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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

(University of the City of Manila)

PROJECT
IN
MATHEMATICS IN THE MODERN WORLD (MMW 0001)

CASTILLO, Sofia
FLORES, Andrea Faye
ISON, Art Alexander
REYES, Miguel Grecco
VALEROSO, Ma. Charmilyn
Dr. Josephine R. Macasieb
BSN1 – Block 2 TF 11:30 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.

August 28, 2018


A QUANTITATIVE STUDY EXPLORING UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENTS’
PERCEPTION OF THEIR CRITICAL THINKING AND CLINICAL DECISION MAKING
ABILITY WHILE USING APPS AT THE POINT OF CARE

I. Methodology
The research used a pretest-posttest approach in order to determine the
effect of mobile technologies on undergraduate nursing students in gaining
critical-thinking and clinical decision making abilities. The participants were fourth
year undergraduate nursing students at the researcher’s university. It was
conducted in the province of Alberta Canada and was collected from May 2013
to December 2014 during their senior clinical course. The clinical course lasted
for 350 hours in duration and took place in a practice setting of the student’s
choice. The participants completed their on medical, surgical, or critical care units
in an urban tertiary hospital. A sample of 30 students completed the
questionnaire and was instructed to use apps as well as normal resources used
such as textbooks and procedure manuals. Majority of the respondents felt
comfortable using mobile technology in assessing their practice skills. (Sedgwick,
M. et.al., 2016).

II. Procedure
A standardized questionnaire was used to measure the critical thinking
and decision making ability of the participants namely the Clinical Decision
Making in Nursing Scale or CDMNS and Clinical Effectiveness and Evidence
Base Practice Questionnaire or EBPQ. The questionnaires have been used to
support the aim of the study. Both also used a 5 point Likert scale with responses
ranging from never to always. It was completed during and after the preceptor
ship. The gathered data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences (SPSS) and Descriptive Statistics were used for all survey items.
T-test was used to analyze the difference between the first and second
questionnaire. The Mean and Standard Deviation was computed per item in the
survey. (Sedgwick, M. et.al., 2016)
III. Personal Insights

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The study revealed that there was no difference in the student’s critical
thinking ability. Nevertheless, there were significant differences between the
participant’s views in their ability to connect through evidence-based practice.
This finding suggests that these participants usage of the app gradually
increased over time and they believed that it would give them sufficient answers
and information the app was providing. I think that the use of mobile applications
can be helpful for nurses or student nurses given that it provide accurate
information that aids safe and effective nursing care. These applications may
also help the nurse in gaining critical thinking skills and be active learners. The
use of mobile technologies surely can contribute for fact-checking decisions in
evidenced-based practice. However, the nurse should not be solely dependent
on the application itself but rather utilize it for data organization. (Sedgwick, M.
et.al., 2016).

IV. Bibliography

Sedgwick, M. et.al. (2016). A quantitative study exploring undergraduate nursing


students’ perception of their critical thinking and clinical decision making ability while
using apps at the point of care. Retrieved August, 27, 2018 from
http://www.sciedupress.com/journal/index.php/jnep/article/view/8829

EXPLORATION OF FATIGUE IN SECOND YEAR NURSING STUDENTS

I. Methodology
A quantitative research was used in this research with a non-
experimental descriptive research design. It aims to explore on second year

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nursing student’s fatigue during their final clinical consolidation in a hospital or
community setting. The purpose of a descriptive design is to supply a bigger
picture of situations as they happen and provide information about the
characteristics within a particular field of study. The target population was
Bachelor of Science in Nursing students in a university in southwestern
Ontario. He/She must be currently enrolled as a fulltime student and is in their
second year clinical consolidation. A total of 105 nursing students were
considered to be respondents and a convenience sample was used in the
study. Data was collected in May of 2013 during the final week of clinical
consolidation. (Groundwater, M., 2014)

II. Procedure
This study used the survey, Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion
Recovery (OFER) Scale that measured work- related fatigue. The
questionnaire was developed by the author to gather personal information
such as age, gender, status and living conditions. Students were asked to
rate their role demands on a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being no demands and 10
being very high demands. The responses were then categorized into low,
moderate, and high. A question was asked about the measures used to
alleviate fatigue. A This 15 item scale was used to determine and distinguish
between levels of fatigue and recovery. Quantitative analysis was performed
using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and descriptive statistics
were used to analyze sample characteristics. The means and standard
deviations for continuous variables in the OFER scale were also analyzed.
(Groundwater, M., 2014)

