You are on page 1of 9

US 20140311218A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/0311218 A1
Adebimpe (43) Pub. Date: Oct. 23, 2014
(54) METHODS OF PRODUCING PSEUDOSCENT (57) ABSTRACT
COMPOSITIONS OF NARCOTC
MATERALS AND COMPOSITIONS
THEREOF This invention relates to a method that can be used to scien
tifically fabricate pseudoscents of narcotics, which, in their
(71) Applicant: David Adebimpe, Annapolis, MD (US) entirety, are comprised of non-narcotic materials. It also dis
closes specific compositions of such pseudoscents, which can
(72) Inventor: David Adebimpe, Annapolis, MD (US) be used as narcotic-free-but-odoriferously-identical simu
(21) Appl. No.: 14/217,431 lants for a range of narcotics and are comprised of non
narcotic components of the scent signature of a narcotic and/
(22) Filed: Mar 17, 2014 or scent components of the same headspace scent signature
that have narcotic qualities but have been rendered non-nar
Related U.S. Application Data cotic. The scents achievable by the groups of formulations
generated by this method include the different types of pro
(60) Provisional application No. 61/802.312, filed on Mar. hibited and controlled narcotics, and the components within
15, 2013. the pseudoscents can be further tuned to generate simulants
Publication Classification representative of different qualities and quantities of Such
narcotics. These non-narcotic scent simulants can be used to
(51) Int. C. bolster existing narcotic detector-dog training programs,
GOIN33/00 (2006.01) establish new training paradigms in canine, rodent, insect,
(52) U.S. C. and other creature narcotic detection and training and, in
CPC. G0IN33/0001 (2013.01); G0IN 2033/0003 Some cases, increase the efficiencies of analytical instruments
(2013.01) that rely on the phenomenon of vapor sampling to detect
USPC ....................................... 73/23.34; 252/408.1 narcotic materials.
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

METHODS OF PRODUCING PSEUDOSCENT and MDMA. These scents have no direct physical or chemical
COMPOSITIONS OF NARCOTC equivalence to the narcotics that they simulate; they are solely
MATERALS AND COMPOSITIONS of odoriferous equivalence.
THEREOF
0007 Also, as none of the pseudoscent components can be
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED classified as narcotic material, these pseudoscents can also be
APPLICATIONS stored, transported and deployed using methods and forms,
which, as narcotics, would be hazardous, would require a
0001. This application claims priority from U.S. Provi license, would be illegal, or would be entirely impossible. The
sional Application 6 1/802.312, titled a System and Methods pseudoscents produced by this method are suitable for the
of Producing Pseudoscent Compositions of Narcotic Materi training of canines, as well as other scent-detecting creatures,
als and Compositions Thereof, filed on Mar. 15, 2013, the to detect narcotics and narcotic-containing materials and
entirety of which is hereby incorporated by reference. products, with each pseudoscent type containing carefully
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY
selected odoriferous markers that define a particular narcotic.
SPONSORED RESEARCH
Using these pseudoscents in conjunction with an effective
narcotics-detection training regime will allow narcotics-de
0002. Not Applicable tecting creatures such as dogs, bees, rats and fishes to achieve
detection efficiencies that are far superior to those achieved
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION by training on both real narcotics and other scent-simulants
containing real narcotics. This is because the principal com
0003. The present invention relates to a method for pro ponents needed for detection have been scientifically identi
ducing non-narcotic scent simulants of narcotics (otherwise fied, isolated from the headspace scent signature of each
known as “pseudoscents') that smell like real narcotics but narcotic and odoriferous equivalents have also been deter
lack any narcotic material and lack and of the physiological or mined. The identified and determined components have,
psychedelic characteristics of real narcotics. These non-nar thereafter, been formulated into a pseudoscent whose scent
cotic scent simulants can be used to compliment or Supplant components are known and can be precisely controlled.
the use of real narcotics in the training and evaluation regimen
of narcotic-detecting dogs and other creatures. It also relates 0008. A method for making a non-narcotic scent simulant
to a method for validating such pseudoscents, and defines the that smells like the simulated real narcotic but does not have
compositions of some pseudoscents simulants. the narcotic characteristics of the simulated narcotic compris
0004 Currently, Non-narcotic scent simulants or pseudo ing: a) targeting a narcotic material for detection; b) identi
scents of narcotics are based upon Scientific principles that fying the odor components within the headspace scent signa
involve increasing the Surface area of Such narcotics in ture of the narcotic that is targeted for detection; c) identifying
attempt to increase the dispersivity of the smell. This is components that are odoriferously similar to the headspace
achieved by using highly dispersed cohorts of the real narcot components within the headspace scent signature of the mate
ics or narcotic particulates rather than using the principles rial that is targeted for detection; d) combining components
based on investigative enduires into the underpinnings of the identified in b) into a first formulation; e) combining the
science of odors and their relationship with the olfactory components identified in c) into a second formulation; and f)
capacity of narcotic-detection creatures. combining the components identified in b) and c) into a third
0005 Accordingly, there is a continuing interest in the formulation, wherein the non-narcotic pseudoscent is Sub
development of narcotic-scent simulants that do not contain stantially free of the narcotic.
