You are on page 1of 125

THE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR THE TEACHING OF WRITING

BASED ON 2013 CURRICULUM AT THE ELEVENTH GRADE OF

BOARDING SCHOOL MAN 1 SURAKARTA IN 2017/2018 ACADEMIC

YEAR

THESIS

Submitted as a Partial Requirements

For the Degree of Undergraduate in English Department

BY:

TANTI LILIANA ANGGRAINI

SRN. 14.322.1.044

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

ISLAMIC EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING FACULTY

THE STATE ISLAMIC INSTITUTE OF SURAKARTA

2018

0
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the study

Teaching is a way to introduce learners with a new knowledge. Brown

(2007:8) defines that teaching is showing or helping someone to learn how to

do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing

with knowledge, causing to know or understand. Related to language teaching,

Setiyadi (2006:20) argues that language teaching is influenced by ideas on the

nature of language (language theories) and the learning conditions that make

learners acquire the language (learning theories). It can be said that teaching

helps a learner to comprehend something as a new knowledge such as teaching

language; a language learner will be facilitated to learn a language based on the

language theories and learning theories to acquire the language.

English teaching is one of the existing language teachings at this time.

English is taught because most of the people use it in daily life. Crystal (1997)

in Mappiasse and Sihes (2014:113) finds out that English is now spoken by

over two billion people with different assents and competency levels. Teaching

English in senior high school is very important, because of it is the process of

understanding English. Teaching English involve four skills there are listening,

reading, speaking, and writing. Those four skills are classified into two

categories. Listening and reading belong to receptive skill, which uses of

language require receiving the spoken and written language. While, speaking

and writing are productive skills which the language users require the ability to

1
produce language both spoken and written (Harmer, 1998:44). Those skills in

English should be integrated well including writing skill. Nunan (2003:88)

defines that writing skill is a specific ability which helps writers put the

thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the

message. Writing is a form of communication to express thoughts or feelings

through texts.

Murcia (2002:67) states that writing which has always occupied in

English language course, and it has an important role in language learning and

language acquisition. Writing skill is one of the difficult subjects at school. As

Richards and Renandya (2002:303) state that writing is the most difficult skill

for second language learners to master. The difficulty lies not only in

generating and organizing ideas, but also in translating these ideas into

readable text. So, the teacher must create a good way on how the students to

write in English correctly and easily. The teacher must consider the

characteristics of the students which are directly related to doing the learning

process. In the teaching and learning process of writing, the teacher has an

important role. John (1997:12) states that teacher’s role is to help students

develop viable strategies for getting started (finding topics, generating ideas

and information, focusing and planning, structure and procedure), for drafting

(encouraging multiple draft for reading), for revising (adding, deleting,

modifying and rearranging ideas), and for editing (attending to vocabulary,

sentence, structure, grammar, and mechanics).

2
In the teaching and learning process of senior high school, a teacher

should be able to develop the English skills for students. English writing is one

of the most important skills for students. It provides a powerful means of self-

expression as well as support for further learning. In writing, students have to

know how to write letters, short message, descriptive texts, narrative texts and

much another type of texts. In addition, they also should know about grammar,

spelling, connectives, punctuation, and other aspects related to the writing, to

make their writing understandable. Writing as one of the four skills are

completed the syllabus in the teaching of English. Syllabus in the description

of the materials that should be taught by the teacher to the students. Syllabus

can be said as a part of curriculum or selection and grading of content. Nunan

(1997:3) states that syllabus is more localized and is based on the accounts and

records of what actually happens at the classroom level as teachers and

students apply a curriculum to their situation.

Nasution (2008:5) states that curriculum is the plan drawn up to launch

the process of learning under the guidance and responsibility of the school or

educational institution and faculty. It can be said that the term curriculum is a

planning arranged to get the success in the teaching-learning process that is

instructed by the school or education department and also the teachers.

Recently, the Indonesian government has been trying to develop curriculum

better to improve the quality of education. The government changes KTSP

curriculum 2006 which called KTSP into 2013 curriculum it aimed to improve

the quality of teaching English in Indonesia. The history curriculum in

3
Indonesia often changed every change of minister education. Some curriculums

which have been applied before 2013 curriculum such as KBK in 2004

(Kurikulum berbasis Kompetensi). It emphasized on the competence of the

student achievement both individually and classically. The process of learning

uses some various methods. Besides, the learning resources are not only

teachers but also other learning resources that have the educational element.

Another curriculum is KTSP in 2006 (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan).

The teachers have the authority to develop the curriculum independently by

observing the characteristics of the students and the school environment. The

most prominent difference is the teacher was given more freedom to plan in

accordance with the learning environment and school condition, this is due to

KD (Kerangka Dasar), SKL (Standar Kompetensi Kelulusan), and SKKD

(Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar) set by the national education

department.

The last curriculum is 2013 curriculum, which is aimed to help students

get more opportunities to express themselves based on their needs, talent, and

interest according to the school condition. In applying 2013 curriculum, the

teachers should be able to create enjoyable activities to encourage students to

speak English in the class. However, teachers sometimes do not have enough

materials to conduct the activity during the teaching in the class. The 2013

curriculum is one element that contributes to the quality of the development

process to realize the potential of learners. The 2013 curriculum is developed

based on competency which is indispensable as an instrument to guide learners

4
to become: 1) Qualified human who is able to proactively respond to the

challenges and changing times, and 2) Educated human of faith and fear of

God, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent, democratic

citizens, responsible. (Materi Pelatihan Guru Implementasi Kurikulum 2013,

2014: 21)

One of the elements in the curriculum is instructional design. Thus, a set

of instructional design is needed to help students carry out teaching-learning

process well. It is important because it helps in order to facilitate the transfer of

knowledge. Richards and Rodgers (2001:28) argue that instructional design is

the framework which the teacher takes the planned learning and teaching

action to a lesson. Instructional design is the systematic process of planning

and managing instruction to achieve effective learning (Arinto, 2009:4). A

teacher who designs an instructional design is called a designer.

Besides that, teaching components are also considered in the instructional

design. Richards and Rodgers (2001:20) assume that some components of

instructional design such as the general and specific objective, syllabus model,

type of learning and teaching activity, learner’s roles, teacher’s roles and

instructional materials. Dick et al. (2001:6-8) also classify that there are 10

components systems approach model for designing instruction, namely assess

needs to identify goals, conduct instructional analysis, analyze learners and

context, write performance objectives, develop assessment instruments,

develop instructional strategy, develop and select instructional materials,

design and conduct the formative evaluation of instruction, revise instruction,

5
and design and conduct summative evaluation. All of the aspects in the

instructional design have the main goal to provide students with good

command of English so they are able to take part in various academic

activities, most of which are conveyed in English.

Talking about the importance of instructional design, Isman (2011:136)

argues that instructional design has a big responsibility to design teaching and

learning activities. All steps should be thought and chosen carefully and should

be ordered in a meaningful way. Every detail can play an important role in the

implementation of instructional design itself. Besides that, learning situations

are dynamic, instructional design is an iterative process that is undertaken not

once but repeatedly, for every learning situation, even when the materials to be

used have themselves undergone an instructional design process (Arinto,

2009:4). It can be said that in every teaching in the classroom, instructional

design has a big influence in what teacher and students will do in the classroom

based on the classroom situation.

The variety of content of instructional design of teaching has its own

purpose in the teaching and learning program. Every school has a different way

to deliver the instructional design in the teaching English especially in the

teaching English writing. The teaching activity in MAN 1 Surakarta also has a

different way in the teaching and learning process in order to make the students

have a good ability in English especially in English writing. Because writing is

the most difficult for the students of English as the foreign language. Due to its

complexity, teaching writing must be done carefully by a teacher. Raimes in

6
Richards and Renandya (2002:306) state that to design a successful teaching-

learning process in writing class, a teacher should include the following

considerations: course goals, theories, content, focus, syllabus, materials,

methodology, activities, course evaluation, and reflecting the teacher’s

experience. Therefore, the successfulness of attaining English cannot be

separated from the instructional design.

In order to know what the instructional design used by the teacher for

teaching of writing based on the 2013 curriculum at senior high school, MAN 1

Surakarta was chosen as the setting of research. The school is located at Jl.

Sumpah Pemuda No. 25, Kadipiro, Banjarsari, Surakarta. MAN 1 Surakarta

which gets “A” accreditation which indicates as a good quality school in

society and also has the rule, and attributes. MAN 1 Surakarta used 2013

curriculum as the standard curriculum. MAN 1 Surakarta is one of the favorites

school in Surakarta which has excellent students with high capability in the

academic or non-academic. It proven of MAN 1 Surakarta have graduates

students with high marks and accepted in favorite college such as Al-Azhar

University, Ummul Quro Makkah University, Jerman University etc.

Moreover, the students of MAN 1 Surakarta have many achievements in

competitions such as English and Arabic speech competition, English and

Arabic debate competition, calligraphy competition, ISCO (Indonesian Statistic

Conference and Olympiad) etc. The school also has the various program such

as boarding school, full day, regular, workshop, and PK (Program Khusus).

7
Every program in MAN 1 Surakarta has the differences of English

teacher. The teachers of MAN 1 Surakarta teaching English in one or two

programs. Every English teacher of MAN 1 Surakarta has the differences way

in teaching the learner. Because they have the differences in designing of

instructional design to the teaching and learning process. For the English

subject, the teachers are required to be able to create fun and interesting

teaching and learning activities in the classroom by developing good and

systematic of instructional design. To produce good and systematic of

instructional design, English teachers should be skillful, creative, and

innovative in order to enable learners to absorb the knowledge of language

learning easily and effectively.

Talking about the instructional design in MAN 1 Surakarta. There are

many cases found in the instructional design of MAN 1 Surakarta. Some

English teachers still face difficulty in developing effective and systematic of

instructional design for a teaching program. Then, there are some English

teachers often not prepare the instructional design before the teaching and

learning process. So that teaching innovation used by the English teacher is

still common, they just teach like what they usually teach to the students.

Moreover, the researcher also found that there are the teachers less

understanding the content of the syllabus to make the lesson plans. So that they

teach the material that should be taught not in accordance with the order

contained in the syllabus of 2013 curriculum.

8
In the teaching and learning process of English especially in English

writing, teachers are obligated to choose the right material, technique, and any

suitable teaching media in order to achieve the teaching objective easily, so

that the students will be motivated to learn more. But, in fact some the English

teachers only used the textbook as media in the teaching English especially in

English writing and they still use of the textbook of KTSP. Based on the

researcher interview with the teacher, they still used of the textbook of KTSP

because of the reason, some the teacher stated that the content of the textbook

of KTSP is complete. The researcher found that the teachers only using the

textbook as media in the teaching and learning process make the teaching and

learning process seem monotonous so that the students often feel bored, not

interesting and not pay attention during the teaching and learning process

because the teacher does not have the technique and the variation of media that

have been prepared to teach the learner.

Different with other teachers, there is an English teacher who teaches

English subject in the eleventh grade of boarding school program. He is Mr.

Ali Muhson. He teaching English subject in all of the class in the eleventh

grade of boarding school that consists of three classes. Before the teaching and

learning, he always prepares the instructional design. The instructional design

that he made is based on the order in the syllabus. He also uses various media

especially textbook 2013 curriculum, LCD, sound system etc in the teaching

and learning process of English especially in English writing. The use of

interesting media also contributes to the better learning process, both

9
improving students' participation and their interest in classroom activity which

might be lead them to have the better ability and act to follow the process of

learning English especially in English writing. As the result, the students of the

boarding school program have good ability and the good score in English

especially in writing.

Therefore, the researcher conducted the research about the instructional

design used by the teacher for the teaching of writing based on 2013

curriculum. Before conduct this research, there are three of the previous

research conducted the research relate to the instructional design. The first,

Velasquez and Cardona’s research (2012), entitles “Describing Two Teachers:

Instructional Design For Language Teaching And Its Relation To Colombian

Standards For Learning English”. The second, Dian Muhammad Rifai’s

research (2013) who conducted a research entitles “An Instructional Design

For The Teaching Of English At SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Kartasura in 2013

Academic Year”. And the last, Feride, et al. (2012) who conducted a journal

entitled “Elementary School Teachers’ Instructional Design Process: An

insight into Teachers’ Daily Practice”. From the previous research, it has the

differences with this research. The differences are the component of

instructional design used to analysis, the technique of collecting data, and

technique of analyzing data of research.

To fill up the emptiness on that topic, the researcher wants to conduct a

research entitled “THE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN USED BY THE

TEACHER FOR THE TEACHING OF WRITING BASED ON 2013

10
CURRICULUM AT THE ELEVENTH GRADE OF BOARDING

SCHOOL MAN 1 SURAKARTA IN 2017/2018 ACADEMIC YEAR”

B. Identification of the Study

Based on the background of the study, here has some a reason why the

researcher identifies about the instructional design in the teaching of writing

based on 2013 curriculum at the eleventh grade of boarding school as follow:

1. There is one of the English teacher in the eleventh of boarding school who

always prepares the instructional design before the teaching and learning.

2. The instructional design that he made is based on the order in the syllabus of

2013 curriculum.

C. Limitation of Study

This limitation of this focused on the instructional design for the teaching

of writing at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta. The

researcher will describe the learning objective, syllabus, method, procedure,

instructional material, teaching media, the role of teacher, the role of students,

and assessment.

D. Problem Statement

Based on the background study, the general question is specified

into the following subsidiary research questions. How is the instructional

design for the teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the eleventh

grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta in 2017/2018 Academic Year?

11
The above main research problem can be further formulated into the

following questions:

1. What are the learning objectives for the teaching of writing?

2. What is the syllabus used for the teaching of writing?

3. What are the instructional materials used for the teaching of writing?

4. What is the method for the teaching of writing?

5. What is the procedure for the teaching of writing?

6. What are the teaching media used for the teaching of writing?

7. What are the teacher’s roles for the teaching of writing?

8. What are the learner’s roles for the teaching of writing?

9. What is the assessment for the teaching of writing?

E. Objectives of the Study

From the problem statement, the objectives of the research aim to describe

the instructional design for teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the

eleventh grade of boarding school of MAN 1 Surakarta with some research

questions which are expected to:

1. Describe the learning objectives for teaching of writing.

2. Describe the syllabus used for the teaching of writing.

3. Describe the method for the teaching of writing.

4. Describe the procedure for the teaching of writing.

5. Describe the instructional materials used for the teaching of writing.

6. Describe the teaching media used for the teaching of writing.

12
7. Describe the teacher’s roles for the teaching of writing.

8. Describe the learner’s roles for the teaching of writing.

9. Describe the assessment for the teaching of writing.

F. Benefit of the study

1. Theoretical Benefit

a. This research is expected to give a contribution to theories which are

connected with instructional design in the teaching of writing based on

2013 curriculum.

b. This research is expected to define the better teaching and learning

process of writing based on the instructional design in the teaching of

writing based on 2013 curriculum.

2. Practical Benefit

a. For English teachers, this research gives more comprehension dealing

with the influence of instructional design for the teaching of writing

based on 2013 curriculum in senior high school. Hopefully, it can be

more valuable comprehension and reflection to the English teachers as

designers in designing instructional for teaching.

b. For the students, this research is expected to give a problem solving on

how students actually learn writing related instructional design for the

teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum by their teacher.

c. For the school, this research is expected to give a detail explanation

dealing with instructional design for the teaching of writing based on

13
2013 curriculum at the school. Therefore, the school as the educational

institution can not only measure its own capability and readiness to use

instructional design effectively, but also imitate other institutions which

actually have different characteristics, readiness, and capability. In the

future, the school can develop the instructional design appropriately

based on their characteristics, so their achievements can be realized on

the right track.

d. For the next researchers, this research is able to be used by other

researchers as one of the references in conducting studies relates to the

instructional design for the teaching of writing based on 2013

curriculum at senior high school, so there is an improvement for the

instructional design.