III. Personal Insights


The findings of this study indicated that second year nursing students
were moderately fatigued with low recovery and the end of second year. This
means that it could have a significant impact on safe quality patient care,
student health and well-being and student retention. Thus, it also reflects on

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the nurse’s ability to provide care and on their individual health. It also
indicates that students with fatigue tend to have poor academic performance.
This study is very significant because the patient’s health may also be
affected if a nurse has fatigue. Since students are susceptible to fatigue, I
think that they should prepare themselves mentally and physically as one
should consider his/her clinical mastery and academic requirements. This
learning can be a means in the provision of safe care to a patient because it
is fundamental for the nurse to give his/her best in giving healthcare.
(Groundwater, M., 2014)

IV. Bibliography

Groundwater, M. (2014). Exploration of Fatigue in Second Year Nursing


Students. Retrieved August, 27, 2018 from
https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/5131/

ACADEMIC TRAINING OF NURSING PROFESSIONALS AND ITS RELEVANCE TO


THE WORKPLACE

I.Methodology
This study aimed to find out if nurses’ academic training has certain
impacts to their performance in the area of work with the inclusion of the impacts
of educational continuation even after the required academic training for the
nurses. The conducted study was a cross-sectional observational descriptive
study which sampled more than 300 nurses or exactly 314 registered nurses
from the Region of Murcia ranging from 2011 to 2012. A convenience sampling

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method was used to acquire the sample size with consideration of a 5%
maximum error and 95% confidence level. The “Training and Adaptation of the
Nursing Professional to the Workplace” (TANPW) questionnaire survey was
utilized in the duration of the research and was sent to the chosen sample
through electronic mail, responses from the recipients of the survey
questionnaire were gathered from January and February 2012. The survey
questionnaire used was not originally formed by the researchers of this study but
was acquired from http://enfermeriadocente.es and validated through a series of
pre-test. The TANPW was classified into 5 subtests namely Socio-demographic
and Socio-laboral variables, Academic training and the year they finished their
education, Continuation of studies, Future nursing training wished to acquire and
personal perception of training received in the given duration.
Different types or ways of analysis were used after the data gathering and
organization of data was done. In the level of descriptive statistics, frequencies
and percentages were acquired and computed for all or each variable that was
studied the entirety of the paper. The use of Pearson’s coefficient of correlation
which was represented by the symbol r was also utilized for the analyzation of
the correlation between discrete variables or specifically the data regarding the
number of courses and years in the position of each sample. For the statistical
analysis, the researchers chose to use the t-test and ANOVA which they thought
was fitted to analyze and locate mean values of the discrete numerical variables
they have gathered. The Wald method can also be seen as dominant in this
study, this is to put together all the analysis undergone throughout the study.

II. Procedure
In the first part of the analysis, the researchers computed for the
frequency and percentages of discrete variables like that of the age, gender and
the degree they hold as of the giving of the survey questionnaire. This was
acquired through the method of averaging or finding out the mean of each
variable where in they perceived that there was a 30% and 70% distribution
between the male and female respectively that was able to be part of the study’s

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sample. It was also concluded that only a very small portion of the sample has a
doctorate and undergraduate degree. With regards to the gathered answers for
the survey questionnaire, the same method was used to find out that about more
than half of the nurses part of the sample states that the initial academic training
of nurses is not as important when they have started to work in the area while the
rest of the 40% has mentioned the need of academic foundations as of the
professional part of the occupation. With the use of the method of Analysis of
Variance, the differences between the calculated means concluded that about
90% was into the statement that the academic training was not appropriate and
needed in the practical sense of the profession which contradicts the results from
the questions regarding the demand of continuing education while working in the
area to go with the trend and changes within the area which showed that majority
agrees in the continuation of education after the academic training proper and
during work in the area of expertise.