any of the physiological or psychedelic properties of real 0009. In one embodiment, the structural framework of a
narcotics. This invention can be used to manufacture non
narcotic scent simulants of narcotics that do not contain all the real narcotic is substituted with a larger or a differently
configured one,
psychedelic properties of the narcotics the real narcotics and
confer several advantages over real narcotics: non-narcotic 0010. In another embodiment, the functional group of real
scent simulants of narcotics can be safely transported without narcotic is substituted with a functional group that has similar
the attendant risks of transporting real narcotics; non-narcotic electronic properties, thereby diluting the pharmacologi
scent simulants can be handled without the worry of getting a cally-active potential of the narcotic component of the head
permit from a regulatory agency; and, from a logistical stand space scent profile to the extent that it loses its narcotic
point, drug detector programs can easily obtain non-narcotic character.
scent simulants without the hassle of obtaining real narcotics. 0011. In another related embodiment, the structural back
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION bone of the narcotic molecule is supplanted with a homologue
that has a higher molecular weight in an attempt to nullify or
0006. The present invention relates to a method that can be dilute the narcotic effects of the functional group.
used to produce non-narcotic scent-simulants of narcotics 0012. In yet another embodiment, the functional group(s)
that smell so similar to the narcotic being simulated that both within the molecular structure of the headspace component is
scents are indistinguishable from each other to a narcotic replaced with a non-pharmacological active functional group
detecting creature. Such compositions of pseudoscents can be (s) that has similar electron donating or withdrawing proper
used for training and evaluating creatures, such as dogs, in ties.
narcotics detection. The present invention also further relates
to compositions of pseudoscents that have no narcotic com 0013. In another embodiment, the ratios of odoriferous
ponents whatsoever but whose scents nonetheless simulate components within the non-narcotic scent simulant is
the scents of narcotics such as cocaine, heroin, methamphet adjusted to duplicate the scent of varying amounts of the
amine, PCP. Synthetic cannabinoids, cannabis, opium, LSD, narcotic.
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

DEFINITION OF TERMS resolutions; they smell the same object to different resolu
tions, too. However, and more importantly, whatever it is they
0014. A non-narcotic scent simulant of a narcotic is a Smell is not simply the material that is being seen, but the
Substance that produces a scent that is so similar to the scent components within the material that is (are) Volatile enough to
of the narcotic it is Supposed to simulate that neither scent can have the affinity to exude from the material being seen. More
be differentiated from one another by a narcotic detecting over, the concentration of each volatile material within the
creature. Such a non-narcotic scent simulant of a narcotic can
scent signature of the material must be equal to or greater than
also be referred to as the odoriferous equivalent of that nar the creature's olfactory threshold, which is the lowest olfac
cotic.
tory stimulus intensity a creature can detect before such vola
0015. A non-narcotic pseudoscent is a substance that com tile component can be picked up by the sense of smell as being
prises of one or more scent simulant components. However, present within the headspace. Due to differences in physiol
all the materials used in its manufacture, including the scent it ogy, anatomy, and affinities of olfactory organs, and in the
emanates, are not comprised of the narcotic being simulated. number and densities of olfactory cells, it is also expected that
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
such olfactory threshold will itself, differ from creature to
creature. This makes it possible for different creatures to
0016. The present invention relates to pseudoscents of identify the same material using different components of the
narcotic materials, which are essentially scent simulants of a scent signature of Volatiles exuded by a material, and not the
narcotic that does not contain any narcotic materials them total number of components within the scent signature itself.
selves. These pseudoscents will be particularly useful in the 0019 Our findings show that, in most instances, non-nar
evaluation and training and of narcotics detecting creatures cotic components of a narcotic normally resulting from the
Such as canines, bees and rats. decomposition of Such narcotics are more Volatile than the
0017. Known for their acute sense of smell, canines have narcotic itself. The highly volatile nature of some of these
non-narcotic components means that they will be omnipres
been used to perform various forms of scent-based detection ent within the scent signature of narcotics and this makes
work: the search and rescue of missing, injured or deceased them better odoriferous markers for a narcotics detection
persons; the detection of narcotics and drugs by police and program based on olfaction than using the narcotic itself as a
federal law enforcement authorities; the detection of acceler detection marker, as they will be easier to detect by olfactory
ants in arson investigation; the detection of moulds and other receptors involved in the sense of smell. The function of the
biohazards; and in the detection of explosives, firearms, nose is based on vapor sampling which corresponds to single
ammunition and mines. When fully trained, a typical canine molecule sampling and not, as thought, particulate sampling.
can search a carper minute and over 400 packages in half an Furthermore, engaging these non-narcotic scents as training
hour. Furthermore, unlike the point-detection capability of aids within the training regimen of, for example, narcotics
narcotic-detection instruments and machines, canines can detecting canines, will greatly improve their Success rate in
pickup a scent and track it to its source. In a search-and-detect detecting narcotics.
