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with vortex production (general model)

PII: S1000-9361(14)00046-6

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cja.2014.03.014

Reference: CJA 256

To appear in:

Revised Date: 13 September 2013

Accepted Date: 13 October 2013

Please cite this article as: B. ChenYuan, L. Juan, W. ZiNiu, Generalized Kutta-Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex

and multi-airfoil flow with vortex production (general model), (2014), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cja.

2014.03.014

This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers

we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and

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Generalized Kutta-Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex

and multi-airfoil flow with vortex production (general

model)

*

BAI ChenYuan, LI Juan, WU ZiNiu

a

School of Aerospace , Tsinghua Universty, Beijing 100084, China

Received 22 July 2013; in revised form 13 Oct 2013; accepted 13 Oct 2013

Abstract

By using a special momentum approach and with the help of interchange between singularity velocity and

induced flow velocity, we derive in a physical way explicit force formulas for two-dimensional inviscid flow

involving multiple bound and free vortices, multiple airfoils and vortex production. These force formulas hold

individually for each airfoil thus allowing for force decomposition and the contributions to forces from

singularities (such as bound and image vortices, sources and doublets) and bodies out of an airfoil are related to

their induced velocities at the location of singularities inside this airfoil. The force contribution due to vortex

production is related to the vortex production rate and the distance between each pair of vortices in production,

thus frame-independent. The formulas are validated against a number of standard problems. These force formulas,

which generalize the classic Kutta Joukowski theorem (for a single bound vortex) and the recent generalized

Lagally theorem (for problems without bound vortex and vortex production) to more general cases, can be used to

(1) identify or understand the role of outside vortices and bodies on the forces of the actual body, (2) optimize

arrangement of outside vortices and bodies for force enhancement or reduction, and (3) derive analytical force

formulas once the flow field is given or known.

Keywords: Drag force; Lift force; multibody; multiple vortices; vortex production.

1. Introduction1

In the classic Kutta Joukowski theorem for steady potential flow around a single airfoil, the lift is

related to the circulation of bound vortex1. The circulation of the bound vortex is determined by the

Kutta condition, due to which the role of viscosity is implicitly incorporated though explicitly ignored2.

The lift predicted by Kutta Joukowski theorem within the framework of inviscid flow theory is quite

accurate even for real viscous flow, provided the flow is steady and unseparated, see Anderson3 for

more details.

The Kutta Joukowski theorem does not hold for problems with free vortices or other bodies outside

of the body. These problems have been attracting great attentions since more than three decades ago,

due to their wide applications in unsteady flows4-6 and in multibody flows such as multi-turbine flow7,

multi-blade flow8, multi-element airfoil flow9, multi-wing aerodynamics as for dragonfly10, and flows

in staggered cylinders11. Early studies considering the interaction of a single vortex with a wing can be

found in Saffman12. Streitlien and Triantafyllou13 derived force formulas for a single Joukowski airfoil

surrounded with point vortices convected freely.

Traditionally, force formulas for complex flows are either in algebraic form related to speed and

strength of singularities (called singularity approach here)14-Error! Reference source not found. or in integral form

(called integral approach here)12,19-20.

The force formulas by the singularity approach are basically worked out through using the complex

potential theory and the unsteady Blasius theorem21. The forces are expressed in terms of the speeds of

both real and image vortices, plus the time variation of an additional integral term representing all the

E-mail address: ziniuwu@tsinghua.edu.cn

1

effects other than the motion of vortices outside of the body.

In the integral approach, force formulas are derived directly from the basic equations of the flow,

notably from equations of vortex dynamics. Forces may be expressed as volume integral of vorticity

moments in the whole space including the solid body12,19. With the help of auxiliary flow potentials,

Howe20 derived an integral approach with a surface integral for the viscous force but with the volume

integral only defined for the space occupied by the fluid.

The main disadvantages of these force formulas are that they do not allow for direct decomposition

of forces according to bodies for multibody flow, and the contribution from each flow structure are not

easily identifiable. An exception is the integral approach of Howe20 which has been recently extended

to multiple bodies by Ragazzo & Tabak22 and Chang, Yang & Chu23 through the introduction of

auxiliary functions, the resulting force formulas are still not in explicit form. Multibody problem is

difficult as stated by Crowdy11 who derived a general method for finding the potential flow solution for

staggered cylinders with given bound vortices. For two parallel plates in a uniform flow Sakajo24

successfully obtained potential flow solution and vortex stationary position. Forces are integrated when

the vortex is at the stationary position.

In some other works, the force contribution from outside vortex or doublet is expressed as the

induced velocity either on the location of outside singularity21 or inside the body9. For the case of an

airfoil interacting with one outside vortex, Katz and Plotkin9 expressed the force in terms of the

induced velocity at the body center. The role of real vortex outside of the body is represented by the

induced velocity at the body center. This result was obtained under the lumped vortex assumption and

extended to the case of multi-airfoil and multi-vortex flow by Bai&Wu25 still under lumped vortex

assumption. The presence of singularities such as sources and doublets outside of a body has been also

studied in the framework of Lagally theorem21,25. Wu, Yang &Young27 extended the Lagally theorem to

the case of two dimensional flow with multiple bodies moving in a still fluid in the presence of multiple

free vortices. Bound vortex and vortex production are not considered in this work and the force

formulas are extended to multiple bodies without proof.

In this paper, we consider two dimensional potential flow with multiple bodies and multiple free

vortices. Moreover, we include both bound vortices and vortex production, which are however not

considered in the work of Wu, Yang &Young27. The purpose is to derive force formulas which hold

individually for each airfoil and which are explicit allowing for easy identification of the role of each

outside vortices and bodies. Due to vortex production on the surface of the body, the unsteady Blasius

equation given by Thomson21 and used by Wu, Yang &Young27 cannot be directly applied here since it

is based on irrotational assumption on the body. Hence we will use an integral approach based on

specially devised control volumes to find the force formulas.

This paper will be organized as follows. In section 2 we first use a momentum approach to relate the

lift force and induced drag force to the speeds of singularities inside and outside of a single body

(singularity velocity method). We then relate the force terms due to the outside singularities to the

induced velocities inside the body and express the forces in terms of the relative induced velocities and

strengths of singularities inside of the body (induced velocity method). The induced velocity method is

then extended to the case of multibody flow.

In section 3, we use several standard cases to validate the force formulas. These include the problem

of a standing vortex pair behind a circular cylinder, a source doublet outside of a circular cylinder, the

problem of two circular cylinders with given bound vortices, for which Crowdy11 gives exact solution.

The last example, which is used to test the singularity approach and the force formula for vortex

2

production, is the drag problem for Karman vortex street, a very difficulty problem since the drag is not

related to the shape of the body.

A discussion, though short but important, with emphasis on the new features of the present work and

how to use the present work, is provided in section 4.

In this section, we first state the flow field covered by the present study. Then we use a momentum

approach based on a suitably designed control volume to obtain a force formula (singularity approach).

Then this force formula is rewritten in a form such that the forces are only related to flow properties

inside the body and extended to multibody flow. Finally, an explicit force formula is obtained for

vortex production.

constant density ρ . The freestream velocity V∞ is assumed horizontal. The local flow field is

supposed to be generated by vortices, sources, doublets and body acceleration and rotation, in a way

that the total velocity of the flow can be obtained by a linear superposition of the induced velocities due

to these factors. Singularities, including point vortices, sources and doublets, are assumed to be either

inside of the body (called inner ones) or outside of the body (called outer ones). The consideration of

vortices on the surface of the body due to vortex production will be pointed out specially when they are

considered. Each of the outer singularities will be assumed to be at a finite distance to the body.

The sum of the strengths of the inner vortices is equal to Γb = ∫

∂A

(udx + vdy ) , which is just the

circulation of the bound vortex, the closed curve ∂A is along the body with an anticlockwise path, so

that a clockwise circulation has a negative sign. We note that even when there is vortex production, the

conservation of total circulation holds

d Γi

∑i dt

= 0. (1)

The index i refers to any singularity independent of whether it is inside or outside of the body. In

section 2.2 we will show if (1) did not hold, then we would have a lift force whose magnitude depends

on the choice of reference frame.

