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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

College of Engineering and Technology


Chemical Engineering Department

SILO 1
(Storage for Powdered Alimasag Shell)

DESIGN PROBLEM
The 1337.32 kg of powdered Alimasag shell is to be conveyed in a silo for storage prior to
alkali digestion.

DESIGN DESCRIPTION
The silo is a structure used to store the powdered Alimasag shell after it passes through the
ball mill. It consists of a bin and a hopper. It stores a capacity of powdered Alimasag shell enough for
7-batch operation. The powdered Alimasag shell enter the silo in the inlet feed via screw conveyor.
The powdered Alimasag shell is stored inside the silo until the next process. Once needed for the next
equipment, it passes down the hopper and exits the equipment via rotary valve and is conveyed to the
alkali digester via screw conveyor.

DESIGN SELECTION
The silo provides good storage for large quantity of materials.

PARTS AND FUNCTIONS

Parts of Silo 1

Parts and Function of Silo 1

PARTS FUNCTION
Bin It is a cylindrical material that serves as the body of the silo.
Hopper It is a conical structure that supports the discharge of grinded
abaca stripping wastes.
Head It covers the structure.
Legs It supports the silo.

DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
1. The mass of the powdered aliamasag shell is 1337.32 kg/batch (9361.24 kg for 7-batch
operation). (Basis: Material Balance)
2. The bulk density of the powdered alimasag shell is 567.90 kg/m3. (Basis: Experimental
Study)
Plasticization of Chitosan from Alimasag Shells and Cellulose Nanocrystal from Tobacco
Technical
Stalks for the Production of Liner Film T4-54
R.C.Macasil, M.D.Mendoza, K.J.O.Raymundo, D.J.S.Saya Study
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering Department

3. The powdered Alimasag shell are stored enough for 7-batch operation. (Basis: Detailed
Manufacturing Process)

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
1. A safety factor of 20% with a filling capacity of 80% is typically used in designing silo (Plant
Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 4th Edition by Peters and Timmerhaus, Table
6, p. 37).
2. The material of construction is stainless steel 301 due to its good structural qualities (Plant
Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Peters and Timmerhaus, 4 th Ed., Table 4,
p.426).
3. Mass-flow bins are suitable for powdered materials achievable through conical bin and hopper
at the bottom (Jenike and Johanson. Ten Steps to an Effective Bin Design. American Institute
of Chemical Engineers).
4. The effective angle of internal friction,δ for powdered materials such as powdered alimasag
shell is 24.10 (Physical Properties of Agricultural Materials and Food Products. Friction of
Solids and Flow of Granular Solids).
5. Typical wall friction angle, δw for powdered materials such as powdered Alimasag shell is
35.500 (Bulk Properties of Powders by Carson et. Al)
6. The critical applied stress of powder materials is 0.83 kPa (Chase G.G. Hopper Design).
7. The height of the cylinder/bin is kept to 2 times the cylinder/bin diameter (Jenike and
Johanson. Ten Steps to an Effective Bin Design. American Institute of Chemical Engineers).

DESIGN REQUIREMENT
1. Capacity of the Silo
2. Hopper Outlet Diameter
3. Dimension of the Silo
a. Bin Diameter
b. Height of Bin
c. Height of Hopper
d. Total Height
4. Discharge Rate

DESIGN CALCULATIONS
1. Capacity of the Silo
Mass of the entering feed for 7 batches is 9,239.09 kg with 80% filling capacity and 20%
safety factor:
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑
𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
(9,361.24 𝑘𝑔)(1.20)
𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
kg
567.90 3
m
𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 19.7808 𝑚3
Use 20 m3

Plasticization of Chitosan from Alimasag Shells and Cellulose Nanocrystal from Tobacco
Technical
Stalks for the Production of Liner Film T4-55
R.C.Macasil, M.D.Mendoza, K.J.O.Raymundo, D.J.S.Saya Study
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering Department

2. Hopper Outlet Diameter, d


For an effective angle of internal friction,δ=24.10 and wall friction angle, δw = 35.500:

Design Chart for Conical Outlet Hoppers

From the chart, we get the semi included angle/hopper angle from vertical, θ=13o and the flow
factor, ff= 1.56

The following equation is used to determine the outlet diameter, B:

𝐻(𝜃)𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡
𝑒𝑞 1: 𝑑 =
𝜌𝑏 𝑔

Where: B=outlet diameter


𝜃 13
𝐹𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝐽𝑒𝑛𝑖𝑘𝑒, 𝐻(𝜃)(𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝐺. 𝐺. 𝐻𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛) = 1 + = 1+ = 1.07
180 180

𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 = 0.83 𝑘𝑃𝑎

Plasticization of Chitosan from Alimasag Shells and Cellulose Nanocrystal from Tobacco
Technical
Stalks for the Production of Liner Film T4-56
R.C.Macasil, M.D.Mendoza, K.J.O.Raymundo, D.J.S.Saya Study
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering Department

Thus,

1𝑁
1000𝑃𝑎 𝑚2
0.83 𝑘𝑃𝑎 ∗ ∗
𝑑 = 1.07 x 𝑘𝑃𝑎 𝑃𝑎 ∗ 1𝑘𝑔 ∗ 𝑚/𝑠 2
𝑘𝑔 𝑁
567.90 3 ∗ 9.807𝑚/𝑠 2
𝑚
d = 0.1595 m

Use: d = 0.16 m

3. Dimension of the Silo


a. Bin Diameter, D
Solving for the Silo Volume:
Vsilo = Vbin + Vhopper
πD2 H πH(D2 + Dd + d2
Vsilo =( )+( )
4 12

For cylindrical hopper,


H = 2D
Since d = 0.16 m
πD2 (2D) πHhopper (D2 + Dd + d2
Vsilo = ( )+( )
4 12
2
πD (2D) π(tan 13 x (D − 0.16))(D + D(0.16 m) + 0.162
2
19.7808 m3 = ( )+( )
4 12
D = 2.2974 m
𝐃 = 𝟐. 𝟑𝟎 𝐦

b. Height of the Bin


𝐻𝑏 = 2𝐷 = 2(2.3 𝑚)
𝑯𝒃 = 𝟒. 𝟔𝟎 𝒎
c. Height of the Hopper
𝐻ℎ = tan 130 (𝐷 − 0.20) = 0.4842 𝑚
𝑯𝒉 = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎 𝒎
d. Total Height
𝐻𝑇 = 𝐻𝑏 + 𝐻ℎ = 4.6 + 0.50 = 𝟓. 𝟏𝟎 𝒎
4. Rate of Discharge
For the mass flow of course particles, the Johanson Equation is used:
𝐵𝑔
𝑚̇ = 𝜌°𝐴√
2(1 + 𝑚)tan(𝜃)
where:𝜃 = semi included angle of the hopper, 13o
𝑚̇ = discharge rate (kg/sec)
𝜌° = bulk density (kg/m3), 567.90
𝑔 = gravity acceleration (9.807 m/s2)
For conical hopper,
𝐵 = d, diamater of outlet
𝐴 = (/4)D2 ; m =1
Plasticization of Chitosan from Alimasag Shells and Cellulose Nanocrystal from Tobacco
Technical
Stalks for the Production of Liner Film T4-57
R.C.Macasil, M.D.Mendoza, K.J.O.Raymundo, D.J.S.Saya Study
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering Department

kg 𝜋 0.16 (9.807)
𝑚̇ = 567.90 3
𝑥 ( (0.16 )2 ) √
m 4 2(1 + 1)tan(13)
𝒎̇ = 𝟏𝟒. 𝟖𝟖𝟑𝟗 𝒌𝒈/𝒔𝒆𝒄

DESIGN SPECIFICATION

SPECIFICATION SHEET SILO


OPERATING DATA
No. of Required Units 1
Method of Operation Batch
Service Powdered Alimasag Shell
Operating Temperature Ambient (25°C)
Operating Pressure Ambient (1 atm)
Feed Flowrate 1337.32 kg/batch
Discharge Rate 14.88 kg/sec
Technical Data
Parameters Proposed Existing
Capacity 20.00 m3 Up to 60 m3
Total Height 5.10 m 16 – 80 ft (5.096 – 24.384 m)
Bin Diameter 2.30 m 6 – 30 ft (1.6576 - 9.144 m)
Hopper Outlet Diameter 0.16 m -
Materials of Construction
Silo Stainless Steel Type 301
Equipment Supplier
Supplier Name HG Silos Inc.
Supplier Address Pacita Complex B6L6P1 San Pedro Laguna 4023
Equipment Cost Php 299,460.00
Expected Useful Life 35 years

Plasticization of Chitosan from Alimasag Shells and Cellulose Nanocrystal from Tobacco
Technical
Stalks for the Production of Liner Film T4-58
R.C.Macasil, M.D.Mendoza, K.J.O.Raymundo, D.J.S.Saya Study
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
College of Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering Department

DESIGN CONFIGURATION

DESIGN CONFIGURATION OF SILO 1

Plasticization of Chitosan from Alimasag Shells and Cellulose Nanocrystal from Tobacco
Technical
Stalks for the Production of Liner Film T4-59
R.C.Macasil, M.D.Mendoza, K.J.O.Raymundo, D.J.S.Saya Study