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are cyclohexylamine carbonate and dicyclohexy- lamine nitrite (DCHN) with vapor pressures of 0.4mm and 0.0001 mmHg, respectively. DCHN ray be hostile to magnesium, cadmium, zine and lead. Cyclohexyl carbonate (CHC) may attack copper and its alloys and discolor plastics. The ‘mechanism of inhibition of VPs is not clearly understood, It is assumed that undissociated molecules of the above inhibitors migrate to the metal surface and undergo hydrolysis by mois- ture to liberate nitrite, bonzoate or bicarbonate. In the presence of oxygen, they passivate the steel surface, Both DCHN and CHC are impreg- nated in kraft wrapping papers to effectively protect the steel surface. It is, however, dif ficult to achieve protection in tropical humid ‘environments. Vapor phase inhibitors are used frequently in storing equipment fora long period ‘of time and for shipping of machinery and ‘components. 6.18 INHIBITOR EFFICIENCY AND INHIBITOR CONCENTRATION (1) The efficiency of corrosion inbibition can be expressed as _ Ro = CR; Fan = CR where Ey = efficiency of a corrosion inhibitor Ro = corrosion rate with zero inhibitor Ry = corrosion rate inthe presence of an inhibitor (2) The quantity of inhibitor required for a fluid to be inhibited can be obtained by the relationship: Vauia os = Ta x 108 Cian (ppm) Corrosion control by inhibition 377 where Quah = quantity of inhibitor, kg Vaasa = volume of fluid to be inhibited Gan = inhibitor concentration, ppm Example Calculate the dosage of sodium chromate required to be added to 500000 liters of ‘water, if the concentration of sodium chromate is 5ppm. Solution: — Vanco, Qircr0y = FABEPE x Cyne, ppm 300 000(kg) = EOE Stppm) =25kg QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Mark one correct statement in each of the following questions: 1. A comrosion inhibitor protects a metal sur- face by a) li surface b) dissolving the corrosion products formed ‘on the metal surface ©) increasing the thickness of the metal surface «being adsorbed on the metal surface 2. Cathodic inhibitors react by tng the corrosion from the metal a) increasing the rate of cathodic reduction by hydrogen 378 Principles of Corasion Engineering and Corrosion Control by) increasing the rate of oxygen reduction at the metalfelectrolyte interface ©) shifting the potential ofthe cathode in a more negative direction «l)_ shifting the potential of the cathode in a ‘more positive direction 3. Which one of the following is not an impor- tant factor in the adsorption of orga inhibitors on the metal surface? a) Nature of the inhibitor b) Surface charge of the metal ©) Position ofthe meta in galvanic series d) Nature of electrolyte 4, Which one of the following is not character- istic of organic inhibitors? a) The inhibitors have no effect on surface potential ‘| The inhibitor increase metal activity by the process of desorption. ©) The inhibitor does not form a complex at the electrode 4) It forms a physical barrier and decreases the diffusion of the reactant 5. Which one of the following inhibitors does not require the presence of oxygen to cause passivation of the surface? a) Phosphate >) Tumse ©) Molybdate 4) Nitrite 6. Which one of the following classes of inhibitors may be termed as dangerous inhibitors? 8) Cathodic inhibitors >) Amodicinsbitors, 6) Organic inhibitor 4) Mixed inhibitor 7, When present in sufficient concentration, organic inhibitors affect a) only the anodic area ) only the cathodic area <) the entire surface 8, The efficiency of certain organic molecules, such as organic amines, improve in the pres- ence of certain halogen ions, such a chloride, bromide or iodides. A combination of amine and chloride ions gives a greater degree of efficiency than either of the two alone. This process is called a) physical adsorption ) chemisorption <) Saergisin 4) additive effect 9. Vapor phase inhibitors, like dicyclohexy- lamine, inhibit the corrosion most impor- tantly by 4) liberating carbon dioxide bb) scavenging oxygen ©) making the environment alkaline <4) passivating the surface of the condenser tube 10 Hydrocarbon chains play an important role in the corrosion inhibition process by 8) forming a thin layer of oil and water on the metal surface }) dispersing the oil layer in the water layer <<) forming an oily layer with a few molecules | ‘thick on the surface and creates a barrier ‘to diffuse 4), decreasing the film life ofthe inhibitor 11, Chromate inhibitors are effective because a) they form a chromium oxide film that combines with iron oxide fully ) they remove oxygen from the cooling water system 12, 13. Ma. 15. 1 2 ©) they are not cost effective 4) they are initially applied at low rate ‘Which one of the following kills bacteria? a) Bacteriostats: > ain Which one of the following is not an advan- tage for the continuous treatment process? 1) It supplies chemicals all times b) Itis cost effective ©) The injection rate may be optimized 4) ‘The injection pumps need proper main- tenance ‘Which one of the following is not an advan: tage for a batch treatment process? Allows treatment in an area where con~ tinuous treatment is dificult A significant portion of the chemicals in water a) b) ©) Corrosion and bacteria are not continu- ously controlled between treatments, J) Wells are to be closed for a specific period Which one of the following inhibitors is considered effective for inhibition of rebar 2) ineborae| b) Calcium nitrite ©) Sodium tetaborate d) MCI 2000 HOW AND WHY QUESTIONS Why are inhibitors needed to be injected in pipelines transporting ol and gas? ‘The bulk of inhibitors in use in oil and gas industries are long chain hydrocarbons, such as aliphatic amines. They are very success- fully used as corrosion inhibitor because they significantly suppress corrosion. Explain how the protection is achieved. Corrosion control by inhibition 379 3) Why are inhibitors bonded by chemisorp- tion more effective than inhibitors bonded by physical adsorption? [As the cathodic reactions consume electrons in the reduction reaction, how is alkalinity affected by these reactions? Why do hydrocarbon molecules keep the ‘water away from the metal surface? How does sodium sulfite scavenge oxygen from the water? ‘What is the major difference between batch treatment and continuous treatment? 8) What is the difference between synergistic adsorption and chemisorption? 9) What is the difference between cathodic protection and corrosion inhibition? 10) What is the effect of increase and decrease of temperature and pressure on the scale forming tendency of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate? 4) 5) 6 7 C. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1) ‘State the basic difference between the anodic and cathodic inhibitors in terms of shift of anodic and cathodic potentials. 2) State briefly the mechanism of prevention of corrosion treatment with sodium phosphate and how does it differ from polyphosphate treatment. 3) Describe the essential difference between pro- «esses of chemisorption and physical adsorp- tion with examples of inhibitors which react ‘on the metal surface by the above two pro- cesses, 4) ‘State the mechanism of cathodic inhibition by addition of poisons of Group VA elements. 5) Summarize the squeeze treatment process in five important steps. SUGGESTED READING [1] Alley, D.W. and Coble, N.D. (2003), Corto: sion inhibitors for crude distillation columns. Materials Performance, July, 44, 44-50. Byars, H.G, (1999). Corrosion Metal in Petroleum Production, TCE publication 5, 2nd ed. NACE, ‘Texas: Houston, USA, Q