A singularity, located at ( xi , yi ) but generally moving at the velocity ( dxi / dt , dyi / dt ) , will be

either a point vortex of strength Γi , a source of strength mi , or a doublet of strength μi .

The (fluid) velocity induced at ( x, y ) by a point vortex (i ) at ( xi , yi ) is

⎧ (i ) ∂ψ i ∂φi Γi y − yi

⎪u ( x, y ) = ∂y = ∂x = − 2π r 2

⎪ i

⎨ (2)

⎪ v (i ) ( x, y ) = − ∂ψ i = ∂φi = Γi x − xi

⎪⎩ ∂x ∂y 2π ri 2

Γi Γθ

where ψi = − ln ri with ri = ( x − xi ) 2 + ( y − yi ) 2 is the stream function and φi = i i

2π 2π

is the velocity potential. The angle θi is defined such that x − xi = ri cos θ i and

y − yi = ri sin θi . It should be emphasized that this induced velocity is independent of the velocity

of the vortex.

3

A doublet can be treated equivalently as a vortex pairError! Reference source not found.. Thus we first assume

the doublets have been transformed into vortices and just derive forces due to vortices and sources,

then the explicit influence due to doublets will be derived directly from the vortex based forces .

Pure source (sink) singularities are in fact not required since we only consider closed bodies, for

which we may always use a number of source doublets to represent pure sources. But for completeness

we will also consider the existence of sources. The flow field due to a point source (i ) of strength

mi is

⎧ (i ) ∂ψ i ∂φi mi x − xi

⎪ u ( x, y ) = ∂y = ∂x = 2π r 2

⎪ i

⎨ (3)

∂ψ ∂φ

⎪v ( i ) ( x, y ) = − i = i = i − yi

m y

⎪⎩ ∂x ∂y 2π ri 2

Since the functional forms for for (3) and (2) are similar, the forces due to sources can be similarly

obtained as for vortices.

Now consider body generated flow. For a body ( A ) rotating at the angular speed Ω (positive if

anticlockwise) around the point ( xo , yo ) which translates in addition at velocity (U , V ) in a flow

already with a free stream velocity V∞ . The flow potential and stream function due to body translation

and rotation may be decomposed as

φb = U φU + V φV + ΩφΩ , ψ b = Uψ U + Vψ V + Ωψ Ω (4)

where φU , φV , φΩ and ψ U ,ψ V ,ψ Ω are the so called normalized potentials and stream functions,

generated by the body translating and rotating at unitary speed. The forces due to this will be related to

added mass effects.

Fig. 1. Control volumes: the solid box ABCD defines a vertical control volume ( X 1 , X 2 ) × (−∞, ∞)

for lift study and the dashed box abcd defines a horizontal control volume (−∞, ∞) × (Y1 , Y2 )

for drag study.

2.2. Momentum approach for force analysis and force formula related to singularity velocity

Now we use a momentum balance approach, based on the control volumes (vertical control volume

and horizontal control volume) defined in Fig.1, to study the forces. The use of two types of control

4

volumes, for lift and drag, is to remove mathematical singularity manipulation in deriving force

formulas.

We assume the boundaries of the control volume to be far enough away from the body and

singularities, so that the momentum balance approach used here will be linear and therefore the

contributions by various singularities (when the body is regarded fixed) and by body generated flow

(when the body is accelerating and rotating) can be decomposed.

A) forces due to vortices. For lift, we use the vertical control volume for momentum balance. The

body is subjected to a lift force ( Lv ) , due to vortices, so that the fluid in the control volume is

subjected to a force of equal magnitude but with an opposite direction. This force is balanced by the

momentum flux across the left and right boundaries ( x = X 1 , x = X 2 ) and the time variation of the

momentum inside the control volume excluding the body, hence

dm(yi )

Lv = ρ ∑ ∫ V∞ v (i ) dy − ρ ∑ ∫ V∞ v (i ) dy − ∑ + Lav (5)

i

x = x1

i

x = x2

i dt

The last two terms on the right hand side represent the momentum change in the control volume

excluding the region occupied by the body. Hence if dm(yi ) / dt is defined for the whole space in the

control volume, i.e.,

X2 ∞

dm(yi ) d

∫ ∫ ρv

(i )

= dydx

dt dt X1 −∞

then, Lav represents the momentum variation rate of the fictitious fluid inside the body. The specific

role of Lav will be further discussed in the end of this subsection.

To find the explicit form of the integrals involved in (5), we use the identity

c

∞ πc

∫

b + (y − d)

−∞ 22

dy =

b

which holds for any set of constants b, c, d independent of y . Hence

⎧ ∞ ρV∞ Γi X 1 − xi 1

⎪ ρ ∫ V∞ v X dy = = − ρV∞ Γi

(i )

⎪ −∞ 1 2 X 1 − xi 2

⎪ ∞ ρV Γ X − x 1

⎪ ρ ∫ V∞ v (i ) dy = ∞ i 2 i = ρV∞ Γi

⎪ −∞ X2 2 X 2 − xi 2

⎪ X

⎪d 2 ∞ 1 d⎛

xi

π ( x − xi )

X2

π ( x − xi ) ⎞

⎨

⎪ dt X∫ −∞

∫ 2π dt ⎜ X∫ x − xi

i ∫

ρ v (i )

dydx = ρ ⎜ Γ + Γ ⎟ dx

x − xi ⎟

i

⎪ 1 ⎝ 1 xi ⎠

⎪ 1 d

⎪ =ρ

2π dt

( −π ( xi − X 1 ) Γi + π ( X 2 − xi ) Γi )

⎪

⎪ d ( Γi xi ) 1 dΓ

⎪ = − ρΓi +ρ (π ( X 2 + X 1 ) ) i

⎩ dt 2π dt

Inserting these formulas into (5) we get

⎛ d ( Γi xi ) ⎞ 1 d Γi

Lv = − ρ ∑ ⎜ V∞ Γi − ⎟ + Lav + ( X 2 + X 1 ) ρ ∑

i ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 i dt

The last term on the right hand side has the factor X 2 + X 1 which is frame-dependent. If this

term did not vanish, we would have a force whose magnitude depends on the choice of the frame.

Thanks to (1) the last term on the right hand side vanishes so that the lift force is given by

5

⎛ d ( Γi xi ) ⎞

Lv = − ρ ∑ ⎜ V∞ Γi − ⎟ + Lav (6)

i ⎝ dt ⎠

Similarly, by using the horizontal control volume, we obtain the drag force formula

d ( Γi yi )

Dv = − ρ ∑ + Dav (7)

i dt

where Dav represents the change of x -momentum inside the body. Note that, if we had used the

vertical control volume for drag, then we may have singularity in manipulating integrals. This is the

reason to use two different control volumes for lift and drag.

B) forces due to sources. Comparing (3) to (2), it is obvious that the functional form of the velocity

components u and v due to a point source is the same as that of v and −u for a point vortex.

Hence we can use the results of vortices and directly write down the force formulas for point sources as

d ( mi yi ) d ( mi xi )

Lst = ρ ∑ + Las , Dst = ρ ∑ + Das (8)

i dt i dt

Here Las and Das represent the momentum change inside the body due to sources.

C) momentum change inside the body. Now consider the momentum changes inside the body due

to vortices ( Lav , Dav ) and sources ( Las , Das ). With La = Lav + Las and Da = Dav + Das we may

write

d d

La = ∑ ∫∫ ρ vdydx,Da = ∑ ∫∫ ρ udydx (9)

i dt A i dt

A

with the body fixed since the role due to accelerating translation and rotation will be treated separately

below. In appendix A, we will prove that

La = 0, Da = 0 (10)

D) body acceleration and rotation, added mass effect. The forces ( Ladd , Dadd ) due to body

acceleration and rotation have been well studied in the past using either the kinetic energy method (cf

LambError! Reference source not found.) or the unsteady Blasius equation (cf. Wu, Yang &Young27), and have

been shown, by Wu, Yang &Young27, as

⎧ d

⎪⎪ Ladd = − dt (UAuu + VAuv + ΩAuΩ )

⎨ (11)

⎪ D = − d (UA + VB + ΩB )

⎪⎩ add dt

uv vv vΩ

where Auu , Auv , AuΩ and Buu , Buv , BuΩ are added mass coefficients. The general method for

computing added mass coefficients can be found in LambError! Reference source not found. and Landweber &

ChwangError! Reference source not found..

