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Basic Calculus lectures

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COMPILATION

Basic Calculus

IN

Submitted by:

Pabilico, Dino Spencer S.

11-Pascal

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

DERIVATIVES

Rate of instantaneous change

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. The radius and the height of a cylinder are changing with respect to time

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ

a. Find the relationship between , ,

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

b. At a certain instant of time, the r and h of the cylinder are 2 and 6

𝑐𝑚

and are increasing at the rate of 0.1 to 0.3 𝑠 , respectively. How fast

is the volume of the cylinder increasing?

Solution:

a. 𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ

= (2𝜋𝑟 ) ℎ + 𝜋𝑟 2 ( ) The relationship between

𝑑𝑉

,

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ

, is = 𝜋𝑟 [2ℎ 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑟 𝑑𝑡 ].

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

= 𝜋𝑟 [2ℎ + 𝑟 ]

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑉

b. = 0.1 ; = 0.3 ; =?

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑟 = 2 ;ℎ = 6

𝑑𝑉

= 𝜋(2)[2(6)(0.1) + 2(0.3)] The volume of the cylinder is

𝑑𝑡 𝑐𝑐

increasing at a rate of 3.6𝜋 𝑠 .

𝑑𝑉 𝑐𝑐

= 3.6𝜋

𝑑𝑡 𝑠

to time. At a certain instant of time, the sides of the cube are 5 cm long

and increasing at the rate of 0.1 cm/s. How fast is the V of the cube

changing at that instant of time?

𝑑𝑥 𝑐𝑚

= 0.1

𝑑𝑡 𝑠

x

𝑥=5 The volume of the cube is

𝑉 = 𝑥3 changing at that instant of

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑥 𝑐𝑐

= 3𝑥 2 𝑑𝑡 time at a rate of 7.5 𝑠 .

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑉

= 3(5)2 (0.1)

𝑑𝑡

x

𝑑𝑉 𝑐𝑐

x = 7.5

𝑑𝑡 𝑠

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

3. A car leaves an intersection travelling east. Its position t sec later is given by

x=t2 + t m. At the same time, another car leaves the same intersection

heading north, travelling y=t2 + 3t m in t sec. Find the rate at which the

distance between the 2 cars will be changing 5 sec later.

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥

y = t2 + 3t 𝑑𝑡 = 2𝑡 + 3 ; 𝑑𝑡 = 2𝑡 + 1

𝑑𝑦 𝑚 𝑑𝑥 𝑚

= 13 ; = 11

𝑑𝑡 𝑠 𝑑𝑡 𝑠

x = t2 + t between 2 cars will be changing 5

𝑑 = 112 + 132

𝑚

seconds later is about 17 m/s.

𝑑 ≈ 17 𝑠

4. A 1.8 m tall man is walking away from a street light 5.4 m high at a speed

of 1.5 m/s. How fast is the tip of his shadow moving along the ground?

5.4 m

1.8 m

x s

5.4 𝑥+𝑠

=

1.8 𝑠

3𝑠 = 𝑥 + 𝑠

𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑠

3 = +

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑥

2 = The tip of his shadow is moving

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

along the ground at a rate of 0.75

𝑑𝑠 m/s.

2 = 1.5

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑠 𝑚

= 0.75

𝑑𝑡 𝑠

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

5. The base of a 13 m ladder leaning against a wall begins to slide away from

the wall. After an instant of time when the base is 12 m from the wall, the

base is moving at the rate of 8 m/s. How fast is the top of the ladder sliding

down the wall at that instant of time?

𝑑𝑦

=?

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑥 𝑚

=8

𝑑𝑡 𝑠

12

Given:

𝑑𝑥 𝑚

x = 12 ; c = 13 ; =8

𝑑𝑡 𝑠

Solution:

x2 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑐 2

𝑦 2 = 𝑐 2 − x2 The top of the ladder is sliding

y = √132 − 122 down the wall at that instant of

y=5 time at a rate of -1.92 m/s.

x 2 + 𝑦 2 = 132

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

2𝑥 + 2𝑦 =0

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑦

2(12)(8) + 2(5) =0

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑦

192 + 10 =0

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑦

= −1.92

𝑑𝑡

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

6. Water is pouring into an inverted cone at the rate of 8 ft3/m. If the height

of the cone is 12 ft. and the radius of its base is 6 ft., how fast is the water

level rising when the water is 4 ft. deep?

12

4

Solution:

Solve by relationship

𝑟 6 1

= =

ℎ 12 2

ℎ

𝑟=

2

1

𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ

3

1 ℎ 2

𝑉 = 𝜋( ) ℎ

3 2

1 ℎ3

𝑉 = (𝜋 )

3 4

1

𝑉= (𝜋ℎ3 )

12

𝑑𝑉 3 𝑑ℎ

= (𝜋ℎ2 ) ( )

𝑑𝑡 12 𝑑𝑡

𝑑ℎ 2

=

𝑑𝑡 𝜋

2

water is 4 ft deep at a rate of 𝜋

ft/m.