III. Personal Insights


As freshmen nursing students of a prestige school like Pamantasan ng
Lungsod ng Maynila, this study would be of great help in terms of motivation,
basis and foundation for future years in the course. The study concluded that
most of the experienced nurses believes that grades and the initial academic
trainings conducted before being exposed to the professional field was not as
important as what society has imposed to us. This valuable information will
motivate present and future freshmen to strive more and not linger in their test
scores and final weighted averages and depend on this results to measure if they
will become great and efficient practitioners as they progress in the later years of
their course. This study may also serve as a basis for institutions and
administrations of both schools and hospitals that offer allied health training and
education to find areas to improve with regards to compatibility of the factors
namely the grades and performance of their student nurses.

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This study can be of comparison to the Math in the Modern World
(MMW0001) subject because it mainly involves statistics which is one of the
purposes of math as discussed in the subject. Math is a way of organization and
control as to what this study aimed and discussed. The study aimed to organize
the data gathered through the use of statistical analysis like the use of the mean
and ANOVA method which is also part of the MMW 0001 subject discussion.
Control was also an indirect purpose of the study as mentioned it being of
possible help and guide to institutions and administrations for future innovations,
renovations and problems. There is also a sense of control for nursing students
regardless of their year in the course, in terms of emotional, physical and mental
balance. This gives a sense of inspiration for them as it was perceived by nurses
who has gone through the process they are currently in.
The Math in the Modern World subject involves the future creation of a
thesis or research study where in this conducted paper may be of great reference
especially for the proposed title of this group where in both studies if compared
has the same possible variables namely the involvement of the academic status
and performance in the workplace of future nurses. The statistical treatment used
in this study is also one of the proposed possible method that may be applicable
to the proposed title. Since discrete numerical variables are mainly involved in
the future research especially the weighted averages of the future samples. The
survey questionnaire used can also be utilized by the proposed study may it be
for future reference or involvement.

IV. Biblioraphy

Ortega, M. d. (2015, June 23). US National Library of Medicine . Retrieved from


www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4547062/

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AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION IMPACT ON THE QUALITY OF NURSING
RECORDS
I.Methodology
Interventions and how nurses’ operate in the workplace improves nursing
records even for the hospital’s institution. This study was conducted to find out if
educational interventions will bring change and what type of change will be
brought by this method deliberated to the nurses of a hospital. This quasi-
experimental study was conducted on eight nurses from the cardiac intensive
care unit in a philanthropic hospital in the Southern part of Brazil ranging from
2013 to 2015. Interventions acted on the nurses includes the collection and
organization of nursing records which is mainly composed of the information
regarding patients that stayed in the hospital and received care from the sample
nurse and stayed within at least two days in the hospital’s vicinity. This served as
an instrument in the study because it contained the medical history, changes,
and prescriptions given to the patient which was needed to be record in the
duration of the study to identify if there were changes in the record as the
intervention was applied.

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After this step, the records were analyzed by the use of the Quality of
Diagnosis, Outcomes and Interventions (Q-DIO) instrument which was done
initially utilized before the applications and months after the said application of
the intervention. Educational interventions were the application of meetings every
week for five months and each meeting lasted for about or almost two hours.
Meetings tackled theoretical foundations, practice and proper diagnosis
taxonomies NANDA-I, Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) and Nursing
Interventions Classification (NIC). Utilizations of learning materials like books
were used. This meeting was conducted by nurses who have already acquired
their PhD and are highly involved in the academe and research branch of the
nursing profession. It was also made sure that these professors did not work for
the hospitals to avoid biases and possible conflicts. Through these interventions
which included evaluations and suggestions from the higher level professionals
on how to improve nursing care and diagnosis.
II. Procedure
Data gathered was then analyzed with accordance to the Quality of
Diagnosis, Outcomes and Interventions (Q-DIO) instrument and was organized
to be analyzed statistically. Statistical treatments used in the process includes
the computation of the mean were in later assigned values and variables of
relative and absolute frequencies. The standard deviation to help measure
dispersion within all the results gathered was also utilized. As part of the
summarization process, the researchers used the t-test in comparison of the
results specifically the ones gathered initially and after the interventions were
applied. A 5% maximum error and 95% confidence level was used in the test.
This study was guided and given direction by the Directives and Norms
Regulating Research Involving Human Beings and was later approved by the
Research Ethics Committee of the Federal Medical Sciences Foundation of Porto
Alegre with accordance to the protocol. Consent forms and data usage forms
were also given out to make sure of authenticity and legality of the research
study.