E) Summary. Summing the force components defined in (6),(7), (8) and (10), we obtain the lift and

drag forces as

⎧ ⎛ d ( Γi xi ) ⎞ d ( mi yi )

⎪ L = − ρ ∑ ⎜ V∞ Γi − ⎟+ ρ∑ + Ladd

⎪ i ⎝ dt ⎠ i dt

⎨ (12)

⎪ d ( Γi yi ) d ( mi xi )

⎪

⎩

D = − ρ ∑i dt

+ ρ ∑ i dt

+ Dadd

6

Here the sum ∑ i

is performed over all the inner and outer singularities.

The force formulas defined by (12) (singularity velocity method) is rather general, including the

contribution from both the inner and outer singularities. The way to express the forces and the way to

obtain these formulas are new. In the case that Γ i is constant and the body is fixed, the force formulas

(12) can be simplified as

⎛ dx ⎞ dyi

L = − ∑ ρ ⎜ V∞ − i ⎟ Γi , D = − ∑ρ Γi (13)

i ⎝ dt ⎠ i dt

In the special case that the outside vortices, for instance the starting vortices, move at the freestream

speed V∞ and the internal vortices are fixed, as in the case of steady flow, we recover the classical

Kutta Joukowski theorem from (13)

L = − ρV∞ Γb，D = 0

Here Γ b = ∑Γ

in

i with ∑in

referring to summation over all the vortices inside the body.

In (12), the forces are related to the speeds of the singularities. Now we first replace the speeds of the

free singularities by induced velocities and then perform analysis of the interaction between various

singularities to derive force formulas in terms of induced velocities so that we can do force

decomposition. For convenience, we use the condition (1) to make the term − ρ ∑ iV∞ Γi in (12)

disappear and split the right hand side of (12) into the following form

⎧ dx j dy

⎪L = ρ ∑ Γ j + ρ ∑ j m j + Lr

⎪ j , ou dt j , ou dt

⎨ (14)

⎪D = −ρ dy j dx

⎪ ∑

j , ou dt

Γ j + ρ ∑ j m j + Dr

j , ou dt

⎩

where

⎧ ⎛ d ( xk Γ k ) d ( mk yk ) ⎞ ⎛ dΓ j dm j ⎞

⎪ Lr = ρ ∑ ⎜ + ⎟ + ρ ∑⎜ xj + yj ⎟ + Ladd

⎪ k ,in ⎝ dt dt ⎠ j , ou ⎝ dt dt ⎠

⎨ (15)

⎪ ⎛ d ( yk Γ k ) d ( mk xk ) ⎞ ⎛ dΓ j dm j ⎞

⎪ D r = − ρ ∑ ⎜ − ⎟ − ρ ∑ ⎜ y j − x j ⎟ + Dadd

⎩ k , in ⎝ dt dt ⎠ j , ou ⎝ dt dt ⎠

The symbol ∑

j , ou

means summation over all the vortices and sources outside of and on the surface

k ,in

means for those inside the body.

The velocity ( dx j / dt , dy j / dt ) for the motion of any free singularities involved in (14) is due to

free-stream convection and induction by all the inner and outer singularities except itself, i.e.,

⎧ dx j

⎪ = V∞ − ∑ ( Γ k Y jk − mk X jk ) − ∑ ( ΓlY jl − ml X jl )

⎪ dt k ,in l ,l ≠ j , ou

⎨

⎪ dy j =

⎪ dt ∑ (Γk X jk + mkY jk ) + ∑ (Γl X jl + mlY jl )

⎩ k ,in l ,l ≠ j , ou

7

Here X jk , Y jk are defined by

x j − xk y j − yk

X jk = , Y jk =

2π d 2

lj 2π d 2jk

with d 2jk = ( x j − xk ) 2 + ( y j − yk ) 2 . Inserting the expressions for (dx j / dt , dy j / dt ) into (14) ,

⎧ L = Lb + Lif + L ff + Lt + L p + Ladd

⎨ (16)

⎩ D = Db + Dif + D ff + Dt + D p + Dadd

where the various components on the right hand sides have their own physical meaning, and are given

and discussed below.

a) The component ( Lb , Db ) is

Lb = ρV∞ ∑Γ j , Db = 0

j , ou

Since − ∑Γ

j , ou

j is equal to the total circulation Γ b of the bound vortices, we have Lb = − ρV∞ Γb

and Db = 0 . This is just the basic force (bound vortex force) given by the Kutta-Joukowski theorem.

b) The force ( Lif , Dif ) defined as

⎧ ⎛ ⎞

⎪ Lif = − ρ ∑ ⎜ ∑ ( Γ k Y jk − mk X jk ) Γ j − ∑ ( Γ k X jk + mk Y jk ) m j ⎟

⎪ j , ou ⎝ k ,in k ,in ⎠

⎨

⎪D = −ρ ⎛ ⎞

∑ ⎜ ∑ ( Γ k X jk + mk Y jk ) Γ j + ∑ ( Γ k Y jk − mk X jk ) m j ⎟

(f)

⎪ if j , ou ⎝ k ,in

⎩ k ,in ⎠

is due to the interaction between the inner singularities and outer singularities. Putting those terms

with the common factor Γ k (and similarly mk ) together and then exchanging the order of the double

sum, as

⎧ Lif = − ρ ∑Γ k ∑ (Y jk Γ j − X jk m j ) + ρ ∑mk ∑ ( X jk Γ j + Y jk m j )

⎪ k ,in j , ou k ,in j , ou

⎨

⎪ Dif = − ρ ∑Γ k ∑ ( X jk Γ j + Y jk m j ) − ρ ∑mk ∑ (Y jk Γ j − X jk m j )

(f)

⎩ k ,in j , ou k ,in j , ou

we obtain

Lif = − ρ ∑uk Γ k − ρ ∑mk vk , Dif = ρ ∑vk Γ k − ρ ∑uk mk (17)

k ,in k ,in k ,in k ,in

uk = ∑ (Y jk Γ j − X jk m j ) , vk = − ∑ ( X jk Γ j + Y jk m j ) (18)

j , ou j , ou

is the induced velocity at the location of the inner singularity ( k ) , that is, fluid velocity induced by all

the outside singularities.

c) The force ( L ff , D ff ), defined as

⎧ L ff = ρ ∑ ∑ ( ΓlY jl − ml X jl )( m j − Γ j )

⎪ j , ou l ,l ≠ j , ou

⎨

⎪ D ff = − ρ ∑ ∑ ( Γl X jl + mlY jl )( m j + Γ j )

⎩ j , ou l ,l ≠ j , ou

is due to the mutual interaction between the free singularities. It can be checked that the contributions

8

to this force by each pair of j , l with j ≠ l mutually cancel and thus

L ff = D ff = 0

Hence mutual interaction between the free singularities does not contribute to forces. Note that Wang

and Wu30 found this property for interaction between vortex rings when they study lift forces for

flapping flight.

d) The force component ( Lt , Dt ) defined as

⎛ d ( xi Γi ) d ( yk mk ) ⎞ ⎛ d ( yk Γ k ) d ( xk mk ) ⎞

Lt = ρ ∑ ⎜ − ⎟ , Dt = − ρ ∑ ⎜ + ⎟

k ,in ⎝ dt dt ⎠ k ,in ⎝ dt dt ⎠

is due to the motion and production of strengths of the inner singularities.

e) The force component ( L p , D p ) defined as

⎛ dΓ j dm j ⎞ ⎛ dΓ j dm j ⎞

Lp = ρ ∑ ⎜ x j − yj ⎟ , Dp = − ρ ∑ ⎜ y j + xj ⎟ (19)

j , ou ⎝ dt dt ⎠ j , ou ⎝ dt dt ⎠

is due to production of vortices and sources outside of the body. If there are no vortex production, then

d Γ (j f )

=0

dt

for each free vortex and L p = D p = 0 .

f) In the above derivation, doublets have not been considered and can be regarded as being

grouped into vortices, since each doublet can be represented by a vortex pair. Now we make the

force contribution due to possible doublets (inside the body) in an explicit form. As shown in

Thomson21, each doublet of strength μi and at position ( xi , yi ) can be considered as a vortex

pair of strength ∓ Γ i at ( xi , yi ± ε ) with ε → 0 and 2εΓi = μi . Apply (17) to the

corresponding vortex pairs yields, for ε → 0 , a force component ( Lu , Du ) of the following

form

∂ui( μ ) (μ )

I d ∂vi

Lμ = ρ ∑ i =1 2εΓi( μ ) , Dμ = − ρ ∑ i =1

I

d

2εΓi( μ )

∂y ∂y

or

∂ui ∂v

Lμ = ρ ∑ μi , Dμ = − ρ ∑ i μi

i , in ∂y i , in ∂y

The various force components above will be put in compact form in the next section. Before doing

this we would like to remark that the above analysis appears to have given a way to interpret the

physical origin of each force component. This is not seen elsewhere according to the knowledge of the

present authors. The force due to vortex production will be further discussed in section 2.5.

