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Chapter 1

PROBLEM AND IT’S SETTING

INTRODUCTION

Rationale

The term computer game is in sharp competition with video games, console

games, and arcade games. Video games and console games usually mean games

connected to a TV, whereas arcade games means games placed in public spaces.

Computer games on the other hand, are occasionally used to mean games played

on a personal computer. However, since all of these areas have been developed in

close parallel and because all of these games are played on computers, most

researchers use the term computer game to represent all of these areas as a whole.

Computer games first came into existence in the 1960s with the introduction of a

shoot-up game. Since the computer games have become a regular part of life for

many people due to its increased popularity. The computer game has changed

from being primarily played at an arcade to be primarily played in the home.

We conducted this research so we can know what are the possible effects of

online to school performance of a student and so they can be aware and know

what are the effects of online gaming towards their school performance.

Speaking of online gaming,students now a days have their time to play online

games than to study and to do their homeworks.

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Our purpose and objectives on this study is to they can be aware and to knows

what are the all the negative and positive effects of online gaming towards their

school performance

Development in technology brings many things that people don't have many

years back. One of these things is online gaming that is provided by the internet.

Online gaming is one of the widely used leisure activities by many people.

Teenagers who are playing these online games said that they are playing these

games just for fun, to keep away from the heat of the sun, without knowing that

there are a lot of effects of playing these games that are more than what they

think. Playing online games, according to some research is beneficial. It enables

the mind of the players to be more active, especially those puzzle-based games. It

helps the player to come up with decisions in tight situations, especially those

adventure games that keep the players to be alert, active and strategic. Playing

these types of games makes the player experienced different feelings because it is

as if the player is really the one taking the challenges.

Despite those benefits, playing these games also bring negative effects. It

requires much of the player's time, leaving school activities and home works

unattended.

Many students nowadays wants to play online games for an hours or days than

studying their notes thus they don’t know what are the effects of online gaming

towards their school performance on theirs schools.

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The youth of today no longer seem to spend their leisure activities like in the
olden days; outdoor games or playing with toys, instead, they spend their free
time in their homes, internet cafés or computer shops simply to satisfy their
hunger; and that hunger is Online Gaming. Online gaming has such a profound
impact on not only the young, but dynamically every age group as well. So far,
virtually anyone is able to go on a computer and punch through the keys and
mouse in order to get a high score, chat with players, get the rarest items, and
level up as fast as possible. Yes, there seems to be no restriction as to whom, how
or what online gaming can extend to.

As in any situation where new technology is introduced, the social impact of


the Internet is being looked at. One social problem that has been observed is that
the Internet café has become mainly game centres. About one-half to two-thirds
of the computers in a typical Internet café, according to one study, are devoted to
games (violent and gory games). The use of the remaining computers was roughly
split between browsing, email, online chat, word processing and research. The
Internet cafés have become not just game centres. They are becoming centres off
addiction among the youth, mostly boys, including elementary school pupils.
According to one concerned Internet café entrepreneur, “Internet cafés are
seducing youths to a new form of addiction, one which may not destroy their
bodies as drugs do, but which is certainly twisting their minds. To the young play
is reality and reality is play.” (Maslog C. (1998) Internet and Social Issues,
Philippine Communication Today, Quezon City: New Day Publishers).

Online gaming has emerged as a popular and successful source of


entertainment and play for people of all ages, especially for the students. It refers
to the games that are played over some forms of computer network, typically on
the internet. These games are played online, in which you can connect with
multiple players.

It is normally platform independent, relying on the web browser and


appropriate plug-in.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In this research we aims to know what are the negative and positive effects of

online gaming to school performance of grade 8 students.

This reseach aims to answer the following essential questions.

1.) What are the effects of online gaming to student’s school performance?

2.) How does online gaming affect the physical health of students?

3.) Does online gaming affect academic performance in school?

4/) What are the good effects of playing online game to the school performance of

students?

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will help the students have an insight on the impact of online

games towards their academic performance.

