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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

Industrial Training Report

SHRIRAM SAHAKARI SAKHAR KARKHANA


LTD.
PHALTAN.
Submitted to

Department of Mechanical Engineering

LATE NARAYANDAS BHAWANDAS CHHABADA


INSTITUDE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
RAIGAON, SATARA.

Submitted by

Mr. GADE YOGESH BABAN

Roll No.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr.GADE YOGESH BABAN of B.E.


(Mechanical) Roll no. has completed his Industrial Training during the
academic year 2013-2014 at Shriram Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana, Phaltan as
Partial fulfillment of the B.E. (Mechanical) course.

Coordinator Head of
(T & P) Department Of Mechanical Engineering

Examined by:-
Date:-

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am sincerely thankful to management and of various departments in


Shriram Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd. for giving me the valuable information
and their time. My sincere thanks to all the persons related to this for giving me
this opportunity to attain Industrial training in Shriram Sahakari Sakhar
Karkhana Ltd.

I am grateful to my guiding person Mr.Narsinh Shinde way to extract


maximum & helping me through the obstacles throughout my training program.
As last but not the least I am whole heartily thankful to the supervisors of all
department & personnel for providing me useful information & all those proved
equally effective during the training period.

Thanking You.

Date: - Yours sincerely,


Place: - Raigaon, Satara. Gade Yogesh Baban

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DECLARATION

Respected sir,

I hereby declare that the Industrial Training, I have taken under


guidance of Mr.Narsinh Shinde from Shriram Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd.

The report generated by me is based upon the information collected


by me. If my report is found to be copied then, I will be liable to punished by
rule.

You’re sincerely,
Gade Yogesh Baban

INDEX

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SR. NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

1. Sugar Economy In India 6

2. Company Profile 9

3. Layout Of Company 11

Operations In Industry
4.1 Sugar Making
4. 13
4.2 Operations Of Engineering Division
4.3 Biogas And Distillery Division

Other Products
5.1 Liquor
5. 23
5.2 Bi-product
5.3 Fertilizer

6. Conclusion 26

1) SUGAR ECONOMY IN INDIA

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1.1) Indian Sugar Economy


The sugar industry is the largest agro-based industry and India is the Second
largest producer of sugar in the world next only to Brazil. Sugar industry in India
is headed for a rough patch during the current sugar year ending September 30,
2009. India plays a crucial role in the world's sugar output. Indian sugar industry
is controlled by the Government. Starting front cane price to the price of suear,
everything is under the hands of the Government. The Statutory minimum Price
(SNIP) of sugarcane is fixed by the Central Government to support the cane
farmers. However, states like OR. Haryana and Uttarakhand are free to fix their
own price known as State Advisory Price (SAP), which is usually higher than SNIP.

1.2) India's Production


The Country's sugar output touched a three year low. Sugar production in 2008-
09 season is set to fall by 44% from the previous season. In sugar season 2008-09.
production has declined to 147.50 lacs tones compared to production M263.28 lac
tonnes in the year, 2007-08. One major reason for this is the shrinkage it the
sugarcane growing area in last couple of years due to delay in cane payment and
confusion over the price, less area of ratoon in this season and poor monsoon in some
parts of the country. The sugar industry is cyclical in nature. It is dependent upon
monsoons for both its production and price realisation. Such a shortfall in sugar
production has posed a serious threat to inventory on hand. Drop in cane output
may lead to increase in cost of production for sugar companies and hit their profit
margins in 2009.

1.3) Government policies


Rising prices of sugar has caused concern to the Government and it has
intervened substantially to control the prices of the sugar. because it is one of the
essential commodities. The Government brought in measures such as weekly quota
for free sale, weekly reporting mechanism to monitor sugar dispatches and sale.
liberalized Tit ls' sugar import under Advance Authorization Scheme (with change
in export obligation norm from 'grain-to-grain' to 'tonne to tonne. basis) and finally

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the facility to import raw sugar without export obligation as well as import of white
sugar 10 lakh tonnes by Government agencies, both at zero% customs duty. The
Centre is also planning to bring back Gar under the Sugarcane (control) order, 1996
to ensure adequate cane supplies to sugar mills.