2.4. Summary of the force formulas based on induced velocity and multibody extension

Now assume there are vortices (not representing doublets now), sources and doublets inside the

body, and outside of the body there are a number of free vortices and sources. Inserting the force

components defined in items a)-f) of section 2.3 into (16), we obtain the final force formulas below,

as required by the paper,

⎧ L = − ρV∞ Γb + Lind + Lt + Lp + Ladd

⎨ (20)

⎩ D = Dind + Dt + D p + Dadd

9

Here ( Lind , Dind ), defined as

⎧ ∂ui

⎪ Lind = −∑ρ ui Γi − ∑ρ vi mi + ρ ∑ ∂y μi

⎪ i ,in i ,in i ,in

⎨ (21)

⎪ D = ρ v Γ − ρ u m − ρ ∂vi μ

⎪⎩ ind ∑ i ,in

i i ∑

i ,in

i i ∑

i ,in ∂y

i

is due to the induced velocity effect at the location of inner singularities, and (ui , vi ) , defined by (18)

and rewritten here as

⎛ Γ ( y − y ) m (x − x ) ⎞ ⎛ Γ (x − x ) m ( y − y ) ⎞

ui = ∑ ⎜ − j i 2 j + j i 2 j ⎟ , vi = ∑ ⎜ j i 2 j + j i 2 j ⎟ (22)

⎜

j , ou ⎝ 2π d ji 2π d ji ⎠⎟ ⎜

j , ou ⎝ 2π d ji 2π d ji ⎟⎠

denotes the fluid velocities induced at the location of the inner singularities by all the outside

singularities, not including induction by other inner singularities. The force component ( Lt , Dt ), due

to motion and production of inner singularities, is given by

⎛ d ( xi Γi ) d ( yi mi ) ⎞ ⎛ d ( yi Γi ) d ( xi mi ) ⎞

Lt = ρ ∑ ⎜ − ⎟ , Dt = − ρ ∑ ⎜ + ⎟ (23)

i ,in ⎝ dt dt ⎠ i ,in ⎝ dt dt ⎠

Finally the component ( L p , D p ), defined by (19), is due to production of singularities outside (and

on) of the body and will be further discussed in section 2.5, where we will show that only those

vortices in production on the surface of the body will contribute to forces.

Now we extend the force formulas (20) to the case of multiple bodies. Consider, for the case of

multiple bodies (namely body A , B , C , ), the force formulas for the body A with contours

∂A . Note that, the introduction of bodies B, C, … into the flow field around body A will induce a

perturbation (called body induced velocity) of the flow field in the same way as free singularities.

Moreover, the body induced velocity, due to any outside body, will be the same if this outside body be

replaced (or represented) by a number of equivalent singularities (bound and image sources and

vortices). These equivalent singularities are bounded to that body and cannot be regarded as free ones.

The force formulas (20) have been obtained for a single body without using pressure integration. If

the pressure p is used to integrate the force, as

L = ∫ pdx, D = − ∫ pdy

∂A ∂A

we of course should have the same forces as given by (20). Now remark that the forces in the form of

(20) only depend on the induced velocities inside the body and the motion and production of

singularities inside and on the body (the vorticity of a vortex conserves once it is in the flow, see

section 2.5) and that the flow pattern (such as induced velocity and their derivatives) inside the body is

the same no matter whether the outside singularities are free ones or equivalent ones (representing

outside bodies). We thus have the same force formula as given by (20) when there are outside bodies,

provided the flow induced by the outside bodies be regarded as induced by equivalent singularities

representing the outside bodies.

Thus, following (20) , the force formulas for body A can be written as

⎧⎪ LA = − ρV∞ Γb( A) + L(indA) + L(t A) + L(pA) + L(add

A)

⎨ (24)

⎪⎩ DA = Dind + Dt + D p + Dadd

( A) ( A) ( A) ( A)

10

⎧ ( A) ∂ui

⎪ Lind = −∑ρ ui Γi − ∑ρ vi mi + ρ ∑ ∂y μi

⎪ i, A i, A i, A

⎨

⎪ D ( A) = ρ v Γ − ρ u m + ρ ∂ui μ

⎪⎩ ind ∑ i, A

i i ∑

i, A

i i ∑

i , A ∂x

i

is the induced velocity effect, with summation performed over all singularities inside body A , and

(ui , vi ) is the velocity at ( xi , yi ) (position of singularities inside body A) induced by all the outside

( A) ( A)

singularities and bodies. The unsteady term ( Lt , Dt ), now defined by

⎛ d ( xi Γi ) d ( yi mi ) ⎞ ( A) ⎛ d ( yi Γi ) d ( xi mi ) ⎞

L(t A) = ρ ∑ ⎜ − ⎟ , Dt = − ρ ∑ ⎜ + ⎟

i, A ⎝ dt dt ⎠ i, A ⎝ dt dt ⎠

is due to the motion and production of singularities inside body A . Finally, the force component

( A) ( A)

( L p , D p ) is due to the vortex production (at for instance geometric singularities) on the surface of

The force formulas for bodies B , C , can be similarly defined.

Remark Compared to Wu, Yang &Young27, where the force formula has been obtained directly

through the unsteady Blasius equation (suitable only for irrotational flow so that it does not apply to the

case when vortices are produced on the surface of the body), the force formulas (20) and (24) based on

the induced velocity method are more general since here we have included the role of bound vortices

and vortex production. Moreover, the induced velocity in the force formula of Wu, Yang &Young27 is

due to all the singularities (including the inner ones) while here this induced velocity is only due to

outside singularities (and bodies). The multibody force formulas (24) will be checked using the two

11

cylinder example of Crowdy in the next section.

Now we consider the force component ( L p , D p ), defined by (19) and due to production of

singularities outside of the body. Here we derive an explicit form for this force, which is frame

independent and convenient for identifying the role of vortex production.

Due to the Kelvin theorem of conservation of circulation, we have d Γ j / dt = 0 once a vortex (j)

is produced and is moving freely outside of the body. Hence it remains only those just in production on

the surface of the body. Generally, vortices will be produced at some geometric singularities, such as

the trailing edge of a body. Here we do not consider source production outside of the body. Then by

(19), we may write

d Γs d Γs

Lp = ρ ∑ xs , D p = − ρ ∑ ys (25)

s dt s dt

Here the summation is performed over the points on the surface of the body where we have vortex

production at rate d Γ s / dt .

( A) ( A)

For multibody problems, the force components ( L p , D p ) due to the vortex production on the

d Γs d Γs

L(pA) = ρ ∑ xs , D p( A) = − ρ ∑ ys (26)

s, A dt s, A dt

The force due to vortex formation, in the form of (25), is strange due to the dependence on the

position xs and ys . This would mean that the magnitude of the forces depend on the choice of the

11

reference frame. This is in fact not so since in real problems the vortices are always produced in pair

due to conservation of vorticity. This means that the production of one vortex of circulation Γ n at

some location ( xn , yn ) (which may be some point near the trailing edge of an airfoil) is at the

−Γ n at a point x n , y n ) (which

may be a point inside the body close to the trailing edge) close to ( xn , yn ) . The y momentum due

to this vortex pair is

X2 ∞

⎛Γ Γ

m y (t ) = ∑

n

∫ ∫ ρv

X1 −∞

(n)

k ⎝ 2 2

( ⎞

dydx = ∑ρ ⎜ n ( X 1 + X 2 − 2 xn ) − n X 1 + X 2 − 2 x n ⎟

⎠

)

or

m y (t ) = ∑ρΓ n ( x n − xn )

n

Hence the force due to this production is

d Γn d Γn

Lp = −∑ρ

n dt

( x n − xn ), D p = ∑ρ

n dt

(

y n − yn ) (27)

Hence the magnitude of the force due to vortex production is frame independent. The way to treat

vortex production outside the body in the way of expression (25) or (27) is very convenient. In the next

section we will use the example of Karman vortex street to demonstrate the usefulness of (27). Perhaps

the writing of the force due to production in the form (26) is the only possible way to have force

decomposition for multibody flow with vortex production.

