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INTRODUCTION

Fluctuating demand is a major challenge for many types of capacity-


constrained service organizations, including airlines, restaurants, vacation
resorts, courier services, consulting firms, theaters, and call centers. These
demand fluctuations, which may range in frequency with efficient use of
productive assets, thus eroding profitability. By working collaboratively with
managers in operations and human resources, service marketers may be
able to develop strategies to bring demand capacity into balance in ways that
create benefits for customers as well as improving financial returns for the
business.

Waiting lines can be seen everywhere, whether you are entering a


convenience store to buy some food, paying your bills on bank or in school,
for you to take the final examination. Students often complain seeing the
lines, but they don’t have a choice. It has always been a part for everyone
who acquires service.

A group composed of four (4) fourth year Bachelor of Science in


Industrial Engineering students conducted a case study at CASHIER’S
SECTION of College of Industry and Technology in University of Southern
Mindanao-Kidapawan City Campus. The said establishment has three (3)
counters with one (1) cashier each, who are willing to render services to the
studentry . 10:00 A.M to 2:00 P.M are the peak hours, it is during the day
before the final examination wherein students have to wait a period of time to
pay their outstanding balance at the accounting office. The group clearly
characterizes that there is a waiting line in the said system especially in the
peak hours. All information relevant to the study are gathered and simple
analysis in the problems occurring at Cashier’s Section of USM-KCC-CIT will
be comprehended at the end on the course of the study at selected time.
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Objectives of the Study

This study aims to:

1. Provide data for investigating ways to reduce waiting lines or queue.

2. Determine the mean arrival rate and the mean service rate.

3. Provide an alternative solution based on the existing situation.

4. Minimize the total cost of (1) time lost by the arrivals waiting for service and
(2) providing that service.

PHYSICAL LAYOUT OF THE QUEUING SYSTEM BY CHANNEL AND SERVER

Cashier

Cashier

Cashier

Multichannel, Single Server


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OBSERVATIONS

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CALLING POPULATION

 The size of the students waiting for the cashier service is considered
infinite, because there is a large number of students coming and waiting
for the service to be rendered.

 The characteristic of arriving of the students is in random order.

 In the queue, the behavior of the students waiting in line are reneging
and balking, Reneging is when a student joins the queue and then leaves
because of boredom and becomes too impatient. Balking is when a
student checks the queue and if it’s a long waiting line; He/ She decide
not to join.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE QUEUE

 As observed, the waiting line in the cashier section of the USM-KCC is


unlimited, because the students keep coming in a random order.

 The waiting line is not distinctly organized, and it does not have proper
lining because some students go in group and do not follow the line.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SERVICE FACILITY

 The physical layout of the queuing system in the cashier section is single
queue, multiple channel.
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 The queue discipline of the queuing system in the cashier section is first
come first serve.

 The service time in the cashier section is randomly distributed.

 As observed, the individuals rendering the service are sometimes doing


unnecessary activities during servicing time.

 Sometimes in a channel, there is a lack of coins to be exchanged causing


the individual on that server to leave the channel and go to the money
storage to get some coins which causes delays.

ARRIVAL OF STUDENTS
(For every 5 minutes)

Table 01
Selected Time: 10:00-11:00 A.M (Monday)

OBSERVED TIME NO. OF INDIVIDUALS NO. OF INDIVIDUALS NO. OF INDIVIDUALS


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WHO ARRIVED WHO LEAVE THE WHO REMAIN


QUEUE
11:00-11:05 5 0 5
11:06-11:10 2 0 2
11:11-11:15 6 3 3
11:16-11:20 7 1 6
11:21-11:25 5 3 2
11:26-11:30 5 3 2
11:31-11:35 5 2 3
11:36-11:40 7 5 2
11:41-11:45 8 5 3
11:46-11:50 18 11 7
11:51-11:55 6 5 1
11:56-12:00 15 10 5
TOTAL 89 48 41

ARRIVAL OF STUDENTS
(For every 5 minutes)

Table 02
Selected Time: 01:00-02:00 P.M (Monday)

OBSERVED TIME NO. OF INDIVIDUALS NO. OF INDIVIDUALS NO. OF INDIVIDUALS


WHO ARRIVED WHO LEAVE THE WHO REMAIN
QUEUE
01:00-01:05 17 4 13
01:06-01:10 15 1 14
01:11-01:15 4 1 3
01:16-01:20 7 3 4
01:21-01:25 16 7 9
01:26-01:30 19 6 13
01:31-01:35 9 9 0
01:36-01:40 10 7 3
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01:41-01:45 7 3 4
01:46-01:50 8 4 4
01:51-01:55 10 9 1
01:56-02:00 9 6 3
TOTAL 131 60 71

LENGTH OF TIME

(MINUTES)
Table 3: The observed time gathered in the cashier section at 11:00 - 12:00 P.M
(Monday).

