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48 hr chick reviewer [EMRBYO LAB]

WHOLE MOUNT

 Cranial half : covered with head fold of amnion


 Caudal part : does not show such covering
 Subcaudal pocket – separates from the underlying blastoderm
 Cephalization at the anterior portion (brain) → ventral flexion (bending) and dextral torsion
(twisting)
 Heart becomes elongated (twisted itself)
 3 FETAL MEMBRANES
o amnion – encircles the anterior portion of embryo ; inner ectoderm & outer somatic
mesoderm
o yolk sac – double-membraned on the left side; w/ blood vessels; endoderm &
splanchnic mesoderm
o chorion – double-layered on the right side; close to amnion; outer ectoderm & inner
somatic mesoderm
 3 IRREGULAR WHITE LINES SEEN FROM HEART TOWARDS AUDITORY VESICLE
o 1st branchial groove
o 2nd branchial groove
o 3rd branchial groove
 ARCHES
o 1st visceral arch – above 1st branchial groove
o 2nd visceral arch – between 1st & 2nd branchial groove
o 3rd visceral arch – between 2nd and 3rd branchial groove
 1st visceral arch processes:
o Maxillary process – ant. to stomodeum
o Mandibular process – post. to stomodeum
 Myelencephalon – brain region where ganglia are associated
 Pharyngeal/ hyomandibular pouch & branchial groove – contribute to the formation of 1st
branchial plate
 Rathke’s pouch & infundibulum – 2 structures that forms the hypophysis
 3 pharyngeal pouch
 3 aortic arches
 3 visceral arches
48 hr chick reviewer [EMRBYO LAB]

Structure Description Fate


TRANSVERSE SECTION
SEC. THRU MESENCEPHALON
 Oval shaped
mesencephalon  1st cavity of the brain to be observed
 Shows frontal section due to cranial flexure
 Constriction
isthmus  Partially separates the mesencephalon from
hindbrain
 Thin roof at the opposite end of
myelencephalon
mesencephalon
 Underlined portion between myelencephalon
metencephalon
and isthmus
 Loose connective tissue between brain and
mesenchyme
epidermis
fetal membranes  Amnion, chorion, & yolk sac
extraembryonic  Space bounded by mesoderm, between the
coelom chorion, yolk sac, amnion
SEC THRU DIENCEPHALON
 Lower cavity when the brain separates
diencephalon
 Replaces the position of mesencephalon
 Depression found in the dorsal wall of the
forebrain
velum transversum
 Demarcation between diencephalon &
telencephalon
Metencephalon  Delimited by the isthmus at this section
Posterior choroid
Myelencephalon  Upper, larger cavity of all with thin roofs
plexus
 Ganglion of trigeminal (V) cranial nerve
Semilunar ganglion
 Dark cells closer to myelencephalon
 Ganglion of X cranial nerve
Jugular ganglion  Lateral to myelencephalon
 Above the anterior cardinal vein
Anterior cardinal vein  Space lined by thin wall along each side of
syn: precardinal vein myelencephalon
 Small, elongated mass of vacuolated cells
 Between the myelencephalon &
notochord Disintegrate
diencephalon
 Separates into 2 (due to cranial flexure)
SEC THRU OTIC VESICLE
 Paired vesicle each side of the
Otic vesicle
myelencephalon
syn: auditory vesicle Endolymphatic duct
otocyst  Invagination of ectoderm

 Pair on the ventro-lateral side of otic vesicle


Anterior cardinal vein
48 hr chick reviewer [EMRBYO LAB]

 Ganglia of VII & VIII cranial nerves


Acoustic-fascialis  Cells close (or attached) to otic vesicle & ant.
ganglion cardinal vein
 Lateral to myelencephalon
 Ganglion of trigeminal (V) cranial nerve
Semilunar ganglion
 Dark cells attached to myelencephalon
 Ganglion of glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve
 Cells on both sides of myelencephalon
Superior ganglion  Observed when otic vesicle is no longer
present or immediately posterior to the
auditory vesicles
SEC TRHU OPTIC CUPS
 Double-walled structure on each side of
diencephalon
 Derived from invagination of optic vesicle
 Sensory retina – thicker, inner layer
Optic cup  Presumptive retina – inner layer of
cup
 Pigmented retina – thinner, outer layer
 Presumptive pigmented epithelium – Pigmented layer of retina
outer layer of the cup
 Little sac-like cavity nestled w/in the optic
Lens vesicle cups
 Arises as an invagination of ectoderm
Optic stalk  Connects the optic cup with diencephalon
 Cavity (triangular shape)
 1st pharyngeal pouch (arms of triangle) –
hyomandibular pouch
pharynx  Invaginates to form 1st branchial
groove
 Double-layered formed is 1st branchial
plate
 Anterior most part of the foregut
 Small circle or oval structure separated from
Pre-oral gut the pharynx by oral plate
 Extends as a fingerlike diverticulum anterior
to the future mouth
 Extensions of the 1st aortic arches
Carotid loop  Elongated spaces medial to ant. cardinal
veins
Internal carotid  Paired vessels from the carotid loops to the
arteries optic cups
 Blood vessels on either side of notochord
Dorsal aorta
 Lies above the 1st pharyngeal pouch
Becomes located at
 Blood vessel beneath the 1st pharyngeal mandibular process then
1st aortic arch becomes continuous w/
pouches
ventral aorta
48 hr chick reviewer [EMRBYO LAB]

Mandibular arch  Mesenchymal mass between stomodeum


jaws
syn: 1st visceral arch  Bears the 1st aortic arch
 Small vesicle between infundibulum &
Rathke’s pouch pharynx hypophysis
 Dorsal evagination of stomodeum
Oral plate
 Thin line (ectoderm & endoderm) separating
syn: pharyngeal
membrane
stomodeum & pharynx