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As the study progressed, the researchers used about 30 patients and their
records in the final evaluations. In the involvement of the mean values and
standard deviations of the data gathered, p-values were also incorporated
complementary to the mentioned values.
The study concluded that there was a certain impact caused by the
application of educational intervention within the operation and utilizations of the
nurses involved which was measured and evident in their nursing records.
Another possible factor in this favorable improvement would be the application of
the electronically inclined environment which involved the use of e-learning
materials as utilized by the group as part of the educational interventions in the
experimental research.
III. Personal Insights
Further education and continuance of acquisition of knowledge are
demands in the nursing profession as to go with flow of trends especially
involvement of innovations and renovations to modern health technology. This is
to enhance and supplement patient care and needs which is the main goal of
nurses. This marks the relevance of this study not only to student nurses but also
to current nurses working in the field. It is great if this type of mindset is set upon
nurses at an early age and this study is an eye-opener to this certain issue. Since
this study proved the impact of further advances in knowledge even to nurses
working at the moment, this can be of great motivation and inspiration to early
stage student nurses to never give up on studying because it will help them build
a great theoretical and conceptual which is a huge edge in their future practice.
Relevance for the subject Math in the Modern World (MMW 0001) again
involves the use of statistical analysis specifically mean, standard deviations and
utilization of the standard t-test which serves as a form of organization and
control to the research study which will also serve as a possible guide to the
future research to be conducted in accordance to the requirements of the
MMW0001 subject. There are commonalities especially in terms of significance
and objectives and the methods used throughout the duration of the past and
future research.

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IV. Bibliography

Linch, G. F. (2017, October 30). US National Library of Medicine . Retrieved from


www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706603/

FACILITATED NURSE MEDICATION-RELATED EVENT REPORTING TO IMPROVE


MEDICATION MANAGEMENT QUALITY AND SAFETY IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS

I. Methodology
The study entitled “Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting
to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units”
aims to explore the utility of facilitate MRE reporting in identifying system
deficiencies and to explore the relationship between the work of nurses in
intensive care units (ICU) and MREs. In the work of nurses, their activities were
investigated because it is considered that workload is a major contributor to the
safety of patients in ICUs. The occurrences of MREs and the attitude of the
nurses were also taken into account.
In gathering the needed data for the research, the researchers utilized
observation as their method of data gathering. An observer is present for each of
the nurse participants in the study. Behavioral Task Analysis (BTA) was the basis
in gathering the data needed. The BTA was categorized according to the
following: medication, direct patient care, documentation/reading, administration,
observation, communication, assistance, teaching/learning, housekeeping,
transportation, personal, and miscellaneous. The final task categories were for
ICU tasks.
Some limitations included in the study were the lack of difference between
the mood of nurses with MRE-containing observations and those that did not

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contain MRE. Another is the capture of time during MRE. The researchers
cannot ascertain whether the task activity occurred before, during, or after MRE
occurrences.

II. Procedure
In the study, statistics was applied heavily on the task volume of nurses
according to the 12 categories of the BTA. The task volume is the number of
tasks performed per hour by a nurse participant while total task volume is the
sum of the task volumes of the 12 categories. Total task volume was used to
observe the workload. Percentage of time on doing the task was also taken into
account and then divided by the observation session duration.
Overall, total of 153 observations were gathered from 109 nurses. 29
observations were excluded due to nurse shift-to-shift handoffs. During the day
shift (n = 98, 8 am to 5 pm) or the night shift (n = 26, 10 pm to 4 am), 124
observations were collected.
Other factors in which statistics was used were the mean observation
duration of the observers, the number of participants from the three ICUs, the
mean years of experience of the nurses, the number of female nurses in the
study, the mean age of the nurses, and number of observations that a nurse has
undergone.

III. Personal Insights


The study focused on the workload that nurses face in the presence of
medication-related events (MRE) and how these help them improve their
performance in ICUs. Additionally, their mood in executing their activities were
also observed. For its benefits to the aspiring nurses, this study shows the level
of efficiency of a nurse based on the 12 categories of BTA whenever they are
already deployed to the work field. Additionally, it shows how nurses should set
their mood on when treating their patients.

