗ Ru)dt
0
⎡ ⎤
100 0 0 0
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 1 0 0⎥
Where, Q = ⎢

⎥,R = 1

⎢ 0 0 1 0⎥
⎣ ⎦
0 0 0 1