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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.

Tech EEE 2018 – 19

Ex.No:1
SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE CONTROLLED AND
SEMICONVERTER RECTIFIER

AIM: To study the simulation of a single phase full wave controlled rectifier with R, RL
with and without freewheeling Diode using Matlab software.

APPARATUS: AC voltage source, Diode, SCR, inductor, resistance, scope, powergui,


voltage measurement block, current measurement block, sine wave generator, repeating
sequence.

SOFTWARE: Matlab R2018a

THEORY:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
a. FULL WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER:
The generalised circuit diagram for the full wave controlled rectifier using SCR is as
follows:

Operation:
The full wave converter has four SCRs with body diodes fed with pulse signals
generated with pulse width modulation technique. A Single phase full control rectifier during
the first positive half cycle, SCR T1 and T2 are forward biased and if they are triggered
simultaneously, then current flows through the path +ve of supply – T1 – Load – T2 – -ve of
supply. During the negative half cycle of the A.C. input, SCR T3 and T4 are forward biased
and if they are triggered simultaneously, current flows through the path +ve of supply – T3 –

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

Load – T4 – -ve of supply. When supply voltage falls to zero, the current also goes to zero.
Hence SCRs T1, T2 in positive half cycle and T3, T4 in negative half cycle turns off by
natural commutation.
An Inductor is used in load to reduce the ripple. A large value of Inductive load will
result in a continuous steady current in the load. A small value of Inductive load will produce
a discontinuous load current for large firing angles.

SEMI CONVERTER:

The generalised circuit diagram for the semiconverter using SCR is as follows:

The circuit of single phase half controlled rectifier in figure where it uses two diodes
and two SCRs which are connected across the load. Each leg consists of one SCRs and one
diode and for every conduction, two leg components are responsible. However SCRs T1 and
T3 or diodes D2 and D4 cannot conduct simultaneously.

During the positive half cycle of the input, T1 and D2 are forward biased. When T1 is fired,
then the load current flows through T1 and D2. If the voltage passes through negative going
zero crossing of the input voltage, D4 comes into conduction by commutating D2 and then
the load voltage becomes zero.

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

During the negative half cycle, T3 and D4 are forward biased and when T3 is triggered load
current start flowing through T3 and D4. Similarly, at the zero crossing D2 comes into the
conduction by commutating D4.

PROCEDURE:
1. Collect all the required components from the Matlab Simulink library and connect them.
2. Give the gating pulses accordingly to the SCR’s using PWM technique.
3. Observe the load voltages waveforms for different loads.
4. Draw the waveforms and calculate the Average value of output voltage.

 Input AC voltage :230V(rms) at 50Hz frequency

 Sine wave block : Peak magnitude is 1 and frequency is 50 Hz

 Repeating sequence block : Peak magnitude is 2 and frequency is 50 Hz


Or
Use pulse generator to generate gating signal.
Start the simulation and check the graph for input voltage, pulses to the SCR, output voltage
across different loads like R, RL load with and without freewheeling Diode.

TABULAR COLUMN:

Rectifier Resistance Inductance(mH) Average RMS


Voltage(V) Voltage(V)
(ohms)

SEMICONVERTER

FULL
CONVERTER

FULL
CONVERTER
WITH
FREEWHEELING
DIODE

SEMICONVERTER
WITH
FREEWHEELING
DIODE

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SIMULATION DIAGRAMS:
a. UNCONTROLLED RECTIFIER:

Output Waveforms for uncontrolled diode rectifier:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

b. FULL WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER:


i. For R-Load:

Output Voltage waveform of a Full Wave Rectifier with R Load:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

ii. RL-Load without Free wheeling Diode:

Output Voltage waveform of a Full Wave Rectifier for RL- Load without Free
Wheeling Diode:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

iii. For RL load with free Wheeling Diode:

Output Voltage waveform of a Full Wave Rectifier for RL- Load with Free Wheeling
Diode:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

c. SEMICONVERTER:
iv. For R-Load:

Output waveform of a SEMICONVERTER with R-Load:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

v. RL load without Free Wheeling Diode:

Output waveform of a SEMICONVERTER with RL-Load without freewheeling Diode:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

vi. SEMICONVERTER of RL-Load with Freewheeling Diode:

Output Waveform of a semiconverter of RL-Load with Freewheeling Diode:

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Power Electronics Laboratory NITT B.Tech EEE 2018 – 19

RESULT AND INFERENCE:

1. The construction and working of various types of AC to DC converters is studied and


implemented via simulation.
2. A fully controlled rectifier is an AC to DC converter which uses four controlled
switches in its design. This allows us to control the output voltage waveform
parameters by controlling the switches.
3. A semi converter is an AC to DC converter which uses two controlled and two
uncontrolled switches in its design. Therefore, the control over output voltage
waveform by controlling the controlled switches is only allowed in one half cycle.
4. The output waveform is controlled by changing the parameters of the controlling
signal of the controlled switches (since we are using SCRs here, we can control the
output waveform parameters by changing the firing angle of the SCR).
5. The major difference of a resistive v/s an inductive load with a converter is that due to
the sluggish current response of the inductor, the output voltage in the negative half
cycle tends to go to negative.
6. A freewheeling diode is a diode used across inductive loads to eliminate the sudden
voltage spike caused due to change in supply voltage. It helps protect the circuit from
the reverse current of the inductive load as well.

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