IV. Bibliography

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Solvik, E. & Struksnes, S. (2018). Training Nursing Skills: A Quantitative Study of
Nursing Students’ Experiences before and after Clinical Practice. Retrieved at:
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2018/8984028/

TRAINING NURSING SKILLS: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF NURSING STUDENTS’


EXPERIENCES BEFORE AND AFTER CLINICAL PRACTICE

I. Methodology
Students that are well prepared in facing or encountering their patients are
a must. It was argued that education is not enough in training students who
aspire to be nurses. In clinical laboratory practice in the Norwegian University of
Science and Technology (NTNU), a simulation where a student encounters a
patient is observed. This is their means of preparation for their internship.
Students play the role of both “nurses” and “patients” up to more advanced
encounters (with the use of mannequins). These exercises are usually performed
in groups with the supervision of one lecturer per group. However, a single
training session is not enough to assure the skill level of the students before
entering clinical practice.
The main purpose of this study is to try out two different learning sessions
related to the bed-bath procedure. The study itself contains a descriptive,
quantitative design and elements that describe clinically controlled trials. The
respondents will answer two questionnaires with a six-month interval between
each questionnaire.
Results show that majority of the nursing students stated that the training
sessions were useful and were confident to master the bed-bath procedure in
their clinical practice. Half of the students stated that they should have been
better prepared.

II. Procedure
Statistics was applied in determining the number of respondents for the
study. A population of 160 students was divided into two classes. Class 1 has 79

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students while Class 2 has 81 students. Class 1 was assigned to be the control
group while Class 2 was the project group. Each class was divided to half.
In analysing statistical data, a software known as SPSS was utilized
because the questionnaires were coded with numbers for each individual
students participating in the study. Frequency tables were also utilized for the
analysis of data. Additionally, both the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-
Wallis test were used compare statements between defined groups. Lastly,
Pearson’s r (a correlation test) was done to assess possible relationships
between statements.
Additionally, other factors which utilized statistics were the students’ level
of satisfaction with the clinical exercise’s organization and relevance, comparison
of perceptions based on age, and the comparison of perceptions based on the
amount of training inside the laboratories in which the research was conducted.

III. Personal Insights


In the study, the main focus is on the preparedness of the student nurses
on clinical practice. Preparation for clinical practice is a crucial aspect in the
science of nursing for this is the activities that a nurse must do whenever he/she
is already on the work field. This study showcases the needed level of
preparation of a nurse in performing his/her nursing duties before interacting with
their patients and then giving the needed or prescribed treatment.
In my opinion, this study gives realization to aspiring nurses such as
myself to the preparedness that a nurse needs while on the work field. It
highlights the crucially needed aspect that a nurse must have one day which is
total preparedness.

IV. Bibliography
Xu, J. et al (2017). Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve
Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units. Retrieved at:
https://journals.lww.com/nursingresearchonline/Fulltext/2017/09000/Facilitated_Nurse_
Medication_Related_Event.1.aspx?WT.mc_id=HPxADx20100319xMP

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A QUANTITATIVE CORRELATIONAL STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF PATIENT
SATISFACTION ON A RURAL HOSPITAL

I. Methodology
This study utilizes a quantitative correlational research design to describe the
relationship between rural allied health care mean customer satisfaction scores and
allied health care departments’ generation of revenue for a hospital. This study
involved analyzing historical patient satisfaction surveys and corresponding hospital
revenue statements from rural hospitals in North-eastern Oklahoma for 25-month
period. All rural hospitals in North-eastern Oklahoma are considered as the
respondents of this study. 25 months of revenue reports and patient satisfaction
surveys were taken from these hospitals. The data were analyzed descriptive
statistics such as mean, standard deviation, range, skewness, and kurtosis. The
relationship between the variables were measured by Pearson Correlation that
assumed the two variables were measured on at least interval scales, and it
determine the extent to which the values of the two variable are proportional to each
other. For better understanding the researchers presented the data in the form of
statistical figures and tables.