situation, a trained narcotics-detection canine will “key' (i.e., 0020. Using marijuana as an example, it is believed by the
identify and/or detect) onto specific scents, which, to a scent-detection community that its pharmacologically-active
human, are seemingly indistinguishable from other scents ingredients, terahydrocannabinol (known as THC), canna
present in the environment, and trace the scent to the material bidiol, and tetrahydrocannabivarinare the main odor markers
that is producing Such odor. However, even with Such Superb that scent detecting canines use in its detection. However, this
discriminatory capacity, Such dogs miss a small-but-signifi Supposition stems from the fact that these are the ingredients
cant percentage of target material during their search process. that make marijuana illegal. In actuality, the low vapor pres
sure of THC and these other pharmacologically-active con
These failures are caused by a number of factors, the most stituents cannot significantly contribute to the headspace
pertinent being improper foundation training, the use of scent signatures of marijuana mainly because of their high
wrong aids in detector-dog training programs, and the lack of molecular weights and, therefore, high vapor pressures.
proper training aids. In order to decrease these failure rates, Moreover, when combined with other materials such as bind
new and technically Superior scent simulants are needed. ers and starches, as in the case of methylenedioxymetham
0.018. In these modern times, some trainers believe that phetamine (MDMA), which is normally used as a training aid
real narcotics are better than non-narcotic scent simulants and in its tablet form, the scent signature of the narcotic being
prefer to use real narcotics as training aids over non-narcotic sought is being contaminated with the materials used to make
scent simulants. This preferential use is based on their belief the narcotic into a tableted form. These materials change from
that it is impossible to duplicate the odor of a narcotic to a manufacturer toi manufacturer and so does the scent signa
level of accuracy sufficient for scent-detection raining with ture—even if the narcotic component within the tablet is of
out using a narcotic component. Thus, since cocaine will the same type and quantity.
contain only cocaine within its odor profile and marijuana 0021 Non-narcotic scent simulants and pseudoscents that
odor essentially contains cannabinoids, non-narcotic scent are fabricated for research and developmental work in nar
cotics detection will be more effective if their formulations
simulants will not have the efficacy of using the “real thing” embrace both the de facto constituents of the headspace scent
as the training aid for its own detection. From this simple of the narcotic material and addresses the olfactory compe
premise, which translates to “what we see is what we smell. tence of the narcotics detecting canine, rather than Solely
deductions were advanced that canines must therefore be concentrating on finding the narcotic component within a
trained on the scent of only the material that it is required to narcotic. A narcotic is for the sense of sight while its odor is
detect in order to successfully imprint the canine with the for the sense of smell. Such considerations will result in the
narcotic it is trained to detect. What is overlooked is the fact formulation of simulants that can actually be used to develop,
that for humans, other mammals, and a host of other crea sharpen, and/or evaluate the abilities of narcotics-detecting
tures, what is seen is not necessarily what is Smelt. In the first creatures and, when used to develop logic algorithms,
instance, as different creatures see same object to different increase the detection rate of analytical instruments.
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

0022. The present invention therefore relates to a method TABLE 1


Suitable for fabricating pseudoscents of narcotic materials
which, albeit precluding any narcotic material, contain the Chemical structures of some Narcotics
necessary odoriferous markers that characterizes a particular
narcotic. This method involves the process of reconstituting O
the experimentally determined headspace scent signature of a /
CH3
narcotic into a formulation that retains all non-narcotic com HC-N O
ponents within Such a signature and Substitutes the narcotic
components, if any, with equivalents whose pharmacologi- O
cally-active group(s) has been Substituted with a "non-nar
cotic but odoriferously equivalent group(s).
0023 The foundation of this invention hinges on the Sup
position that the physicochemical composition of an narcotic Cocaine
material is of minor significance in the fabrication of an
narcotic simulant for the training and evaluation of narcotic- HC
3 O
detecting creature and in the development of narcotics-detect
ing analytical instruments; what is more important is its
scent which can be determined by the initial (analytical) O
identification of the headspace scent signature of these nar
cotic materials—as this is essentially what the diversity of O
narcotic detecting creatures such as dogs, rodents and bees
detect.
0024. The present invention also relates to compositions
of pseudoscents for scent simulants that contain no narcotic H3C O
components whatsoever but are identical to the scents of
materials that are designated as narcotics by the US Drug Heroin
Enforcement Administration (DEA). Such materials include
cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana, phencyclid- CH
ine (PCP), and amphetamine-based narcotics. These pseudo- (2)
scents have no direct physical or chemical equivalence to the N
narcotic materials or compositions they simulate; they are
solely of odoriferous equivalence. Also, since they are non- (2)
narcotic, none of the pseudoscent formulations produced by
the present method can be classified as a narcotic material and H
the pseudoscents can be stored, transported, and implemented
as a training aid, using methods and forms, which, as real
narcotics, would be hazardous, require a license, or impos
sible. The pseudoscents produced by this method are also
Suitable for the training of search-and-detect creatures that Marijuana (Tetrahydrocannabinol,
use the element of scent-detection for their detection activi active ingredient shown)
ties and, when applicable, the calibration of analytical instru
mentation that relies on the principle of vapor sampling to
detect narcotic materials. Using these compositions with an N
appropriate training regime will allow narcotic detecting
creatures, such as dogs, to achieve efficiencies that are far
Superior to analytical instruments or to if they were trained
using real narcotics. By adjusting the types and ratios of Methamphetamine
odoriferous components within the pseudoscent, it is also
possible to further tune the pseudoscent to duplicate the scent
of varying amounts of the narcotic it simulates. The compo (2) indicates text missing or illegible when filed
sitions may also be used to train other creatures, for example,
bees, rodents and wasps.
