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LECTURE

COMPILATION
Basic Calculus
IN

Submitted by:
Pabilico, Dino Spencer S.
11-Pascal
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

DERIVATIVES
 Rate of instantaneous change
SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. The radius and the height of a cylinder are changing with respect to time
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ
a. Find the relationship between , ,
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
b. At a certain instant of time, the r and h of the cylinder are 2 and 6
𝑐𝑚
and are increasing at the rate of 0.1 to 0.3 𝑠 , respectively. How fast
is the volume of the cylinder increasing?
Solution:
a. 𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ
= (2𝜋𝑟 ) ℎ + 𝜋𝑟 2 ( ) The relationship between
𝑑𝑉
,
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ
, is = 𝜋𝑟 [2ℎ 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑟 𝑑𝑡 ].
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
= 𝜋𝑟 [2ℎ + 𝑟 ]
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑟 𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑉
b. = 0.1 ; = 0.3 ; =?
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑟 = 2 ;ℎ = 6
𝑑𝑉
= 𝜋(2)[2(6)(0.1) + 2(0.3)] The volume of the cylinder is
𝑑𝑡 𝑐𝑐
increasing at a rate of 3.6𝜋 𝑠 .
𝑑𝑉 𝑐𝑐
= 3.6𝜋
𝑑𝑡 𝑠

2. The volume V of a cube with sides of length x cm is changing with respect


to time. At a certain instant of time, the sides of the cube are 5 cm long
and increasing at the rate of 0.1 cm/s. How fast is the V of the cube
changing at that instant of time?

𝑑𝑥 𝑐𝑚
= 0.1
𝑑𝑡 𝑠
x
𝑥=5 The volume of the cube is
𝑉 = 𝑥3 changing at that instant of
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑥 𝑐𝑐
= 3𝑥 2 𝑑𝑡 time at a rate of 7.5 𝑠 .
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑉
= 3(5)2 (0.1)
𝑑𝑡
x
𝑑𝑉 𝑐𝑐
x = 7.5
𝑑𝑡 𝑠
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

3. A car leaves an intersection travelling east. Its position t sec later is given by
x=t2 + t m. At the same time, another car leaves the same intersection
heading north, travelling y=t2 + 3t m in t sec. Find the rate at which the
distance between the 2 cars will be changing 5 sec later.
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
y = t2 + 3t 𝑑𝑡 = 2𝑡 + 3 ; 𝑑𝑡 = 2𝑡 + 1
𝑑𝑦 𝑚 𝑑𝑥 𝑚
= 13 ; = 11
𝑑𝑡 𝑠 𝑑𝑡 𝑠

𝑑 = 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 The rate at which the distance


x = t2 + t between 2 cars will be changing 5
𝑑 = 112 + 132
𝑚
seconds later is about 17 m/s.
𝑑 ≈ 17 𝑠

4. A 1.8 m tall man is walking away from a street light 5.4 m high at a speed
of 1.5 m/s. How fast is the tip of his shadow moving along the ground?

5.4 m

1.8 m

x s

5.4 𝑥+𝑠
=
1.8 𝑠
3𝑠 = 𝑥 + 𝑠
𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑠
3 = +
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑥
2 = The tip of his shadow is moving
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
along the ground at a rate of 0.75
𝑑𝑠 m/s.
2 = 1.5
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑠 𝑚
= 0.75
𝑑𝑡 𝑠
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

5. The base of a 13 m ladder leaning against a wall begins to slide away from
the wall. After an instant of time when the base is 12 m from the wall, the
base is moving at the rate of 8 m/s. How fast is the top of the ladder sliding
down the wall at that instant of time?

𝑑𝑦
=?
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑥 𝑚
=8
𝑑𝑡 𝑠

12

Given:
𝑑𝑥 𝑚
x = 12 ; c = 13 ; =8
𝑑𝑡 𝑠
Solution:
x2 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑐 2
𝑦 2 = 𝑐 2 − x2 The top of the ladder is sliding
y = √132 − 122 down the wall at that instant of
y=5 time at a rate of -1.92 m/s.

x 2 + 𝑦 2 = 132
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
2𝑥 + 2𝑦 =0
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑦
2(12)(8) + 2(5) =0
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑦
192 + 10 =0
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑦
= −1.92
𝑑𝑡
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

6. Water is pouring into an inverted cone at the rate of 8 ft3/m. If the height
of the cone is 12 ft. and the radius of its base is 6 ft., how fast is the water
level rising when the water is 4 ft. deep?