G. Definition of Key Terms

From the explanation of the study above, the researcher took several key

terms as an instrument variable approach. This is as the basis for mutual

frameworks aligns terms with one another in arranging the study process. There

are some definitions of key terms to avoid misunderstanding as follows:

1. Instructional design

Ragan and Smith in Botturi (2003:5) defines instructional design as

the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning

and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information

resources and evaluation.

14
2. Writing

Byrne (1997:1) states that “writing is the act of forming graphic

symbols, making marks on a flat surface of some kind, arranged according

to certain conventions to form words and words have to be arranged to form

sentences”.

3. Teaching

Brown (2000:7) states that teaching means guiding and facilitating

learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions of learning.

4. Teaching Writing.

According to Brown (2004:319) teaching writing like a swimming;

someone learns to swim if there is a body of water available and usually

only if someone else teaches him. Teaching writing skill is not simple as

teaching other language skills since it has conventional rules.

5. Curriculum

Nunan (1998:14) states that curriculum is usually used to refer a

particular program of the study.

6. 2013 Curriculum

M. Fadila (2014: 16) said “curriculum 2013 is a curriculum to improve

and balance the soft skills and hard skills, covering the aspects of

competence attitudes, skills and knowledge.

15
CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL REVIEW

A. Review of Boarding School

1. Definition of Boarding School

Echols and Shadily (2003:72) define boarding school as "primary or

middle school with dormitories". So it can be interpreted that boarding

school is a school that has a dormitory for the students live. Boarding

school is a school where teaching and learning activities, both academic

and non-academic and they also reside there (Reka Yuliani, 2013:23).

Purnama (2010:60) also states that the boarding school can be interpreted

as a school with dormitory system, or schools that provide residential

facilities for students. Boarding school is the place where learners live are

facilitated by schools that have various activities academic and non-

academic.

Toffler in Elisabet et al (2012:4) defines boarding school is a place

where the students live in relative time stays together with the teacher as

his caregiver provide assistance to students in the development process

through the process of appreciation and value development culture. From

the definition above, it can be concluded that boarding school is a place of

residence for students together with teachers as caregivers facilitated by the

school in which there are activities for teaching and learning gain

knowledge of both general science as well as faith in a certain period of

time.

16
2. The purpose of Boarding School

Educational purposes are an integral part of these factors education.

The purposes include the key to educational success, as well other related

factors: educators, learners, educational tools and educational environment

(Mujamil Qomar, 2007:3). The various concepts applied in boarding

school, then the purpose of boarding school are:

a.Produce a generation with aqidah, shalih, mature personality,

independent, healthy, disciplined, and highly rewarding.

b.Produce a generation of achievement in academic and high

competitiveness.

c. Produce a generation with deep skill and expertise to support his life.

d.Generate independent, creative, innovative and entrepreneurial

generation.

B. Review of 2013 Curriculum

1. The Definition of Curriculum

Curriculum is the subjects that are taught by a school, college, etc, or

the things that are studied in a particular subject; languages are an essential

part of the school curriculum (Longman, 2004:384). Nunan (1998:14)

states that curriculum is usually used to refer a particular program of the

study. On the other hand, Richards (2001:2) states that curriculum

development focuses on determining what knowledge, skills, and values

students learn in school, what experiences should be provided to bring

17
about intended learning outcomes, and how teaching and learning in

schools or educational systems can be planed, measured, and evaluated.

Based on the definitions above, the researcher concludes that curriculum is

a particular program of the study which the goal is to achieve general skills

and knowledge in the schools.

2. 2013 Curriculum

2013 Curriculum which has been implemented since 2013/2014

academic year. This curriculum is design to replace and develop the

previous curriculum (KTSP 2006). There are the scientific approach of

curriculum 2013 are observing, questioning, experimenting, associating

and communicating. M. Fadila (2014:16) said, curriculum 2013 is a

curriculum to improve and balance the soft skills and hard skills, covering

the aspects of competence attitudes, skills and knowledge. In this

context K13 seek to further instill the values that are reflected in attitudes

can be directly proportional to the skills acquired through knowledge of

learners at the school. In other words, between soft skills and hard skills

can be embedded in a balanced, contiguous and can be applied in everyday

life.

3. The Characteristics of 2013 Curriculum

The characteristics of 2013 curriculum as stated in Minister of

Education and Culture Regulation number 59 of 2014 as follows:

18
a.Developing the balance among spiritual aspect, social attitude, knowledge

and skills. The students are expected to implement those aspect at school

and their environment.

b. Placing the school as the institution, which provides learning experiences

so that students are able to implement the experience at their society and

make society as learning resource.

c. Providing sufficient time to develop student’s attitude, knowledge and

skills.

d. Developing the competence that is stated in core competence and broke

them down into basic competence of each instruction.

e. Developing the core competence becomes the organized elements of

basic competence. All basic competence and learning process are

developed to get core competence.

f.Developing basic compentence based on accumulative principle, reinforce

and enrich inter-subject and inter-level of education.

4. Objectives Curriculum 2013

Mulyasa (2014:65) stated that the curriculum aims to prepare human

2013 Indonesia to have the ability to live as a person and citizen faithful,

productive, creative, innovative, and affective and able contribute to society,

nation, state, and world civilization.

5. The implementation of curriculum 2013

According UU number 20 of 2003, states that year about the national

education system, that the curriculum definition, is a set of plans and

19
arrangements regarding the purposes, contents, teaching materials, and

methods used to guide the implementation of learning activities to achieve

specific goals of education. Permendikbud no.81A 2013 defines about the

implementation of curriculum 2013 becomes the last reference that can used

in the implementation of curriculum 2013. In the implementation of

curriculum 2013 the a scientific approach. The implementation of

curriculum 2013 the teacher must make lesson plan by adapting from the

document of curriculum 2013. Leo (2013:113) states lesson plans shows the

directions to get into our objectives through maps of learning activities,

traffic signs of activities and reinforcement of activities.

6. The Objectives of Curriculum 2013

The objective and the function of 2013 curriculum specifically refers

to Indonesian Law No. 20 in 2013 year about the National Education

System mentioned that the function of curriculum is developing ability,

forming character and the prestige culture of nation for educating the nation

life. Fadlilah (in Amiavianingrum, 2016:12) stated that the purposes of 2013

curriculum could be seen as follows:

a. To improve the quality of education by balancing hard skills and soft

skills through attitudes, skills, and knowledge in order to face global

chelengges in which continues to grow.

b. To establish and improve productive, creative, innovative, human

resources as the capital of nation and state of Indonesia.

20
c. To relieve teachers in presenting the material and prepare the teaching

administration.

d. To increase the participan of central and local governments and citizens

equally in determining and controlling the quality of the implementation

of the curriculum at the unit level.

e. To increase competition between the educational unit about the quality of

education to be achieved. Because the school has been given the freedom

to develop the curriculum in 2013 in accordance with the conditions of

the educational unit, the needs of learners and the potential of the region.

C. Review of Writing

1. The Definition of Writing

There are many definitions of writing proposed by some linguists

based on their own view. According to Harris (1993:10), writing is a

process that occurs over a period of time, particularly if the writer takes

account the sometimes extended periods of thinking that precede initial

draft. In writing, the writer needs a time to do some processes inside. The

length of the time is different among writers. Some need a longer time to

just think about what to write before making the initial draft.

Bell and Burnaby in Nunan (1989:36) say that writing is an

extremely complex cognitive activity in which the writer is required to

demonstrate control of a number of variables simultaneously. At the

21
sentence level these include control of content, format, sentence structure,

vocabulary, punctuation, spelling, and letter formation.

Nunan (2003:88) defines writing as both a process and a product.

The writer imagines, organizes, drafts, edits, reads, and rereads. The process

of writing is often cyclical sometimes disorderly. Ultimately, what the

audiences see, whether it is an instructor or wider audience is a product. It

can be on essay, letter, story, or research report.

Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that writing is an

activity to produce a product through a process that takes time to think, to

get ideas and imagination then examined the results by rereading the article

in order to get maximum product.

2. Micro and Macro Skills of Writing

In writing is some aspect that has to be considered. Brown (2004:221)

states that there are two categories of writing skills; they are the micro skills

and macro skills of writing. Then they can be used in teaching writing as

well as assessing writing. Those skills are described as follows:

a. Micro skills:

1) Produce graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.

2) Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.

3) Produce an acceptable care of words and use appropriate word order

patterns.

4) Use acceptable grammatical systems (e.g. tense, agreement,

pluralization), patterns and rules.

22
5) Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.

6) Use cohesive devices in the written discourse.

b) Macro skills:

1) Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse.

2) Appropriately accomplish the communicative functions of written

texts according to form and purpose.

3) Convey links and connections between events and communicate such

relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, giving

information, generalization, and exemplification.

4) Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing.

5) Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the

written text.

6) Develop and use a battery of writing strategies, such as accurately

assessing the audience’s interpretation, using prewriting devices,

writing with fluency in the first drafts, using paraphrases and

synonyms, soliciting peer and instructor feedback, and using feedback

for revising and editing.

D. Review of Teaching Writing

This section will discuss about theories of teaching, including: (1)

Teaching writing skill, (2) Reason for teaching writing skill, (3) Classroom

writing activities, (4) Type of writing classroom perfomance, (5) The

assessment of writing, as follows:

23
1. Teaching Writing

Brown (2000:7) states that teaching means guiding and facilitating

learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions of learning. It

means that teaching can make learner easy to learn because there are guides,

facilitators and also learning is constructed by teaching styles, approaches,

methods and classroom techniques which influence the teaching learning

process very much.

According to Brown (2004:319) teaching writing like a swimming;

someone learns to swim if there is a body of water available and usually

only if someone else teaches him. Teaching writing is not simple as

teaching other language skills since it has conventional rules. By knowing

the stages of writing, process, the students are demanded to get the

knowledge of how to write well. When writing, Indonesia students who

learned English as s foreign language need time to think. Teacher asks

students to focus on accurate language used and what ideas they will write.

Moreover, the students only have limited vocabulary. It can provide their

language development. Teaching writing for senior high school is not an

easy work. One of the most difficult is limited words to write sentence in

paragraph. For this reason, it is very important to know how the teacher

teaches writing. English is enjoyable and can make the students excited and

more interested in learning writing.

24
2. Reason for Teaching Writing

There are four reasons for teaching writing to students of English as a

foreign language. (Harmer, 1998:79).

a. Reinforcement

Some students acquire languages in a purely oral way, but most of them

benefit greatly from seeing the language written down. Students often

find it useful to write sentences using new language shortly after they

had studied it.

b. Language development

The actual process of writing helps learners to learn as they go along.

The mental activity they have to go through in order to construct proper

written texts is all part of ongoing learning experience.

c. Learning style

Writing is appropriate for learners who take little longer time at picking

up language just by looking and listening. It can also be a quiet

reflective activity instead of the rush and bother of interpersonal face-to-

face communication.

d. Writing as skill

Writing is a basic language skill just as important as speaking, listening,

and reading. Students need to know how to write letters, how to reply

letters, etc. They also need to know some of writing’s special

conventions such as punctuation, paragraph construction, etc.

25
3. Classroom Writing Activities

According to Fauziati (2010:46) studies in the teaching of writing

have identified that there are at least three paradigms of teaching writing as

follows:

a. The product approach

Nunan (1999) in Fauziati (2010:46) views as “The main

procedure of the product approach involve imitating, copying, and

transforming models provided by the teacher and emphazising the error

free final product”. Thus Leki (1996:173) in Fauziati (2010:46) states

“The main purpose of the learners’ writing activity is to catch grammar,

spelling, and punctuation errors.” The main purpose of this type of

writing exercise is especially on grammar, students will get good marks

if text is free from error or have only few error.

b. The process approach

According to Walsh (2004) in Fauziati (2010:49) students can

discover what they want to say and write more succesfully through the

process model as the process approach is viewed as writer centered.

Concerning the stage in the process of writing several scholars on the

field classify them differently. According to Candery in Fauziati (2010:

50), the process of writing includes planning, drafting and revising.

Badge and White (2000:154) in Fauziati (2010:50) describe writing

process as the one that consists of four stages: prewriting, drafting,

revising, and editing. In process apparoach, there are many classroom

26
activities as follows: (1) Instruction should be focused on the writing

process. (2) The assigned writing tasks should encourage students to

write a variety of modes besides expository writing. (3) Conferencing is

an important part of the classroom acitivity. It occurs between teacher

and students as well as between students. (4) The main role of the

teacher is a facilitator. (5) Since the teacher’s role is a facilitator, and

students would work snd help each other, rather than work alone or just

with the teacher, the classroom would be arranged in the manner of a

workshop, where students can work in pair, groups. (6) A bound which

ties all members of the class into one community whose each member

feels responsible for each other’s growth can be created in such

classroom.

c. Genre based approach

Genre Based Approach is “a framework for language instruction

based on example of a particular genre” Bryam (2004:234) in Fauziati

(2010:53). The purpose of Genre Based Approach is to habituate the

students with the target text genre and to draw attention to

organzational and linguistic features commonly found in text.

According to Hammond in Fauziati (2010:57) Genre Based Approach is

resemble with process in teaching writing. Classroom activities in

Genre-Based Approach contain of four stages there are BKF (Building

Knowledge of Field), MOT (Modeling of Text), JCOT (Joint

Construction of Text), ICOT (Independent Construction of Text).

27
4. Types of Classroom Writing Perfomance

Brown (2001:343) proposes five major categories of classroom

writing perfomance. They are follows:

1. Imitative or writing down

At the level of learning to write, students will simply “write down”

English letters, words, and possibly sentences. Dictation typically

involves the following steps:

a. Teacher reads a short paragraph once or twice at normal speed.

b. Teacher reads a short phrase units of three or four words each, and

each unit is followed by a pause.

c. during the pause, students write exactly what they hear.

d. Teacher reads the whole paragraphs once more at normal speed so

students can check their writing.

e. Teacher scores the students written work. It can utilize a number of

rubrics for assigning points. Usually spelling and punctuation errors

are not considered as serve as grammatical errrors (Brown, 2001: 343-

344).

2. Intensive or Controlled Writing

This intensive writing tipically appears in controlled written

grammar exercises. A common form of controlled writing is to present a

paragraph to students which they have to alter a gives structure

throughout. So, for example, they may be asked to change all present

tense verbs to past; in such a case, students may need to alter the time

28
references in the paragraph. Guided writing looses the teacher’s control

but still offers a series of simulators. For example, the teacher might get

students to tell a story just viewed on a video tape by asking them a series

of questions (Brown, 2001:344).

3. Self-writing

A significant proportion of classroom writing may be devoted to

self-writing, or writing with only the self in mind as an audience. The

most salient instance of this category in the classroom is note-taking,

where students take note during a lecture for the purpose of later recall.

Other note-taking may be done in margins of books and on odd scarps of

paper (Brown, 2001:344).

4. Display writing

For all language students, short answer exercises, essay

examinations, and even research reports will involve an element of

display. For academically bound ESL students, one of the academic skills

that they need to master is a whole array of display writing techniques

(Brown, 2001:344).

5. Real writing

Virtually every classroom writing task will have an element of

displaying writing in it, some classroom writing aims at the genuine

communication of messenger to an audience in need of those messages

(Brown, 2001:346).

29
6. Measuring Writing

Heaton (1988:148) mentions three methods of scoring writing. Those

are impression method, analytical method, and mechanical accuracy or

error-count method. Impression method is a method to give a single mark

based on the total impression of the students’ writing as whole. In contrast

to impression method, analytical method provides score for each aspects of

students’ writing. Meanwhile, mechanical accurancy or error method is

applied by counting errors made by students.

In impression scoring, Genesee and Upshur (1997:206) suggest to

score students, writin using marks such as “A”, “B”, etc. Different from

impression scoring, analytical scoring provides score for each aspect of

students’ writing. A sample of analytical scoring comes from J.B Heaton

(1988:146), the criterion included five categories, there are: content,

organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics.