II. Procedure
Data were measured using Pearson correlation that assumed the two
variables were measured on at least interval scales, and it determine the extent to
which the values of the two variable are proportional to each other. Proportional
means linearly related; a straight line sloped upward and downward indicates a high
correlation between the variables. This is called the regression line which
determines the sum of the squared distances of all the data points from the line is
the lowest possible. The monthly measures of revenue and the various satisfaction
ratings for the Emergency Department and Inpatient areas were computed
separately using Pearson Correlation to test the hypothesis. If the p value is less
than or equal to 0.05 the correlation is said to be significant. Descriptive statistics
which include mean, standard deviation, range, skewness, and kurtosis for hospital
gross revenue and for each of the satisfaction ratings for the Emergency Department

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and Inpatient categories were computed. In addition measures of Skewness and
Kurtosis were also computed to assess the normality of the measures. A normal
distribution means that the skewness and kurtosis value is zero and if the values are
between -2 and +2 then it indicates no problematic deviation from normality.

III. Personal Insights


The results of this study show a significant relationship between the revenue
and patient satisfaction. This study recommends health care leadership to
implement a new customer service model called Take Care of Patients for allied
health care practitioners. Nurses are the health care practitioners who always
interact with the patients and this new customer service model will help them
improve their service to the patient and increase the reimbursement for the health
care facility. Take care of Patient is based on the proposition that if rural health care
facilities are taking care of patients, by meeting or exceeding the patients
expectation, all aspects of rural health care survival, including patient satisfaction,
will work together to provide the greatest care for the patient and greatest
reimbursement for the health care facility.

IV. Bibliography

Jacobs, K. E. (2011). A Quantitative Correlational Study on the Impact of Patient


Satisfaction on a Rural Hospital. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences
and Practice Vol. 9 No. 4.

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NURSING STUDENTS' CLINICAL PERFORMANCE AND
PROFESSIONAL SELF-CONCEPT

I. Methodology
This study utilizes a cross sectional research design in which the data from a
population were analyzed at a specific point in time (Lavrakas, 2008). The senior
and junior nursing students at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences made up the
population for this study. Since the population is small in nature, census method is
employed. A total of 100 nursing students were assessed and 86 questionnaires
were completed with 86% response rate. Two validated questionnaires were used
to measure the self-concept and clinical performance of the nursing students, and
these were nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ), and the 6-dimension scale
of nurse performance (6-DSNP), respectively. To interpret the data effectively, the
data obtained from the survey were organized using SPSS version 16 program.
Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were used to analyze
the distribution of data obtained from the survey. On the other hand, the relationship
among the variables such as the nurses’ self-concept and clinical performance were
examined using Pearson’s correlation analysis. In addition, the researchers make
use of tables to show the frequencies and the relationship among the variables for
analysis and interpretation.

II. Procedure
The research project was first submitted to the Ethics Committee at Jahrom
University of Medical Sciences for acknowledgment and endorsement. Once the
research project was acknowledged and endorsed, the introduction papers were
submitted to the head nursing college. The objectives of the study were explained to
the students by the co-researcher, with the consent of their professor. The students
were informed that they will remain anonymous and their responses would be
confidential. Before the questionnaires were distributed, they were given a written
consent about their willingness to take part in this study and those who were not
willing to participate were excluded. Afterwards, the researchers gave the
questionnaire to those who were willing and asked them to complete it.

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The questionnaire for this study consisted of three parts. The first part was
the respondents’ personal characteristics which include their academic year, sex,
marital status, age, and average grade. On the other hand, second part was the
nurses’ self-concept questionnaire designed by Cowin. This 36-item questionnaire
deals with the six dimensions among the nurses such as self-esteem, knowledge,
caring, leadership, staff relations, and communication. The questions were all
positive and the responses of the respondents’ were in a Likert Scale format form 1
to 8, with higher scores indicates a better professional self-concept. The reliability
and validity of this questionnaire have been verified by studies conducted by Hensel
et. al 2011 and Cowin et. al 2008 with a Spearman-Brown correlation coefficient of
0.84 and Cronbach’s alpha of 0.97. The last part of this questionnaire deals with the
six dimension of nursing performance which includes teaching and collaboration,
planning and evaluation, critical care, interpersonal relation and communication,
leadership, and professional development. This part has two sub-parts. In part one
a Satisfactory Type of Likert Scale is used to describe how well they perform the
activities mentioned in the questionnaire. While in part two, students describe how
often they performed the activities in the questions using a Frequency Type Likert
Scale. The high scores indicate a better perceived clinical performance. The
reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been verified by several studies:
Klein et al. found its reliability coefficient to be 0.78 - 0.80. In order to verify its
content validity, the questions were translated into Persian, and then translated
back into English. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was verified by
10 faculty members at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. To confirm its
reliability, it was administered to 30 students and Cronbach’s alpha was found to be
0.97.
After the data gathering, the data were entered into SPSS version 16.0. Then
to interpret the data effectively, the researchers used specific statistical treatments
for each of the variables (see table 1). For better presentation, the researchers
make used of table to show frequencies and relationship of variables for analysis
and interpretation. Afterwards, the researchers are able to formulate conclusion and
recommendations for this study.

