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17

Lab Exercise

1. Find the equivalent transfer function for the state space model

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

1 2 3 4

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

ẋ = ⎢4 5 6⎥ x + ⎢3⎥ u, y = 1 2 3 x

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

7 8 0 2

⎡ ⎤

⎡ ⎤

0 1 0 0

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

ẋ = ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ x + ⎢0⎥ u(t),

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

−6 −16 −8 1

⎡ ⎤

x

⎢ 1⎥

⎢ ⎥

y(t) = 6 8 2 ⎢x2 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

x3

3. Assume that in the typical feedback control structure, the blocks are given by

a)

211.87s + 317.6

G(s) =

(s + 20)(s + 94.34)(s + 0.1684)

169.6s + 400 1

Gc (s) = H(s) =

s(s + 4) 0.01s + 1

b)

35786.7s + 108444 1 1

G(s) = , Gc (s) = , H(s) = ,

(s + 4)(s + 20)(s + 74.04) s 0.01s + 1

Find state space model and transfer function of the overall system. Get the zero-pole-gain

representation of the system.

a) ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

−9 −26 −24 0 1

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0⎥

ẋ = ⎢

⎢

⎥ x + ⎢ ⎥ u,

⎥ ⎢ ⎥ y= 0 1 1 2 x

⎢0 1 0 0⎥ ⎢0⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

0 1 1 −1 0

18

5.

2s2 + 18s + 16

G(s) =

s4 + 10s3 + 35s2 + 50s + 24

Try to check whether these models are minimally realized. If not, ﬁnd the minimally realized

models and give an explanation from the transfer function point of view.

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

0 1 0

ẋ = ⎣ ⎦x + ⎣ ⎦u

−2 −3 1

y= 1 0 x

⎛ ⎞

1

with, x(0) = ⎝ ⎠ .

0

Using the lsim function obtain and plot the system response (for x1 (t) and x2 (t) when u(t) =

0.

7. Problem of the inverted pendulum mounted on a cart, as shown in Figure. The cart must be

moved so that mass m is always in an upright position. The state variables must be expressed

in terms of the angular rotation (t) and the position of the cart v(f). The diﬀerential equations

describing the motion of the system can be obtained by writing the sum of the forces in the

horizontal direction and the sum of the moments about the pivot point. Find the state space

representation of this system and write it in diﬀerent alternative canonical form

24

Lab Exercise

⎡ ⎤

⎢

⎢

−3 s − 4⎥⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

s+2 s+4

1. For a plant given by its transfer matrix, G(s) = s2 +s+4

, using MATLAB, determine

⎡ ⎤

0

c) Time response solution of the plant for X(0) = ⎣ ⎦ and unit step inputs are applied over

0

time period t = [0:0.1:10] sec

Where,

s1 : X1 = A1 x1 + B1 u1

s1 : X2 = A2 x2 + B2 u2

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

5 −1 1

A1 = ⎣ ⎦ , B1 = ⎣ ⎦ , C1 = 1 −3 , D1 = [0]

1 0 0

3. For systems given below determine its controllability, observability and stability

29

P =

4.2625 2.4957 0.0143

2.4957 2.8150 0.1107

0.0143 0.1107 0.0676

E =

−5.0958

−1.9859 +1.7110 i

−1.9859 −1.7110 i

Lab Exercise

1. Obtain the necessary state-feedback gain matrix K with MATLAB for the following.

A regulator system has a plant

Y (s) 10

=

U (s) (s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3)

x1 = y

x2 = ẋ1

x3 = ẋ2

By use of the state-feedback control u=-Kx, it is desired to place the closed-loop poles at

√ √

s = −2 + j2 3, s = −2 − j2 3, s =-10.

2. Consider the system shown in ﬁgure below. Design the minimum-order observers for the

plant. Assume that the desired closed-loop poles for the pole placement part are located at

√ √

s = −2 + j2 3 and s = −2 − j2 3

30

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

0 1 0 0 0 θ

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ 20.601 0 0 0⎥ ⎢−1⎥ ⎢ θ̇ ⎥

A=⎢ ⎢

⎥ B = ⎢ ⎥, x = ⎢ ⎥

⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢x⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

−0.4905 0 0 0 0.5 ẋ

Using MATLAB, determine the state-feedback gain matrix K = k1 k2 k3 k4 such that

the following performance index J is minimized:

∞

J= (x∗ Qx + u∗ Ru)dt

0

⎡ ⎤

100 0 0 0

⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ 0 1 0 0⎥

Where, Q = ⎢

⎢

⎥,R = 1

⎥

⎢ 0 0 1 0⎥

⎣ ⎦

0 0 0 1

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