3. Validation study

The application of the force formulas given in section 2 relies on the knowledge of strength, location

and speed of singularities, including equivalent singularities representing outside bodies. Once these

flow structures are known, the force formulas presented in section 2 can be used to obtain the forces or

identify the role of each flow structure. In this section we give several examples, for which the flow

structures are assumed or can be obtained analytically, to demonstrate the application of the force

formulas. In section 3.1 we apply the induced velocity method to circular cylinders for validating the

induce velocity method (20), and notably the multibody force formulas (24). For circular cylinders

distribution of singularities can be determined by the method of images. In section 3.2 we consider the

drag for Karman vortex street, which involves vortex production so that we may use it to check the

force formula (27). This problem involves in addition an infinite number of discrete vortices with

assumed pattern independent of the shape of the body. Hence for the part of drag other than the vortex

production drag, we can not apply the induced velocity formulas (20). Instead, we have to use the

singularity velocity formulas (12).

Here we first simplify the induced velocity method for the case of circular cylinders, then we apply

the results to study one cylinder with a pair of outside standing vortices and a source doublet, and the

problem of two circular cylinders with given circulation. All the problems have known solutions so that

they are used to validate the present force formulas.

12

For each vortex j of circulation Γ (j f ) outside of a circular cylinder, there is one image vortex of

circulation Γ (jo ) = Γ (j f ) at the origin, and one of circulation Γ (jm ) = −Γ (j f ) at the inverse point

( x (jm ) , y (jm ) ) . An outside source doublet at ( x (jσ ) , y (jσ ) ) and with strength σ j , has an image doublet

of strength

a2

σ (j m ) = σj

f j2

at its inverse point, where f j is the distance of the outside doublet to the body center. The force

⎧ L = LB + Lb + Lo + Lm + Lμ + L f + Ln

⎨

⎩ D = DB + Db + Do + Dm + Dμ + D f + Dn

with

⎧ LB = − ρV∞ Γb ,DB = 0

⎪ (b ) (b )

⎪ Lb = − ρ ∑u i Γi ,Db = ρ ∑vi Γi

⎪ i ,in i ,in

⎪

J

⎪ oL = − ρ ∑ u i Γ (o)

i ,D o = ρ ∑ v i Γi( o )

⎪ i ,in l =1

⎪

⎪ Lm = − ρ ∑u l Γl ,Dm = ρ ∑v l Γl

(m) (m)

⎪

⎪ Lμ = ρ ∑ ∂ui μi , Dμ = − ρ ∑ ∂vi μi

⎪ i ,in ∂y i ,in ∂y

⎪

⎪ L = ρ ∂u j a σ j , D = − ρ ∂v j a σ j

2 2

⎪ σ ∑j , ou ∂y f j2

σ ∑

j , ou ∂y f j2

⎪

⎪⎩ L f = 0, D f = 0

Here ( LB , DB ) is the basic bound vortex force, the components ( Lb , Db ), ( Lo , Do ) and

( Lm , Dm ) are due to induced velocities at the locations of bound vortices, image vortices at body

center and image vortices at inverse point, respectively. The component ( Lμ , D ) is due to the

μ

induced velocity gradient at the location of inner real doublets, and the component ( Lσ , Dσ ) is due to

the images (at the inverse point) of the outside doublets. The velocity (u , v ) is the induced fluid

i i

velocity (induced by all the outside vortices and source doublets) relative to the speed of the internal

d Γn

singularity ( i ). Finally the component ( Ln , Dn ) with Ln = −∑ nρ ( x n − xn ),

dt

d Γn

Dn = ∑ nρ

dt

(

y n − yn ) n , y ) denote the

is due to vortex production, ( xn , yn ) and ( x n

It is well known that at moderate Reynolds numbers, the flow around a circular cylinder involves

two standing, oppositely rotating vortices behind its cylinder. An inviscid model for this consists of two

equal and opposite point vortices, of circulation Γ > 0 and −Γ < 0 , standing symmetrically behind

13

the cylinder12,21, at the positions x + = (rf cos θ f , rf sin θ f ) and x − = (rf cos θ f , − rf sin θ f ) ,

respectively.

(m) a2 a2

The image vortices at the inverse points are respectively at x + =( cos θ f , sin θ f ) and

rf rf

(m) a2 a2

x − = ( cos θ f , − sin θ f ) . On the Foppl line (see for instance Saffman12) defined by

rf rf

(r − a 2 ) = 4rf4 sin 2 (θ f ) or4rf4 − ( rf2 − a 2 ) = 4rf4 cos 2 (θ f ) , the two vortices, though under

2 2 2

f

the convection by stream flow and under induction by the vortices (including images) and source

doublet of strength μ = 2π a 2V∞ , remain stationary if the circulation is given by

⎛ a4 ⎞

Γ ± = ∓ Γ, Γ = 4π V∞ rf sin (θ f ) ⎜1 − 4 ⎟

⎜ r ⎟

⎝ f ⎠

It is well known that for this case the drag vanishes, either by direct calculation of pressure on the

cylinder or by considering the vortex pair as a source doublet at far enough distance12. Now we will

check if we recover this conclusion by the force formula in terms of the induced velocity. The induced

(m) (m) (o)

velocities v+ and v− at the two inverse points and the induced velocity v and its

∂v(o)

derivative at the center of the cylinder are found to be

∂y

⎛ a 2V∞ sin ( 2θ f ) ( m ) a 2V∞ sin ( 2θ f )

⎜ v+( m ) = , v− = −

⎜ rf2 rf2

⎜

⎜ v ( o ) = 0, ∂v = − Γ sin 2θ f

(o)

⎜ ∂y π rf2

⎝

The drag force due to the induced velocities at the two image points is, due to the force relation in

(28),

2 ρΓa 2V∞ sin ( 2θ f )

Dm = ρΓ (+m ) v+( m ) + ρΓ (−m ) v−( m ) = 2

r f

and the drag due to the doublet at the body center is, according to the fifth relation in (28),

∂v ( o ) (0, 0) 2a 2 ρV∞ Γ sin 2θ f

Dμ = − ρμ =−

∂y rf2

Hence Dm cancels Dμ , and the total drag obtained by the present method vanishes.

Consider a doublet of strength σ at y = f , then the velocity induced by this doublet on the line

σ

x = 0 is u ( μ ) (0, y ) = so that its derivatives at the center and inverse point are

2π ( f − y ) 2

∂u ( μ ) σ ∂u (σ ) σ

(0, 0) = , (0, ym ) =

∂y πf ∂y π ( f − a2 / f )

3 3

According to the fifth and sixth relations in (28), if there is a doublet of strength μ at the center of

the cylinder, there is a lift force given by

14

∂u ( μ ) σμ

Lμ = ρ (0, 0) μ = ρ

∂y π f3

and there is an outside doublet, there is a lift due to the image of this doublet

∂u (σ ) σ a2 ρ a2 f

Lσ = ρ (0, ym ) 2 = σ2

∂y π ( f −a )

3

f 2 2

The latter is the same as that given by the Blasius theorem or by Lagally theorem (cf. Milne-

21

Thomson ). This is a force which points to the doublet.

Crowdy11 gives a general theory to find the flow potential for the calculation of lift for a finite

number of staggered cylinders with bound vortex. Note that Crowdy did not give force formulas for

each individual cylinder. The forces are obtained using the Blasius equation once the flow potential is

obtained.