CASHIER
STUDENT A B C
1 1.83 3.16 1.73
2 1.41 1.23 2.67
3 2.16 0.57 1.20
4 1.65 0.68 2.19
5 1.47 1.09 2.32
6 1.73 0.84 1.71
7 1.46 1.08 2.10
8 1.73 1.11 1.31
9 1.97 1.55 1.30
10 2.64 2.48 1.29
11 1.27 2.55 1.26
12 1.25 1.65 1.17
13 1.81 1.54 1.42
14 1.46 2.16 1.14
15 1.94 0.99 1.05
16 1.20 1.51 1.75
17 1.59 1.09 4.40
18 1.51 1.15 1.21
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19 1.32 1.50 1.38


20 1.26 2.0 0.75
21 1.68 1.05 1.22
22 2.50 1.08 1.37
23 1.84 1.48 1.45
24 1.27 1.83 2.21
25 1.64 1.62 1.31
26 1.92 1.23 0.82
27 1.33 0.57 1.54
28 1.25 0.84 1.68
29 1.56 1.11 1.99
30 1.76 1.55 2.00
TOTAL 49.38 42.28 48.94
AVERAGE 1.646 1.409 1.63
AVERAGE 1.561
TOTAL
LENGTH OF TIME

(MINUTES)
Table 4: The observed time gathered in the cashier section at 1:00 - 2:00 P.M
(Monday).

CASHIER
STUDENT A B C
1 5.29 2.18 0.86
2 1.62 1.03 1.14
3 1.75 0.96 0.94
4 1.28 1.03 2.21
5 1.13 1.51 2.23
6 1.90 1.30 1.16
7 1.44 1.37 1.24
8 1.56 1.24 1.68
9 1.46 1.27 1.06
10 1.28 1.91 1.68
11 1.03 0.92 3.27
12 1.37 2.51 1.38
13 2.43 1.92 1.14
14 1.64 1.45 0.92
15 3.00 1.11 2.41
16 2.10 1.62 1.00
17 1.11 1.05 2.37
18 1.88 0.59 0.65
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19 1.27 0.94 1.03


20 1.88 1.29 1.57
21 1.61 1.45 1.10
22 1.95 1.93 0.84
23 1.59 1.95 0.74
24 1.24 1.22 1.52
25 1.25 2.21 2.04
26 1.62 1.67 1.34
27 1.31 2.64 1.94
28 1.90 0.96 1.69
29 1.44 1.27 0.25
30 1.46 2.18 0.94
TOTAL 51.803 40.478 42.34
AVERAGE 1.646 1.349 1.41
AVERAGE 1.499
TOTAL
MULTICHANNEL, SINGLE SERVER QUEUING MODEL

The queuing model we are about to present fits the situations where these
conditions are satisfied:

1. Not limited to one (1) one channel but involve situations where two or more
channels are available and where members of the calling population form a
single queue and wait for any one of the channels to become available for
service.
2. Situations where the mean arrival rate is less than the aggregate service rate,
which is defined as the mean service rate per channel times the number of
channels.

SYMBOLIC OPERATIONS:

λ= mean arrival rate per unit of time (say, an hour)


µ= mean service rate per unit of time
k= number of channels
Lq= mean number in queue
Ls= mean number in system (number in queue plus number being served)
Wq= mean time in queue
Ws= mean time in system (time in queue plus service time)
Pw= probability the service facility is busy (utilization factor)
Po= probability all cashiers are idle
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SOLUTION FOR MEAN ARRIVAL RATE (λ):

Mean Arrival Rate (λ) = 89+131


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Mean Arrival Rate (λ) = 110 students/hour

SOLUTION FOR MEAN SEVICE RATE (µ):

Mean Service Rate (µ) = 1.561+ 1.499


2
= 1.53 min. 1 hour
Students 60 mins.
= 0.0255 hour / students

Then, reciprocate to get the number of students per hour that to be


accommodated.
Therefore,

Mean Service Rate (µ) = 1 student


0.0255 hour
Mean Service Rate (µ) = 40 student / hour

COMPUTATIONS
WITH THREE (3) EXISTING CASHIERS
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Given: λ= 110 students/ hour

µ= 40 students/ hour

k= 3

Solutions:
For Po (Probability all cashiers are idle):


Po 
k

110
Po 
3( 40)

Po= 0.9167 0.01947

For Pw (Probability all cashiers are busy

k
1  k
Pw     Po 
k !    k  

=
1  110 
3
  3 40  
      0.01947 
3!  40    3 40  110 

Pw= 0.81
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For Ls:

k
    
Ls     Po   
 k  1! k    2

Ls 
(110 )(40) 110  40
 3

 0. 01947  
110
 3  1! (3)(40)  (110 ) 2
40

Ls= 11.658

For Ws: For Lq:


Ls Lq  Ls 
Ws  

110
Lq  11.658 
11 .658 40
Ws 
110
Lq  8.908

Ws  0.106

For Wq:

