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Jan 30, 2019

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- Calculating Excavator Structural Stress
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are as follows:

α1 = 0.72 for f 1c≤ 4000 psi (27.6 MPa); it decreases linearly by 0.04 for every 1000 psi

(6.9 MPa) greater than 4000 psi

α2 = 0.425 for f 1c< 4000 psi (27.6 MPa); it decreases linearly by 0.025 for every 1000 psi

greater than 4000 psi

The decrease in the value of α1 and α2 is related to the fact that high--strength concretes

show more brittleness than low-strength concretes [3].

To derive a simple rational approach for calculations of the internal forces of a section,

the ACI Code adopted an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution, which was

ﬁrst proposed by C. S. Whitney and checked by Mattock and others [2]. A concrete stress ofc

0.85f 1 is assumed to be uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone

bounded by the edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis at a distance

a = β1c from the ﬁber of maximum compressive strain, where c is the distance between the top

of the compressive section and the neutral axis (Fig. 3.8). The fraction β1 is 0.85 cfor concrete

strengths f 1 ≤ 4000 psi

Values of β1 for different compressive strengths of concrete, f1 . c

(27.6 MPa) and is reduced linearly at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) of stress greater

than 4000 psi (Fig. 3.9), with a minimum value of 0.65.

The preceding discussion applies in general to any section, and it is not conﬁned to a

rectangular shape. In the rectangular section, the area of the compressive zone is equal to

ba, and every unit area is acted on by a uniform stress equal cto 0.85f 1 , giving a total stress

volume equalc to 0.85f 1 ab,

ab which corresponds to the compressive force C. For any other shape,

the force C is equal to the area of the compressive zone multiplied by a constant stress equal c

to 0.85f 1 .

For example, in the section shown in Fig. 3.10, the force C is equal to the shaded area of

the cross section multiplied by 0.85f 1c:

C = 0.85f 1(6 × 3 + 10 × 2) = 32.3 f 1 lb

c c

The position of the force C is at a distance z from the top ﬁbers, at the position of the

resultant force of all small-element

small forces of the section. As in the case when the stress is

85f 1 , the resultant force C is located at the center of gravity of the

uniform andc equals 0.85f

compressive zone, which has a depth of a.

In this example, z is calculated by taking moments about the top ﬁbers:

? )

6 × 3 × 3 + 10 × 2(1 + 3) 107

z= 2 = = 2.82 in.

6 × 3 + 10 × 2 38

We explained previously that a balanced condition is achieved when steel yields at the same

time as the concrete fails, and that failure usually happens suddenly. This implies that the yield

strain in the steel is reached (εy = fy /Es ) and that the concrete has reached its maximum strain

of 0.003. The percentage of reinforcement used to produce a balanced condition is called the

balanced steel ratio, ρb . This value is equal to the area of steel, As , divided by the effective

cross section, bd :

As(balanced)

ρb =

bd

Figure 3.10 Forces in a nonrectangular section.

where

b = width of compression face of member

d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension

reinforcement

Two basic equations for the analysis and design of structural members are the two equations

of equilibrium that are valid for any load and any section:

1. The compression force should be equal to the tension force; otherwise, a section will have

linear displacement plus rotation:

C=T (3.12)

2. The internal nominal bending moment, Mn, is equal to either the compressive force, C,

multiplied by its arm or the tension force, T, multiplied by the same arm:

Mn = C(d − z) = T (d − z)

(Mu = φMn after reduction by the factor φ.) (3.13)

The use of these equations can be explained by considering the case of a rectangular section

with tension reinforcement (Fig. 3.8). The section may be balanced, underreinforced, or over re-

inforced, depending on the percentage of steel reinforcement used.

Let us consider the case of a balanced section, which implies that at maximum load the strain

in concrete equals 0.003 and that of steel equals the first yield stress at distance dt divided by

the modulus of elasticity of steel, fy /Es . This case is explained by the following steps.

cb 0.003

=

dt − cb fy /Es

From triangular relationships (where cb is c for a balanced section) and by adding the

numerator to the denominator,

cb 0.003

=

dt 0.003 + fy /Es

Substituting Es = 29 × 103 ksi,

I \

87

cb = dt (fy in ksi) (3.14)

87 + fy

where fy is in ksi.

ec = 0.003 0.85fc′

a/2

a a C = 0.85fc′ab

Cb

d

dt

As

T = As f y

ey = fy /Es

b

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