Here we apply (28) to obtain the lift for his example of two vertically aligned cylinders (see Fig.2),

both of radius a = 1/ 2 and of given circulation Γ1 = Γ 2 = Γ ( Γ = −5, −2, 0 ), immersed in a

uniform stream V∞ = 1 and placed at a distance h ≥ 1 between their centers. The bound vortex

associated with one cylinder has an image pair of two counter rotating vortices in the other, at the

center and inverse point respectively. An image pair in one cylinder also has two counter rotating image

vortices in the corresponding inverse points of the other cylinder, plus two cancelling images at the

center of the other cylinder cancel. Thus in each cylinder, there are an infinite number of such inverse

points, with counter rotating vortices of equal strength between any two adjacent inverse points, with

distance becoming closer for newer generated images. If, for the i th cylinder, the distance of the

k th inverse point to the center of this cylinder is denoted as hk(i ) , then

⎛ a2 ⎞

h1(i ) h = a 2 ,andhk(i ) ⎜ h − (i ) ⎟

= a 2 for k > 1 (29)

⎝ h − hk −1 ⎠

Fig. 2. Staggered two cylinder problem of Crowdy (2006). Left: staggered cylinders with bound vortices. Right:

vortex system with image vortices for the equivalent inverse point model.

For an exact solution with (28), we have to work with such infinite number of inverse points. Here

we instead use an approximate method based on the remark that the inverse points in each cylinder are

15

distributed in a narrow region. To see this, let hk

(i )

= g (i ) for k → ∞ , then by (29) we have

⎛ a2 ⎞

g (i ) ⎜ h − (i ) ⎟

= a 2 , which can be solved to give

⎝ h − g ⎠

1

(

g ( i ) = h − h 2 − 4a 2

2

) (30)

2 (i ) (i )

and one can verify that a / h < hk < g for k > 1 . It can be further verified that the region

between y = a 2 / h and y = g (i ) is very narrow even for h close to 1 .

Hence within the framework of approximate solution we may merge all the inverse points into an

(i )

equivalent one, with a distance he to the center of the corresponding cylinder satisfying

a / h < h < g . Moreover, since these inverse points are denser close to y = g (i ) , we just set

2 (i )

e

(i )

1

he(i ) = a 2 / h . With a = , we have he(i ) = he = 0.52 / h . Let hee be the distance between

2

the equivalent inverse points of the two cylinders, and heo be the distance between the equivalent

inverse point of one cylinder to the center of the other. Then

hee = h − 2he , heo = h − he

With the approximation of equivalent inverse point, and considering the conservation of circulation,

the vortex system in each cylinder can be simplified in the following way.

For the 1 st cylinder, there is one given bound vortex of circulation Γ1 = Γ1 and one image

(b )

vortex of circulation Γ1 = Γ 2 at the center of this cylinder, plus one equivalent image vortex of

(o)

circulation Γ = −Γ 2 at the equivalent inverse point y = he(i ) . For the 2nd cylinder, this can

(m)

1

π

μ1 = μ2 = μ = 2π a 2V∞ = . There are also an infinite number of image doublets at the inverse

2

points. When the equivalent inverse point is applied to the doublet, the strength of the doublet at this

inverse point is μ1( e ) = μ2( e ) = μ ( e ) ≈ μ a 2 / heo2 .

The velocities induced at the center and at the equivalent inverse points of the 1st and 2nd

cylinders by the bound and image vortices and doublet of the 2nd and 1st cylinders are thus

⎧ (o) 2Γ −Γ μ μ (e)

⎪ 1u = −u (o)

= + + +

2π h 2π heo 2π h 2 2π heo2

2

⎪

⎨

⎪u ( m ) = −u ( m ) = 2Γ + −Γ + μ + μ

(e)

⎪⎩ 1 2

2π heo 2π hee 2π heo2 2π hee2

The derivatives of the corresponding induced velocities are

⎧ ∂u1( μ ) ∂u2( μ ) 2Γ −Γ μ μ (e)

⎪ ∂y = − = + + +

⎪ ∂y 2π h 2 2π heo2 π h3 π heo3

⎨ (σ ) (σ )

⎪ ∂u1 = − ∂u2 = 2Γ + −Γ + μ + μ

(e)

According to (28), the force formula for the lower airfoil is L = LB + Lb + Lo + Lm + Lμ

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

B = − ρV∞ Γ1 ,

L(1) b = − ρ u1 Γ1 ,

L(1) o = − ρ u1 Γ 2 m = − ρ u1 Γ 2

(o)

with L(1) (o) (o)

, L(1) (m) (m)

,

16

∂u1( μ ) ∂u1(σ ) ( e )

μ = ρ

L(1) μ1 , L(1)

σ = ρ μ .

∂y ∂y

1

With ρ = V∞ = 1 , Γ1 = Γ (2o ) = −Γ (2m ) = Γ and μ1 = μ = π

, we have

2

∂u ( μ ) ∂u (σ )

L(1) = −Γ − 2u1( o ) Γ + u1( m ) Γ + 1 μ + 1 μ ( e )

∂y ∂y

(μ ) (σ )

where the induced velocities u1 , u1 and their derivatives ∂u1 / ∂y, ∂u1 / ∂y have been

(o) (o)

∂u2( μ ) ∂u (σ )

L(2) = −Γ − 2u2( o ) Γ + u2( m ) Γ + μ + 2 μ (e)

∂y ∂y

The results, compared to Crowdy11, are displayed in Fig 3. We remark that the agreement is

acceptable even when h is short and despite the use of equivalent inverse point to merge all the

inverse points. The short distance behavior, that is, there is an attraction force when the cylinders are

close, has been discussed by Crowdy. Here it is found that this is due to the influence of the real and

image doublets and the induced velocity gradient, described by Lμ and Lσ in (28).

Fig. 3. Comparison between the present result (solid lines) with Crowdy (2006, Fig.4)(dashed lines), for Γ=0

(lower), Γ = −2 (middle) and Γ = −5 (upper). Dashed lines: Crowdy.

The problem of the Karman vortex street behind a bluff body (Fig.4) is rather special since the shape

of the body is unknown. The Karman vortex street is a double row of staggered and counter-rotating

vortices of strength Γ > 0 and Γ < 0 and moving horizontally at speed

Γπ πb

V= tanh

a a

Here b is the vertical separation distance between these two rows and a is the horizontal separation

distance between adjacent two vortices in each row (see for instance Milne-Thomson21). The period of

vortex shedding in each row is thus

17

a

τ=

V∞ − V

Now consider the vortex production force. According to (27), the drag, averaged over τ , due to the

shedding of new vortex pair, separated at a distance y n − yn = b , is

( )

d Γ n y n − yn dt ρ

∫ d (Γ ( y )) = ρτbΓ

1 τ τ

τ∫

Du = ρ = − yn

0 dt τ 0 n n

ρ bΓ (V∞ − V ) ρ bΓ ⎛ Γπ πb ⎞

Du = = ⎜ V∞ − tanh ⎟

a a ⎝ a a ⎠

This is the well-known formula for the unsteady part of the drag, which has been otherwise obtained

by sophisticate Blasius approach21, impulse approach12 or integral approach20. The way to obtain this

force using the present approach (27) appears to be much easier. This allows us to validate the vortex

production force formula.

Fig. 4. Control volume for the Karman Vortex street problem. A cutline x = xd separates the flow regime into

an upstream part and a downstream part (D).

Remark also that, apart from the drag component Du due to shedding of new vortices, there is

also another component Ds due to quasi steady flow formed by two rows of periodically

counter-rotating vortices spreading infinitely into the downstream direction. No existing force formula,

including the present formula (12), can be directly applied to this case. One then needs to construct a

special downstream boundary and relates this component of drag to the momentum flux across this

boundary. For details, see Milne-Thomosn21, Saffman12 and Howe20, where different ways for setting

the downstream boundary are used. Let x = xd be such a boundary downstream of the body and

intersecting the vortex street in its uniform region. Let (uk , vk ) be the induced velocity by the vortex

street. Then, in Appendix B, we shall prove that, the use of (12) leads to

Ds =

1

2 ∫x = xd

ρ (uk2 − vk2 ) dy (31)

which is exactly the same as obtained by Howe20 through an integral approach. Howe then shows that

(31) yields

18

Γ2 ⎛ a πb ⎞

Ds = 2 ⎜

− b tanh ⎟

2a ⎝ π a ⎠

The total drag D = Du + Ds is thus

ρ bΓ (V∞ − V ) Γ2 ⎛ a πb ⎞

D= + 2 ⎜

− b tanh ⎟

a 2a ⎝ π a ⎠

Started from a momentum balance analysis based on suitably designed control volumes, which are

different for lift and drag to remove mathematical difficulties, and proceeded with interhange between

the singularity velocity and induced flow velocity, we have obtained force formulas for single and

multibody flows with multiple free and bound vortices and vortex production. The influence on the

force by vortex production is treated in a simple, explicit and frame-independent way, suitable for

identifying the role of vortex production (section 2.5).