Lq
Wq 

8.908
Wq 
110
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Wq  0.0809

COMPUTATIONS
WITH THREE (4) EXISTING CASHIERS

Given: λ= 110 students/ hour

µ= 40 students/ hour

k= 4

Solutions:
For Po (Probability all cashiers are idle):


Po 
k

110
Po 
4(40)

Po= 0.6875 0.05587

For Pw (Probability all cashiers are busy

k
1  k
Pw     Po 
k!    k  

1  110 
3
  4 40 
     0.05587
4!  40    4 40  110 
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Pw= 0.426

For Ls:

k
    
Ls     Po   
 k  1! k    2

Ls 

(110 )(40) 110
40
 4

 0.05587  110
 4  1! (4)(40)  (110 ) 2
40
Ls= 3.69

For Ws: For Lq:

Ls 
Ws  Lq  Ls 
 
3.69 110
Ws  Lq  3.69 
110 40
Ws  0.0335 Lq  0.937

For Wq:
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Lq
Wq 

0.937
Wq 
110

Wq  0.00937

Table 5.Summary of the Computation of MultiChannel-Single Server


Queuing Model

3 CASHIER 4 CASHIERS
Probability all cashiers are idle 0.01947 0.05587
(Po)
Probability all cashiers are busy 0.81 0.846
(Pw)
Mean number of students in the 11.658 3.69
system, (Ls)
Mean number of students in the 8.908 0.937
queue, (Lq)
Mean time in system by a 0.106 0.0335
students, (Ws)
Mean time in the queue by a 0.0809 0.00937
students, (Wq)
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on table 1 and 2, peak hours fall on 11:00-12:00 in the morning and

1:00-2:00 in the afternoon, where the number of students arrived to pay for their

accounts payable in the cashier section. The observers found out that the mean

arrival rate of students was 110 students/ hour and on table 3 and 4, 30 randomly

selected students, the mean service rate of (1) cashier is 40 students per hour.

Multiple Queuing Model (fits the situation) where: the mean arrival rate is

less than the aggregate service rate (The mean service rate per channel times

the number of channel).


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110 students/ hour < 40 (3 Cashiers)

The summary of the results obtained in Multichannel Queuing Model was

shown in table 5. The student’s mean time in the system (Ws= 0.106) and the

student’s waiting time (Wq= 0.0809) show that the (3) cashiers can handle their

work effectively. For (4) cashiers, students mean time in the system (Ws=

0.0335) and the student’s waiting time (Wq= 0.00937).

Since the probability that the service facility is busy (Pw) is equivalent to
81 %, this shows that they could accommodate their entire customers. Thus, the
group had decided not to recommend any additional cashiers for they could
administer their works with proficiency.

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Based on the observations, the group found out that the causes of the queue
were both coming from the person who rendered the service (cashier) and the
one who avails it (students).

On the cashier’s part; sometimes, she keeps on demanding for another


extent from the student though that student has already given an amount of
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money. Yet, in fact the cashier really has a change. However, there are instances
that a cashier is lacking some coins but she has to be ready for this situation so
that delays can be avoided. Moreover, there are interludes that in rendering the
service the cashiers sometimes doing unnecessary activities during servicing
time causing delays on which the cost of time spends by the student increases.

On the student’s part; their attitude towards getting into the line is not
considerable, not distinctly organized, and it does not have proper lining because
some students go in group and do not follow the line. Furthermore, student’s
don’t prepare the money ahead of time so as it gives delays constructing a
queue.

Hence, the management’s responsibilities are well-achieved. They have


allotted an extensive area but student’s misuse or mis-occupy the section in
which it gives disruption to those who will search for space. Nevertheless, the
vicinity is well-ventilated, there is an adequate chair allotted for the students,
parents and visitors in which it is very essential.

Significantly, most of the time, it is the student who have a big role on the
basis of forming queue or waiting line which it results to a series of delays.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following are some simple recommendations of the group in order to


attain the objective of the study which is to minimize the waiting line:

1. The waiting line in the cashier section should be organized and have a
proper lining. With this, the observers recommend that tight steel rails be
imposed in the system to avoid reneging and have a well organized queuing
system.
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2. As much as possible, individuals attending the channel must be time


conscious and must avoid unnecessary activities to be productive and to
cater more students during the working time.

3. Coins should be placed near the server to minimize avoidable delays.

4. During peak hours, the door near the c.r of the admin building should not
be opened, because it causes the lines to be interrupted.

5. Both the cashier and her colleague should avoid doing unnecessary task
especially during peak hours if it is not related on their works.

6. There should be a stipulation of having signage which give directions on


where the student’s will form their line. This should be hanged vertically.

C
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REGISTRAR’S OFFICE
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REGISTRAR’S OFFICE
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Le
Flow After Receiving the Service

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