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Variables Statistical Treatment
Demographic Characteristics Frequency and Percentage
Nurses’ Self-Concept Mean and Standard Deviation
Nursing Performance Mean and Standard Deviation
Relationship between Nurses’ Self- Spearman Correlation
Concept and Nursing Performance
Relationship between demographic Pearson and Spearman Correlation
characteristics with Nurses’ Self-
Concept and Nursing Performance
Table 1. Statistical Treatments of data showing the variables of this research
study and their corresponding statistical treatment.

III. Personal Insights


The results of this study show that the clinical performance and professional
self-concept are related. Accordingly, endeavors are ought to enhance students'
professional self-concept during their education that will improve the students'
clinical performance. These findings can be useful to instructors, authorities at
nursing universities, and nursing supervisors. In addition, to empower nursing
students, teachers need to help build up their professional self-concept, dedicate
time for private conversation with them, listen to their worries, appreciate students'
real attitude toward nursing and correct it as best as they can, and most importantly,
introduce the realities of nursing and nurses' capacities to the society.
Our course subject mathematics in the modern world expects us to variety of
statistical tools in process and manages numerical data. Likewise, this study uses
different statistical treatments in processing and managing numerical data obtained
from the survey in order to determine the relationship between nurses' clinical
performance and professional self-concept. This research study uses measure of
central tendency (mean) and measure of dispersion (standard deviation) in showing
the total score of the respondents in Nurses’ Self-Concept Questionnaire and Six
Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance. Also this study used Pearson and
spearman correlation in showing the relationship between the variables. This study
uses mathematics as a tool in processing and managing data.

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IV. Bibliography

Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Reference. Retrieved August 27, 2018, from Sage Research
Method: http://methods.sagepub.com/reference/encyclopedia-of-survey-
research-methods/n120.xml
Poorgholami, F., Ramezanli, S., Jahromi, M., & Jahromi, Z. (2015). Nursing students'
clinical performance and professional self-concept. Bangladesh Journal of
Medical Science Vol. 15 No. 01, 57-61.

Relationship between Nursing Students’ Clinical Placement Satisfaction,


Academic Self-Efficacy and Achievement

I. Methodology
The study entitled “Relationship between Nursing Students’ Clinical
Placement Satisfaction, Academic Self-Efficacy and Achievement” was
conducted to analyze the relations between nursing students’ clinical placement
satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and their achievement. Descriptive

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correlational longitudinal panel research design was used in order to produce
effective and valuable knowledge of the relationships among the variables which
can be beneficial and essential in the learning experiences of the students who
are taking up the profession.
The study was conducted during the academic years 2014-2015 and
2015-2016, nursing students studying at the Technical Nursing Institute - Cairo
University were used as samples by the researchers. There were ninety
freshmen nursing students at the academic year of 2014-2015 and eighty nursing
students continued as sophomores on years 2015-2016 who all agreed to be a
part of the research study. On their first year, the nursing students were rotated
through different clinical placements and were focused on their courses namely
Fundamentals of Nursing during the first semester and Adult Nursing on the
second semester. While on their second year, the first term focused on the
Pediatrics Nursing and Obstetrics Nursing, and Community Health Nursing and
Psychiatric Nursing during the second semester.
There were tools that were utilized to gather data, the first one is the
personal data tool which contains the student’s personal data including their
grades on the courses. Another is a tool used for measuring the student’s
satisfactory with the clinical placement. College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale
(CASES) was also utilized and was scored by calculating mean scores. There
were different statistical analysis used to analyze the correlation among the
relationships of the variables, the data were analyzed by Statistical Package for
Social Science software (SPSS version 18); means, standard deviations,
frequencies, percentages, and ranges were used to evaluate the descriptive
results. Meanwhile, correlation and ANOVA test were utilized for the inferential
results.
Results of the study were shown by two major parts, the descriptive
statistics were shown on the first part. It contains the result for the personal data
tool, showing that students’ age ranged from 19-22 years old and that 75%
percent were males. Another result for the students’ satisfaction with their clinical
placement, showing 70% of the students were satisfied with the clinical

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placement. The data revealed that 54% percent of the nursing students had
higher academic self-efficacy.

