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2018 - 19

PHYSICS INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

LOGIC GATE - NAND GATE

Supervised by: - Submitted by:-

Dr.Satish Kumar Mansi Malik
Ph.D, Physics Class : XII

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Certificate
This is to certify that Mansi Malik a
student of class XII has successfully
completed the research on Study of
different types of transformers the under
the guidance of Dr. Satish Kumar(School
Teacher) during the year 2018-19 in partial
fulfilment of Physics practical
examination conducted CBSE Board, New
Delhi.

Signature Signature
(External examiner) (Physics teacher)

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INDEX

TOPIC PAGE NO.

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Acknowledgement
In the accomplishment of this project successfully many people
have best owned upon me as their blessing and the heart
pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the
people who have been concerned with project.
Primarily I would like to thank god for being able to complete
this project with success. Then I would like to thank my
Physics teacher Dr. Satish Kumar Sir whose valuable
guidance has been the ones that helped me patch this project
and make it full proof success his suggestions and instructions
has served as the major contribution. Then I would like to
thanks my Parents and Friends who have helped me with
their valuable suggestions and guidance have been helpful in
the various phases of the completion of this project. Last I
would like to thank Myself for my determination and hard
work required for the completion in this project.

Mansi Malik
Class: - XII

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Introduction
A logic gate can be defined as digital circuit which either allows
a signal to pass through or stops it. These gates are related to
Boolean Algebra. These gates allow signals to pass through
them only when some logic is satisﬁed. A semiconductor diode
{P—N junction) acts as a closed switch when it is forward
biased, i.e. it allows current to pass through it. It acts as an open
circuit when it is reversed biased, i.e. it allows very little or no
current to pass through it. This unique property of diode is
employed in the design of logic gates and the circuits.

The logic gates are building blocks of electronic devices. Logic

gate may have one or more inputs but can only have one output.
Possible values of input and output of logic gates are expressed
in form of tables called truth tables.

Two values of logic statement are denoted by binary numbers 1

and 0 where 1 represent higher value.

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PRINCIPLE

Any Boolean algebra operation can be associated with inputs

and outputs represent the statements of Boolean algebra.
Although these circuits may be complex, they may all be
Constructed from three basic devices. We have three different
types of logic gates .These are the AND gate, the OR gate and
the NOT gate.

LOGIC STATE
1 0
HIGH LOW
+ve -ve
ON OFF
CLOSE OPEN
RIGHT WRONG
TRUE FALSE
YES NO

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BASIC TERMINOLOGY
SIGNAL: -
Information converted in electrical form and suitable for transmission
called a signal. There are two types of signals
1. Analogue signal:-
Analogue signals are continuous variation of voltage or current.
They are essentially single-valued function of time. Sine wave is a
fundamental analogue signal

2. Digital signal:-
Digital signal are those which can take only discrete step wise value.
Binary system that is extensively used in digital electronics employs
just two levels of signals. “0” corresponds to low level and “1”
corresponds to high level of voltage or current.

 Digital circuit:-
The electrical circuit which uses only digital signals is called digital
circuit.

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BASIC GATES
1. THE OR GATE
It is a device that combines A with B to give Y as the result. The OR
gate has two or more inputs and one output.

The logic gate of OR gate with A and B input and Y output is shown
below:

In Boolean algebra, addition symbol (+) is referred as the OR.

The Boolean expression:

2. THE AND GATE

It is a device that combines A with B to give Y as the result.
The AND gate has two or more inputs and one output. The logic gate of
AND gate with A and B input and Y output is shown below:

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In Boolean algebra, multiplication sign (either x or.) is referred as the
AND. The Boolean expression:

3. THE NOT GATE

It is a device that inverts the inputs. The NOT is a one input and one
output. The logic gate of NOT gate with A and Y output is shown
below:

In Boolean algebra, bar symbol (_) is referred as the NOT. The Boolean
expression:

X’ =Y, indicates Y equals NOT X

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THE NAND GATE
Aim :TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NAND GATE CIRCUIT.
Components:
Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2) , An ideal n-p-n transistor, a
Resistance R.
Theory and Construction:
If we connect the output Y’ of AND gate to the input of a NOT gate.The
gate obtained is called NAND Gate.
NAND gate are also called Universal Gates since by using these gates you
can realise other basic gates like OR,AND,NOT.
Truth Table:-

A B Y
0 0 1
1 0 1
0 1 1
1 1 0

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Bibliography
1. Help From Internet

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