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2) COMPANY PROFILE

This is one business which impact all the populations of the area in there day
to day life and has transformed the local area socio- economically.
The first crushing season began in 1986 with the capacity of 1000 TCD. The factory
has increased its crushing capacity constantly. Following are capacity wise details of
various products manufactured

1. Sugar Cane Crushing - 2500 TCD / day


2. Electricity Export to Grid hing- 3 MW / day
3. Rectified Sprit - 60000 Liter. / Day
4. Extra Neutral Alcohol- 11000 Liter. / Day
5. Country Liquor- 13000 Liter. / Day
6. Foreign Liquor- 7000 Liter. / Day
43 Tons / day
7. Organic Manure-

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Shriram Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd.,Phaltan

 LOCATION:

About 1 Kms. from Phaltan Bus Station.

Nearest Railway station: Lonand -25 Kms from Phaltan.

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 COMPANY QUALITY POLICY:

1) We are commited to produce and supply the products to meet our customer
needs.

2) We shall continually strive to improve the effectiveness of our quality


management system.

3) We shall train and motivate our employees for continual improvement.

4) Quality is what we think and believe.

5 ) We are conscious about our responsibilities towards safety,health and


environment.

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3) GENERAL LAYOUT OF FACTORY:-

 Shriram sahakari sakhar karkhana has various divisions. Generally the


main departments of factory are as shown in the diagram.

Shriram sugar
factory

Electric power
Sugar plant Distillery plant Biogas plant
plant

 The sugar plant is meant for the sugar production which involves the various
departments as shown below.

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Sugar
manufacturing

Chemical and quality Manufacturing Maintainance Packing and storing


Process department
department department department department

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 Distillery and biogas plant has following departments as shown in the diagram

Distillery and
biogas plant

Manufacturing Quality
Process plant Chemical plant
plant department

Packing
department

 Electric power plant is off course made for the production and distribution of
the electricity. The various sections under this are as shown below.

Electric power
plant

Boiler section Turbine section Power distribution

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4) OPERATIONS IN INDUSTRY

The factory produces export quality sugar grades S-30 with an ICUMSA value
less than 100. The factory had a crushing over 4,22,624 M.T. till 27/06/2011. The
factory had a crushing duration of over 180 days in this season and has consistently
recorded an average sugar recovery of around 11.22%. The Company has the most
sophisticated equipments as per global standards to generate the best quality sugar.

4.1) MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF SUGAR


The Company does a Q.C. Test of the cane developed in and around the area
of the sugar factory. The Company has a fully automated unit in which the cane is
transferred to a cane carrier and passed through cutters and levelers to cut the cane
into suitable sizes. The cane so prepared is then passed through the Milling Tandem
consisting of Crushers and Mills.

The juice obtained from crushing is known as 'mixed' or 'raw juice'. Such juice
is pumped to the process house where it is heated up to 65/76 degrees centigrade and
treated with Lime and Sulphur Dioxide Gas. After this treatment, the juice is further
heated to 100 degrees centigrade in juice heaters. The heated juice is then sent to
Clarifiers where the precipitate of Tricalcium Phosphate, Calcium Sulphate settles
down and the clarified juice floats on the top.

The clarified juice is treated in Evaporators and the syrup is mixed with
Sulphur Dioxide gas in Sulphitation tanks. The output is known as 'Sulphured Syrup'
from which sugar crystals are obtained. The sugar crystals of desired grade i.e. 'Grade
A' are obtained in three stages. In the first stage 'nucile' is passed through the syrup to
obtain 'C' grain. The 'C' grain is washed to obtain 'C' Grain Massecuite' which is
boiled in Vacuum Pan and passed through Crystallizers and Centrifuges to obtain 'C'
Grain Sugar and final Molasses. The final Molasses is stored separately and the 'C'
Grain Sugar is further processed to obtain 'B Grain Sugar' and light Molasses. 'B
Grain Sugar' is further processed to obtain 'A Grain Sugar', to be bagged in 100Kg.
packs.