To the Parents, it will serve as basis to help share with other parents the

information about certain games or ideas to help each other in parenting. Also it

will help them understand the behaviour and study habit of their children when

they’re engaged into such activity

To the Teachers, it will provide additional knowledge on what strategy to

use to educate students about the well-known effects of online gaming to

students’ academic performance, problem-solving strategy, decision-making and

spatial visualization.

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SCOPES AND DELIMITATIONS

The general intent of this study is to know the effects of online gaming to the

school performance of grade 8 students, this study will mainly identify the effects

of online gaming towards their school performance and so they can be aware of it.

This study is conducted in Pajo National High School and only for the

selected grade 8 students from 5 sections.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

Communication -means of connection between people or places, in particular.

Competition-the person or people with whom one is competing, especially in a

commercial or sporting arena; the opposition.

Computer-a person who makes calculations, especially with a calculating

machine.

Console-comfort (someone) at a time of grief or disappointment.

Despite-without being affected by; in spite of.

Effects- a change that is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Emerged-move out of or away from something and come into view.

Extend-cause to cover a larger area; make longer or wider.

Impact-the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.

Leisure-opportunity afforded by free time to do something.

Objectives-a thing aimed at or sought; a goal.

Performance-the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action,

task, or function.

Processing-perform a series of mechanical or chemical operations on (something)

in order to change or preserve it.

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Restriction-the limitation or control of someone or something, or the state of

being limited or restricted.

Situation-a set of circumstances in which one finds oneself; a state of affairs.

Speaking -the action of conveying information or expressing one's thoughts and

feelings in spoken language.

Split-a tear, crack, or fissure in something, especially down the middle or along

the grain.

Strategic-relating to the identification of long-term or overall aims and interests

and the means of achieving them.

Unattended-not noticed or dealt with.

Virtually-nearly; almost.

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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Online Games/ Video Games

Playing video games is often associated in our society with poor academic

performance. This anecdotal idea is supported by some research. A 2000 study

found a negative correlation between GPA and time spent playing video games

(Anderson & Dill, 2000). The correlation was relatively small. Time alone

accounted for a 4% variance in GPA, yet the findings are significant. However,

several older studies contend that the results of research have been mixed. A 1997

study suggests that “there is no clear causal relationship between video game

playing and academic performance” (Emes, 1997, p. 413). It goes on to say that

the research is “sparse and contradictory” (Emes, 1997, p. 413).

The effect that interactive digital media has on the learning process is not

completely negative. It is not that the medium itself is inherently flawed, but

much of the information that gets transmitted through it may be. As was noted in

a 2008 study on media attention and cognitive abilities, “content appears to be

crucial” (Schmidt &Vanderwater, 2008, p. 63). If the content being consumed is

positive, then positive results can be expected. If the content is negative, then

negative results can be expected. The study examined research from many sources

in arriving at this conclusion.

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Student Engagement and Sociological Effects

Research on the social effects of video games is also mixed (Allison,

Wahlde, Shockley, &Gabbard, 2006). Some studies have found that video games

are similar to addictions such as gambling which create negative social effects.

Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) have been

called “heroinware” because they are “simultaneously competitive and highly

social” (Allison, Wahlde, Shockley, &Gabbard, 2006, p. 383). Other studies have

noted positive aspects of the games such as the ability to experiment with aspects

of individual identity which do not come out in public.

MMORPGs have been criticized for hampering academic and job

performance. The FCC has specifically accused World of Warcraft, one of the

most popular games, as leading to college dropouts (Somaiya, 2009). Students can

become obsessed with these games and become disengaged from schools, friends,

and life in general.Video games can also have positive social effects. One

measure of this which has significant research is that of prosocialbehavior.

Prosocialbehavior is defined as when one person acts to help another. While

research on this topic is mixed, there is evidence that games which focus on

prosocialbehavior lead to prosocial results (Schie&Wiegman, 1997).

Intelligence Benefits

According to All Academic Research, playing computer games may not

be all that bad for your children. Peng Wei states that educational games can be

effective assisting tools in the educational areas of management, medicine and

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science. If you choose the right educational computer games, your child may learn

better problem-solving skills and eye-hand coordination. Your child may also get

the ability to think fast and think of multiple things all at once. Skills obtained

from playing computer games may help your child learn quickly when it comes to

his studies. If your child is struggling in one of his school subjects, there are many

educational computer games available for him. There are math and reading related

games that may help boost your child’s skills. These games can be both fun and

educational for your children.