30
Table 2.1: The Scoring of Writing (Heaton, 1988:146)
No. Categories Score Criteria
1 Content 30-27 Excellent to very good:
Knowledgeable, substantive, development of thesis, relevant to assigned topic.
26-22 Good or average:
Some knowledge of subject, adequate range, etc.
21-17 Fair to Poor:
Limited knowledge of subject, little substance, etc.
16-13 Very Poor:
Does not show knowledge of subject, non substantive, etc
2 Organization 20-16 Excellent to Very Good:
Fluent expression, ideas clearly stated, etc.
17-14 Good or Average:
Somewhat choppy, loosely organized but main ideas stand out, etc
13-10 Fair to Poor:
Not fluent, ideas confused or disconnected, etc
9-7 Very Poor:
Does not communicate, no organization, etc
3 Vocabulary 20-18 Excellent to Very Good:
Sophisticated range, effective word/idiom choice and usage, etc.
17-14 Good or Average:
Adequate range, occasional errors of word/idiom form, choice, usage but
meaning not obscured.
13-10 Fair to Poor:
Limited range, frequent errors of word/idiom form, choice, usage, etc
9-7 Very poor:
Essentially translation, little knowledge of English vocabulary
4 Language 25-22 Excellent to Very Good:
use/tenses Effective complex constructions, etc
21-18 Good or Average:
Effective but simple constructions, etc
17-11 Fair to Poor:
Major problems in simple/complex constructions, etc
10-6 Very poor:
Virtually no mastery of sentence construction rules, etc
5 Mechanics 5 Excellent To Very Good:
Demonstrate Mastery Of Conventions, Etc
4 Good Or Average:
Occasional Errors Of Spelling, Punctuations, Etc
3 Fair To Poor:
Frequent Errors Of Spelling, Punctuation, Capitalization, Etc
2 Very Poor:
No mastery of conventions, dominated by errors of spelling, punctuation,
capitalization, paragraphing, etc.

31
Based on the analytical for ESL writing above, it can be conclude that the

total score is 100 which are described in the following table:

Table 2.2: The Amount of Writing Test Score

No Aspect of Writing Score


1 Content 30
2 Organizer 20
3 Vocabulary 20
4 Language and Grammar 25
5 Mechanics 5
Total 100

E. Review of Instructional Design

Intructional design in teaching learning process the researcher explains as

follow: (1) The definition of instructional design, (2) The characteristics of

instructional design, and (3) Components of instructional design, as follows:

1. The Definition of Instructional Design

Instructional design is learning process designed by teachers in order

to help them in teaching at the classroom based on the available resources

and focuses on what the instruction should be like, including look, feel,

organization and functionality. Moore et al.(2002:71) write that instructional

design can be regarded as both a science and an art: a science because it is

rooted in learning theories which in turn draw their principles from

psychology, sociology, philosophy and education; and an art because the

designing of instructional materials is a highly creative process.

According to Ragan and Smith in Botturi (2003:5), instructional

design is the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of

learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities,

32
information resources and evaluation. In addition, Ozcinar (2009:559)

defines that instructional design is the systematic development of

instructional specifications, using learning and instructional theory derived

from behavioral, cognitive and constructivist theories, in order to ensure the

quality of instruction. In another opinion, the instructional design, also

called method design is the framework through which teachers take the

planned learning and teaching actions to a lesson (Richards and Rodgers,

2003: 16). It can be inference that instructional design is the framework of

the systematic and reflective process in learning derived from behavioral,

cognitive and constructivist theories in order to create qualified instruction.

Besides that, Albion et al in Shariffudin (2007:98), argues that instructional

design can be defined as a process, a discipline, a science, or reality.

From those explanations, it can be concluded that instructional design

is a process in combining principles of learning and instruction based on the

behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories. The instructional is

designed into framework needed in the classroom, such as materials,

activities, evaluation, and etc. besides that, instructional design can be called

as a process, a discipline, a science, or reality. A teacher designing

instructional can be called as a designer.

2. Characteristics of Instructional Design

Characteristics of one instructional design are important. It aims to

find out whether instructional design used by a teacher is good or not.

Gustafson and Branch in Reiser and Dempsey (2007:21) point out that there

33
are several characteristics that should be presented in all instructional design

efforts as follows:

a. Instructional design is learner-centered.

It means that the learner and his or her performance are the focal point of

all instruction. Teaching and other forms of instruction are simply means

to the end of learner performance.

b. Instructional design is goal-oriented.

Establishing well-defined project goals is central to the ID process. Goals

should reflect client expectations for the project and, if met, ensure its

appropriate implementation.

c. Instructional design focuses on real-world performance.

Rather than requiring learners to simply recall information or apply some

rules on a contrived task, instruction design focuses on preparing learners

to perform the behaviors that will be expected of them in the real world.

d. Instructional design focuses on outcomes that can be measured in a

reliable and valid way.

Rather than requiring learners to simply recall information or apply some

rules on a contrived task, instruction design focuses on preparing learners

to perform the behaviors that will be expected of them in the real world.

e. Instructional design is empirical.

Data are at the heart of the ID process. Data collection begins during the

initial analysis and continues through implementation. For example,

34
during the analysis phase, data are collected so as to compare what

learners already know versus what they need to know.

f. Instructional design typically is a team effort.

Although it is possible for a single individual to complete an ID project,

it is usually a team effort. Because of their size, scope, and technical

complexity, most ID projects require the specialized skills of a variety of

individuals.

From those explanations, it can be concluded that characteristics of

an instructional design can be considered on learner-centered, goal-

oriented, real-world performance, measurability, empirical, and into a

team effort.

3. Components of Instructional Design

Supporting components in teaching and learning process are needed in

order to construct an instructional design in learning. It is expected can

create an effective teaching. Richards and Rodgers (2001:33) classify that

the instructional design components are (a) the general and specific

objective, (b) a syllabus model, (c) classroom activities, (d) learner roles, (e)

teacher roles, and (f) the role of instructional materials.

In line with Richards and Rodgers, Dick et al. (2001:6-8) also classify

that there are 10 components systems approach model for designing

instruction, namely (a) assess needs to identify goals, (b) conduct

instructional analysis, (c) analyze learners and contexts, (d) write

performance objectives, (e) develop assessment instruments, (f) develop

35
instructional strategy, (g) develop and select instructional materials, (h)

design and conduct the formative evaluation of instruction, (i) revise

instruction, and (j) design and conduct summative evaluation. It can be

summarize in the table bellow:

Table 2.3: The Component of Instructional Design


No. The component of instructional design
Richards and Rodger Walter Dick, Lou Carey, and James O.
Carey
1 The general and specific Assess needs to identify goals
objectives
2 A syllabus model Conduct instructional analysis
3 Classroom activities Analyze learners and contexts

4 Learner roles Write performance objectives


5 Teacher roles Develop assessment instruments
6 The role of instructional Develop instructional strategy
materials
7 Develop and select instructional materials
8 Design and conduct the formative evaluation
of instruction
9 Revise instruction
10 Design and conduct summative evaluation

From those explanations above, the researcher compares two theory of

component instructional design because the component of the instructional

design of the theory above is very complete, almost covering all of the

component needed for the design of teaching and learning process and

suitable for teaching and learning process. From the those theory, the

researcher took six component of instructional design based on Richards

and Rodgers’s theory such as learning objectives, syllabus, method,

procedure, teacher roles, learner roles, instructional materials and two

36
component of instructional design based on Dick and Carey’s theory such as

media use and assessment. It can be concluded that the components in

constructing an instructional design consist of (a) learning objectives, (b)

syllabus, (c) procedure, (d) technique, (e) teacher’s roles, (f) learner’s roles,

(g) instructional materials, (h) media use, (i) assessment which are explained

as follows:

a. Learning Objectives

1) The Definition of Learning Objectives

A teacher has to know what learning objectives which will be

planned for teaching in the classroom. A teacher has a responsibility

to create a good teaching process. Anderson, et al. (2001:11) stated

that learning objective is statements that describe what a learner will

be able to do as a result of learning. Related to instructional design,

Hosnan (2014:10) writes that there are three aspects which will

influence on learning objectives of a program viewed from learning

result, namely: (a) Affective is oriented in receiving, responding,

valuing, organization, and characterization. (b) Cognitive is oriented

in knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and

evaluation. (c) Psychomotor is oriented in imitation, manipulation,

precision, articulation, and naturalization. Another definition is stated

by McArdle (2010:68), he argues that learning objective is a statement

that tells what learners should be able to do when they have completed

a segment of instruction.

37
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that

learning objectives are an outcome statement what learner should be

able to do upon completion of a course. And that learning objectives

are based on the three aspects which will influence on learning

objectives three aspects, namely: (a) cognitive, (b) affective, and (c)

psychomotor.

2) Types of Learning Objectives

Patel and Jain (2008: 53) state there are two kinds of learning

objectives. They are as the following:

a) General Objectives

Patel and Jain (2008:53) explain general objective are global

and long-term goals. General objectives state what to achieve at the

end of the course of the year. They are: (1) To enable students to

understand spoken or written language. (2) To enable students to

speak English correct language. (3) To enable students to write the

language properly. (4) To enable students to read the language with

ease. In short, general objective is the teaching objectives which

require the change of students’ behaviors. This objective is

unmeasurable and invisible.

b) Specific Objectives

Patel and Jain (2008:54) argue specific objectives are short-

term goals. Specific objectives state what to achieve at the end of

the unit. Specific objectives are based on the above sub-skills or

38
general objectives. The specific objectives become the important

things for the teacher determines the learning strategies, sources,

and appropriate media. Besides, the teacher can point out the good

indicators to the students. From the chosen indicators, the teacher

can provide such kinds of evaluations to the students. Therefore,

specific objectives are the teaching objectives which require the

change of student’s behaviors. These objectives are measurable and

visible.

b. Syllabus

1) The Definition of Syllabus

Syllabus is one of the components used in designing learning in

the classroom. From the syllabus, a teacher can arrange his or her

learning plans for several subjects in one or two semesters. Ur

(1996:176) argues that a syllabus is a document which consists,

essentially, of a list. This list specifies all the things that are to be

taught in the courses for which the syllabus was designed.

Nunan (1990:7) states that syllabus began to appear in which

content was specified, not only in terms of grammatical elements but

also in terms of the functional skills they would need to master in

order to communicate successfully. Moreover, Richards (2001:2)

points out “syllabuses is specific of the content of a course of

instruction and lists what will be taught and tested”.

39
Dubin and Olhstain (1994:28) also define syllabus as a

document which ideally describes:

a) What the learners are expected to know at the end of the course, or the

course objectives in operational terms.

b) What is to be taught or learned during the course, in the form of an

inventory of items.

c) When it is to be taught, and at what rate of progress, relating the

inventory of items to the different levels and stage as well as to the

time constraints of the course.

d) How it is to be taught, suggesting procedures, techniques, and

materials.

e) How it is to be evaluated, suggesting testing and evaluating

mechanisms.

From those explanations, it can be concluded that syllabus is a

document which is composed in the form of list things in teaching by

teachers specifically, such as course objectives, procedures,

techniques, materials, testing and evaluation mechanisms.

2) Type of Syllabus

There are many types of syllabus used in language teaching. By

knowing the types, a teacher or a designer can consider one or more

syllabus types which want to be used in taching. Ur (1996: 178-179)

mentions that there are ten types of syllabus in language teaching,

namely: (a) grammatical syllabus, (b) lexical syllabus, (c)

40
grammatical-lexical syllabus, (d) situational syllabus, (e) topic-based

syllabus, (f) notional syllabus, (g) functional-notional syllabus, (h)

mixed or multi-strand syllabus, (i) procedural syllabus, and (j) process

syllabus.

a) Grammatical Syllabus

This syllabus is focused on grammatical forms and may be

more useful in a context in which the students do not have

immediately communication needs. A list of grammatical

structures, such as the present tense, comparison of adjectives,

relative clauses, usually divided into sections graded according to

difficulty and/or importance.

b) Lexical Syllabus

Emergence of lexical syllabus was a reaction against

traditional structural syllabus. A list of lexical items (girl,boy, go

away….) with associated collocations and idioms, usually divided

into graded sections.

c) Grammatical-lexical syllabus

A very common kind of syllabus: both structures and lexis

are specified: either together, in sections that correspond to the

units of a course, or in two separate lists.

d) Situational Syllabus

Situational Syllabus is focused on real or imaginary in

different context or situation and is good for language learners who

41
are preparing to go to a country where the language is being

learned. This situational teaching has the goal of teaching specific

language content that occurs in situation. For instance, at the

school, hospital, market, and public place.

e)Topic-based Syllabus

This syllabus is rather like situational syllabus, except that

the headings are broadly topic-based, including things like ‘Food’

or ‘The family’; these usually indicate a fairly clear set of

vocabulary items, which may be specified.

f) Notional Syllabus

Notions are concepts that language can express. General notions

may include ‗number‘, for example, or ‘time’, ‘place’, ‘colour’;

specific notions look more like vocabulary items: ‘man’, ‘woman’,

‘afternoon’.

g) Functional-Notional Syllabus

A functional-notional syllabus is based on learning to

recognize and express the communicative functions of language and

the concepts and ideas it expresses. In other words, this kind of

syllabus is based more on the purposes for which language is used

and on the meanings the speaker wanted to express than on the forms

used to express them.

42
h) Mixed or ‘multi-strand’ Syllabus

Increasingly, modern syllabuses are combining different

aspects in order to be maximally comprehensive and helpful to

teachers and learners; in these it can be found specification of topics,

tasks, functions and notions, as well as grammar and vocabulary.

i) Procedural Syllabus

This syllabus specifies the learning tasks to be done rather than

the language itself or even its meanings. Examples of tasks might be:

map reading, doing scientific experiments, story-writing.

j) Process syllabus

This is the only syllabus which is not pre-set. The content of

the course is negotiated with the learners at the beginning of the

course and during it, and actually listed only retrospectively.

c. Technique

Technique has an important role in order to support teaching and

learning process. A teacher has to know what kinds of technique which

are able to be employed in order to create an effective teaching.

According to Fauziati (2014:13), technique encompasses the actual

moment-to-moment practices and behaviors that operate in teaching a

language according to a particular method. In other words, technique is

classroom practices done by the teacher when presenting a language

program.

43
In line with Fauziati, Celce-Murcia (2001:9) also argues that

technique is the very specific type of learning activity used in one or

more methods. Furthermore, Brown (2001:14) adds that technique were

the specific activities manifested in the classroom that were consistent

with a method and therefore were in harmony with an approach as well.

From those explanations, it can be concluded that technique is a

kind of specific activities which involves one or more methods, and its

steps are employed and developed to present materials by teachers based

on the needs specifically and consistently.

d. Procedure

In the classroom, a teacher has to understand about procedures in

learning sequence which are used in teaching and learning process.

Bandor (2007: 3) argues that a procedure is defined as how to do the task

and usually only applies to a single role. Related to classroom procedure,

Marzano, et al. (2005:5) point out that the most obvious aspect of

effective classroom management is classroom rules and procedures.

Indeed, Fauziati (2010:194) explains that procedures are basically

divided into several components: an introduction, the main activity, and

closure. The introduction contains some aspects such as how the ideas

and objectives of this lesson will be introduced; how to get students’

attention and motivate them in order to hold their attention; how to link

lesson objectives with student interests and past classroom activities; and

what is expected from students. Main activity contains the focus of the

44
lesson, how to describe the flow of the lesson, and what to do to facilitate

learning and manage the various activities, and how the material is

presented to ensure each student will benefit from the learning

experience. Closure or conclusion contains several aspects such as

feedback to students to reinforce their learning, follow up lesson or

activities (i.e. for enrichment and remediation), and lesson might follow

as a result of this lesson.

Richards & Rodgers (1986:26) state that there are three dimensions

to a method at the level of procedure, as follows (a) the use of teaching

activities (drills, dialogues, information-gap activities, etc.) to present

new language and to clarify and demonstrate formal, communicative, or

other aspects of the target language, (b) the ways in which particular

teaching activities are used for practicing language, and (c) the

procedures and techniques used in giving feedback to learners concerning

the form or content of their utterances or sentences.

