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2018 - 19

## PHYSICS INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

## Ph.D, Physics Class : XII

Certificate
This is to certify that Ashish Yadav a
student of class XII has successfully
completed the research on Study of
different types of transformers the under
the guidance of Dr. Satish Kumar(School
Teacher) during the year 2018-19 in
partial fulfilment of Physics practical
examination conducted CBSE Board,
New Delhi.

Signature Signature
(External examiner) (Physics teacher)
Acknowledgement
In the accomplishment of this project successfully many
people have best owned upon me as their blessing and the
heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all
the people who have been concerned with project.
Primarily I would like to thank god for being able to
complete this project with success. Then I would like to
thank my Physics teacher Dr. Satish Kumar Sir whose
valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me patch
this project and make it full proof success his suggestions
and instructions has served as the major contribution.
Then I would like to thanks my Parents and Friends who
have helped me with their valuable suggestions and
guidance have been helpful in the various phases of the
completion of this project. Last I would like to thank Myself
for my determination and hard work required for the
completion in this project.
Index
1. Certificate of Excellence

2. Acknowledgement

## 3. Aim of the project

4. Theory

5. Material required

6. Procedure

7. Conclusion

8. Precautions

9. Bibliography
Objective
The objective of this experiment is to Study the
Different Types of Transformers
Theory
The transformer is a device used to convert a low alternating voltage to a
high alternating voltage or vice versa. It is based on the principal of mutual
induction. A transformer which increases the voltage is called a step
up transformer and which decreases the voltage is called a step down
transformer.When an alternating e.m.f is supplied to the primary coil, an
alternating current starts flowing in it. The alternating current produces a
changing magnetic flux, which induces alternating voltage.
Let,
 Ep and Esare the instantaneous values of the E.M.F induced in primary
and secondary coil.
 Np and Nsare the no. of turns in primary and secondary coil.
 d/dt=rate of change of flux in each turn.

Therefore,
Ep = - Np(d/dt) .……(1)
Es = - Ns(d/dt) ……(2)
1. If there is no leakage of flux
By dividing Eq (2) by Eq (1), we have
Es/ Ep= Ns/ Np.…… (3)
2. If there is no power loss
Pp= Ps
Ep x Ip = Es x Is
Es / Ep = Ip/ Is ………(4)
Hence,

## Current in secondary is weaker when secondary voltage is higher. Hence,

whatever we gain in voltage, we lose in current in the same ratio. A step
down transformer actually steps up the current and step down voltage. In
this type of transformer:-
Ns< Np and Es < Ep
Efficiency
Efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to the
input power. For an ideal transformer, its value is 1.
But in practical due to different kind of energy loss,

Circuit Diagram
Energy Loss
1. Copper loss: -It is energy loss in the form of heat in the copper coils of a
transformer. This is due to joule heating of conducting wires.
2. Iron loss: -It is the loss in the form of heat in the iron ore of transformer.
This is due to formation of eddy current in iron core, it is minimised by
using laminated core.

## 3. Leakage of magnetic flux: -It occur inspite of best insulation. Rate of

change of magnetic flux linked with each turn of secondary coil is less
than rate of change in magnetic flux linked with each turn of primary coil.

## 4. Hysteresis Loss: -It is loss of energy due to repeated magnetization and

demagnetization of the iron core.

Procedure
 Step Down Transformer
5. Take a thick iron rode and cover it with thick paper and wind a 100 turns
of copper wire on it. This constitutes primary coil of the transformer.
6. Cover the primary coil with a sheet of paper and wound 50 turns of copper
wire on it. This constitutes the secondary coil.
7. Now measure the input and output voltage of the transformer.
Material Required
1.Iron

2.Copper wire

3.Voltmeter

4.Ammeter
Conclusion
8. The output voltage of the transformer depend the ratio of the no. of turns
in primary coil to no. of turns in secondary coil.
9. On increase in no. of turns of primary coil the current the output current
also increase.

Precautions
10. Keep yourself safe from high voltage.
11. Minimise the formation of eddy current.
12. While taking reading the current and voltage of the primary coil
should remain constant.
Bibliography
1. Help From Internet