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The different stages are as explained below

1. Diffusion
After leaving the Slicers the cassettes are pre-heated and fed into the R.T.
Diffuser. (Imagine a large teapot with tea leaves in it. This is the same principle).The
diffuser works on a counter-flow basis and is similar to a scroll inside. Inside the
diffuser it is important that the conditions are right. The main elements are
temperature, pH and retention time. The correct balance of these three operating
parameters is imperative to allow the maximum extraction of the sucrose molecules
and still maintain a well-structured cossette for pressing into pulp for Animal Feed
Shreds.
The whole process of sugar making can be represented by the flow charts as
described below

2. Carbonatation
This station is used for the purification and clarification of the juice. When
the raw juice leaves the Diffuser it is very dark and contains many impurities, which
must be removed before it can be processed further. In the 1st Carbonatation tanks,
Milk of Lime and Carbon Dioxide Gas are added to the juice.
This acid/alkali mixture assists in removing the impurities, by forming a
precipitate, which allows the solid matter to separate out from the liquid. The juice is
fed into a large vessel [Clarifier] to allow this process to take place. The clear juice is
pumped on to the 2nd Carbonatation Tank where it has more Carbon Dioxide Gas
injected and finally filtered through some G.P.

3. Filtration
The slurry from the Clarifier is pumped into the Vacuum Filters. These are
cloth covered rotating drums that use a vacuum to draw the slurry onto the cloth, yet
allowing the juice to pass through. As the drum passes through the lower bowl the
slurry is sucked onto the cloth. As it revolves out of the slurry, there are water sprays,
which rinse the sucrose out of the slurry. This sugar solution is fed back into the
Carbonatation stage of the process.

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4. Evaporation
The clear juice is pumped into the Evaporators. At this stage the juice has
quite a low density. It is what we call Thin Juice and is 84% water. To prepare the
juice for crystallization the water content has to be reduced to about 32%.
To remove all this water, it has to be evaporated off. Since energy is very
expensive, we use the steam only once in the 1st Effect Evaporators. As the juice
boils, vapour is produced and this is used to heat up the 2nd Effect Evaporators.
This process is repeated 5 times and so for the price of one unit of energy. We
can achieve 5 times the heating capacity.

5. Crystallization
The juice is batch-fed into four Vacuum Pans. These are kept under a vacuum
so that the juice can be boiled at a lower temperature, generally 80C . This enables us
to make the pure white crystals of the highest quality. The juice is firstly boiled until
the water content is about 20%. A calculated amount of finely ground sugar crystals,
about the size of Icing Sugar, are added to this concentrated syrup. The crystals are
then allowed to grow, at a controlled rate, until they are the correct size for
Granulated Sugar.
When the crystals have reached this optimum size, the pan contents are fed
into a receiver ready for the final stage of the process. The syrup mix is now called
massecuite. The residual syrup goes through this process three times, to extract as
much sugar crystal as possible. The remaining syrup is Molasses.

6. Centrifuging
Massecuite from the White Pans is fed into one of seven Centrifugals. These
machines use centrifugal force to separate the crystals from the syrup.
A batch of massecuite is spun until most of the syrup has been removed, then a light
spray of clean water is used to polish up the crystals.
The centrifuges will rotate at 1500r.p.m. attaining speeds of 170 m.p.h. Each
basket produces approximately 250 kilos of sugar from every batch.

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A Mascuit boiling

Crystallisation

A-Light Molasses A-Heavy Molasses White sugar

Crystallisation B-Mascuit boiling Grader

Dry seed
Centrifugal M-30 S-30

B-sugar B-heavy Weightment Weightment

C-Mascuite Boiling Bagging Bagging

Crystallisation

Centrifugal

CFW Final molasses

C-sugar C-light Storage tank

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4.2) ENGINEERING DIVISION

This is the very important and essential division of Shriram sugar factory. All
subparts of engineering like design, production and quality are united in the same
division.
The main purpose of engineering department is that to correct any engineering
problems arising in sugar factory. The problems may involve conditions like problems
in valves, problems in pumps, electronic and electric faults, and stoppage of any
working unit, etc.
To correct the problems or to produce any component engineering division
makes the use of following machines.

1. Lathe machine (2 in number)


2. Shaper machine (1 in number)
3. Drilling machine (1 in number)

1. Lathe machine

The main function of a lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to give it
the required shape and size. This is accomplished by holding the work securely and
rigidly on the machines and then turning it against cutting tool which will remove
metal from the work in the form of chips. To cut the material properly the tool should
be harder than the material of the work piece. Work piece should be rigidly held on
the machine and should be fed or progressed in a definite way relative to the work.