From the explanations above, it can be concluded that the most

effective classroom management is the procedure. The procedure is a

guide to do something in teaching, such as activities in learning are

started from pre-activity, main activity, and post activity or closure. It is

considered on the use of teaching activities, such as lecturing, to

understand what process which will be employed in teaching in the

classroom.

e. Teacher’s Roles

45
Teacher has important roles in teaching learning process. Richards

and Lockhart (1994:101) state that the role of a teacher in the context of

classroom teaching and learning may also be influenced by the

methodology which is followed by the teacher. A teacher’s style of

teaching English in the classroom as the result of his believed the roles

system. Harmer (2001:57-62) states that teacher may select such roles for

themselves as:

a) Controller: the teachers act as controller, they are in charge of the

class and of the activity taking place in a way that is substantially

different from a situation where students are working on their own in a

group.

b) Organiser: the teachers have to perfom of organizing students to do

various activities. This often involves giving the students information,

telling them how they are going to do activity, putting them into pairs

or groups, and finnaly closing things down when it is time to stop.

c) Assessor: the teachers tell the students when need to know and for

what they are being assessed. Teachers should tell them what we are

looking for and what succes looks like so that they can measure

themselves against.

d) Prompter: the teachers as prompter when students are involved in a

role-play activity, for example, theylose the thread of what is going

on, or they are lost for words (i.e. they may still have the thread but be

uneable to proceed productively for lack of vocabulary.

46
e) Participant: the teachers not as a teacher, but also as a participant

when students discussions, role-play or group decision-making

activities. Teachers stand back from the activity, letting the learners

get on the with it and only interviewing later to offer feedback and/or

corrrect mistakes.

f) Resource: when the stduents are involved in a piece of group writing,

or that they are involved in preparation for a presentation they are to

make to the class, teachers take a part or try to control them, or even

turn up to prompt them might be entirely unwelcome.

g) Tutor: when students are working on longer projects, such as pieces of

writing or preparations for a talk or a debate, teachers can act as a

tutor, working with individuals or small groups, pointing them in

directions they have not yet thought of taking.

h) Observer: as observer, teachers observe what students do (especially

in oral communicative activities) or when taking notes on students

performance.

f. Learner’s Roles

According to Richards (1990:13), the roles of the learners related

to approaches to learning, attitude to learning preferred learning styles

and strategies, preferred learning activities, patterns of learner to learner

interaction, patterns of teacher to learner interaction, degree of control

learner’s exercise over their own learning, how learners characterize

effective teaching and how characterize effective learning.

47
The learners have the significant role in the learning process.

Johnson and Paulson (1976) in Richards and Rodgers (2001:28) defines

learner roles the following terms:

a) Learners plan their own learning program and this ultimately assumes

responsibility for what they do in the classroom.

b) Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress.

c) Learners are members of the group and learn by interacting with

others.

d) Learner tutor other learners.

e) Learners learn from the teacher, from other students, and from other

sources.

g. Instructional Materials

1) The Definition of Instructional Materials

Richards (2001:251) argued that instructional materials generally

serve as basic for much of language inputs for learners receive and

practice language that occurs in the classroom. Instructional material

means content that conveys the essential knowledge and skills of a

subject in the public school curriculum through a medium or a

combination of media for conveying information to the students.

Instruction materials refer to any instruments, devices or materials

used to transfer and hand over the knowledge, information, news, and

skills to learn from teachers or instructors to learners or students

(Amuseghan, 2007:34).

48
Principles in using the instructional instrument and materials in

teaching are they must be suitable in terms of contents and learning

objectives set by the teachers. Particularly, in English language

learning, using suitable and various instructional materials can help

motivating learning and developing all the language skills of speaking,

listening, reading and writing the English language (Tafani, 2009:82).

In short, instructional materials are any instruments, devices or

materials used by the teachers in teaching learning process arranged

systematically in order to transfer learning content to the students,

therefore easy to be understood in teaching learning. The suitable and

various instructional can help motivating learning and developing all

the language skills.

2) Kind of Instructional Materials

Richards (2001:251) states that kinds of instructional material

are (a) Printed material such as book, workbooks, worksheet, (b)

Unprinted material such as cassette or audio material, videos,

computer-based material, (c) Material that comprises both print and

non print source as sell access material and material on the internet.

Furthermore, instructional material is to provide insight about whether

specific material is aiding student learning.

3) Role of Instructional Materials

Cunningworth (1995:7) stated that the role of instructional

material namely: (1) A resource for presentation materials (spoken

49
and written), (2) A source of actively for learner practice and

communicative interaction, (3) A reference source for learners on

grammar, vocabulary, pronounciation and so on, (4) A source of

stimulation and ideas for classroom activies, (5) A syllabus (where

they are reflected) learning objectives that have already been

determined and (6) A support for less experienced teachers who have

to gain in confidence.

Furthermore, Richards and Rodgers (2001:30) stated that a

particular design for an instructional system may imply a particular set

of roles for materials in supporting the syllabuses, the teachers, and

the learners. They give the example of the role of instructional

materials within a functional or communicative methodology might be

specified in the following terms: (1) Materials will focus on the

communicative abilities of interpretation, expression, and negotiation,

(2) Materials will focus on understandable, relevant and interesting

exchanges of information rather than on the presentation of the

grammatical form, (3) Materials will involve a different kind of text,

and (4) Materials will provide opportunities for self-evaluation and

progress in learning.

The point of view in this research, the role of instructional

material includes the following specifications that are materials will

allow for different styles of learning, materials will provide

50
opportunities for independent study and use, materials will provide

opportunities for self-evaluation and progress in learning.

h. Teaching Media

1) The Definition of Media

Media is anything that can be used to deliver a message from the

sender to receiver so that it can stimulate the mind, feelings, concerns

and interests as well as the students’ attention such that the learning

process occurs (Sadiman et al, 1986:07). Sudjana (2002:23) defined

that teaching media is a tool of education which includes component

methodology as one of learning environment which is managed by the

teacher. Furthermore, Heinich, et al. (2002:9) stated that media

(plural) is the channel of communication.

From those explanations, it can be concluded that media is a tool

of education can be used to stimulate the minds, feelings, concerns,

and interests of the students in relation to the learning process.

2) Types of Media

Smaldino, et al. (2008:6) classify that there are six basic types of

media used in learning and instruction. They are (1) text. It is

alphanumeric characters that may be displayed in any format-book,

poster, chalkboard, computer screen, and so on, (2) audio. It includes

anything can be heard-a person‘s voice, music, and so on, (3) visuals.

They are regularly used to promote learning, (4) motion media. These

are media that show motion, including videotape, animation, and so

51
on, (5) manipulatives. They are three dimensional and can be touched

and handled by students, and (6) people. These may be teachers,

students, or subject-matter experts.

3) The Role of Media

Media has an important role in teaching and learning process. It

encourages students motivation and interest in learning process.

Therefore, students are able to understand better the material presented

in a certain way. Rahadi (2003:15) argued that media has many

advantages in the teaching-learning process. Media can make teaching

material more concrete (real phenomenon), it can solve the limitation

of place and time, it also can help the hindrances of lack human view

and media will be kept in student’s mind longer.

i. The Assessment

1) The Definition of Assessment

Brown (1998:420) states that assessment is an integral part of

the teaching-learning cycle, influence and communicate curriculum.

Brown (2004:4) states that assessment is a popular and sometimes

misunderstood term in current educational practice. In the other side,

according to Richard and Schmidt (2010:6) explains that assessment is

a test to measure how to much of a language learners have succesfully

learned with specific reference. Types of criterion referenced test are a

particular course, textbook, and program of instruction. Brown

(2004:4) explained that assessment is ongoing process that

52
encompasses a much wider domain, whereas tests are subset of

assessment which measures person ability. From the definition above

can be concluded that assessment is a test in the teaching-learning

cycle to measure the learners about the materials is successful or not.

2) Types of Assessment

In this era, assessment has been developing based on the needs

in the classroom. Teachers want to assess their students in various

ways. Brown (2004:5-6) divides assessment into four types. They are

(a) formal, (b) informal, (c) formative, and (d) summative as follows:

a) Informal Assessment: It can take a number of forms, starting with

incidental, unplanned comments and responses, along with

coaching and other impromptu feedback to the students. For

example, “Nice job!”, “Very good!.”

b) Formal Assessment: It is exercise or procedure specifically

designed to tap into a storehouse of skills and knowledge. Formal

assessment is systematic, planned sampling techniques constructed

to give teacher and student an appraisal of student achievement.

For example, students‘ journal or portfolio.

c) Formative Assessment: Evaluating students in the process of

forming their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them

to continue that growth process. For example, all kinds of informal

assessment.

53
d) Summative Assessment: It aims to measure, or summarize, what a

student has grasped, and typically occurs at the end of a course or

unit of instruction. For example, final exams in a course and

general proficiency exams.

E. Previous Related Study

There were some relevant studies related this research to the instructional

design for the teaching of writing. The writer wants to compare the other

previous study for the references of the study. There is the researcher who

conducted the similar study. They are Velasquez and Cardona’s Research

(2012), Dian Muhammad Rifai’s Research (2013), and Feride et al’ research

(2012).

The first research is conducted by Velasquez and Cardona (2012),

entitles “Describing Two Teachers: Instructional Design For Language

Teaching And Its Relation To Colombian Standards For Learning English”.

The techniques of collecting data used were observation, interview, and

document analysis. The design of the research is comparative study and the

technique of analyzing data the research used a theory-driven approach. The

result of the research shows that the lessons were predominantly concentrated

on objectives dealing with grammar topics, and the objectives of the high

school‘s curriculum are principally communicative. Therefore, learners

develop mostly the linguistic competence rather than the pragmatic and

sociolinguistic ones.

54
The second researcher is Dian Muhammad Rifai (2013) who conducted a

research entitles “An Instructional Design For The Teaching Of English At

SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Kartasura in 2013 Academic Year”. The design of the

research is qualitative research. Moreover, the technique of collecting data is

observation, interview, and documentation. The result of the study, such as: (1)

The general objective is to develop students’ individual knowledge, character,

skill for independent life and sustainable education. The specific learning

objective is to develop students’ communicative competence with four

language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing; (2) The type of

syllabus is notion functional syllabus; (3) the roles of instructional materials

are as a resource for presentation materials, for learner practice, and for

stimulation of classroom activities; (4) the classroom procedure used are

Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration and Evaluation and Genre

Based Approach; (5) the teacher’s role are facilitator, organizer, manager,

assessor, planner and motivator; (6) the media used in teaching learning

process is used textbook and picture as printed media, video and images

showed by using LCD.

The third researcher is Feride, et al. (2012) who conducted a journal

entitled “Elementary School Teachers’ Instructional Design Process: An

insight into Teachers’ Daily Practice”. The aims of this research are to

determine the use of each identified Instructional design phases, as analysis,

design, development, implementation, and evaluation. In this study, the

researcher used a qualitative approach. Techniques of collecting data of this

55
research are interview and observations with 8 public school teachers. The

result of the study showed that the teachers’ use all instructional phases to

some extend even though some deficiencies were underlined.

The similarity of this research with the previous study is the both of

research same conduct of research about the instructional design in the

teaching and learning process used by the teacher. While the differences with

the current research with the previous study are this research focused on only

one skill but in the previous study, the research focused on all skill of English.

Then the next differences are the object of research and the setting of research.

And the last of differences with this current research is the component of

instructional design that used to analyze.

There are the summarize can be seen in the table of 2.3 about the

similarities and the differences between the current research and the previous

study, as follow:

Table 2.3. The Similarities and differences current research with the
previous study
No The previous study The differences The similarities
1 Describing Two Teachers: 1.The component of 1.Same conducting of
Instructional Design For instructional design research about the
Language Teaching And that used to analysis instructional design.
Its Relation To 2. The design of the 2. The technique in
Colombian Standards For research is collecting data is
Learning English by comparative study observation,
Velasquez and Cardona 3. The technique of interview, and
analyzing data the documentation
research used a

56
theory-driven
approach.
4. The subject and the
setting of reserach.

2 An Intructional Design 1. The component of 1.Same conducting of


For The Teaching Of instructional design research about the
English At SMP that used to analysis. instructional design.
Muhammadiyah 1 2.The subject and the 2. The design of the
Kartasura in 2013 setting of reserach. research is
Academic Year by Dian descriptive qualitative
Muhammad Rifai study.
3. The technique of
collecting data is
observation,
interview and
documentation.
4. The technique of
analyzing data the
research used
qualitative method.
3 Elementary School 1. The component of 1. Same conducting of
Teachers’ Instructional instructional design research about the
Design Process: An that used to analysis instructional design.
insight into Teachers’ 2. The technique of 2. The design of the
Daily Practice by Faride collecting data the research is
et al. research is descriptive
observation and qualitative study.
interview. 3. The technique of
4. The subject and the analyzing data the
setting of reserach. research used
qualitative method.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research method is absolutely crucial in a research. It is used for

researchers to apply an appropriate method. It is needed in order to reduce the

possible mistake in conducting a research.

A. Research Design

57
In this research, the researcher used qualitative research. According to

Moleong (2004:6), qualitative methodology is research procedure without

statistic analysis or other quantification methods. This type of the research is

descriptive qualitative research which focused on the instructional design in

teaching writing skill. In qualitative research, as suggested by Sugiyono

(2015:19), the researcher investigated the activities, situations or materials

seriously. The researcher did observation and analysis of the phenomenon.

The descriptive qualitative research is the result of observation about the

instructional design for the teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the

eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta. Description method

concern with some cases in which the data collected is classified, analyzed and

interpreted. The aim of this method is to describe the instructional design for

the teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the eleventh grade of

boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta.

B. Research Setting

1. Setting of Place

The research was conducted in boarding class of MAN 1 Surakarta. It

located at Jl. Sumpah Pemuda No.25, Banjarsari, Surakarta. This school

consists of three grades of students. They are tenth grade, eleventh grade,

twelfth grade and each grade five programs. There are the regular, full day,

58
boarding school, PK (Program Khusus) and workshop. The total number of

class at the school is 41 class. Each class consists of 24 until 36 students.

2. Setting of Time

The research did at MAN 1 Surakarta from the beginning until the end

of the research. Time of this research was scheduled from January 2018

until May 2018. The researcher attended and observed the chosen

classrooms in order to gain data of this research. Here is schedule for this

research:

Table 3.1 schedule of research


Rubric Schedule of Research
No Month
Activities January February Maret April May
1 Pre-research
Interview
Observation
2 Proposal
Examination

3 Observation
1
Observation
2
Observation
3
Observation
4
Interview
4 Collecting
and
Analyzing
the data

C. Research Subject and Object

Research subjects are the English teacher and the eleventh-grade students

of boarding class at MAN 1 Surakarta in 2017/2018 academic year. The

59
English teacher is Mr. Ali Muhson. The total number of students XI IPA 3 is

24 students.

Research object of this research is the instructional design for the

teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the eleventh grade of boarding

school MAN 1 Surakarta in 2017/2018 academic year. The component of

instructional design which includes learning objectives, syllabus, instructional

materials, method, procedure, teaching media, teacher’s roles, learner’s roles,

and assessment.

D. Data Sources

According to the form of the study, the data were descriptive in the form

of words Lofland (1984:47), as quoted by Moleong (2004:157) says “sumber

data utama dalam penelitian kualitatif adalah data dan tindakan selebihnya

adalah data tambahan seperti dokumen dan lain-lain”. In other words, the

sources of data in qualitative research are words and events; the additional data

can be from documents and others. In this research, the data are information

about the teaching and learning process in the of field note and interview script.

The writer takes data from sources. There are three sources of the data: events,

informants, and documents.