12
4

Solution:

Solve by relationship
𝑟 6 1
= =
ℎ 12 2


𝑟=
2
1
𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ
3

1 ℎ 2
𝑉 = 𝜋( ) ℎ
3 2
1 ℎ3
𝑉 = (𝜋 )
3 4
1
𝑉= (𝜋ℎ3 )
12
𝑑𝑉 3 𝑑ℎ
= (𝜋ℎ2 ) ( )
𝑑𝑡 12 𝑑𝑡
𝑑ℎ 2
=
𝑑𝑡 𝜋

The water level is rising when the


2
water is 4 ft deep at a rate of 𝜋
ft/m.
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

INTEGRATION
What are the differences between Differentiation and Integration?

 Differentiation is the opposite of integration; this opposition can be in terms


of the process of finding the integral and derivative of the function
 In finding derivatives, you are also finding the slope of a tangent line
 In finding integrals, you are trying to solve for the area between or under
curves
How do we integrate functions?

There are many processes and steps to do in finding the integrals of


different functions. Since Integration is the opposite of Differentiation, we will just
reverse the process of Differentiation in order to obtain the process of Integration.

If in finding the derivative we start by multiplying the exponent to the coefficient,


then subtracting 1 (one) from the exponent, in finding the integral we start by
adding 1 (one) to the exponent, then divide the whole function by the exponent
you have obtained.

Formula:

𝑛
𝑥 𝑛+1
∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐
𝑛+1
Example:

1. ∫ 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥
Step 1: add 1 to the exponent of x

2𝑥 1+1
Step 2: divide the sum to the whole function

2𝑥 2
2
Final answer: ∫ 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥2 + 𝑐
If you take the derivative of x2, you will arrive at an answer of 2x. This is where
we see that the integral can be considered as an anti-derivative.
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

The indefinite integral of exponential functions

𝑥
𝑎𝑥
∫ 𝑎 𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐
ln 𝑎
Where a > 0, a ≠ 1

The indefinite integral of the function f(x) = x-1

1
∫ 𝑥 −1 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐
𝑥

Where x ≠ 0

Examples of finding the indefinite integral

𝑢5 (𝑥 2 +4)5
1. ∫ 2𝑥(𝑥 2 + 3)4 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑢4 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐 = +𝑐
5 5
Let u = x2 + 3
du = 2xdx
𝑥3 3𝑥
2. ∫(𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑥 + 3𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑥 2 + ∫ 𝑒 𝑥 + ∫ 3𝑥 = + 𝑒𝑥 + +𝑐
3 ln 3
3
1
2(3𝑥+1)2
3. ∫ 3√3𝑥 + 1𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑢2 𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐
3
Let u = 3x + 1
du = 3dx
5 5
3 3
1 1 2(𝑥 3 +1)2 2(𝑥 3 +1)2
4. ∫ 𝑥 (𝑥 + 1) 𝑑𝑥 = 3 ∫ 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = 3 (
2 3 2 2 )+𝑐 = +𝑐
5 15

Let u = x3 + 1
du = 3x2dx
x2dx=du/3
𝑑𝑢 1 −𝑒 −3𝑥
5. ∫ 𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 −3 = −3 ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐
3
Let u = -3x
du = -3dx
𝑑𝑢
dx = −3
𝑥 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑙𝑛(3𝑥 2 +1)
6. ∫ 3𝑥 2 +1 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 6𝑢 = 6 ∫ = 6 (ln|𝑢|) + 𝑐 = +𝑐
𝑢 6
Let u = 3x2 + 1
du = 6xdx
𝑑𝑢
= xdx
6
7. ∫(𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑒 −𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐
let u = -x  du = -dx
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