Positive Effects of Video Games

When your child plays video games, it gives his brain a real workout. In

many video games, the skills required to win involve abstract and high level

thinking. These skills are not even taught at school. Some of the mental skills

enhanced by video games include following instructions, Problem solving and

logic (When a child plays a game such as The Incredible Machine, Angry Birds

or Cut The Rope, he trains his brain to come up with creative ways to solve

puzzles and other problems in short bursts), Hand-eye coordination, fine motor

and spatial skills. In shooting games, the character may be running and shooting

at the same time. This requires the real-world player to keep track of the position

of the character, where he/she is heading, his speed, where the gun is aiming, if

the gunfire is hitting the enemy, and so on. All these factors need to be taken into

account, and then the player must then coordinate the brain's interpretation and

reaction with the movement in his hands and fingertips. This process requires a

great deal of eye-hand coordination and visual-spatial ability to be successful.

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Research also suggests that people can learn iconic, spatial, and visual attention

skills from video games. There have been even studies with adults showing that

experience with video games is related to better surgical skills. Also, a reason

given by experts as to why fighter pilots of today are more skillful is that this

generation’s pilots are being weaned on video games. Planning, resource

management and logistics. The player learns to manage resources that are

limited, and decide the best use of resources, the same way as in real life. This

skill is honed in strategy games such as SimCity, Age of Empires, and Railroad

Tycoon. Notably, The American Planning Association, the trade association of

urban planners and Maxis, the game creator, have claimed that SimCity has

inspired a lot of its players to take a career in urban planning and architecture.

Multitasking, simultaneous tracking of many shifting variables and managing

multiple objectives. In strategy games, for instance, while developing a city, an

unexpected surprise like an enemy might emerge. This forces the player to be

flexible and quickly change tactics. (Daphne Bavalier)

Quick thinking, making fast analysis and decisions. Sometimes the player

does this almost every second of the game giving the brain a real workout.

According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier,

a cognitive scientist, games simulating stressful events such as those found in

battle or action games could be a training tool for real-world situations. The study

suggests that playing action video games primes the brain to make quick

decisions. Video games can be used to train soldiers and surgeons, according to

the study. Importantly, decisions made by action-packed video game players are

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no less accurate. According to Bavelier, "Action game players make more correct

decisions per unit time. If you are a surgeon or you are in the middle of a

battlefield, which can make all the difference." Accuracy - Action games,

according to a study by the University of Rochester, train the player's brain to

make faster decisions without losing accuracy. In today’s world, it is important to

move quickly without sacrificing accuracy. Strategy and anticipation - Steven

Johnson, author of Everything Bad is Good For You: How Today's Popular

Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter, calls this "telescoping." The gamer must

deal with immediate problems while keeping his long-term goals on his horizon.

Situational awareness - – Defense News reported that the Army include video

games to train soldiers to improve their situational awareness in combat. Many

strategy games also require the player to become mindful of sudden situational

changes in the game and adapt accordingly. Developing reading and math skills –

The young gamer reads to get instructions, follow storylines of games, and get

information from the game texts. Also, using math skills is important to win in

many games that involves quantitative analysis like managing resources.

Perseverance – In higher levels of a game, the player usually fails the first time

around, but he keeps on trying until he succeeds and move on to the next level.

Pattern recognition – Games have internal logic in them, and the player figures it

out by recognizing patterns. Estimating skills. Inductive reasoning and hypothesis

testing - James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-

Madison, says that playing a video game is similar to working through a science

problem. Like a student in a laboratory, the gamer must come up with a

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hypothesis. For example, the gamer must constantly try out combinations of

weapons and powers to use to defeat an enemy. If one does not work, he changes

hypothesis and try the next one. Video games are goal-driven experiences, says

Gee, which are fundamental to learning. Mapping (The gamer use in-game maps

or build maps on his head to navigate around virtual worlds.) Memory - Playing

first person shooter games such as Call of Duty and Battlefield series enables the

player to effectively judge what information should be stored in his working

memory and what can be discarded considering the task at hand, according to a

study published in the Psychological Research. Concentration, A study conducted

by the Appalachia Educational Laboratory reveal that children with attention-

deficit disorder who played Dance Revolution improve their reading scores by

helping them concentrate Improved ability to rapidly and accurately recognize

visual information - A study from Beth Israel Medical Center NY, found a direct

link between skill at video gaming and skill at keyhole, or laparoscopic, surgery.