1. Events

Sutopo (2002:53) stated based on the observation in the event or

activity, the researcher would know about the process how something

happens, because of direct of observation. Event is the form of instructional

60
process and it concerns with all activities in the classroom during teaching-

learning process. The researcher observed the situation in the teaching-

learning process of writing and activities the students in the classroom. The

researcher focused on the class of XI IPA 3 of MAN 1 Surakarta which

handled by Mr. Ali Muhson.

2. Informants

Sutopo (2002:50) stated that informant is an individual that has the

important role in giving information which chosen as a subject by the

researcher that will be an informant. Here the informant is Mr. Ali Muhson

as the vice of headmaster and the English teacher, the second informant is

the students of boarding school program of MAN 1 Surakarta especially

class of XI IPA 3.

3. Documents

According to Sugiyono (2015:82), document is the record of the past

event. Document can be formed such as note, image, or other people’s

monumental creation. He also states that the result of the observation and

interview will be more credible if it is supported by the real document form

the subject of the study. Documents in this research were documents which

related to instructional design for the teaching of writing based on the 2013

curriculum, namely: syllabus, lesson plan, textbook, LKS/Student

worksheet, and the other documents.

E. Technique of Collecting Data

61
In order to collect data of this research, the researcher employed three

techniques of collecting data, as follows:

1. Observation

Observation became one of the techniques which were used in

collecting data by the researcher. According to Sugiyono (2015:145),

observation here is the activity that happens, make notes and jot down

thoughts without narrow, specific regard for the research problem, the

specific one between interview and questionnaire. In this observation, the

researcher observes certain kinds of research questions can best be answered

by observing how people act or how things look (Fraenkel et al., 2012:445).

The observation was carried out on the instructional design for the

teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the eleventh grade of

boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta. The researcher became an observer in

carrying out the observation. Fraenkel, et al. (2012:446) point out that in

non-participant observation, researchers do not participate in the activity

being observed but rather sit on the sidelines and watch; they are not

directly involved in the situation they are observing. In this research, the

researcher will employ field notes to write the activities during the

instructional process. This observation and field notes were aimed to take

data related to (a) method, (b) procedure, (c) teaching media (d) teacher‘s

roles, (e) student’s roles, and (f) assessment during teaching and learning

process in the classroom.

2. Interview

62
Interview is a dialog done by people with certain purposes. Moleong

(2004:186) states that interview is done by two people, each of them plays

the role as the interviewer that give questions and the other is as the person

who is given the question to answer.

In this research, the researcher employed semi-structured interview

and record the interview as data of this research. In this type of interview,

the researcher prepared what the question is before the interview is being

conducted and the question may be developed during the interview and new

question may emerge depending on the progress of interview and situations.

It is possible to add new question out of the question list if the researcher

gets new information out of the question that had been arranged. The aim of

this type is to get detail information from the interviewee. Here, the

researcher as the interviewer tried to get interviewee’s ideas and opinions

related to the problem of the research (Sugiyono, 2015:137).

The interviews were done with the students of XI IPA 3 boarding

school and English teacher at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1

Surakarta in 2017/2018 academic year. The researcher, as the interviewer,

makes interviews with the English teacher, Mr. Ali Muhson and some

students of XI IPA 3 boarding school.

Before having the interview, the researcher prepares a list of question

in order to avoid the interview of being too large and out of context. These

questions also help the researcher to make a systematic interview so that the

interview will be better. The researcher improves the question when it is

63
needed to get more information. The questions for the teacher were about

the instructional design for the teaching of writing based on 2013

curriculum.

3. Documentation

Document is everything is written or film, differ from the record,

which is not prepared because of the need to the researcher (Moleong,

2004:160). Documentation method is intended to find data on manuscript,

book, magazine, newspaper, and agenda.

Documentation is very useful because it can give wider background

about the research. It can be materials in triangulation process. It is also the

main material in the historical research. In this research, the documentation

consists of syllabus, lesson plan, the daily classroom journal, the presence

list, textbook, student worksheet/LKS and the other related documents.

F. Technique of Analyzing Data

In analyzing data had been collected, the researcher uses a descriptive

study of qualitative research. As using the technique, the researcher collects

data, arrange data then presents data. To know the instructional design for the

teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at the eleventh grade of boarding

school MAN 1 Surakarta.

Regarding with this research, the researcher used data analysis based on

Miles and Huberman Model (1984:20). Moreover, the process of analyzing

data was depicted by Miles and Huberman (1984:22) in the following picture.

64
Data Data
collection display

Data
reduction

Conclusion:
Drawing/verifying

Figure 3.1. Illustration of Interactive Model by Miles & Huberman


(1984:22)
Miles & Huberman (1984:22) elaborated the four types of analysis data

form the interactive process which was analyzing qualitative data as follows:

1. Data collection

Data collection means collecting data from many sources. The

researcher collected data from observation, interview, and documentation.

The researcher interviews with the informants and doing observation of the

instructional design for the teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum

which is used by the teacher at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN

1 Surakarta.

2. Data Reduction

Data reduction means summarizing the data, choosing the main issues,

focusing on the important issues, and finding the patterns and dropping the

unimportant issues. Therefore, the reduced data will give clear draws, ease

the researcher to collect next data, and look for it when needed (Sugiyono,

2013:92).

65
In this step, the data from interview, observation, and documentation

were analyzed by data reduction first. Afterwards, the researcher focused on

the data which related to (a) syllabus, (b) learning objectives, (c) method (d)

procedure, (e) instructional materials, (f) media, (g) teacher‘s roles, (h)

students‘ roles, (i) assessment.

3. Data Display

After having reduced the qualitative data, the next step was data

display. In the qualitative research, data can be displayed in the form of

table, graphic, pie chart, pictogram and etc. In this case, the most frequent

form of data display for qualitative research data in the past has been

narrative text. Looking at displays helps researchers to understand what is

happening and to do something-further analysis or caution on that

understanding (Miles and Huberman in Sugiyono, 2013:95).

In this step, the researcher used narrative text as data display. By

having data display, it was expected to be understood easily about what is

happening in the classroom, especially when the English teacher were

employing their instructional design in the classroom.

4. Drawing Conclusion and Verification

The last stage in analyzing data was conclusion and verification. The

proposed conclusion on the first stage is temporary; it will change if there is

no any strong evidence found in order to support the next collecting data. In

contrast, if the proposed conclusion on the first stage is supported by valid

66
and consistent evidence, the conclusion is a credible conclusion (Sugiyono,

2013:99).

In this step, the researcher made an initial conclusion about the

instructional design for the teaching of writing skill which is used by the

teacher at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta. The

initial conclusion was able to achieve the research question based on

qualitative data which is taken from observation, interview, and

documentation.

From the explanation above, the researcher apply this technique for

describing and analyzing the data from the result or research about the

instructional design for the teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum

which is used by the teacher at the eleventh grade of boarding school

systematically, so this research would be credible.

F. Trustworthiness of Data

To determine the trustworthiness of the data, the researcher needs some

techniques of examining data. The examination is done based on some criteria.

Sugiyono (2013:364) reveals that there are four criteria to check the

trustworthiness of data; credibility, transferability, dependability, and

conformability. In this research, the researcher is going to use triangulation.

According to Sutopo (2006:92), triangulation is a technique of

examining the trustworthiness of data by using something excluding the data to

check or to compare the data. Triangulation is divided into four techniques: (1)

67
data triangulation (2) investigator triangulation (3) methodological

triangulation (4) theoretical triangulation.

Data triangulation means that the researcher compared and rechecked the

credibility of information found in one data source with data sources. In

collecting the data, the researcher used different data sources. It means the

same data will be better its validity when it comes from the different data

source.

Triangulation by using methods means that the researcher checks the

credibility of the research and the data source by using several data collecting

techniques and analyze the by the same method. Even, it will be better when

researcher takes same data source for examining the great of their information

by different methods. What means by investigator triangulation is that the

researcher will recheck the credibility of his data by his own researcher or

other researchers. The last technique used in theoretical triangulation. It is a

technique of examining data by finding the standard of comparison from an

analysis explanation as a supporting data to get a valid evidence of the research

result.

In this research, the researcher used methodological triangulation. In this

way, the researcher rechecked the information from observations and

interviews and the data got to the relevant document. It is an order to get the

trustworthiness of the data being examined. The researcher compared the data

taken from observation which had been held during teaching and learning

68
process and the data from interview and documents which have the same data

source. Thus, the research will credible.

69
CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

In this chapter, the researcher presented the research finding and disscussion

of the instructional design for the teaching of writing based on 2013 curriculum at

the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta. The research showed the

finding on the field which includes learning objectives, syllabus, method,

procedure, teacher’s roles, students’s roles, instructional material, teaching media

and the assessment. The discussion described the relation between the findings on

the field with theories the instructional design, includes theory of learning

objective.

A. FINDINGS

1. Learning objectives

Learning objectives are statements describing what learners will be

able to do upon completion of a unit of instruction. Interview and

document analysis conducted by the researcher were found that learning

objectives of teaching and learning in MAN 1 Surakarta are in the form of

general objectives and specific objectives. It is explained on (a) general

objectives, and (b) specific objectives, as follows:

a. General Objective

General objectives had been known as the goal of teaching English.

The researcher finds general objectives in the teaching of English from

the teachers‘ documents in MAN 1 Surakarta, namely 2013 curriculum

70
document. It is adopted based on Kemendikbud 2015 which stated that

the learning objectives of study English is to develop potential of the

learners to have interpersonal, transactional, and functional

communicative competence in various spoken and written English texts

accurately and acceptable linguistic elements in a series. That is about

kind of factual and procedural knowledge and builds character of the

learners in their environment.

As the goal of teaching English, the general objectives had been

known by the teacher. It is stated in 2013 curriculum that the general

objectives of English teaching to develop the student’s competencies,

namely; attitudes, knowledge, and skills that are elaborated in each

education unit.

It supported based on the interview on March 8, 2018 the teacher

stated that “The general objectives can be seen on the 2013 curriculum

and then the standard competencies and basic competencies are used to

formulate the specific objectives”

The finding of learning objective in the current study is different

with Rifai’s research (2014) which concerned about the objective of

teaching learning process at the school.

b. Specific Objective

Specific objectives are specified after general objectives mentioned

and usually stated in the syllabus and lesson plan as teaching activities

71
where things relates to teach and learn in the classroom are prepared

specifically. Specific objectives in the eleventh grade at MAN 1

Surakarta are found in the teachers‘ documents. It is developed from

standard competence and basic competence in Kemendikbud 2015.

Specific objective is stated in syllabus and lesson plan. It reveals

the process of learning objective of the teaching English epsecially in

writing for the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta that

written in the syllabus is: “Students are able to reveal the meaning of text

factual report, oral, written, simple about the people, animal, things and

phenomenon and social events related to other subjects in the class of

XI”. It was supported in the indicator of lesson plan of the teacher as

follows: (1) identifiying many kind of report text, (2) answering the

question of recount text, (3) completing

Based on the observation of teaching writing in the eleventh grade

of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta, the reseracher knows that almost

all learning objectives of writing are to make the students write, the

teacher hopes that the students can write well.

It was supported It was supported by result by interview by the

researcher with the English teacher on March, 8th 2018 from Mr. Ali

Muhson as follows:

Tujuan pembelajaran dari bahasa Inggris khususnya pada writing


skill adalah mengembangkan kreatifitas siswa dalam menulis dan
menghubungkan vocabulary dan grammar mereka dalam bahasa
Inggris, misalnya dalam hal kecil seperti melengkapi paragraf yang

72
rumpang sampai membuat sebuah paragraf sederhana berdasarkan
pengamatan dilingkungan sekitar.
Which means:

The learning objectives of English lesson especially in writing is to


improve ability of students creativityt inw riting and to develop
their vocabulary and grammar in English language. For example,
fromcomplete the blank paragraph until make a simple paragraph
based on experiences in our environment”.

2. Syllabus used by the English teacher

Syllabus is very important in teaching learning process, in which it

contains the materials that will be taught in the learning. The teacher has to

focus on the syllabus so that he can make the teaching and learning process

efficient and miningful. The teacher looked up the syllabus before teaching

in the classroom. It can help the teacher eassy to prepare the materials.

Syllabus was an outline of specific course prepared by instructor. To

get the information about the curriculum used by MAN 1 Surakarta, the

researcher itended to interview the English teachers, Mr. Ali Muhson. Based

on the interview, English teachers said that MAN 1 Surakarta implements

2013 curriculum that designed by government and got it from Education

Department Supervisor in Surakarta. The English writing lesson in the

compulsory and optional class syllabus consisted of: the main competence,

basic competence, the main material, learning activity, assessment, time,

and source. All of parts will be display in appendix.

73
The type of syllabus used for teaching of the eleventh grade of

boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta is national functional syllabus. The

content of the syllabus are four language skills where writing skill is one of

that skills which have to be taught for students at eleventh grade. The

syllabus used by the teacher contained of alokasi waktu, Kompetensi Dasar

(KD), materi pokok, pembelajaran, sumber belajar, penilaian. Syllabus is

one of the essential things in the teaching learning process. Based on the

document used by the teacher, it shows that syllabus is document containing

the plan of work to be taught in particular course. The detail syllabus used

by the teacher attached in the appendix 1.

Notional functional syllabus is bsed on learning to recognize and

express the communicative function of language concept, and idea it

express. It draws on theories and description of language that emphasize the

functional and social aspects of competence. The example of the function

based on the syllabus is that the students can write a simple sentence report

text, developing the generic structure of report text, drafting of report text,

and writing simple report text based on the draft.

The syllabus focuses on the four language skill, namely, lestening,

reading, speaking, and writing. Writing is one of language skills included in

this syllabus and the material of writing such as report text, procedure text,

and functional text. The purpose of this syllabus is that students can express

their idea in written form.

74
Notional functional syllabus focuses on the function as an element of

the implementation of the foreign curriculum. Grammar is delivered only to

explain the various forms that re used to achieve a particular function.

Function can be varified by caes such as introduction, greeting, and so on.

The notional syllabus used in MAN 1 Surakarta adopted from teacher’s

document is in table 4.1 as follows:

Table 4.1 syllabus of the eleventh grade

Gambaran silabus

3. Procedure

Observation, interview, and document analysis conducted by the

researcher found that both of English teachers at MAN 1 Surakarta

implements scientific approach (Exploration, Elaboration, and

Confirmation) in teaching English writing at all grade. Each step of EEK is

integrated by recommended activities based on the available regulations. In

addition, the English teachers at the school employ the procedure

conditionally based on the time allocation. In this finding, the researcher

explains classroom procedure on (a) teacher‘s reasons for using scientific

approach and (b) steps of scientific approach in the classroom procedure, as

follows:

75
a. Teachers’ reasons for using scientific approach

EEK (Exploration, Elaboration, and Confirmation) is implemented

as classroom procedure in teaching process at MAN 1 Surakarta. There

are certain reasons felt by teacher for using the classroom procedure in

the classroom.

Based on the interview with the English teacher at MAN 1

Surakarta, teacher AM argues:

“Ee... kalau menurut saya itu lebih nyaman..lebih tepat kesasaran

siswa karena ini adalah pembelajaran writing.” (In my point of

view, it is appropriate and more targeted on the students)

(Interview on 8 March 2018)

In addition, teacher AM argues that the classroom procedure used

is a recommended from the authority of this policy. As it was proven by

teacher AM who says:

“Itu memang sudah keharusan dari sana mbak…jadi harus pakai

ini, dengan perubahan itu ngajar.. kueikulum 2013 dan lain-

lain...kita kembali menggunakan genre based approach.” (It is a

must from there. Therefore, it must use it with teaching change,

KTSP and etc. We return to use EEK) (Intw.PK/IT/21)

From those explanations, it can be said that according to them the

classroom procedure is a consideration from the government where

teachers must teach using the procedure in the classroom. Besides that,

the classroom procedure is appropriate to use and more precise on the

76
students as the learning target. Talking about the reason, the use of EEK

in the teaching at the classroom is appropriate based on the regulation in

KTSP about standard process in the classroom where teachers of each

subject are recommended to use EEK as the classroom procedure,

because EEK enables to be adapted with students‘ characteristics and

subject taught

b. Steps of genre based apparoach in the Classroom

a. The First Observation

1) Opening

The first observation was done on Tuesday, April 17, 2018. The

English teacher is Mr. Ali Muhson. The material of the day was”

Report Text”. It was started at 08.45 a.m until 09.55 a.m. The

researcher observed the XI IPA 3 class that consist of 24 female

students.