TABLE 2
An illustration of the interrelationships between a simulated narcotic,
its non-narcotic pseudoscent formulation and the scope of detection
of the pseudoscent, if used as a narcotic-detection training aid.
Example of Scope of
narcotic detection
using specific
Specific explosive Examples of specific pseudoscent
component being Examples of Identified pseudoscent formulation as a
simulated Pseudoscents formulations training aid
Cocaine Methyl cinnamate, 2g methyl cinnamate + Cocaine, crack cocaine
cinnamic acid, 2g benzoic acid +
benzoic acid 10g diatomaceous earth
Heroin Acetic acid, phenyl 4g phenyl acetate + Heroin, opium and
acetate, acetophenone 10g diatomaceous earth opium soaked tobacco
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

TABLE 2-continued
An illustration of the interrelationships between a simulated narcotic,
its non-narcotic pseudoscent formulation and the scope of detection
of the pseudoscent, if used as a narcotic-detection training aid.
Example of Scope of
narcotic detection
using specific
Specific explosive Examples of specific pseudoscent
component being Examples of Identified pseudoscent formulation as a
simulated Pseudoscents formulations training aid
Methamphetamine Benzaldehyde, 1.5 g benzaldehyde + All forms of amphetamines,
benzylmethylamine, 2g propiophenone + “crystal meth’
propiophenone 10g cellulose
PCP Phenylcyclohexene, 4.40g phenylcyclohexene + PCP
cyclohexlpiperidine, 2 g + piperidine +
piperidine 15g diatomaceous earth
Marijuana 3-caryophellene + 2.20 g-caryophellene + Marijuana, "spice,
myrcene 3.65 myrcene + K2
20 g cellulose
MDMA Phenyl acetic acid, 2g phenylacetic acid + MDMA, in pure
benzodioxole, 2g benzodioxole and tablet forms

0025. A method of forming an odoriferously-identical and a non-pharmacologically active functional group(s) that has
non-narcotic analogue of a component found within the head similar electron donating or withdrawing properties. It is
space scent signature of a narcotic while retaining the odor disclosed that these techniques will essentially render the
iferous characteristics of Such a component is attained molecule non-narcotic while retaining the odor characteris
through a substitution of the structural framework of such tics of the parent molecule.
headspace component with a higher homologue, or homo 0028. In another embodiment the non-narcotic scent simu
logues, which harness electronic properties similar to the lant pseudoscent can include combinations of both headspace
parent molecule of such component. Through such substitu and odoriferously-identical components of the headspace
tion of the structural framework with a larger or a differently scent signature of a narcotic as a distinct composite formula
configured one, or through the Substitution of a functional tion.
group with one which has similar electronic properties, the
narcotic and pharmacologically-active potential of a narcotic 0029. The formation of the pseudoscent is itself achieved
component of the headspace scent profile of a narcotic can be by simply dispersing, at low concentration, amounts of the
diluted to the extent that it loses its narcotic character, since headspace and/or odoriferously-identical components(s) of
the ratio of the pharmacologically-active functional groups to the scent signature of a narcotic material, as deduced from
the whole molecule, or its ability to coordinate into an nar headspace analysis of the material, within an inert matrix. As
cotic entity, decreases. For example, methamphetamine can illustrated in Table 2, it is not necessary that all the determined
be made to lose its narcotic capacity, but retain its odorifer non-narcotic or odoriferously-identical components of the
ous quality by replacing the cyclic-and-aromatic benzene headspace scent signature be used within a first, second or
structural backbone with the linear-and-conjugated composite formulation. Preferably any of the components
hexatriene moiety. within a headspace scent signature that has a concentration
0026. Thus, in one embodiment, the non-narcotic pseudo that falls within the minimum and maximum olfactory thresh
scent can include non-narcotic components identified within olds of the narcotic detecting creature can be used within the
formulation. Those components with lower vapor pressures
the headspace scent signature of the narcotic, as a distinct can be particularly useful in the formulation of pseudoscents
formulation. Suitable examples of non-narcotic components that will aid in the detection of equivalents of large amounts of
of the analyzed headspace scent signature of narcotics that are narcotics. This is because, in large amounts of narcotics, the
Suitable for formulation into a non-narcotic scent simulant, emanation of components of higher vapor pressures is so
include benzaldehyde for methamphetamine, pinene for rapid that they can completely saturate a room, thereby elimi
marijuana, and cyclohexlpiperidine for PCP. nating the availability of an odor concentration gradient and
0027. In another embodiment, the non-narcotic pseudos resulting in the inability of the canine to trace the odor to its
cent can include odoriferously identical equivalents of the Source. Being exposed to an area saturated with the odor for
headspace components, as a distinct formulation. These prolonged periods may also result in (a reversible) desensiti
equivalents are essentially analogues of components of the Zation towards such odor components during a search pro
headspace that have undergone structural modification at a cess, resulting in a difficulty in locating the target narcotic.