The present work is new for three reasons. First, it covers the work of Wu, Yang &Young27 as a

special case, and includes in addition the effect of bound vortices and vortex production. Second, the

way to obtain the force formulas is based on the interaction of various singularities, and thus is useful

for explicitly interpreting the influence due to various resources. For instance, we have shown that the

interaction between free singularities do not contribute to forces, while the induced velocity effect is

due to interaction between free singularities and inner singularities (see section 2.3). Most importantly,

the force formulas are expressed in a physically arranged and explicit form which allow for

identification of roles of different contributions and force decomposition.

The force formulas in the form of (20) (single body) or (24) (multibody) can be used in several

ways.

First, we may use them to identify or understand the role of outside vortices/bodies and vortex

production on the forces of the actual body, since each contribution is made explicit and the various

terms in the formulas are arranged according to their physical origin. For instance, according to

whether the induced velocity due to an outside source increases or cancels the local velocity on the

actual body, we may identify that the lift force is increased or reduced, depending on the distance

between the outside source and the body surface. For instance, for the Crowdy example of two circular

cylinders, using the present induced velocity approach (24) it is found that the attraction force when the

two cylinders are close is due to the influence of the real and image doublets inside each cylinder and

the induced velocity gradient due to another cylinder.

Second, we may use the formulas (20) or (24) to optimize arrangement of outside vortices and bodies

for force enhancement or reduction, if a joint solver can be built for finding the flow structure (notably

singularity distribution). Optimization algorithm can always be adequately designed since the relation

between the forces and singularity properties is explicit in (20) or (24).

Finally, we may use the formulas to derive analytical force formulas once the flow field is given or

known. In the examples given in section 3 we do obtain analytical force formulas with (20), (24)

and (27), though some were known from other theories.

The force formulas (12), (20) or (24) may be put into integral forms through the use of Dirac

function, thus applicable to problems where the singularities are continuously distributed. This, along

with further applications including derivation of force formulas for particular problems, will be

19

considered in forthcoming works.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB720205).

References

2. Crighton D.G. The Kutta condition in unsteady flow. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1985;17:

411-445.

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thickness. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 1982;118:393-409.

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1991;29:1355-1362.

6. Aref H. Point vortex dynamics: a classical mathematics playground. Journal of Mathematical

Physics 2007;48:065401.

7. Oterberg D. Multi-body unsteady aerodynamics in 2D applied to a vertical-axis wind turbine using

a vortex method. Master Thesis, Uppsala Universtity, Uppsala: 2010.

8. Smith F.T. & Timoshin S.N. Planar flows past thin multi-blade configurations. Journal of Fluid

Mechanics 1996;324:355-377.

9. Katz J. & Plotkin A. Low Speed Aerodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 2001.

10. Hsieh C.T., Kung C.F.&Chang C.C. Unsteady aerodynamics of dragonfly using a simple

wing-wing model from the perspective of a force decomposition. Journal of Fluid Mechanics

2010;663:233-252.

11. Crowdy D. Calculating the lift on a finite stack of cylindrical aerofoils. Proceeding of the Royal

Society A. 2006;462:1387-1407.

12. Saffman P.G. Vortex dynamics. Cambridge University Press, New York; 1992.

13. K. Streitlien, & M.S. Triantafyllou. Force and Moment on a Joukowski Profile in the. Presence of

Point Vortices. AIAA Journal 1995;33 (4):603-610.

14. Ramodanov, SM. Motion of a circular cylinder and N point vortices in a perfect fluid, Regular and

Chaotic Dynamics 2002;7:291-298.

15. Shashikanth B.N., Marsden J.E., Burdick J.W. &Kelly S.D. The Hamiltonian structure of a

two-dimensional rigid circular cylinder interacting dynamically with N point vortices. Physics of

Fluids 2002;14:1214-1227.

16. Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.; Ramodanov, Sergey M. Dynamic interaction of point

vortices and a two-dimensional cylinder, Journal of Mathematical Physics. JOURNAL OF

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 2007;48(6):065403.

17. Kanso E. & Oskouei B.G. Stability of a coupled body--vortex system. Journal of Fluid Mechanics

2008;600:77-94.

18. S. Michelin & S. G. Llewellyn Smith. Falling cards and flapping flags: understanding fluid-solid

interactions using an unsteady point vortex model. Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics

2010;24:195–200.

19. Wu J.C. Theory for aerodynamic force and moment in viscous flows, AIAA Journal

1981;19:432-441.

20. Howe M.S. On the force and moment on a body in an incompressible fluid, with application to

rigid bodies and bubbles at high Reynolds numbers, Quartly. Journal of Mechanics and Applied

Mathematics 1995;48:401-425.

21. Milne-Thomson L.M. Theoretical Hydrodynamics, Macmillan Education LTD, Hong Kong; 1968.

22. Ragazzo, C. G. & Tabak, E. G. On the force and torque on systems of rigid bodies: a remark on an

integral formula due to Howe. Physics of Fluids 2007;19:057108.

23. Chang C.C., Yang S.H. & Chu C.C. A many-body force decomposition with applications to flow

about bluff bodies. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 2008;600:95-104.

24. Sakajo T. Force-enhancing vortex equilibria for two parallel plates in uniform flow, Proceedings of

the Royal Society A 2012;468:1175–1195.

25. Bai CY & Wu ZN. Generalized Kutta-Joukowski Theorem for multi-vortices and multi-airfoil flow

(lumped vortex model). Chinese Journal of Aeronautics；2014 27(1): 34–39

20

26. Landweber L & Miloh T. Unsteady Lagally theorem for multipoles and deformable bodies, Journal

of Fluid Mechanics 1980;96:33-46.

27. Wu C.T., Yang F.L. & Young D.L. Generalized two-dimensional Lagally theorem with free

vortices and its application to fluid-body interaction problems. Journal of Fluid Mechanics

2012;698:73-92.

28. Lamb H. Hydrodynamics, Dover Publications, New York; 1932.

29. Landweber L & Chwang A. Generalization of Taylor's added-mass formula for two bodies. Journal

of Ship Research 1989;33:1-9.

30. Wang X.X. & Wu Z.N. Stroke-averaged lift forces due to vortex rings and their mutual interactions

for a flapping flight model. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 2010;654:453-472.

31. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun

2000;163(1):51–9.

BAI ChenYuan is a PhD student at the School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University.

E-mail: baichenyuan@sina.com

E-mail: li-juan13@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

WU ZiNiu is a professor and Ph.D. supervisor at the department of engineering mechanics, Tsinghua University,.

Her current research interests are aerodynamics, notably vortex flow and high speed flow with shock reflection and

interaction.

E-mail: ziniuwu@tsinghua.edu.cn

d d

La

dt ∫ ∫A

ρvdydx = 0, Da ∫ ∫ ρudydx = 0

dt A

(32)

For each vortex or source i inside the body, we define an infinitesimal fixed circle of

radius rt ( x − xi ) 2 + ( y − yi ) 2 % = ε whose center instantaneously coincides with the vortex.