The teacher come into the classroom, then the teacher greeted

the students. The students responded and answered it. The teacher the

teacher asked their condition of the students. Then, the teacher

checked the attendance list before starting the learning process.

For example:

Teacher : Good morning, students.

Students : Good morning, teacher.

Teacher : How are you today?

Students: : I am fine. And you?

77
Teacher : I am fine too. Who is absent today?

Students : Nihil pak.

Teacher : Ini yang lain kemana?

Students : Yang lain ada acara persiapan olimpiade pak.

Teacher : Okay, are you bready to study now?

Students :Yes ready.

2) Building Knowledge of the Field (BKOF)

The teacher explained “Report Text” and showed a report text to

the students. The the students were asked about the report text.

For example:

Students 1: Pak perbedaan Report text dengan descriptive itu apa

pak?

Teacher : Report text dan descriptive text jelas berbeda ya. Masih

ingat struktur dari descriptive text itu apa saja?

Students : Ingat sedikit-sedikit pak yaitu ada orientation

Teacher : Jadi perbedaan dari kedua jenis text tersebut adalah.

Jika Descriptive text strukturnya yang pertama

identification, dan yang kedua ada description.

Contoh kalian mendiskripsikan tentang binatang. I

have bird. Kalau Report text itu gimana anak-anak?

Students : Itu ustad, melaporkan sesuatu.

Teacher : Coba di buka di buku kalian. Tentang report text.

Students : Report text is

78
Teacher : Ya benar. Report text memiliki struktur fungsi yaitu

opening, kedua inti buat report yang terdiri dari

classification dan description dan point yang terakhir

adalah penutup.

Students : (Listen dan attention the teacher explanation in the

whiteboard).

Teacher : Di lihat buku kalian halaman 134.

Students : Iya ustad.

Frequently, the teacher would give them a text of report text about

Gajah as the example. The teacher gave them statement that the story that

is begun with the opening that containt in the report text. In building

knowledge of the field the teacher tried to make the students explored

their knmowledge about the topic, that was about report text “Gajah”.

The purpose was to make them knew and learned others’ opinion from

their friends, after they had kniwn the opinion they had knoiwledge what

would they discussed. It is liked knowledge actqusition activities in

inquiry based learning activities in inquiry based writing was in samll

group to make them had more clear understanding what whould they plan

to write about the picture. So, it needed a teacher to mnage them knew

the topiv in building knowledge of the field.

3) Modeling oF the Text

The teacher gave the students report text about Fload taken from

the internet. The teacher continued the example of the text.

79
For example:

Teacher : Anak-anak sekarang buka handbook masing masing halaman

123

Students : Iya ustad

Teacher : Dari teks tersebut ada yang belum tau artinya?

4. Technique

Classroom techniques are used to support teaching and learning

process on each procedure step. Actually, there are many classroom

techniques which can be used by a teacher in the classroom. In MAN 1

Surakarta, there are several techniques employed by English teachers in the

eleventh grade. In this finding, classroom techniques are commonly used in

scientific approach, as follows:

In teaching language, there are many techniques which can be used by

a teacher. He or she has to choose the best techniques in order to make

students feel interested and more engaged in teaching and learning process.

In order to know classroom techniques commonly used by the English

teachers in MAN 1 Surakarta, the researcher interviewed teacher AM.

Teacher AM argues that he employs question and answer, game, and quiz in

teaching English writing. As it was stated by teacher AM who says:

“Question and answer, bisa juga…apa itu ya, Mas…eee... bisa juga

game, quiz.” (Question and answer, it can be a game or a quiz)

80
Besides that, teacher AM used other techniques, such brainstorming

and discussion in supporting teaching in the classroom In addition, he adds

that the use of those techniques have been planned before entering the class.

Talking about the aims of using those techniques, teacher RH argues that the

use of those techniques can encourage students to be more active, more

interested, more variation, and not monotonous. As it was stated by teacher

AM who says:

“Selain menarik,juga membangkitkan siswa untuk lebih aktif…dan

anak itu...lebih apa ya... lebih interest,bervariasi, dan tidak

monoton.” (Beside of interesting, it encourages students to be

more active, more interested, having variation, and it is not

monotonous). (Intw.RH/IT/18)

From those explanations, it can be concluded that according to them

the English teachers at MAN 1 Surakarta used several techniques, namely:

question and answer, game, quiz, dialogue, and role play. Those techniques

can make students feel interested in learning actively and are brave in

showing and expressing on what they want in the class.

In proving that, the researcher also analyzed teachers‘ documents and

observed at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta. The

researcher found that classroom techniques used by English teachers at

school consists of (1) brainstorming, (2) discussion, (3) group discussion,

(4) dialogue performance, (5) question and answer, (6) reading aloud. They

81
are included in each step of classroom procedure used by a teacher. A

teacher combines those techniques based on the needs.

Compared with techniques used by those teachers, there are many

kinds of techniques which can be used by teachers. It depends on the

teacher‘s ability in employing variation of the available techniques.

Therefore, a teacher should be able to consider and position each of

classroom techniques used in each of classroom procedure precisely. Each

classroom procedure used has important roles in the classroom activity.

Interview and observation conducted are able to classify classroom

techniques commonly used at MAN 1 Surakarta on (1) classroom

techniques commonly used in EEK for the seventh grade and (2) classroom

techniques commonly used in EEK for the eighth grade, as follows:

Based on the observation, the researcher finds that the teacher uses

three technique on the teaching and learning process in writing skill. The

teacher use brainstorming, discussion of the topic, and the instructor’s

feedback as follows:

1) Brainstorming

Brainstorming means that the teacher asks the students to list all

their idea of related to a topic. They write idea in single word.

After the students find the title from the topic. The students

develop the idea to become a good paragraph.

82
Brainstorming has purpose to help the students focus and imagine

before they begin to write text. The students find new vocabulary

and active in the classroom.

Fro example:

2) Discussing a topic or question

Discussing a topic and probes means that between teacher and

students discuss about the topic and answer a question a text.

The aims of the technique to make the students active in teaching

and learning process and there is interaction between teacher and

students, students and other students. The students discuss the

material they do not understand with other friends.

For example:

3) The instructor’s feedback

The instructor’s feedback means the teacher give instruction to the

students. The students do thr instruction that is given by the

teacher. The teacher has important role in the teaching and

learning process. One of the role is the teacher as the instructor in

the classroom.

The prupose of this technique is to make the students active in the

teaching and learning process.

For example:

83
5. Teacher’s roles

The role of teacher is very important in teaching learning process.

Teacher as the determiner of the students success. Based on the observation,

the researcher found that there were many kinds of teachers’ role in the

teachign and learning process of writing activity at eleventh grade of

boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta such as teacher as controller, teacher as

organiser, teacher as prompter, teacher as resource, teacher as tutor, teacher

as observer and teacher as model. Here the researcher will explain each

teacher’s role as follows:

a. Teacher as Controller

The teacher as controller means the teacher control all activities in

the class such as the students activity, keep condition of the students, and

helps the students to focus study in the classroom. The teacher is in

complete charge of the class. The teacher assumes this role when new

language is being introduced and accurate reproduction and drilling

technique are needed.

In clasasroom activity of the eleventh garde of boarding school

MAN 1 Surakarta, the English teacher always has the roles to control the

students’ work and pay attention on the explanation given by the teacher.

The teacher is mostly the centre of focus, the teacher many have the gift

of instruction, and can inspire through their own knowledge and

expertise. Usually the condition of classroom activity is not condussive

such as noise when the teacher explain the material, so the teacher have

84
to keep the condition of students in classroom. Teacher also try students

to keep busy, it is to help students to focus students in the classroom.

For example:

In the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta, teacher Mr.

Ali Muhson taught XI IPA 3 about the report text. During the explanation

there is the students noisy, then teacher give the instruction for the

students to pay attention with the tecaher’s explanation. Such as

“attention please”, “silent please”, “tolong diperhatikan ya, jangan

ramai sendiri”, etc.

(Observation on March 6, 2018)

Based on the interview with teacher AM, he usually noticed

students by asking them to go out from the class if they made noisy

during teaching and learning process. As it was said by teacher AM:

“Lha itu…itu peran saya seperti itu..kalau kita sebagai guru kan tidak

boleh njewer…mencubit sebetulnya tidak boleh..tapi kalau ada masalah

saya cubit...atau kalau masih saya beri peringatan satu kali dua

kali...silahkan keluar..saya seperti itu”. (“My role is like that, we as a

teacher is not allowed to pinch students. If there is a problem, I pinch

them…if they make trouble more, I ask them to go out from the class.”)

b. Teacher as Organizer

This role usually involves in giving the students information,

telling them how they are going to the activity, putting them into pairs or

groups, and finally doing things down when it is time to stop. In this role,

85
the English teachers at MAN 1 Surakarta organize the class in several

ways, such as opening the class, explaining materials taught, working in

pairs, making groups, and ending the class. For instance, in the eleventh

grade, teacher AM taught class XI IPA 3 about report text. He started the

class by explaining materials which would be learned. Besides that, she

also reviewed materials taught on the last meeting, as follows:

T :Today, we will discuss report text...kemarin kita sudah

membahas descriptive text ya.. dan kita sudah kasih PR.... have

you submitted your task??

S : Sudah semua ustad.

T : Saya mau ulang sedikit, saya perhatikan karena masih banyak

yang belum paham mengenai perbedaan deskriptif text dengan

repoart text...kita awali dulu dari paragraf yang pertama apa

seharusnya kemarin?

(Observation on March 8, 2018)

c. Teacher as Assessor

One of the things that students expect from their teachers is

assessment whether or not they are getting their English right or not. This

is where teachers have to act as an assessor, offering feedback and

correction and grading students in various ways. In this role, the English

teachers at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta to

86
assess students, he employs his role as an assessor towards students‘

work. He asked them to write their works on the whiteboard and

check it, as follows:

T : Ok, look at this..to all students of SMP Maju Makmur…it the

framework of class cleaning contest...it will be held..

ini..student penulisannya benar gak tulisannya anak-anak? all

students.

S : Bener..tpi perlu ditambahin S

T : Dimana?

S : dibelakangnya student.

(Observation on March 8, 2018)

Beside the English teacher assess the students work on the

whiteboard that students write. The English teacher also chechk the

students work from their paper. For example:

T: “ Sekarang kalau sudah paham, kita coba latihan membuat teks report

tentang Animal ya, kalian bisa membayangkan binatang yang pernah

kalian lihat.”

S: “Ustad, itu nanti berapa paragraf?”

T: “Cukup dua paragraf saja, waktunya 15 menit, nanti detelah itu di

kumpulkan sejadinya akan saya cek satu persatu”

(Observation on March 8, 2018)

d. Teacher as Prompter.

87
In this case, prompter as same as motivator. Teacher give

motivation for the students to keep spirit in the classroom activity. For

example, at the last subject students usually students started bustling and

not enthusiasm in learning, so the teacher have to give motivation dor the

stduents that the learning is important.

For example:

The teacher give some motivation to the students about how to learn

English language easily. The teacher can tell a story about the teachers’

experience to study English and sharing the students about inspiration

story.

(Observation on March 6, 2018)

e. Teacher as Participant

Teacher as participant means that the teacehr when teaching and

learning process, the teacher not

f. Teacher as Resource

Teacher as resource means the teacher is resource the material of the

stduents. However book is the main resource of the material, but teacher

is the most important resoruce for the students to deliver the material,

because if the students find the material by themselves, they can not

optimally in getting the material. Based on the interview on March 10,

2018 the teacher said that “before the lesson begin, the teacher search the

88
source of material in the internet, or book, or another sources, then

tecaher deliver the material from the source which discover the teacher”.

Moreover, in this role a teacher of eleventh grade of boarding

school MAN 1 Suraakrta has to help students in solving problems faced

to comprehend materials taught. As a resource, the teacher guides

students to understand materials effectively. Besides that, the teacher also

welcomes to students if they want to consult their problems faced in the

teaching and learning process. For instance, in the eleventh grade of

boarding school, the teacher AM taught about report text in the classXI

IPA 3. Students were asked to make one report text about animal consist

of threee paragraph. After makingreport text, students were given chance

to ask if they still had not understood, as follows:

T : Ok, begitu ya cara buat report text..nanti kalaudi asrama,

tolong dipelajari lagi biar tidak lupa...any questions?

Based on the interview on March, 2018 with the teacher AM, he

usually explains the taught materials more step by step to help students

who have not understood. As it was conveyed by teacher AM who says:

“Nah…untuk anak yang kurang paham, itu kita ya pertama memang

harus sabar kemudian kita harus jelaskan sedikit demi sedikit apa yang

menjadi kesulitan mereka”. (“To handle students who have not

understood, we have to be patient, and then we have to explain it step by

step on what their difficulties”)

g. Teacher as Tutor

89
After the teacher know what is the material, the teacher deeliver the

material for the students briefly. Teacher as a tutor, teacher also explain

the prupose of the material. If the students do not understand about the

material the teacher will be explained again.

The teacher acts as a coach when students are involved in project

work of self study. The teacher provides advice and guidance and helps

students clarify ideas and limit tasks. This role can be a great way to pay

individual attention to a student.

For example:

When the etacher started to give asignment from thr material that

already given, and the tecaher explain what is the assignment. Then the

students do not understand with the explanation, the teacher should

explain back to make the students really understand with the assignment.

(Observation on March , 2018)

h. Teacher as Observer

At observer, the teacher want to know the stduents’ understanding

with the material. The teacher can observe the stduents by asking a

question, giving individual task, the the teacher observe students work.

One of teacher’s most important skills, as an observer, is underrated. Yet

without honing this skill, he can never truly understand students and meet

their individual and group needs.

For example:

90
When the teacher done explaining the material, to make the teacher know

how far the students understand the material, etacher usually give the

spot question for the students, if the students can answer the question it

means that the stduents pay attention and understanding the etacher

explanation.

(Observation on March, 2018)

6. Student’s roles

Beside the teacher had teachers’ role, the students also had the

students role. The students’ roles influenced the effectiveness of teaching

learning process. Based on the researcher observation, there are two kinds of

student’s role that founs in the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1

Surakarta:

a. Students as Planner

Students AS palnner means the stduents should make a planning of

their program and they learning responsibility for what they do in the

classroom. They can build a critical thinking about the material that

explained by the teacher.

In this case, students as center planner in the classroom activities to

plan the strategy in discussing the material. But, the teacehr just as the

facilitator in the classroom, it means that although the position of

stduents as the center planner, but teacher also remains control the

students in the classroom activity.

For example:

91
The teacher give issue in the classroom activities, and divide into several

group to discuss from the different side like the students give the negative

and positive opinion. In this case, the stduents demand to solve their own

problem with their friend.

(Observation on March, 2018)

b. Students as Group

Students as group means that the students can sahre their ideas or

knowledge with other students and the teacher. Students can ask and then

with other if they find the difficulties the material. Thy also can learn

together to solve problem in learning, and finish thei assignment from

their teacher in their group. The students can easily explain the ideas or

transfering another ideas or opinion in their group.

For example:

Teacher divide claass into several group and give the assignment after

teacher;s explanation, the students disscuss with their group to make

assignment by the opinion of all member in their group and comapre it

into an idea.

(Observation on March, 2018)

c. Students as Tutor

92
Students as tutor means that the students facilitate the teacher to

learn with others so thsat the students can sahre their knowledge with

others. The students who already understand with the material that has

been taught to teach his friend who can not or have not understand about

the material.

For example:

When the teacher give the question for the students, and there is students

who do not udnerstand with teacher’s explanation, so another students

explaining to their friend who did not understand about the material.