Evagination from diencephalon
infundibulum

Will later evaginate post. lobe of hypophysis
Diencephalon 
More elongated in this section

Slit-like space where Rathke’s pouch opens
stomodeum 
Separates maxillary process & mandibular
process
SEC THRU THYROID RUDIMENT & 2ND AORTIC ARCH
Thyroid rudiment  Depression in the floor of the pharynx
 Lies beneath the 2nd pharyngeal pouches
 Contained within 2nd visceral arches (hyoid
2nd aortic arch
arches)
 Will later become continuous with ventral aorta
2nd pharyngeal pouch  2nd outpocketing of pharynx
 Blood vessel beneath the pharynx
 Starts where the bases of 1st aortic arches
meet
Ventral aorta
 2 layers in its wall indicates beginning of
syn: aortic sac
bulbus cordis
 Connected anteriorly: aortic arches (1,2,3)
 Connected posteriorly: bulbus cordis
SEC THRU 3RD AORTIC ARCH
 Large outpocketing of pharynx
3rd pharyngeal
 Together with pharynx, laterally oriented oral
pouches
cavity
 Beneath the 3rd pharyngeal pouch (not-so
3rd aortic arches developed)
 Will later become continuous with ventral aorta
 Between 2nd & 3rd pouches
rd
3 visceral arch  Arches posterior to the hyoid arch = branchial
arches
 1st heart cavity
Bulbus cordis  Presence of endocardium & myocardium
(differentiates it from ventral aorta)
 Mesodermal stalk that attaches the stalk to
Dorsal mesocardium
the dorsal wall of coelom
 Thickened skin ectoderm lateral to the
Nasal placode
telencephalon
st
1 somite  Cell masses lying lateral to myelencephalon
dermatome  Darkly stained beneath the skin of ectoderm Dermis of skin
myotome  Lightly stained cell medial to dermatome muscle
48 hr chick reviewer [EMRBYO LAB]

Anterior cardinal  Seprates into 2 vessels:


postcardinal vein (dorsal)
veins
common cardinal vein (ventral)
SEC THRU ATRIUM AND VENTRICLE
Spinal cord  Replaces the myelencephalon
Descending aorta  Fused dorsal aortae
Dorsal  Small blood vessels arising at intervals from
intersegmented dorsal aorta & extending dorsally bet spinal
arteries cord & somite
 Chamber of heart at the right side
Conus arteriosus  Endocardium & myocardium are widely
separated
 Chamber at the left side
Atrium  Endocardium & myocardium are in close auricle
contact/ fused
 Large looped chamber of the heart
Ventricle
 Connects the conus and the atrium
Laryngotracheal  Deep V-shaped depression in the floor of the Larynx, trachea, &
groove foregut lung bud
Future esophagus  Dorsal portion of the gut
 Paired precardinals
 Separates into 2 vessels:
Cardinal veins
postcardinal vein (dorsal)
common cardinal vein (ventral)
SEC THRU SINUS VENOSUS
 Portion of the heart attached to the foregut
Sinus venosus
by dorsal mesocardium
Common cardinal
vein  To which sinus venosus is attached
syn: duct of Cuvier
Pleuropericardial  Mesenchyme enclosing the common cardinal
membranes vein (separates the pleural from pericardial)
 Slight evagination on the ventro-lateral
Lung buds
portions of the foregut into pleural cavities
 Paired, lateral to the developing lung buds &
Pleural cavity
continuous with pericardial cavity
 Mesenchyme surrounding the sinus venosus
Transverse septum  Connected with the pleuropericardial
membrane
Cranial liver  Mass of cells on the dorsal side of sinus
diverticulum venosus lying in the transverse septum ventral
syn: dorsal diverticulum to the foregut
Caudal liver
 Branch/es on the ventral side of the cranial
diverticulum
liver rudiment
syn: ventral diverticulum
 Continuous with the foregut posterior to the
duodenum
cranial liver diverticulum
48 hr chick reviewer [EMRBYO LAB]

SEC THRU ANTERIOR INTESTINAL PORTAL


Anterior intestinal
 Opening of the foregut to the midgut
portal
Vitelline veins  Pair of blood vessels w/c are posterior
syn: extensions of sinus venosus
omphalomesenteric  Lie on each side of anterior intestinal portal
vein  Left then right veins pass out onto the yolk
Peritoneal cavity  Big space where internal organs are
 Small tubules lateral to the descending aorta
Paired mesonephric  Medial to mesonephtic tubules
duct  Formed by delamination from the
nephrogenic cord (nephrotome)
SEC THRU LATERAL AMNIOTIC FOLDS
 Elevated & about to fuse folds
Lateral amniotic folds  Consist of somatopleure that forms inner
amnion & outer chorion
Vitelline blood  Small blood vessel embedded within the
vessels splanchnic mesoderm
Paired dorsal aortae  Big pair of blood vessel below the notochord
Mesonephric tubule
 Round cavity medial to mesonephric duct
rudiments
 Opening of the mesonephric tubule to the
Nephrostome
coelom
 Posterior of dorsal aorta extending onto the
Vitelline arteries
yolk sac
SEC THRU TAIL BUD
 Mass of mesenchymal cells at the caudal
Tail bud end
 Covered by skin ectoderm
 Posterior portion of gut where it acquires
Hindgut
floor
Allantoic rudiment  Endoderm lined cavity below tail bud
 Space where the floor of the allantoic
Caudal intestinal
rudiment disappears
portal
 Opening of the hindgut in the yolk