molecular level through either (A) a successive removal of So, the low vapor pressure components within the narcotic
their pharmacologically-active functional groups until the scent signature will be more appropriate to be used as a
molecule is rendered non-narcotic in character, or (B) Sup training aid in this instance. Conversely, components within
planting the structural backbone of the narcotic molecule the headspace signature with higher vapor pressure can be
with a homologue that has a higher molecular weight, in an particularly used in the formulation of pseudoscents that will
attempt to dilute or nullify the narcotic effects of the func aid in the detection of Small amounts of narcotics. This is due
tional groups, and/or by (C) replacing the functional group(s) to the fact that, when Small amounts of narcotics are used, the
within the molecular structure of headspace component with headspace scent signature is dominated by the components
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

with high vapor pressure, and these will be suitable as target training aid. If the response given is not different from that
scents within a training program. which the creature gives in response to the presence of a real
0030 The matrix used for the pseudoscent formulation narcotic material, then the pseudoscent can be deemed Suit
may be solid, liquid or gaseous. An example of a gaseous able for use as a training aid. This method of evaluation is
matrix is an aerosol. Another example is a non-reactive used in all examples 3 to 10, where dogs were used to evaluate
porous support that allows for a controlled or slow release of the Suitability of non-narcotic components and odorifer
the components within the pseudoscents. Depending on the ously-similar derivatives of the headspace scent signature of
characteristics of the narcotic scent simulant, cross-linked narcotics as simulating the scent of actual narcotics.
synthetic polymer (e.g. silica, cellulose), gels, emulsions, 0037 Method for Producing a Non-Narcotic Pseudoscent
hydrogels, fillers (diatomaceous earth, clay, grainhusks, saw of a Narcotic
dust, porous beads, grain husks, natural fibers), bio-organic 0038 A method for producing a non-narcotic scent simu
polymers, for example, may be used a dispersant matrices. lant for narcotics is broadly contemplated. A method for
The microstructure of the matrices may be such that it is producing an non-narcotic scent simulant of a narcotic com
amorphous or defined. Examples of matrix morphologies prising: a) targeting a narcotic material for detection; b) iden
include spray dried power, a sphere (e.g. balls, pebbles, tifying the odor components within the headspace scent sig
microspheres or a pellet). The matrix can also include other nature of the narcotic that is targeted for detection; c)
polymers, buffers, salts, or fillers. The pseudoscent formu identifying components that are odoriferously similar to the
lants may also be adsorbed onto an inert matrix that has headspace components within the headspace scent signature
intestacies or pores with diameters that are greater than the of the material that is targeted for detection; d) combining
longitudinal cross-section of the Smallest odoriferous Sub components identified in b) into a first formulation; e) com
stance within the formulation. Such a matrix enables adsorp bining the components identified in c) into a second formu
tion of the narcotic scent simulant within the pores rather than lation; and f) combining the components identified in b) and
the surface, and their slow release from the confines of the c) into a third formulation, wherein the non-narcotic scent
interstices, rather than their evaporation off the absorbent, simulant is free of the narcotic.
thus decreasing any chances of accelerated decomposition 0039. The invention disclosed herein is exemplified by the
due to Surface-area catalysis. following preparations and examples, which should not be
0031. The pseudoscent formulation can include a binder. construed to limit the scope of the disclosure. Alternative
Such a binder can include a polymer or a compound that has preparations and analogous structures may be apparent to
a molecular weight of 320 atomic mass units. The preferable those skilled in the art.
Solvent to aid in the binding can be selected through using the
following hierarchy: the lowest boiling liquid within the for Example 1
mulation as derived from the constituents of the headspace,
water, or an organic solvent with a boiling point s75° C. at Method of Identifying the Potential Components of a
normal atmospheric pressure. The pseudoscent components, Narcotic Pseudoscent, and Subsequent Pseudoscent
solvent, and the polymer are blended together and the solvent Formulation
is thereafter evaporated under vacuum. 0040. The first stage of identifying the potential candi
0032 Such methods can be applied towards the formula dates for a non-narcotic scent simulant is to Subject the nar
tion of pseudoscents for a variety of narcotics. Suitable nar cotic to an analytical method that identifies the components of
cotics can be cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, phencycli the headspace scent signature of the narcotic. A typical pro
dine, marijuana (cannabis), and cedure of identifying this headspace signature is through the
methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). use of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrom
0033 Compositions eter (MS). To achieve this, the narcotic of interest is placed in
0034 Pseudoscent compositions comprising: a plurality a sterile flask fitted with a serum cap equipped with a Solid
of non-narcotic components of the headspace scent signature Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) fiber that protrudes into the
of narcotics, and/or “odoriferously identical equivalents of flask. Time is allowed for its scent to occupy the headspace,
the components of the headspace scent signature of narcotics, and the scent that has occupied the headspace equilibrates
the composition being free of narcotics. with the air inside the flask, and it is absorbed by the SPME
0035 Method of Evaluating Candidate Pseudoscents fiber. The fiber is thereafter removed from the flaskand placed
0036. A method of evaluating the efficacy of formulated into the inlet of the gas chromatography machine, heated, and
pseudoscents, also referred to as a scent validation process, is desorbed. The desorbed scent travels into the GC column
advanced which comprises exposing a candidate pseudoscent where its components are separated, and each of the separated
to a creature that has already been trained in narcotic detec components of the scent are identified. This identification
tion using real narcotics as a training aid, such as a certified process is based on the different retention times of the scent
narcotics-detecting dog. The response of the creature will components due to their chemical nature, and it is typically an
determine if it can distinguish the scent of the pseudo from the automated search against a compiled database of compounds
scent of a real narcotic, and this in turn will determine if the with analyzed retention times. Identified components are fur
candidate pseudoscent is suitable as a narcotic training aid for ther confirmed by the mass spectrometer part of the instru
Such a creature. A creature responds by displaying behavioral ment, which further identifies the components based on their
cues that indicate to the handler that the creature recognizes molecular mass. It is thereafter compared against a database
the scent it has been trained to recognize. For example, dogs of compounds of known mass and fragmentation patterns.