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

INTEGRATION

What are the differences between Differentiation and Integration?

of the process of finding the integral and derivative of the function

In finding derivatives, you are also finding the slope of a tangent line

In finding integrals, you are trying to solve for the area between or under

curves

How do we integrate functions?

different functions. Since Integration is the opposite of Differentiation, we will just

reverse the process of Differentiation in order to obtain the process of Integration.

then subtracting 1 (one) from the exponent, in finding the integral we start by

adding 1 (one) to the exponent, then divide the whole function by the exponent

you have obtained.

Formula:

𝑛

𝑥 𝑛+1

∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐

𝑛+1

Example:

1. ∫ 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Step 1: add 1 to the exponent of x

2𝑥 1+1

Step 2: divide the sum to the whole function

2𝑥 2

2

Final answer: ∫ 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥2 + 𝑐

If you take the derivative of x2, you will arrive at an answer of 2x. This is where

we see that the integral can be considered as an anti-derivative.

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

𝑥

𝑎𝑥

∫ 𝑎 𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐

ln 𝑎

Where a > 0, a ≠ 1

1

∫ 𝑥 −1 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐

𝑥

Where x ≠ 0

𝑢5 (𝑥 2 +4)5

1. ∫ 2𝑥(𝑥 2 + 3)4 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑢4 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐 = +𝑐

5 5

Let u = x2 + 3

du = 2xdx

𝑥3 3𝑥

2. ∫(𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑥 + 3𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑥 2 + ∫ 𝑒 𝑥 + ∫ 3𝑥 = + 𝑒𝑥 + +𝑐

3 ln 3

3

1

2(3𝑥+1)2

3. ∫ 3√3𝑥 + 1𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑢2 𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐

3

Let u = 3x + 1

du = 3dx

5 5

3 3

1 1 2(𝑥 3 +1)2 2(𝑥 3 +1)2

4. ∫ 𝑥 (𝑥 + 1) 𝑑𝑥 = 3 ∫ 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = 3 (

2 3 2 2 )+𝑐 = +𝑐

5 15

Let u = x3 + 1

du = 3x2dx

x2dx=du/3

𝑑𝑢 1 −𝑒 −3𝑥

5. ∫ 𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 −3 = −3 ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐

3

Let u = -3x

du = -3dx

𝑑𝑢

dx = −3

𝑥 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑙𝑛(3𝑥 2 +1)

6. ∫ 3𝑥 2 +1 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 6𝑢 = 6 ∫ = 6 (ln|𝑢|) + 𝑐 = +𝑐

𝑢 6

Let u = 3x2 + 1

du = 6xdx

𝑑𝑢

= xdx

6

7. ∫(𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑒 −𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐

let u = -x du = -dx

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

3

3 −1 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑒𝑢 𝑒 𝑥 −1

8. ∫ 𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 = 3 ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐 = +𝑐

3 3 3

let u = x3 -1

du = 3x2dx

𝑑𝑢

= x2dx

3

𝑑𝑢 1 72𝑥

9. ∫ 72𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 7𝑢 = ∫ 7𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = 2𝑙𝑛7 + 𝑐

2 2

let u = 2x

du = 2dx

𝑑𝑢

dx = 2

(𝑙𝑛𝑥)2 𝑢2 1 𝑢3 (𝑙𝑛𝑥)3

10. ∫ 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑢 = ∫ 𝑢2 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐 = +𝑐

2𝑥 2 2 6 6

let u = lnx

𝑑𝑥

du = 𝑥

o ∫ sin(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = − cos(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ cos(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = sin(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑐

𝑑𝑥

o ∫ 1+𝑥 2 = arctan(𝑥) + 𝑐

𝑑𝑥

o ∫ √1+𝑥 2 = arcsin(𝑥) + 𝑐

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

The following are some trigonometric identities that may be useful in finding

integrals:

du 1 tan(u) tan(x2 )

2. ∫{x[sec 2 (x 2 )]}dx = ∫(sec 2 u) = 2 ∫ (sec 2 u)du = +c= + c

2 2 2

Let u = x2

du = 2xdx

𝑑𝑢

= xdx

2

3. ∫[cosxsec 2 (sinx)]dx = ∫ sec 2 (u)du = tan(u) + c = tan(sinx) + c

Let u = sinx

du = cosxdx

4. ∫ (1 + tan2 x)dx = ∫ sec 2 xdx = tanx + c

5. ∫[xsin2 (x 2 )cos5 (x 2 )]dx = ∫[sin2 (x 2 )cos 4 (x 2 )] cos(x 2 ) xdx

= ∫ [sin2 (x 2 )(1 − sin2 (x 2 )] cos(x 2 )xdx

1 2

let u = sin(x 2 ) = 2 ∫ u2 (1 – u2 ) du

1

du = cos(x 2 ) 2xdx = 2 ∫ u2 (1 – 2u2 + u4 ) du

du 1

= cos(x 2 )xdx = 2 ∫ u2 – 2u4 + u6 du

2 1 1 1

= 2 ∫ u2 − 2 ∫ 2u4 + 2 ∫ u6 du

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

1 u3 1 2𝑢5 1 𝑢7

= 2(3) + 2( ) + 2(7) + c

5

3 5 7

(sin(x2 )) (sin(x2 )) (sin(x2 ))