Reasoned judgments, Taking risks - Winning in any game involves a player's

courage to take risks. Most games do not reward players who play safely. How to

respond to challenges, How to respond to frustrations, How to explore and rethink

goals, Teamwork and cooperation when played with others – Many multiplayer

games such as Team Fortress 2 involve cooperation with other online players in

order to win. These games encourage players to make the most of their individual

skills to contribute to the team. According to a survey by Joan Ganz Cooney

Center, teachers report that their students become better collaborators after using

digital games in the classroom. Management – Management simulation games

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such as Rollercoaster Tycoon and Zoo tycoon teach the player to make

management decisions and manage the effective use of finite resources. Other

games such as Age of Empires and Civilization even simulate managing the

course of a civilization. Simulation, real world skills. The most well-known

simulations are flight simulators, which attempt to mimic the reality of flying a

plane. All of the controls, including airspeed, wing angles, altimeter, and so on,

are displayed for the player, as well as a visual representation of the world, and

are updated in real time.

Computer Game Addiction

Because there is no official diagnosis of computer game addiction, there is

obviously no universally agreed upon list of symptoms. Psychologists and other

mental health professionals initially adapted the diagnostic criteria for gambling

addiction and used this as a rough assessment tool for computer game addiction.

This classification approach is rarely used today and for better or for worse, it is

essentially up to the individual researcher or clinician to define the symptoms of

computer addiction. Still, there are some signs and behaviors that are almost

always included in definitions of computer addiction, such as: Significant

interference with school, work, or relationships. Often avoiding other

commitments in order to keep playing, Frequently turning down social invitations

in favor of gaming, Using most or all of one's free time for gaming, Regularly

playing late into the night and which results in poor sleep habits, Loss of interest

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in previously enjoyed activities, Regular gaming "binges" of 8 hours or more

nonstop.

Psychological Effects

There is a large body of evidence which suggests that violent video games

lead to increased aggression and even violence. There is some mixed evidence on

the psychological effects of video game violence, but Craig Anderson (2003)

offers overall implications that can be reached by looking at all studies that relate

video games to risk factors:

Some studies have yielded nonsignificant [sic] video game effects, just as

some smoking studies failed to find a significant link to lung cancer. But when

one combines all relevant empirical studies using meta-analytic techniques, five

separate effects emerge with considerable consistency. Violent video games are

significantly associated with: increased aggressive behavior, thoughts, and affect;

increased physiological arousal; and decreased prosocial (helping) behavior.

(Anderson, 2003, Myths and Facts, para. 1)

In another study which considers available research on media violence,

several relevant conclusions were reached (Anderson, et al., 2003). It was found

that there are “sufficient studies with sufficient consistency” to back up several

important findings (Anderson, et al., 2003, p. 93). Video game violence is linked

to aggression in the short term. Cross-sectional studies have been able to show a

correlation between long term exposure to video game violence and real world

violence. A few longitudinal studies are also able to suggest that video game

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exposure has long term effects on aggression. It should be noted that Craig

Anderson, one of the authors of this study has been criticized for overstating the

data on video games and its link to aggression and violent behavior (Block &

Crain, 2007).

A study in 2008 considers the correlation between increasing interactive

digital media usage and unhealthful behaviors (Escobar-Chaves & Anderson,

2008). The researchers looked at five major areas of risky behavior. These include

obesity, smoking, drinking, violence, and early sexual activity. These categories

were chosen because the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has

identified these areas among the activities that “contribute to the leading causes of

death and disability in the United States among adults and youth” (Escobar-

Chaves & Anderson, 2008, p. 148).