respond by sitting down next to the scent it was imprinted to Once the individual components of the scent signatures are
find. An ability to distinguish between both scents will mean known, the non-narcotic components can be directly used to
that the pseudoscent has a scent that is different from the formulate a pseudoscent, after the scent validation process
narcotic, which will deem it unsuitable for use as a narcotic using dogs that have been officially certified in the process of
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

narcotics detection. Typically, those component scents iden of the dog/handler teams knew the boxes that contained the
tified within the headspace with vapor pressures that are candidate scents, the real narcotics, or the distracters. For a
Sufficiently high enough to allow the manufacture of a for true double-blind test, even the test-supervisors will be
mulation that provides headspace concentrations that are unaware of the location of these items, either. As a team enters
above the olfactory threshold limits of a dog, or any other the grid, the handler systematically guides the canines around
creature used for detection, can be used. Pseudoscents can be the grid while the canine sniffs around the perimeter and
formulated to produce a material with a scent profile of com through the opening on the top side of each box, seeking for
ponents in the same ratio as the original components are narcotics that it has been trained to find. This process vali
within the headspace of the real narcotic. Such ratios can be dates a candidate scent as being a non-narcotic scent simu
determined using GC methods. Pseudoscent formulation is lant. A candidate scent is positively validated as a potential
achieved by simply dispersing selected non-narcotic compo non-narcotic-scent simulant when the previously-certified
nents of the headspace and of odoriferously-identical equiva dog assuredly and consistently sits next to the box within
lents of both non-narcotic and narcotic components, within an which it is contained, as this means that the dog Supposes that
inert matrix, separately, or as a composite formulation, and in the scent emanating from the box is that of a real narcotic.
concentrations that will not allow the odor of the pseudoscent Such assuredness, if consistently displayed by experienced
to be non-effective or overwhelming during its use. narcotics detecting dogs, means that the material within the
box being validated has a scent that is so similar to that of a
Example 2 narcotic that it cannot be differentiated from a real narcotic by
a dog certified in the art of narcotics detection. When a can
Method of Validating (Evaluating) a Narcotic didate pseudoscent is positively validated, it can then be used
Pseudoscent, after its Formulation within a narcotics-detection program as a general training aid
0041. For testing the suitability of components as a poten to train the narcotics-detection dog instead of using the real
tially useful narcotic pseudoscent, a canine search-and-detect narcotic it represents. It can also be used as a specialty train
methodology has been developed that embraces the best prac ing aid to hone narcotic-detector dogs onto more precise
tices in scent detection. The setup typically comprises of a components of an odor during narcotics detection. To date,
7x9 (63-position), or 6x6 (36-position) grid of cardboard or the true scent signatures of typical narcotics are unknown and
wooden boxes, of 1 ft involume and spaced at least 4 ft apart, neither are the components of a narcotic scent that optimizes
the efficacy of narcotic-detector dogs in its detection process.
each of which has a 5-inch diameter opening cut out of the
topside to allow easy Sniffing of the box by canines. Other 0042. After the end of a test run when all dog/handler
dimensions or box arrays or box arrangements can be used, teams have each undergone a complete run of the grid, the
depending on the number of candidate odors available for dog/handler pairing is shuffled, and the whole process is
testing. Non-narcotic components and their pseudoscent repeated. This helps to check for consistency of the data, to
equivalents, including the pseudoscent equivalents of the nar check for any false alerts made by the dog, to highlight those
cotic components, as determined from headspace analysis of data inferences that might be due to dog/handler familiarity
the narcotic, were dispersed within the inert matrices, put in or-unfamiliarity, handler cues, and to further help in the
jars, and then randomly placed into each box, through the development of novel narcotic detector dog training pro
opening. Also randomly placed within the test grid were real grams. After each test session using different dogs and dog/
narcotics such as cocaine, heroin, and MDMA. These are to handler combinations, both the simulants and the Sniffing
be used to determine the dogs ability to detect real narcotics boxes in which they were confined are removed from the test
under the same conditions as the candidate scents. Distracters site perimeter. The vacated spots are then replaced by new
Such as food and toys were also planted in some boxes within boxes, which are to be left unused for at least a 24-hour
the grid to help ascertain the propensity of the dogs in disre period. This ensures that the used grid-positions are aired for
garding these objects. Each test session was configured in a periods long enough to allow for scent-dissipation if grid
way that within each test session, there were more non-targets contamination had occurred, and the position of scents were
(empty boxes) than targets (occupied boxes), at least an also changed after each trial period.