∫[xsin2 (x 2 )cos5 (x 2 )]dx = ( 6

)+( 5

)+( 14

)+c

trigonometric identities are very useful in situations like these. Other than that,

another reliable concept you should always remember is that integrals are anti-

derivatives of functions. You may verify your answers if you take its derivatives and

compare it to the given if they are the same; that means that your answer is

correct.

DEFINITE INTEGRATION

A definite integral is an integral that consists of upper limits and lower limits

It is an integral that is expressed as the difference between the values of

the integral at specified upper and lower limits of the independent variable

Example:

𝑏

∫ 𝑓 (𝑥 )𝑑𝑥

𝑎

Where b is the upper limit and a is the lower limit

How do we solve for the definite integral of a function?

𝑏

∫ 𝑓(𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 (𝑎) − 𝑓(𝑏)

𝑎

1.Get the integral of the function

2.Substitute the upper limit value to the function

3.Substitute the lower limit value to the function

4.Subtract the value that you will get in step 3 from the value that you will

get in step 2

Example:

5

1. ∫1 2𝑥𝑑𝑥

Step 1: Get the integral of the function

5

∫1 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐

Step 2: substitute the upper limit value to the function

52 = 25

Step 3: substitute the lower limit value to the function

12 = 1

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

Step 4: subtract the value from the upper limit to the value from the lower

limit

25 − 1 = 24

Final answer:

5

∫1 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 24

Examples:

1. Let R be the region under the graph of f(x) = x+2 on the interval [3,8]. Find

the area of R.

Given:

a=3;b=8

8 𝑥2 8 82 32

∫3 (𝑥 + 2)𝑑𝑥 = + 2𝑥 + 𝑐 = [ 2 + 2(8)] − [ 2 + 2(3)]

2 3

8

∫3 (𝑥 + 2)𝑑𝑥 = 37.5

the graph of f(x) = x+2 on the

3 8

interval (3,8) is 37.5 sq. units.

Given:

a= -1, b=2

y = x2+2 2 𝑥3 2 23

∫−1[(𝑥 2 + 2) − (−1)] 𝑑 𝑥 = 3 + 3𝑥 + 𝑐 =[ + 2(2)] −

−1 2

(−1)3

[ + 2(−1)]

2

2

∫−1(𝑥 2 + 3) 𝑑𝑥 = 12

x = -1 x=2

Therefore, area of bounded by the

region is 12 sq. units.

y = -1

functions should be based on which graph of the function is directly above each

other. For this case, the parabola (y= x2 + 2) can be seen as above the second y

function (-1) which is why it was first.

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

3. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x3, x=-1, and x=3/2

y = x3 Given:

For AR1:

a=-1

b=0

𝑂 𝑥4 0 (0)4 (−1)4 −1

∫−1(𝑥 3 )𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐 =| 4 − 4 |= 4

-1 4 −1

1.5 For AR2:

a=0

b=1.5

1.5 𝑥4 1.5 (1.5)4 81

∫0 (𝑥 3 )𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐 = 4 − 0 = 64

4 0

AR = AR1 + AR2

−1 81

AR = 4 + 64

65

AR = 64

the region is 65/64 sq. units.

Force and Work Problems:

2

1. A force of 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 2 + sin(4𝑥) + 3 meters, acts on an object. What is the

3

work required to move the object from x=2, to x=5?

𝟐 𝟐 Given:

𝒇(𝒙) = 𝒙 + 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝟒𝒙) + 𝟑

𝟑 a=2

b=5

5

2 2𝑥3 cos(4𝑥) 5

∫ ( 𝑥2 + sin(4𝑥) + 3) 𝑑𝑥 = − + 3𝑥 + 𝑐

2 3 9 4 2

3 3

2(5) cos(4(5)) 2(2) cos(4(2))

=[ − + 3(5)] − [ − + 3(2)]

9 4 9 4

5 2

∫2 (3 𝑥2 + sin(4𝑥) + 3) 𝑑𝑥 = 34.86

2 5

object from x=2 and x=5 is 34.86 J.

B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

to a length of 45 cm. Determine how much work is done by stretching the

spring 18 cm beyond natural length.

Given:

Stretched f(x)=12 N

length: 18 x= 0.2 m

cm Hooke’s law:

beyond f(x)=kx

12 = k (0.20)

12

k = 0.2 = 60

0.18 0.18

∫0 60𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 30𝑥 2 + 𝑐 = 30(0.18)2 − 0

0

stretching the spring 18 cm beyond

its natural length is 0.97 J.

Natural

length:

25 cm

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