For convenience we use here the subscript x, y and t denote the partial differentials with respect

to x ,y and t . Let Σ be the region bounded by the contour of the body ∂A and the

circumferences of the circles ri = ε . Below are some additional relations.

d d

La = ρ ∫ ∫ vdydx+ρ ∑ ∫ ∫ vdydx

dt Σ ri <ε

i,in dt

∫ ∫ vdydx = − ∫ ∫ ψ x dydx = − ∫ ψ dy + ∑ ∫ ψ dy

Σ Σ

∂A i ,in ri =ε

Hence

d d d

La = −

∫ ψ dy + ∑ % ∫ ψ dy + ρ ∑ ∫ ∫ vdydx

dt ∂A ri <ε

i ,in dt ri =ε i ,in dt

21

Consider the last term on the right hand side. Across an element of length ri dθi at ( ri , θ i ) on the

circumference of the circle ri < ε , the loss of momentum due to the movement of the vortex (i ) is

Γi cos θi

Remark that v

(i )

= and

2π ri

d 2π Γ 2π

∫ ∫ vdydx = ∑ ∫ dmi = −∑ i ∫ cosθi ( xi ,t cos θi + yi ,t sin θi ) dθi

dt ri <ε i ,in 2π

0 0

i ,in

Hence

d Γi

∑ dt ∫ ∫

i ,in

r ( i ) <ε

vdydx = −∑

i ,in 2

xi ,t

If sources can be similarly analyzed. When both vortices and sources are present we may write

d ⎛Γ m ⎞

∑ dt ∫ ∫

i ,in

r ( i ) <ε

vdydx = −∑ ⎜ i xi ,t − i yi ,t ⎟

i ,in ⎝ 2 2 ⎠

Now consider the second term on the right hand side. First consider vortices.

∂ ⎛ Γi ⎞ Γ

ψ t(i ) = − ⎜ ln ri ⎟ = − i ri ,t

∂t ⎝ 2π ⎠ 2π ri

y − yi = ri sin θi with respect to time we obtain

2π 2π

Remark also that ∫ 0

cos 2θ (i ) dθ ( i ) = π and ∫ cosθ (i ) sin θ (i ) dθ (i ) = 0 . Thus and similarly

0

we have

Γi 2π Γi

∫ε ψ

ri =

i ,t dy = −

2π ∫ 0

ri ,t cos θi dθi =

2

xi ,t

Hence

d Γi

∑ dt ∫ ψ dy = ∑ 2 xi ,t (33)

i ,in ri =ε i ,in

When sources are included, the analysis is similar and we may write

d ⎛ Γi mi ⎞

∑ dt ∫ ψ dy = ∑ ⎜⎝ 2 xi ,t −

2

yi ,t ⎟

⎠

i ,in ri =ε i ,in

22

In summary we have proved

d

dt

∫ ψ dy

La = −

∂A

Since here the body is assumed stationary so that ψ is a constant along the body, and

thus ∫ ψ dy = 0 . This means

∂A

La = 0

To prove (31) using the force formula (12), we need a relation between the velocities of the inner and

outer vortices. For this purpose will define a large contour ∂C enclosing the body and a part of outer

vortices. Moreover, for each outer vortex inside ∂C , we define an infinitesimal fixed circle of radius

ri = ε whose center instantaneously coincides with the vortex. Now consider the fluid region

enclosed by ∂C , ∂A and Λ , where Λ denote the perimeters of all the fixed circles ri = ε . We

derive some integrals along the contours ∂ .

Since φ and ψ are analytical in , we may use the divergence theorem and the identity

φ y ≡ −ψ x , φx ≡ ψ y to write

∫ (φ dx −ψ dy ) = − ∫ ∫ (φ y +ψ x )dxdy = 0

∂

∫ (φ dy +ψ dx ) = ∫ ∫ (φ

∂

x −ψ y )dxdy = 0

Hence

⎧ (ψ dy − φ dx ) − (φ dx −ψ dy ) = (ψ dy − φ dx )

⎪ ∫

∂A

Λ∫ ∫

∂C

⎨ (34)

⎪ ∫ (ψ dx + φ dy ) + ∫ (φ dy + ψ dx ) = ∫ (φ dy +ψ dx )

⎩ ∂A Λ ∂C

ri = ε

Similarly, for each vortex inside ∂A , we define an infinitesimal fixed circle of radius

whose center instantaneously coincides with the vortex. Now consider the region Σ enclosed by ∂A

and Θ , where Θ denote the perimeters of all the fixed circles ri = ε inside ∂A . Since φ

and ψ are analytical inside the region Σ , we can apply the divergence theorem to

∫ (ψ dy − φ dx )

∂A

to write

∫ (ψ dy − φ dx ) − ∫ (ψ dy − φ dx ) = ∫∫ (φ

∂A Θ

Σ y + ψ x ) dxdy = 0

∫ (ψ dx + φ dy ) − ∫ (ψ dx + φ dy ) = ∫∫ (φ

∂A Θ

Σ x −ψ y ) dxdy = 0

23

Hence

∫ (ψ dy − φ dx ) = ∫ (ψ dy − φ dx ) ,∫ (ψ dx + φ dy ) = ∫ (ψ dx + φ dy )

∂A Θ ∂A Θ

⎧ (ψ dy − φ dx ) = (ψ dy − φ dx ) − (φ dx −ψ dy )

⎪ ∂∫C Θ∫ ∫Λ

⎨ (35)

⎪ ∫ (φ dy +ψ dx ) = ∫ (ψ dx + φ dy ) + ∫ (φ dy +ψ dx )

⎩∂C Θ Λ

⎧ Γi dxi

⎪ ∫ φt dx = − ∫ ψ t dy = − 2 dt

⎪ r ( i ) =ε r ( i ) =ε

⎨

⎪ Γ dy

⎪ (i )∫ φt dy = ∫ ψ t dx = − i i

2 dt

⎩ r =ε r ( i ) =ε

⎧ dxi dxi d

⎪ ∑Γi dt + ∑Γi dt = dt ∫ (ψ dy − φ dx )

⎪ i ,in i , ∂C

⎨ (36)

dy

⎪− Γ i − Γ i = dy d

⎪⎩ ∑ ∑i (φ dy +ψ dx )

dt i , dt dt ∂∫C

i

i ,in

where ∑ i ,in

is for vortices inside A and ∑ i ,

is over vortices inside .

dxi dx

L = ρ ∑Γi + ρ ∑ Γi i

i ,in dt i , ou dt

dy dy

D = − ρ ∑ Γi i − ρ ∑ Γi i

i ,in dt i , ou dt

which, when using (36) to replace the first terms on the right hand side, yields

⎧ d dxi

⎪ L = ρ dt ∫ (ψ dy − φ dx ) − ρ ∑ Γi dt

⎪ ∂C i,D

⎨ (37)

⎪ D = ρ d (φ dy + ψ dx ) + ρ Γ dyi

⎪⎩ dt ∂∫C

∑

i,D

i

dt

Now, we introduce a downstream boundary x = xd and assume that this is the contour ∂C .

Then with (37) we may write

24

d dy

D=ρ ∫ φ dy + ρ ∑ Γi i

dt x = xd i , xi > xd dt

j

may write

dyi d

∑

i , xi > xd

Γi

dt

= ρ ∫ yω dxdy

dt x > xc

x > xd x = xc

dyi d d

∑

i , xi > xd

Γi

dt

= ρ ∫ ∇ ⋅ ( yv, − yu ) dxdy + ρ ∫ udxdy

dt x > xd dt x > xd

d d

= −ρ

dt ∫x = xd

yudy + ρ ∫ udxdy

dt x > xd

d d

= ρ ∫ φ dy + ρ ∫ udxdy

dt x = xd dt x > xd

yvdy = ∫

x = xd

yφ y dy = − ∫

x = xd

φ dy . Hence

d d

D = 2ρ ∫

dt x = xd

φ dy + ρ ∫ udxdy

dt x > xd

Using the integral form of the y momentum equation for x > xd , we have

udxdy = ∫ ( ρ u 2 + p − ρ u∞2 − p∞ ) dy

d

ρ

dt ∫x > xd x = xc

1 1

and with the Bernoulli equation p = − (u 2 + v 2 ) − φt + p∞ + u∞2 , we have

2 2

φ dy + ρ ∫ (u 2 − v 2 − u∞2 ) dy

d 1

D=ρ

dt ∫x = xd 2 x = xd

Since the above analysis is frame independent, we may choose a frame attached to the vortex street

and therefore φt = 0 on the line x = xd , which is assumed to intersect the vortex street in its

1

uniform region. Hence D=

2 x = xd

u = u∞ + uk , v = v∞ + vk = vk , where (uk , vk ) is the induced velocity by the vortex street, then

D=

1

2 ∫x = xd

ρ (uk2 − vk2 ) dy + Dr

25

where Dr = ρ u∞ ∫ u dy . It is obvious that Dr = 0 since the contribution to uk by any

x = xd k

vortex is antisymmetric about the y position of this vortex. Thus we proved (31) in section 3.2.

26

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