empty box between two targets, and no more than eight can
didate pseudoscents were placed within a test grid per trial Example 3
session. After the samples are placed and their placement
noted, a period of at least 5 minutes was allowed for the Method of Making a Narcotic-Free Pseudoscent for
vapors of the sample to diffuse in to the box. The maximum Cocaine
and minimum concentration of headspace vapor that can be
achieved within a box are controlled through the formulation 0043. After using GC/MS to determine the headspace
process, which takes into consideration the vapor pressure scent composition of cocaine, the headspace scent composi
and mass ratio of the formulation component(s) to their tion was found to contain ethyl acetate and benzoic acid as
matrix, the prevailing temperatures, and the scent generation two of the primary components. Thus, with the intention of
rate. The longevity of the scent can also be determined if the forming a single-component pseudoscent for cocaine, a pseu
evaporation rate(s) of the formulation component(s) the type doscent of cocaine was then formed by dispersing 2.40 g
and amount of dispersing matrix used, and the Surface area of benzoic acid in 10 g of diatomaceous earth to produce a
the container holding the formulation are known. After the training aid with a headspace scent signature of benzoic acid
standing period, the certified dog/handler teams were succes within the 1 ft box. This pseudoscent was then validated
sively allowed into the grid to commence a search for narcot using scent validity tests previously described, in order to
ics hidden within the grid. At least four dog/handler teams ascertain its usability as a narcotic training aid. Using a
were used during each test. All dogs used in the test process search-and-detect technique, five out of five certified narcot
were certified, experienced narcotic detecting dogs and none ics-detecting canines used in this study Successfully detected
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

this scent by showing behavioral cues normally associated narcotic-detector dogs are taught to indicate when they liken
with finding a narcotic material. a scent to that of a narcotic scent that they have been trained
0044. After the scent was validated, the simulant was sub to detect. Note that none of the components used in this
jected to canine narcotic-detection tests using 16 dogs that formulation is classified by DEA as a narcotic.
have been certified as narcotic-detector dogs. All canines 0049. The examples and embodiments described herein
used in this study Successfully detected this scent by showing are for illustrative purposes only and various modifications or
behavioral cues normally associated with finding a narcotic changes in light thereofwill be suggested to persons skilled in
material, which was sitting down next to the box in a fashion the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of
they are taught to indicate when they liken a scent to that of a this application and scope of the appended claims. All publi
narcotic scent that they had been trained to detect. Note that cations, patents, and patent applications cited herein are
none of the components used in this formulation is classified hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes in their
by DEA as a narcotic. entirety.
Example 4 1. A method for producing an non-narcotic pseudoscent of
a narcotic, the method comprising:
Method of Making a Narcotic-Free Pseudoscent for a) Targeting a narcotic material for detection;
Methamphetamine b) Identifying the non-narcotic components of the scent
0045 Using GC/MS for headspace characterization, the signature of the narcotic material that is targeted for
headspace scent signature of Methamphetamine was found to detection;
contain benzaldehyde, benzylmethalamine and propiophe c) Substituting the narcotic components within the scent
none as the primary components. Thus, with the intention of signature of the narcotic material targeted for detection
forming a two-component pseudoscent for Methamphet with non-narcotic components that are odoriferously
amine, a pseudoscent of Methamphetamine was then formed similar to the narcotic components within Such scent
by dispersing 1.40 g propiophenone and 1.5 g benzaldehyde signature by replacing one or more of Such narcotic
in 16 g of diatomaceous earth. This pseudoscent was then components with a non-narcotic replacement that has
Subjected to validation using scent validity tests previously similar electronic properties but are non-narcotic in
described, in order to ascertain its usability as a narcotic character; and
training aid. Using a search-and-detect technique, six out of d) Combining components identified in b) into a first for
six certified canines used in this study successfully detected mulation,
this scent by showing behavioral cues normally associated e) Combining the components identified in c) into a second
with finding a narcotic material. formulation to form a non-narcotic pseudoscent wherein
0046. After the scent validation process, the simulant was the non-narcotic pseudoscent is free of the narcotic.
Subjected to canine narcotic detection tests, using 16 dogs that 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising combining
have been certified as narcotic-detector dogs. Sixteen out of the non-narcotic components of the scent signature of the first
sixteen canines used in this study successfully detected this formulation with the second formulation to form a composite
scent by showing behavioral cues normally associated with non-narcotic formulation.
finding an narcotic material, which was sitting down next to 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the non-narcotic
the box in a fashion narcotic-detector dogs are taught to replacement of the scent signature is selected from a narcotic
indicate when they liken a scent to that of an narcotic scent component from the scent signature of the narcotic material.
that they had been trained to detect. Note that none of the 4. The method of claim 3, wherein the narcotic component
components used in this formulation is classified by DEA as of the scent signature of the narcotic material is replaced with
a narcotic.
a non-narcotic equivalent Successively by replacing the func
Example 5 tional groups within the molecular structure of the narcotic
component of the scent signature with functional groups that
Method of Making a Narcotic-Free Pseudoscent for have similar electronic properties.