The study found that, in general, there is at least a modest link between

electronic media consumption and obesity, smoking, drinking, and violence. The

study focused largely on TV and movies as the basis for the first three, but

specifically mentioned the effect of videogame violence as increasing the risks of

violence in teens. The research in this study concluded that “brief exposure to

violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior”

(Escobar-Chaves & Anderson, 2008).

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Effects related to learning

Playing video games is often associated in our society with poor academic

performance. This anecdotal idea is supported by some research. A 2000 study

found a negative correlation between GPA and time spent playing video games

(Anderson & Dill, 2000). The correlation was relatively small. Time alone

accounted for a 4% variance in GPA, yet the findings are significant. However,

several older studies contend that the results of research have been mixed. A 1997

study suggests that “there is no clear causal relationship between video game

playing and academic performance” (Emes, 1997, p. 413). It goes on to say that

the research is “sparse and contradictory” (Emes, 1997, p. 413).

The effect that interactive digital media has on the learning process is not

completely negative. It is not that the medium itself is inherently flawed, but

much of the information that gets transmitted through it may be. As was noted in

a 2008 study on media attention and cognitive abilities, “content appears to be

crucial” (Schmidt &Vanderwater, 2008, p. 63). If the content being consumed is

positive, then positive results can be expected. If the content is negative, then

negative results can be expected. The study examined research from many sources

in arriving at this conclusion.

There is a movement to leverage video games as a part of the learning

process. A paper from EDUCAUSE suggests that faculty need be aware of games

that could be helpful to the in class learning experience (Hitch & Duncan, 2005).

It mentions using tactical and strategy games to enhance the level of

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understanding and engagement with the material. It specifically mentioned using

Civilization IV, a game which focuses on empire building and economies of scale

to aid in the understanding of history and economics.

A 2005 paper suggests that videogames are changing education and that

games are more than a simple form of entertainment (Shaffer, Squire, Halverson,

& Gee, 2005). It explains that student learning can be enhanced by experiences in

vast virtual worlds. These worlds can allow students to interact as a community.

Virtual worlds are useful “because they make it possible to develop situated

understanding” (Shaffer, Squire, Halverson, & Gee, 2005, p. 106). This means

that students are able to actually experience and experiment with the things that

they are learning rather than simply being told them as facts or equations.

Some research concludes there is little evidence to suggest that interactive

media enhances the learning experience (Schmidt &Vanderwater, 2008). Other

sources have noted positive impacts on student performance. One study of a game

relating to numerical analysis in an engineering curriculum found that “students

experienced significantly more intellectual intensity, intrinsic motivation, positive

affect and overall student engagement when completing homework”

(Coller&Shernoff, 2009, p. 315). Research on the subject has been mixed, but it

seems that video games can have a positive effect on learning when used in

particular ways.

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CHAPTER 3

THE RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE

RESEARCH METHOD

The descriptive research method is used in gathering the needed

information forthisstudy.the researchers utilized a questionnaire to the selected

grade 8 students,they must required answer the following questions all about

“Effect of Online Gaming to School Performance of Grade 8 Students”

RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT

The researchers began to conduct their research in one location only and

that is their school named Pajo National High School located in Lapu-Lapu City,

Cebu.

RESEARCH RESPONDENTS

In order to complete our research we have to find a respondents or people

who provide answers to written questions and our respondents are the grade 8

students of the Pajo National High School.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

Our research intstrument consists of the items which gathers resondents

profile such as name,section and lastly the date of when they are answering the

questions,we’ve make a questionnaire so the respondents no need to answer it in a

paper,they must answer the questionnaire cleanly and clearly

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RESEARCH PROCEDURE

Our procedure is easy for us all we need is to conduct a survey questionnaire to

the selected grade 8 students in order to complete we must have a procedure

STATISTICAL TREATMENT

The questionnaire distributed by the researchers were statistically analyzed

with the data requirements of the study

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CHAPTER 4

ANALYSIS,PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents, analysis and interprets the data from the study. The

focus was the effect of online gaming to school performance of grade 8 students

of pajo national high school.

THE EFFECTS OF ONLINE GAMING TO SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF

GRADE 8 STUDENTS.