(Observation on March, 2018)

d. Students as Monitor and Evaluator

It means the students are monitor and evaluator of his own learning

program. They can monitor and evaluate their learning program by

themselve. The students can monitor their leanring progress from the

result of their task by the seeing know how to evaluate the learning style

is success or not if the result is bad they can change their own leanring

style.

For example:

93
Teacher asked the students to answer the question orally then the teacher

ask to choose want all of them but the student’s anwer still incorect, so

thr students can evaluate their learning style.

(Observation on March, 2018)

a) The learner is monitor and evaluator of his or her Own progress

In the teaching and learning process, the learners had role in

themselves. The learners as monitor a teacher’s perfomance in the

classroom when the teachers teach the material. On the other hand, they

also can evaluate progress themselves in writing from the task, exercises

an evaluation that the teacher given.

In the teaching and learning process, the students listen the teacher

explanation in front of the class

b) The learner learns from the teacher, from the other students and other

teachign sources.

In the teaching and learning proces, the students get explanation

from the teacher. When the teacher explain the material in the class,

students get attention all of the information from the teacher explanation.

Students also get some materials from the teacher. Students can see and

listen everything that the teacher do and say. Beside that, the students

also learns from the other students and other teaching source when the

students feel embarrassed to asked with the teacher. In the teaching

writing, the students did the instruction of the teacher and then students

94
asked the teacher when they got difficulties. In the example, initial T as a

teacher and initial S as a student.

T: “Sekarang tugas kalian yaitu buat dua paragraf report text,

temanya tentang binatang. Bisa kalian membayangkan binatang

yang sudah pernah kalian temui atau binatang peliharaan kalian

dirumah. Bebas yang penting temanya binatang ya”

S: “Iya ustad”

Based on observation at eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1

Surakarta, the researcher knows that the student’s role are learner is

monitor and evaluator of his or her own progress and learner learns from

the teacher, from the other students and other teaching sources. It is

suitable with the theory from Johnson and Paulson (1979) in Richard

(1986). The strenght of students’s role is the students more active and the

teacher attempts to make them to be independent students. But, the

students’ role is in the teaching learning process is do not have complete

role based on Johnson and Pulson theory’s.

7. Intsructional material used in the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN

1 Surakarta

Instructional materials is one of instructional design components in order

to help a teacher in teaching in the classroom, such as textbook, student‘s

worksheet, and etc. In this finding, the researcher describes instructional

materials for the teaching of writing at the eleventh grade of boarding school

95
MAN 1 Surakarta on (a) process in selecting instructional materials, (b) roles

of instructional materials, and (c) kinds of instructional materials used, as

follows:

a. Process in Selecting Instructional Materials

There are many kinds of instructional materials which can be selected

as sources in learning. The selection involves in printed materials, visual

materials, internet-based materials, and etc. Besides that, teachers select

instructional materials based on the needs, level, and etc. Talking about

instructional materials selected for the teaching of writing at at the eleventh

grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta, the researcher interviewed two

English teachers at the school. Teacher AM argues that she selects

instructional materials from textbook, student‘s worksheet, and other

supporting books. As it was conveyed by teacher AM who says:

“Dari buku paket, kemudian buku LKS dan buku penunjang

lainnya”. (“From textbook, then students‘ worksheet and another

supporting book.”)

Furthermore, in selecting instructional materials, teacher AM argues

that he adapt it based on the grade and syllabus at the eleventh grade of

boarding school MAN 1 Suraakrta. As it was proven by teacher RH who

says:

“Saya sesuaikan dengan kelas...kadang-kadang seperti invitation

dikelas 7 ada, dikelas 9 ada...untuk vocab kelas 7 itu batasannya

sampai mana...mungkin sangat sederhana...mungkin kelas 8 lebih

96
meningkat.” (―I adapt it based on the class. Sometimes, it is like

invitation in the seventh grade, in the ninth grade… for vocabulary,

there is a limitation in the seventh grade...it is very simple…in the

eighth grade, it is improved.‖)

From those explanations, it can be said that according to them process

in selecting instructional materials by English teachers at the eleventh grade

of boarding school MAN 1 Suraakrta for the teaching of writing through

three steps, namely: (1) selecting. The English teachers select materials from

English textbooks, students‘ worksheets, internet and other sources; (2)

adapting. The English teachers adapt those materials based on the grade and

syllabus at the school become the fixed materials to teach; and (3)

implementing.

b. Kinds of Instructional Materials

There are many kinds of instructional materials which can be used in

the classroom. It depends on the teachers in choosing the best materials for

teaching and students. Based on the document analysis and interview, the

researcher found that kinds of instructional materials used at the eleventh

grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta consist of three categories,

namely:

Instructional material is the important thing that teacher used as basis

of input materials fro the stduents to accept and practice the language in the

97
classroom. The instructional materials which used at MAN 1 Surakarta were

categorized into printed material and unprinted material.

a. Printed material is the material which printed using printer and published by

publisher. The printed material is textbook used by students and teacher.

T: “For the curriculum 2013 is only using a guide book from The

Government of Ministry Education..”

1. Textbook

In conducting the instructional or teaching learning process the

teachers used one certain book as the students’ text book. Based on the

observation, the researcher know that English teacher of MAN 1

Surakarta used certain textbook for their students. Those book are” When

English Rings a Bell” publisher by Asep dkk 2013 curriculum. The

reason for choosing the book because the Government of Ministry

Education suggested to use only “When English Ring Bell” in

implementing 2013 curriculum.

The teacher used material from the goverment as the instructional

material. The material divided into two books, the first one is for the teacher

and the second for the students . The student’s book contains of tasks for the

students and mosly in the form of pictured.

The handbook used by the teacher is “When English Rings the Bell”

published by Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia

2013. The goverment distributed that handbook for the students in every

school.

98
The handbook is prepared by the English teacher in MAN 1 Surakarta

as learning material for summarizing the material, exercises by taking on

various source and adapted to the syllabus. Handbook is distributed for the

first until thirds grade. Handbook contains any exercies used to facilitate the

students to understand the materials easily.

2. The material that compare both print and non print source as sell access

material and material on the internet.

In the teaching learning process, the teacher also used the material that

compare both print and non print source as sell access material and material

on the internet. The teacher is looking for example of text and exercises for

students.

The teacher opened the textbook is the first meeting, and then asked

students to open theie textbook. In the first meeting the teacher gave

explanation about report text. The teacher tried to make explanation clearer

by showing some pictures on the LCD. The Students more understand and

interested in the material discussed in the meeting. The teacher gave

example of report text and explained the generic structure, social function,

and language feature. Then the teacher asked the students to write down and

list some verbs used in past tense. Report text was the material for two

meeting.

In the teaching of genre text, the teacher explained the report text. The

teacher explained the characteristic of the text and then gave the students

99
with some exercises such as, answers questions based on the text, completed

a report text, make a sentence based on the certain word.

c. Roles of Instructional Materials

Roles of instructional materials in supporting teaching and learning

process in the classroom are very considered in detail during teaching and

learning process. By using instructional materials, teaching and learning

process can be run as teacher‘s expectations. Based on the interview, teacher

AM argues that the roles of instructional materials are able to make students

are interested in learning, so they do not feel bored in learning it. As it was

proven by teacher AM who says:

“Lebih menarik siswa, sehingga siswa itu tidak jenuh untuk melihat

gambar pada buku”.(“It is more interesting, so students do not feel

bored in seeing pictures on the book.”)

He that roles of instructional materials are very helpful. She can

adapt it based on the syllabus. He says:

“Ya…sangat membantu...karena disitu kan sudah ada...tinggal kita

materinya ada...oh,sekiranya yang cocok dengan silabus...sekiranya

ini”. (“Yes, it is very helpful…everything is in the book…it depends

on the available materials…it is adapted from syllabus.”)

From those explanations, it can be said that according to them the

roles of instructional materials for the teaching of writing at the eleventh

grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta are aimed to make students feel

100
interested in learning English especially in writing. Besides that,

instructional materials are very helpful in supporting teachers when they

teach in the classroom.

3. The role of the instructional materials

Material is very important in teaching and learning process. Based on

the observation and interview. It is found that the role material in the

teaching learning process are, material help the students to more understand

what the topic will learn in class, material as a source of actively for learner

practice and communicative and material as guide for the stduents to study.

It supported result of the interview by the researcher with English teacher on

March 6, 2018 as follow:

“Material bisa menjadi panduan siswa untuk belajar tidak hanya sekedar

mendengarkan guru ketika menerangkan materi dikelad. Guru pun juga

lebih mudah menjelaskan materi untuk siswa.”

In English means:

Material can become their guide for study and not only listen the teacher

explanantion in the classroom. The teacher also easier to explain the

material for students

The material used in the teaching and learning process may not be

rough. In the researcher’s point of view, the role of the instructional material

includes the following specification that are: (1) Materials will focus on the

communicative abilities of interpretation, expression, and negotiation, (2)

101
Materials will focus on understandable, relevant and interesting exchanges

of information rather than on the presentation of the grammatical form, (3)

Materials will involve a different kind of text, and (4) Materials will provide

opportunities for self-evaluation and progress in learning.

Based on the observation, MAN 1 Surakarta has instructional

material which gave progress at learners own rates of learning, which can be

seen from how the teachers deliver a material from simple material to

complex material. For example, the teacher taught the material about report

text, continued with generic structure and language feature of recount text,

continued with completed a paragraph of report text. They also delivered the

material with the different styles of learning. For example, a students asked

to change verb 1 into verb to, a students asked to make a sentence based on

certain verb. The teacher provided opportunities for independent study and

use. For example, a students asked to write a report text which topic

“animal”, then the teacher received their word or sentence whivh wrong

written. Here the stduents also has appropriates for self evaluation.

8. Teaching Media

In the teaching learning writing, the teacher also used media. Media is

a device used for conveying the information to the students, so that they can

achieve goal easily. In this finding, media for the teaching of writing at the

eleventh garde of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta are described on (a)

process in selecting media, (b) roles of media, and (c) kinds of media, as

follows:

102
a. Process in Selecting Media

There are many kinds of media which can be selected as one of

supporting teaching and learning components. It can be taken from

audio, picture, card, and etc. Each media has an important role in helping

teachers to teach in the classroom. Talking about selected media for the

teaching of writing at at the eleventh garde of boarding school MAN 1

Surakarta, the researcher interviewed the English teachers at the school.

Teacher AM argues that he selects media used from another reference

book and internet, and then it is showed by using LCD. As it was proven

teacher AM who says:

“Diambil...mungkin dari buku acuan yang lain...buku paket juga

ada...atau mungkin dari internet...kita tayangkan lewat laptop

atau LCD itu mbak”. (“It is taken from reference books,

internet…we show it by laptop or LCD”)

Furthermore, talking about process of selecting media, teacher

AM argues that she adapt it based on the materials and class.

From those explanations, it can be said that according to them

process in selecting media by English teachers at the eleventh garde of

boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta for the teaching of writing through

three steps, namely: (1) finding. The English teachers find pictures and

materials from reference books and internet, (2) selecting. After

collecting pictures and materials, the English teachers select it based on

103
the materials and the class taught, and (3) employing. Selected pictures

are employed as media for teaching and learning in the classroom.

b. Roles of Media

Roles of media can be varied to help teacher in making students

feel interested in learning. Besides that, it communicates on what

teachers teach to students through kinds of media used in the classroom.

Based on the interview, teacher AM argues that the roles of media are

very support in teaching and learning process. In addition, he also argue

that media can make students enjoy in learning by seeing materials

visually, such pictures of animal that can be describe. As it was proven

by her argument who says:

“Peran media? ya… mungkin kalau dengan media itu anak bisa

enjoy bisa senang lewat tayangan...itu kan lebih senang lewat oh

ini gambar ini...ya, do you know what picture is it? who is he? he

is Neymar..he is a football player‖. (“By using media, students

enjoy through view…it is showed pictures… do you know what

picture is it? who is he? he is Neymar...he is a football player.”)

From those explanations, it can be said that according to them

roles of media for the teaching of English at MAN 1 Surakarta is very

useful. Students are interested in learning by seeing pictures of their

favorite artist or football players. In proving that, the researcher also

observed the roles of instructional materials in the eleventh grade of

boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta especially claass of XI IPA 3. Based

104
on the observation, it was found that the role of media is as instructional

aids where it is aimed to support teacher‘s presentation in the

classroom.

This role was found in the eleventh grade of boarding school

MAN 1 Surakarta. Teacher AM taught writing about report text. He

employed pictures as media which is showed through a tool media,

namely LCD. Those pictures are combined in power point slides. He

showed picture of steps for making fried rice and semur ayam.

Pictures of media as instructional aids in learning activity on the picture

4.3, as follows:

Talking about the role of media, it not only involves one role but

also supplementary for teacher in order to make teaching and learning

process effective. Besides that, variation of media used in teaching

language is needed, it aims motivate students in learning.

c. Kinds of Media

Based on the researcher observation and interview, the researcher

found that the teacher used textbook, picture, LCD as the media.

a) Textbook as the printed media.

Textbook was used by the students in their study, the textbook

contained the material, exercise, that would be learned in teahcing

learnign process. The material on the textbook was taken on syllabus.

The purpose textbook as printed media to make the teacher easily in

105
delivered material and to make students more understand about the

topic will be discussed. The teacher will get some difficulties to apply

the material in the classroom, when they do not have textbook. By

using textbook the process of the class will be structured and arranged

well. For example, the teacher sometime showed picture to get

students attention to material that would be disscused. Based on the

interview and observation, the teacher uses the textbook 2013

curriculum entitled “When English Ring Bell”.

b) LCD as the Electric Media

LCD as the electric media in the teaching learning process used

by the teacher to delivered material in the class. The teachers also use

LCD in teaching learning process. Every classroom in MAN 1

Surakarta has one LCD to facilities for teachers and students in the

teaching and learning process. The purpose of LCD used in the

teaching and learning process is to make the students more interesting

about the material used and they more attractive in the teaching and

learning process. Based on the result of the interview and observation,

the teacher also use electric media that is LCD to media in the

teaching and learning process. For example, the teacher showed the

picture of animal eat in the zoo to know the verb that use based on the

picture.

9. Assessment

106
Assessment is a way to measure students‘ competence in the form of

scores. Besides that, there are many kinds of assessment which can be used

to measure students‘ competence by teachers. It is usually based on

teachers‘ needs in assessing students during teaching and learning process in

the classroom. Besides that, assessment used aims to make students do not

feel doubt when they are faced on the same assessment tasks. It can be in the

form of multiple choice, daily tasks, and etc.

Based on the interview, teacher Mr. Ali Muhson usually employs

assessment from (1) daily test in the form of multiple choice, (2) homework,

(3) individual task, and (4) group task. As it was said by teacher Mr. Ali

Muhson who says:

“Penilaian pertama nilai ulangan harian...itu bisa menggunakan

isian, bisa menggunakan pilihan ganda, kemudian nilai tugas, tugas sekolah

ada tugas PR, pekerjaan rumah kemudian ada tugas mandiri dan ada tugas

kelompok” (“First assessment is daily test…it can use multiple choice...task

assessment….school task, such as homework…individual task…group

task”)

In addition, the researcher also interviewed two students in the

eleventh grade in the eleventh grade of MAN 1 Surakarta. In eleventh grade,

both of S1 and S2 argue that English teachers assess them based on they

write.