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There are various types of lathe machines. In the sugar factory all the lathe
machines used are of centre lathe type. The lathe machine consist the different parts
like bed, headstock, tailstock, carriage, feed mechanism etc. The back gear
arrangement is provided to provide a variable range of speeds. The different
accessories and attachments like carriers catch plates, chucks, face plates, angle
plates, mandrels etc. The lathe can perform the different operations like turning,
chamfering, polishing, grooving, facing, knurling, filing, forming, spinning etc.
In the sugar factory, the parts like valves, pumps etc are processed on the lathe
machine as per the operations required.

2. Hydraulic Shaper machine (1 in number)

The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tools intended primarily to


produce flat surfaces. These surfaces may be horizontal, vertical, or inclined. In
general, the shaper machine can produce any surface composed of straight line
element. Modern shapers can also generate contoured surfaces

Base, columns, cross rails, saddle, table, ram, and


tool head are the main parts of the machine. Shaper
can perform different operations like machining
horizontal surface, machining vertical surface,

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machining angular surface, cutting slots and


keyways, machining irregular surface, machining
spines or cutting gears. Shaper works on the
principle of quick return mechanisms.

In the sugar factory machine used is a horizontal shaper machine and it’s used
to machine the different surfaces.

3. Drilling machine (1 in number)

The radial drilling machine is one of the important machine tool in the
workshop. Although it was primarily designed to originate the hole, it can perform
number of similar operations. In a drilling machine holes can be drilled quickly and at
low cost. The hole is generated by the rotating cutting edge of a cutting tool known as
the drill which exerts large force on the work clamped on the table. As the machine
tool exerts vertical pressure to originate a hole it is loosely called as “drill press”.
Drilling machines are of number of types as portable drilling machine,
sensitive drilling machine, upright drilling machine, radial drilling machine, gang
drilling machine etc. The basic parts of the lathe are as base, column, and radial arm,
and drill head, spindle speed and feed mechanism. Different types of tool holding and
work holding devices are also used in the working of the drilling machine.
The different operations performed on the lathe are as drilling, reaming, boring,
counter boring, counter sinking, spot facing, tapping, lapping, grinding, trepanning
etc.

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4.3) MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

The following mechanical equipments are used in this sugar factory.

1. Boiler
There are totally four boilers in the factory out of which the specification of
one boiler is as mentioned as below.

Specifications:

Year of manufacturing- 1983


Heating surface- 743 square meters
Capacity- 14 Mt per HR
Working pressure- 21 Kg per square centimeters
Steam temperature- 340 degree Celsius
S.H. heating surface- 55 square meters

Boilers

Make Taxmaco Buckau Wolf

Nos. 4 1,2,3

Evaporation
21 14
Capacity TPH

Super heater outlet


400 340
Temp.0C

Pressure 32 kg/cm2 21 kg/cm2

Type & furnace Spreader stroker H.S. furnace with E.C.C.

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with dump grate


2. Turbine
The following types of turbines are used in the company.
Turbine

Make Triveni Triveni

Multistage impulse
Type Multistage impulse
550mm

Inlet Pressure
21 kg/cm2 32 kg/cm2
.

Temp. 0C 340 400

Outlet Pressure 0.8 kg/cm2 0.9 kg/cm2

Temp. 0C 160 160

3. Compressor

4. Pumps

5. Generators

4.4) BIOGAS AND DISTILLERY DIVISION:

 Biogas division
The biogas is the side product of the company. The waste liquid coming out of
distillery is processed in two large tanks and biogas is produced. The daily production
of biogas is nearly about 30,000 cubic meters per day.
The design used for the biogas production is very simple and conventional one.
The biogas department is mainly meant for controlling the activities related with the

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biogas production. In two large tanks different chemicals are also used to activate the
reaction process of biogas formation.
This produced biogas is circulated and used in boilers as fuel which saves the
bagas.

 Distillery division
This division is established in the year of 1990 in the sugar factory. The
working is quite simple. The molasses coming out of factory is sent in large tanks
where fermentation process is carried out. The type of fermentation process used is
continuous fermentation process.
The total distillery capacity is 15000 liters per day. This division consist two
plants. The capacity of each one is different as given below.