II. Procedure
After the researchers were permitted officially, meetings with the
coordinators of each nursing specialty was organized in order to explain the
study to be conducted in full description. Written consent were given and
collected to and from the students. Tools were given to the students and the data
were collected after the clinical experience at the end of each semesters.

III. Personal Insights


This study was conducted in order to gain more knowledge among the
relationship between the nursing student’s clinical placement, academic self-
efficacy, and their achievements. The study showed that there is positive
correlations among the variables. The nursing students’ motivation is a great
factor that influences their performance, academic or clinical. The level of
performance in both affect their satisfaction, self-efficacy and vice versa.
The satisfaction and the self-efficacy of the the nursing students contribute
to their holistic performance. If the nursing students are passionate and confident
with themselves in doing a good job in the profession, then it would affect their
self-efficacy and satisfaction which would enhance the performance.
The study contains data that is proved to be beneficial when applied in the
everyday lives of the nursing students. Nursting students who are more satistied
in the clinical rotations are more likely to do a better job since they would be able
to achieve carrying out nursing intervention comfortably and confidently with less
rantings.
IV. Bibliography
Sebaee, H., Aziz, E., Mohamed, N. (2017). Relationship between Nursing
Students’ Clinical Placement Satisfaction, Academic Self-Efficacy and
Achievement. Retrieved August 27, 2018, from

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https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/dc08/99cb7a98d1b1ca34b36c1247a305cb1451
d1.pdf

Correlation of the academic and clinical performance of Libyan nursing


students

I. Methodology
The descriptive study entitled “Correlation of the academic and clinical
performance of Libyan nursing students” aimed to determine the relationship
between the academic and clinical performance of Libyan nursing students.
Descriptive non-experimental approach was utilized for the research
study. The samples used were three batches of nursing students from Omar Al-
Mukhtar University College of Nursing. The grades of the 3rd year and 4th year
students during the Academic Years 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012
were retrieved officially from the records of the Registrar of the College of

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Nursing.
Different statistical analysis were used to find the correlation of the
academic and clinical performance of the nursing students. To evaluate the data
of both academic and clinical performance, the means, medians, and modes
were utilized. Standard deviations were used to analyze the correlation of the two
variables.
Pearson Product Moment Coefficient or the Pearson correlation coefficient
is utilized in the study to measure the linear correlation between to variables
which are the academic and clinical performance of the nursing students.
The results of the research study indicates that good academic
performance of a student affects their clinical performance.
II. Procedure
The three batches of nursing students who enrolled from the year 2008,
followed by those who enrolled in College of Nursing on 2009, and to the last
batch who enrolled on 2010. The academic and clinical performances data of the
batch 2008 was gathered on AY 2009-2010 for their 3rd year data and 2010-
2011 for their data in 4th year. The data from the batch 2009 was gathered
during their 3rd year on 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 for their 4th year. And lastly,
data from the batch 2010, was collected from 2011-2012 for their 3rd year, and
2012-2014 on their 4th year. The Microsoft Excel 2007, a software application,
was used to tally, perform statistical measurements, and generate tables and
figures of the collected data.

III. Personal Insights


The academic and clinical performance of the nursing students are
correlated and the study results have shown that students who have good
academic performance are more likely to have a good clinical performance.
Students with good academic performance are more qualified and competent in
clinical situations since it requires being able to think critically and be more
focused and concentrated in the profession

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The study contains data that are proven and tested to those taking up the
nursing profession as it can be basis for exerting extra effort to improve the
academic performance of each nursing student since being academically
competent is equivalent to being clinically competent and would mean that the
student nurse have established a great foundation theoretically and is more
capable on focusing and critical thinking.

IV. Bibliography
Buhat-Mendoza, D., Mendoza, J., Tianela, C., Fabella, E. (2014). Correlation of
the academic and clinical performance of Libyan nursing students. Retrieved
August 27, 2018, from
http://www.sciedu.ca/journal/index.php/jnep/article/view/5048/3282

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