Heroin 5. The method of claim 3, wherein the narcotic component
0047 Using GC/MS for headspace characterization, the of the scent signature of the narcotic material is replaced with
headspace scent signature of heroin was found to contain a non-narcotic equivalent by replacing the molecular struc
acetic acid and phenyl acetate as being among the primary tural backbone of the narcotic component with a structural
components. A pseudoscent of Heroin was then formed by homologue that has similar electronic properties.
dispersing 4 g of phenyl acetate in 16 g of diatomaceous earth. 6. The method of claim 4, wherein electron withdrawing
This pseudoscent was then Subjected to validation using scent functional groups within the molecular structure of the nar
validity tests previously described in order to ascertain its cotic component of the scent signature are replaced with
usability as a narcotic training aid. Using a search-and-detect functional groups with similar electron withdrawing proper
ties
technique, five out of five canines used in this study Success
fully detected this scent by showing behavioral cues normally 7. The method of claim 4, wherein electron-donating func
associated with finding a narcotic material. tional groups within the molecular structure of the narcotic
0048. After the scent validation process, the simulant was component of the scent signature are replaced with functional
Subjected to canine narcotic detection tests using 20 dogs that groups with similar electron donating properties
have been certified as narcotic-detector dogs. All canines 8. The method of claim 6, wherein the electron-withdraw
used in this study Successfully detected this scent by showing ing replacement functional group is selected from the group
behavioral cues normally associated with finding a narcotic consisting of cyano, acetyl, halogen, nitro, aldehyde, and
material, which is sitting down next to the box in a fashion carboxylic acid functional groups.
US 2014/0311218 A1 Oct. 23, 2014

9. The method of claim 7, wherein the electron-donating 15. The method of claim 1, further comprising absorbing
replacement functional group is selected from the group con the first formulation, the second formulation, or the compos
sisting of amino, hydroxyl, alkoxy, halogen, aryl, and alkyl ite formulations into a chemically inert porous Supporting
functional groups. matrix material.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the narcotic material is 16. The method of 1, further comprising absorbing the first
selected from the group consisting of cocaine, crack cocaine, formulation, the second formulation, or the composite formu
K2 (spice), heroin, methamphetamines, amphetamines, lations onto grain husks, cellulose and natural fibers.
methylenedioxymethamphetamines (MDMA), cannabis, 17. The method of claim 1, further comprising mixing the
ergoline, morphine, thebaine, synthetic cannabinoids, opium, first formulation, the second formulation, or the composite
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), hashish, and PCP. formulation with a gelling agent to form a gel.
18. The method of claim 2, further comprising mixing the
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the non-narcotic com first formulation or the composite formulation to form an
ponents are selected from the group consisting of phenylace emulsion.
tic acid, cryophyllene, piperonal, cinnamic acid, benzodiox 19. A method for producing a non-narcotic pseudoscent
ole, myrcene, propiophenone, butoxyethanol, terpineol. composition of a narcotic, the method comprising:
pyrrolidine, propyl benzoate, bis(hexamethylene)triamine, a. Identifying the non-narcotic components within the
benzaldehyde, aminophenyl butane, benzylmethylamine, headspace scent signature of the narcotic material;
pinene, carene, limoline, aminophenylbutane, phenyl acetate, b. Selecting all or some of the identified non-narcotic com
quinoline, hydroxyphenylacetic acid, methybenzylacetate, ponents for combining into a formulation;
dipropylamine, diethylacetamide, acetylphenol, benzylide c. Combining non-narcotic components that are selected as
neacetone, isosafrole, ethyl acetate, hydroxyacetophenone, odoriferously identical to the components of the head
methyl cinnamate, propyl acetate, benzoic acid, phenylcyclo space scent signature into a second formulation, wherein
hexene, methylenedioxyphenylacetic acid, water, and dim the non-narcotic pseudoscent is free of narcotics.
ethylfornamide. 20. The composition of claim 19, wherein the non-narcotic
12. The method of claim 2, further comprising dissolving components are selected from the group consisting of pheny
the first, second, or composite formulations in a solvent, lacetic acid, piperonal, isosafrole, benzodioxole, myrcene,
adding an inert matrix, and removing the solvent. pinene, cryophyllene, propiophenone, benzaldehyde, ami
13. The method of claim 2, wherein the second formulation nophenylbutane, Benylmethylamine, aminophenylbutane,
is selected from the group consisting of phenylacetic acid, phenyl acetate, ethy benzoate, cyclohexylpiperidine,
piperonal, isosafrole, benzodioxole, myrcene, pinene, cryo hydroxyacetophenone, butoxyl ethanol, water, methyl cin
phyllene, propiophenone, benzaldehyde, water, aminophenyl namate, propyl acetate, cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, and phe
butane, N-Benzylmethylamine, aminophenylbutane, phenyl nylcyclohexene.
acetate, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, butoxyl ethanol, methyl 21. A method of evaluating a non-narcotic pseudoscent of
cinnamate, propyl acetate, cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, a narcotic by exposing an effective amount of a non-narcotic
1-phenylcyclohexene, and dimethylfornamide. pseuodoscent to a creature that is certified in a narcotics
14. The method of claim 1, further comprising compound detection program that uses real narcotics in its training pro
CCSS,
ing the first formulation, the second formulation, or the com 22. The method of claim 22, wherein the creature is
posite formulations with a chemically inert polymeric binder selected from the group consisting a bee, dog, and insect.
or dispersant with a molecular weight of >320 atomic mass
units (a.m.u.). k k k k k