First plant: - 5000 liters per day


Second plant: - 10000 liters per day
The total process carried out is very simple. After fermenting the liquid it
comes into large columns where in first it’s heated and in another it’s rapidly cooled.
This process gives the alcohol from which further products are designed.

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5) OTHER PRODUCTS

5.1) Liquor

 Country Liquor
In CL we have Tie-up with M/s. Rama Marketing, Kolhapur and M/s. Silver
Oak Traders, Pune for Marketing. We are producing Royal Santra, Royal Cafe,
Mumbai Santra, Maharanjan Santra, Maharanjan Cafe, Ghungaru Santra, Deccan
Queen Santra, Deccan Queen Cafe, Santra, Robby Santra, Golden Jacks, Doctor
Blendy etc. and these products are very much demanded all over Maharashtra.

 Indian Made Foreign Liquor


In IMFL we have tie-up with M/s. Shaw Wallace Distilleries Ltd. Kolkata,
which one of the biggest Liquor Company in India. We have produced most of their
prestigious and popular blends like Directors Special Whisky, Moghul Monarch
Whisky, Old tavern Whisky, Hi-Life Whisky - Rum - Gin - Vodka, Haywards Fine
Whisky, High Command Whisky, Olde Aventure Rum, Haywards Fine Brandy,
Haywards Doctor Brandy, Officers Choice Whisky (B.D.A.Ltd.) etc.
Out of these Directors Special Whisky and other some varieties exported to out of
India as Sharjah, Kuwait, Ajman, Oman etc. And also most of varieties exported to
out of state to South India as well as Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

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5.2) Bi-Products
The Bi- Product of Sugar Mill is MOLASSES. Molasses of the sugar unit is
sold to the Distillery Unit and is used for the manufacturing of Industrial Alcohol.

(Molasses fluid)

The Company uses “PRESSMUD”, waste products from the Sugar Mill for the
production of these bio-products. Press mud has got nutrients which increase the
fertility of the soil if used in preparing fertilizers. “BAGASSE”, another waste
material is used as a fuel in boilers for generation of steam required during the
manufacturing process of Sugar, generation of electricity and operation of plants.
Surplus Bagas can be used as a raw material for Paper mills and Paper Board Mills.
The Company has developed a system in which Press mud (waste of Sugar factory) is
used for Bio-composting. The composting process after completion is ready for use as
manure. This is then packed in plastic bags for distribution. It is highly rich with
Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash.

(Biocompost)

This solution has been efficiently tested by the expertise in all the leading
sugar factories worldwide.

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5.3) Fertilizers-

 Chemical Fertilizers
The sugar factory also provides fertilizers to the cane producing farmers in the
industrial area. These fertilizers are tested fine so as to improve the fertility of the soil
and to give a good crop. It is usually prepared using micro food particles, bacteria and
other chemicals form the sugar factory. For time to time supply of manure, the sugar
factory has started centers for manure distribution in the work areas in
Girvi,Pimprad,Aasu,Pawarwadi,Jadhavwadi,Dudhebawi.

 Earthworm manure supply


After an analysis of the soil in and around the vicinity of the sugar factory,
the factory has also started producing manure using raw material like biogas, cow
dung, dry leaves and mud. Earthworms are an indicator of soil health. They increase
the fertility in soils by breaking down the organic matter. This improves pastoral
productivity by increasing plant growth through faster nutrient recycling.

They provide better soil structure due to their movement through the soil. This
causes better mixing of soil layers which leads to better plant root development,
better drainage and reduced erosion, and better aeration and water holding
capacity. There are nearly 200 different species of earthworm .There are many
species of native earthworms, but these seldom occur in developed soils.

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6) CONCLUSION

From this Industrial training, I got familiar with the primary objective to go
through practical experience, a sound appreciation and understanding of the
theoretical principles learnt as an undergraduate at the University. This Industrial
training was oriented towards developing the skills, knowledge and attitudes needed
to make an effective start as a member of the engineering profession. Also I have been
introduced with a

 Systematic introduction to the ways of industry and developing talent and


attitudes, so that we can enjoy fully, a career in engineering while recognizing
our responsibilities as a professional engineer of the future.
 Understanding real life situations in industrial organizations and their related
environments and accelerating the learning process of how we knowledge
could be used in a realistic way.
 Enabling to execute more informed judgment and accepting responsibility for
it.

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