3
3 −1 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑒𝑢 𝑒 𝑥 −1
8. ∫ 𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 = 3 ∫ 𝑒 𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐 = +𝑐
3 3 3
let u = x3 -1
du = 3x2dx
𝑑𝑢
= x2dx
3
𝑑𝑢 1 72𝑥
9. ∫ 72𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 7𝑢 = ∫ 7𝑢 𝑑𝑢 = 2𝑙𝑛7 + 𝑐
2 2
let u = 2x
du = 2dx
𝑑𝑢
dx = 2
(𝑙𝑛𝑥)2 𝑢2 1 𝑢3 (𝑙𝑛𝑥)3
10. ∫ 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑢 = ∫ 𝑢2 𝑑𝑢 = +𝑐 = +𝑐
2𝑥 2 2 6 6
let u = lnx
𝑑𝑥
du = 𝑥

The indefinite integral of sine, cosine, and tangent

o ∫ sin(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = − cos(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ cos(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = sin(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ sec(𝑥) tan(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = sec(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ sec 2 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = tan(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ csc 2 (𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = −cot(𝑥) + 𝑐

o ∫ csc(𝑥) cot(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = −csc(𝑥) + 𝑐

Other infinite integral

o ∫ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑐

𝑑𝑥
o ∫ 1+𝑥 2 = arctan(𝑥) + 𝑐

𝑑𝑥
o ∫ √1+𝑥 2 = arcsin(𝑥) + 𝑐
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

The following are some trigonometric identities that may be useful in finding
integrals:

Examples on integration of trigonometric functions

1. ∫(3sec 2 x + secxtanx)dx = 3∫ sec2 xdx + ∫ (secxtanx) = 3tanx + secx + c


du 1 tan(u) tan(x2 )
2. ∫{x[sec 2 (x 2 )]}dx = ∫(sec 2 u) = 2 ∫ (sec 2 u)du = +c= + c
2 2 2
Let u = x2
du = 2xdx
𝑑𝑢
= xdx
2
3. ∫[cosxsec 2 (sinx)]dx = ∫ sec 2 (u)du = tan(u) + c = tan(sinx) + c
Let u = sinx
du = cosxdx
4. ∫ (1 + tan2 x)dx = ∫ sec 2 xdx = tanx + c
5. ∫[xsin2 (x 2 )cos5 (x 2 )]dx = ∫[sin2 (x 2 )cos 4 (x 2 )] cos(x 2 ) xdx
= ∫ [sin2 (x 2 )(1 − sin2 (x 2 )] cos(x 2 )xdx
1 2
let u = sin(x 2 ) = 2 ∫ u2 (1 – u2 ) du
1
du = cos(x 2 ) 2xdx = 2 ∫ u2 (1 – 2u2 + u4 ) du
du 1
= cos(x 2 )xdx = 2 ∫ u2 – 2u4 + u6 du
2 1 1 1
= 2 ∫ u2 − 2 ∫ 2u4 + 2 ∫ u6 du
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

1 u3 1 2𝑢5 1 𝑢7
= 2(3) + 2( ) + 2(7) + c
5

3 5 7
(sin(x2 )) (sin(x2 )) (sin(x2 ))
∫[xsin2 (x 2 )cos5 (x 2 )]dx = ( 6
)+( 5
)+( 14
)+c

In finding the integral of trigonometric functions, making use of


trigonometric identities are very useful in situations like these. Other than that,
another reliable concept you should always remember is that integrals are anti-
derivatives of functions. You may verify your answers if you take its derivatives and
compare it to the given if they are the same; that means that your answer is
correct.