This part elucidate the percentage of each questions that being answered by our

respondents and that is the grade 8 students of pajo national high school.

1. Have you ever played online games?

Percentage
YES : 88%

NO : 18%

2. Do you think playing online games too often will bring health problems?

Percentage
YES : 66%

NO : 34%

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3. Do you think grade 8 students playing online games too often will hinder
their studies?

Percentage

YES : 56%

NO : 44%

4. Does online gaming affect academic performance in school?

Percentage

YES : 72%

NO : 28%

5. Have you ever been involved in a fight because of online games?

Percentage YES : 52%

NO : 56%

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6. Do you think playing educational online games will increase your
knowledge?

Percentage
YES : 62%

NO : 38%

7. Have you ever tried sleeping in class or feeling tired because of lack of
sleep due to playing online games for almost 8 hours?

Percentage
YES : 34%

NO : 66%

8. Do you think playing online games for almost a day will affect your
school performance?

Percentage YES : 64%

NO : 34%

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9. Have you ever tried to be absent because of playing online games for a
day?

Percentage YES : 20%

NO : 80%

10. Have you ever tried skipping classes because of online gaming?

Percentage YES : 20%

NO : 80%

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CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY,FINDINGS,CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study, the presentation of the

findings and formulation and recommendations derived from the analysis and

interpretation of data.

SUMMARY

This study was aimed at assessing the effects of online gaming to school

performance of grade 8 students “ .The questionnaire was the main instrument

used to gather the needed data.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

 That the guidance office promote programs that educate children about the

bad effects of too much playing online games.

 Parents should continue the observance of time limit as for allowing their

children to play online games.

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CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study are in agreement with the finding of the other

studies around the world.As the results show that they must responsible in playing

online games or need it balance in order to it can’t affect their school performance

and the parents must be responsible also for guiding them in playing online games

that not playing to much cause it will hinder their studies yet some other online

games like BOOKWORM an educational online games will have a chance to

increase their knowledge.

RECOMMENDATION

The researcher recommends that playing educational games will increase

their knowledge and the teachers must conduct a lesson about what are the effects

of the online gaming to the students so they may aware of this problem.

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APPENDICES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

https://www.coursehero.com/file/12091458/Chapter-3-Thesis-Sample/

https://www.google.com.ph/search?biw=1366&bih=662&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=Es
VQWrzIM4SA8gWugbf4DQ&q=how%20to%20make%20survey%20questions
%20for%20thesis%20&oq=how%20to%20make%20survey%20questions%20for
%20thesis%20&gs_l=psy-
ab.3...11193.11193.0.12062.1.1.0.0.0.0.143.143.0j1.1.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-
ab..0.0.0....0.4vDT7iuToSs#imgdii=AsOOdkSjFTbcIM:&imgrc=gYaD0MkGEzD
ZYM

http://www.my3q.com/research/natznet/85729.phtml

https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/thesis_composedraft.html

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Ability-possession of the means or skill to do something.

Accuracy-the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or

specification conforms to the correct value or a standard.

Addiction-the fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing,

or activity.

Aggression-hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another; readiness to

attack or confront.

Behavior-the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially toward others.

Binges-a short period devoted to indulging in an activity to excess, especially

drinking alcohol or eating.

Coordination-the organization of the different elements of a complex body or

activity so as to enable them to work together effectively.

Correlation-a mutual relationship or connection between two or more things.

Fundamental-forming a necessary base or core; of central importance.

Gambling-

play games of chance for money; bet.

Heroinware-(video games, slang) An addictive computer game, especially

one played to the extent it interferes with the everyday life of the player.

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Honed-sharpen (a blade).

Keyhole-a hole in a lock into which the key is inserted.

Simultaneously-at the same time.

Strategy-a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.

Surgeon-a medical practitioner qualified to practice surgery.

Techniques-a way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or

performance of an artistic work or a scientific procedure.

Variance-the fact or quality of being different, divergent, or inconsistent.

Visual-a picture, piece of film, or display used to illustrate or accompany

something.

Weaned-accustom (an infant or other young mammal) to food other than its

mother's milk.

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