DEFINITE INTEGRATION

 A definite integral is an integral that consists of upper limits and lower limits
 It is an integral that is expressed as the difference between the values of
the integral at specified upper and lower limits of the independent variable
Example:
𝑏
∫ 𝑓 (𝑥 )𝑑𝑥
𝑎
Where b is the upper limit and a is the lower limit
How do we solve for the definite integral of a function?
𝑏
∫ 𝑓(𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 (𝑎) − 𝑓(𝑏)
𝑎
1.Get the integral of the function
2.Substitute the upper limit value to the function
3.Substitute the lower limit value to the function
4.Subtract the value that you will get in step 3 from the value that you will
get in step 2
Example:

5
1. ∫1 2𝑥𝑑𝑥
Step 1: Get the integral of the function
5
∫1 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐
Step 2: substitute the upper limit value to the function
52 = 25
Step 3: substitute the lower limit value to the function
12 = 1
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

Step 4: subtract the value from the upper limit to the value from the lower
limit
25 − 1 = 24
Final answer:
5
∫1 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 24
Examples:

1. Let R be the region under the graph of f(x) = x+2 on the interval [3,8]. Find
the area of R.
Given:
a=3;b=8
8 𝑥2 8 82 32
∫3 (𝑥 + 2)𝑑𝑥 = + 2𝑥 + 𝑐 = [ 2 + 2(8)] − [ 2 + 2(3)]
2 3
8
∫3 (𝑥 + 2)𝑑𝑥 = 37.5

Therefore, area of the region under


the graph of f(x) = x+2 on the
3 8
interval (3,8) is 37.5 sq. units.

2. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x2 + 2, y = -1, x = -1 , and x = 2.


Given:
a= -1, b=2
y = x2+2 2 𝑥3 2 23
∫−1[(𝑥 2 + 2) − (−1)] 𝑑 𝑥 = 3 + 3𝑥 + 𝑐 =[ + 2(2)] −
−1 2
(−1)3
[ + 2(−1)]
2
2
∫−1(𝑥 2 + 3) 𝑑𝑥 = 12
x = -1 x=2
Therefore, area of bounded by the
region is 12 sq. units.
y = -1

In this problem, we should take note that the order of subtraction of


functions should be based on which graph of the function is directly above each
other. For this case, the parabola (y= x2 + 2) can be seen as above the second y
function (-1) which is why it was first.
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

3. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x3, x=-1, and x=3/2

y = x3 Given:

For AR1:
a=-1
b=0
𝑂 𝑥4 0 (0)4 (−1)4 −1
∫−1(𝑥 3 )𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐 =| 4 − 4 |= 4
-1 4 −1
1.5 For AR2:
a=0
b=1.5
1.5 𝑥4 1.5 (1.5)4 81
∫0 (𝑥 3 )𝑑𝑥 = +𝑐 = 4 − 0 = 64
4 0

AR = AR1 + AR2
−1 81
AR = 4 + 64
65
AR = 64

Therefore, the area bounded by


the region is 65/64 sq. units.

Examples on application of definite integration


Force and Work Problems:
2
1. A force of 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 2 + sin(4𝑥) + 3 meters, acts on an object. What is the
3
work required to move the object from x=2, to x=5?

𝟐 𝟐 Given:
𝒇(𝒙) = 𝒙 + 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝟒𝒙) + 𝟑
𝟑 a=2
b=5
5
2 2𝑥3 cos(4𝑥) 5
∫ ( 𝑥2 + sin(4𝑥) + 3) 𝑑𝑥 = − + 3𝑥 + 𝑐
2 3 9 4 2
3 3
2(5) cos(4(5)) 2(2) cos(4(2))
=[ − + 3(5)] − [ − + 3(2)]
9 4 9 4

5 2
∫2 (3 𝑥2 + sin(4𝑥) + 3) 𝑑𝑥 = 34.86
2 5

The work required to move the


object from x=2 and x=5 is 34.86 J.
B15 Pabilico, Dino Spencer S. 11-Pascal Date: March 14, 2018

2. A spring has a natural length of 25 cm. A force of 12 N stretches the spring


to a length of 45 cm. Determine how much work is done by stretching the
spring 18 cm beyond natural length.
Given:
Stretched f(x)=12 N
length: 18 x= 0.2 m
cm Hooke’s law:
beyond f(x)=kx
12 = k (0.20)
12
k = 0.2 = 60

0.18 0.18
∫0 60𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 30𝑥 2 + 𝑐 = 30(0.18)2 − 0
0

Therefore, the work done by


stretching the spring 18 cm beyond
its natural length is 0.97 J.
Natural
length:
25 cm