Based on the result of the observation and document analysis

conducted by the researcher, assessment used for the teaching of writing at

107
MAN 1 Surakarta is divided on (1) formative assessment, (2) middle test,

and (3) summative assessment, as follows:

1) Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is aimed to determine the extent to which the

student has already understood the lessons as they follow in the learning

process in a certain period of time and improve the quality of learning. At

MAN 1 Surakarta, formative assessment is in the form of written test:

Written test is conducted by teachers in order to know students‘

competence. Students are asked to answer questions in the form of

written. At MAN 1 Surakarta, it is classified on (a) multiple choice, (b)

short-answer task, (c) make a match, and (d) listening cloze, as follows:

(a)Multiple Choice

Multiple choice gives four or five possible answers to answer one

question. In this task, the teacher gives several questions about

concord to the students and they are asked to choose the correct

answer by marking the right choice. One example of multiple choice is

showed on the picture 4.5, as follows:

(b)Short-Answer Tasks

This task is used by the English teacher to test students in which

the students are asked to write the answer on the answer sheet in the

108
written form and the answer are usually short. One example of

shortanswer task is showed on the picture 4.6, as follows:

(c) Sentence/Completion Dialogue

This assessment is given to students where they have to

complete those sentences to be complete sentences and can be

understood well. In this task, the teacher read one sentence or

dialogue, and students try to respond it by appropriate responses

orally. Sample of sentence/completion dialogue task is showed on the

picture 4.11, as follows:

2) Middle Test

Middle test is usually conducted in the middle of semester. It is

conducted in three month first after teaching and learning process. It can

be in the form of multiple choice or essay. Based on the interview,

teacher AM argues that middle test is also conducted in MAN 1

Surakarta. Its score is taken from the real score. As it was proven by

teacher AM who says:

109
“Ujian tengah semester, kalau disini itu ulangan tengah

semester itu ada tes yaitu dalam bentuk esai yang terdiri dari 5

soal dan tidak ada pilihan ganda…tapi murni nilai murni”.

(“Middle test, this school has a test…but, it is real score”.)

From those explanations, it can be said that middle test is also

conducted in MAN 1 Surakarta. The test is created in the form of

essay questions. Talking about core of middle test, it is taken from real

score when student answer questions given in the middle test.

3) Summative Assessment

Summative assessment is usually conducted in the middle or end of

semester which covers more than one or several topics, and is aimed to

determine the extent of learners pass or not in learning. At MAN 1

Surakarta, it is classified final test. It is usually conducted in the end of

semester. This test is aimed to evaluate students after learning during one

semester. This test also can be in the form of multiple choice and essay.

Based on the interview, teacher Mr. Ali Muhson explains that final

test score is taken from daily test and final test. As it was proven by

teacher AM who says:

“Kalau UAS, itu diambil dari nilai ulangan harian, ditambah

ulangan akhir semester... test itu..kemudian dijumlah rata-rata”.

(“If final test, it is taken from daily test, plus final test…the test is

divided by average”.)

110
From those explanations, it can be concluded that final test in MAN

1 Surakarta is combination of multiple choice and essay questions. Score

of final test is added to score of daily test, so the last score for students

can be accounted. Samples of final test questions can be seen on the

picture 4.12, as follows:

Compared with the available assessments, those assessments have

fulfilled requirement in assessing students based on 2013 curriculum

where assessment are equipped by meaningful activities in order to assess

students‘ progress and performance during teaching and learning process.

In addition, those assessments seem complete if it is created

constructively where assessments used are more focused on the students‘

success than failure in learning.

B. DISCUSSION

After analyzing the data, the writer found the real process of teaching

writing at the eleventh grade of MAN 1 Surakarta. Based on the finding above,

there are some components which researcher discussed in the research finding.

1. Learning Objective

From the data which is gotten from interview and documents in

teaching writing process at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1

111
Surakarta, the objectives of English teaching can be viewed from the 2013

curriculum and syllabus. The objectives can be divided into two objectives,

there are general objective and specific objective.

a. General Objective

The researcher knows that the general learning objective in the

teaching English that that written i 2013 curriculum: To

develop..................................

According to 2013 curriculum stated that learning objective is

formulated into general education objective and specific objective

namely indicator. In general objective included (1).....

When the researcher compares to previous findings, it will different

with Muh (2014), . The previous finding in Muhammad’s research

(2014) is the objectives of English language teaching was to ..

b. Specific Learning Objective

In specific learning objective is stated in the lesson plan. One of the

components in the lesson plan is sited or indicator. It reveals the process

of learning effort which will be reached by the learners based on their

competency. The specific learning objective of writing for the eleventh

grade of boarding MAN 1 Surakarta that written in syllabus:

students................................It supported on lesson plan in indicator are

students able to (1) identifying of many kinds of report text (2) answering

the question of recount text

112
Learning objectives of writing are almost to increase students’

ability and increase their vocabulary and creativity in English writing. Th

teacher would engage them to try and practice writing in the classroom,

so the students more be creative and active. To increase their vocabulary,

the teacher always gave them new vocabulary every meeting and ask the

students to taken notes.

Bsed on statement, the writer concludes that MAN 1 Surakarta has

two learning objective namely, general objective and specific objective.

The learning objective of teaching writing is appropriate with the 2013

curriculum .

2. Syllabus

The syllabus design is very important in teaching learning process.

The contains of the syllabus are the materials that will be taught in teaching

learning. The teacher always looks up the sylabus before teaching in class.

Type of syllabus in writing in MAN 1 Surakarta is notion function syllabus.

Based on the document analysis, the syllabus involves school identity,

subject, standard competenvy, code competency, and the component of

syllabus involves basic competency indicator such as learning outcome,

instructional material, learning activity, learning assessment, time alloaction

and source of learning.

Tthe content of syllabus are four language skills where writing skill is

one of that skill which often have taught for eleventh grade students, Mahdi

113
(2012) stated that notional-functional syllabus is based on learning to

recognize and express the communicative function of language and the

concept and idea it express. It means that students can recognize and express

their idea not only in spoken but also in written form.

The importanceof syllabus is also felt by other teacher in previous

finding, Fatmawati (20120), Abar (2012) also stated that syllabus is very

vital item in arranging lesson plan. The model of syllabus is different with

Abar’s work (2012), and the same Purwanti’s work (2012) which focused

on language function.

In the previous finding in Abar’s work (2010), the kind of syllabus

used at the course was mixture of four kind of syllabus were namely:

grammar syllabus, . In Purwanti’s work (2012), the syllabus used in English

language teaching was arranged by the teacher with the agreement of

national education department of Indonesia. The researcher found that MAN

1 Surakarta uses nation functional syllabus.

The strenght of this syllabus is that students can express their idea in

the written form. It darws on theories and description of language that

emphasize the function and social aspects of competence. The syllabus is

suitable with learner’s need.

Based on the observsation and interview, the researcher concludes that

the teacher of the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta, the

syllabus used serve many purpose for the students and the teacher such as

114
ensuring a fair and impartial understanding between the instructor and

students.

3. Instructional Material

The material of writing based on the syllabus, the teacher used printed

material taken from the same book namely, “ Bahasa Inggris Sekolah

Menengah Atas” for SMK/SMA/MAN class XI 2013 curriculum. The

teachers also take the materials in another resources, such as from internet.

Richards (2001:251) states that kinds of instructional material are (a)

Printed material such as book, workbooks, worksheet, (b) Unprinted

material such as cassette or audio material, videos, computer-based material,

(c) Material that comprises both print and non print source as sell access

material and material on the internet.

The finding of study is little bit similiar with Purwanti (2012) at

Kindengerten means that they also use textbook to support the teaching

learning process. The finding of Abar’s (2012) ilustrates the diverse in

instructional material encompases printed, visual and audio visual. While

Muhammada (2014) stated that the textbook. In the researcher found that the

English teachers use printed material such as many textbook as source of

study, and material on the internet.

The material of writing in the eleventh grade of boarding school were

oaragrapgh text such as descriptive, report, analytical exposition, biography.

The researcher concludes that the materials uis used by the teachers in MAN

1 Surakarta suitable with Richard’s theory.

115
4. Classroom method

5. Classroom procedure

6. Teacher’s Role

The Teacher has important role in the teaching learning process. The

major role of teacher in language teaching is to build the condition and to

increase the teaching learning process.

Based on the observation of the research, the researcher found that the

teacher at the eleventh grade of boarding school MAN 1 Surakarta have the

important roles in teaching writing, and they had same roles. They are

facilitator, the teacher provide material to the students. As classroom

manager, the teacher managed the class by reminding the students who

made noises in the classroom. Teacher as

Richrads stated that the role of the teacher is

Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes that the

teacher’s role in teaching process is suitable with Richards’ theory. It

different from previous findings of Purwanti. In the researcher’s research

found that the teacher in MAN 1 Surakarta has same role in the etaching

learning process such as as controller,

7. Learner’s Role

Beside teacher’s role, the learner’s role is also important in the

teaching and learning proces. Students is the component of teaching and

learning process, the students also have influence in teaching and learning

process. Teaching and learning process will be effective depend on the

116
students interest. Based on the researcher observation and interview, the

researcher found that the roles of the students here, learnes monitor and

evaluate their own progress, learners learn from the teacher and learners are

members of a group and elarn by interacting with others. Johnson and

Pulson (1976) in Richards (1986) stated that learner’s role to plan their own

learning program and this ultimately assume responsibility............The

researcher conclude that the learner’s role in teaching English on writing is

suitable with the theory by Johnson and Pulson.

The researcher tries to compare the other findings. The learner’s

aspect really influences some role of students. In Purwant’s work (2012)

found that the learner’s role were becoming a apaert of group....

8. Teacing Media

In the teaching learning process, there are some media used by the

teacher. The teacher used picture, LCD and board as media in teaching

learning process. Media can take the teaching and learning process more

attractive and interactive to learners.

Based on the researcher observation and interview, the researcher

found that media used by the English teacher beside the teacher explain the

material orally, she used other media such as LCD, picture and board in the

class. Hyland (2004) stated that transferring material in teaching writing can

be use different media such as printed and electronic. From the statement,

the researcher concludes that the media used by te English teacher at MAN

117
1 Surakarta in teaching English writing is suitable with the theory by

Hyland (2004:138)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amivianingrum, Hapsari. 2016. The Implementation of Scientific Approach in


English Teaching in SMP N 1 Boyolali. Sebelas Maret University Surakarta
Amuseghan, A. S. 2007. ESL Curriculum in secondary school in Nigeria: Issues
and challenges towards communicative competence. Nebula Journal. 4(2),
319-333.
Anderson, L,.&Krathwohl, D.A. 2001. Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and
Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
New York: Longman.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2002. Prosedur Suatu Penelitian dan Praktek. Jakarta: PT.
Rineka Cipta.

118
Arinto, Patricia. 2009. Handbook on Instructional Design for the Academy of ICT
Essentials for Government Leaders. Apcict. Retrieved 20 November 2017
from http://www.unapcict.org/academy/Handbook-InstructionalDesign-
web.pdf
Aristo, Rahadi. 2003. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan
Nasional.
Bandor, Mike. 2007. Process and Procedure Definition: A Primer. Software
Engineering Institute: Carnegie Mellon. Retrieved 20 November 2017 from
https://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/
Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. K. 2007. Qualitative research for education: An
introduction to theories and methods. 5th ed. New York: Pearson.
Botturi, Luca. 2003. Instructional Design & Learning Technology Standards: An
Overview. ICeF – Quaderni dell’Istituto, 9. Retrieved 20 November 2017
https://doc.rero.ch/record/5154/files/1_icefq09.pdf
Brown, James. D., Hudson, Tom. 1998. The Alternative in Language Assessment.
TESOL International Journal. Vol. 32 Issue. 4
Brown, H. Doughlas. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to
Language Pedagogy. Third Edition. San Fransisco State University:
Longman.
−−−−−2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. New York:
Longman.
−−−−−2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. Second Edition. New York: Addison Wesley, Inc
−−−−−2004. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practice. United
Stated of America: Longman
−−−−−2007. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. 2 edition. USA: Longman
Bryne, Donn. 1997. Teaching Writing Skill. London: Harlow-Essex: Longman.
Celce-Murcia, Marianne. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign
Language. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.

119
−−−−−2002. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston: Heinle
and Heinle.
Cunningsworth, A. 1995. Choosing Your Coursebook. Oxford: Macmillan
Heinemann English language teaching.
Dick, W., Carey, L.,& James. 2001. The Systematic Design of Instructional (5th
ed). New York: Longman.
Dubin, Olshtain. 1994. Course Design: developing programs and materials for
language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Echols John, shadily Hassan. 2003. Kamus Inggris Indonesia. Jakarta. PT
Gramedia.
Elsi, Elisabet.,Rustiyarso.,&Okianna. Peran Pembina Asrama dalam Memotivasi
Belajar Pada Siswi SMA di Asrama Putri. Journal Universitas Tanjungan,
Pontianak. Retrieved 1 April 2018 from:
https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/192369-ID-peran-pembina-
asrama-dalam-memotivasi-be.pdf
Fadlilah, Muhammad. 2014. Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 Dalam Pembelajaran
SD/MI, SMP/MTS, dan SMA. Yogyakarta:AR RUZZ Media
Fauziati, Endang. 2010. Teaching English as A Foreign Languange
(TEFL).Surakarta: Era Pustaka Utama.
−−−−−2014. Methods of Teaching English as Foreign Language: Traditional
Method, Designer Method, Communicative Approach, Scientific Approach.
Surakarta: Era Pustaka Utama.
Genesee, Fred and Upshur, John A. 1997. Classroom Based Evaluation in Second
Language Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haris, Davis. 1979. Testing English as a Second Language. New York: Mc,Graw
Hill Booj Company.
Harmer, Jeremy. 1998. How to Teach English: An introduction to the practice of
English language tecahing. Harlow: Longman.
−−−−−2001.The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman: Pearson
Education.
−−−−−2004. How to Teach Writing. Longman: Pearson Education.

120
Heaton, J.B. 1988. Writing English Language Tes. New York: Longman.
Heinich, Robert. 2002. Instructional media and Technologies for Learning. Ohio:
Merril Practice Hall.
Hosnan. 2014. Pendekatan Saintific dan Kontekstual dalam Pembelajaran Abad
21. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia.
Isman, Aytekin. 2011. Instructional Design in Education: New Model. The
Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 10. Issue 1.
Isman, A., Abanmy, F.A & Hussein, H.B. 2012. Effectiveness Of Instructional
Design Model (Isman - 2011) In Developing The Planning Teaching Skills
Of Teachers College Students' At King Saud University. Vol. 11. Issue 1.
John, Ann. M. 1997. Text, Role and Context. Australia: Cambridge University
Press.
Karaca, F.,Yildirim, M.& Kiraz, E. 2008. Elementary School Teachers’
Instructional Design Process: An insight into Teachers’ Daily Practice.
Journal the Learning andTechnology. Retrieved 17 September 2017 from
http://users.metu.edu.tr/soner/InternationalConferences/3.pdf
Leo, Sutanto. 2013. A Challenging Book to Practice Teaching in English.
Yogyakarta: C.V ANDI OFFSET
Longman. 2004. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. UK: Pearson
Education Limited.
McArdle, Geri. 2010. Instructional Design for Action Learning. New York:
Amakom.
Mappiasse and Sihes. 2014. Evaluation of English as a Foreign Language and Its
Crurriculum in Indonesia: A Review. Journal English Language Teaching,
Vol. 7. No. 10.
Marzano, Robert J. 2005. A Handbook for Classroom Management that Works.
United Stated of America: ASCD.
Mishra, Arun K. and Bartram, John (Ed.). 2002. Skills development through
distance education. British Columbia: The Commonwealth of Learning.
Moloeng. 2004. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.

121
Mujamil, Qomar. 2007. Pesantren dari Transformasi Metodologi Menuju
Demokratisasi Institusi. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Mulyasa H.E. 2014. Pengembangan and Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Bandung:
PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
Nasution. 2008. Kurikulum dan Pengajaran. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Nunan, David. 1997. Syllabus Design. New York: Oxford University Press.
−−−−−2003. Practical English Languge Teaching. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
−−−−−1998. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teacher. New
York: Prentice Hall.
Ozcinar, Azehra. 2009. The topic of instructional design in research journals:
A citation analysis for the years 1980-2008. 25(4), 559-580 .
Patel, M.F & Jain, P.M. 2008. English Language Teaching: Methods, Tools, and
Techniques. Jaipur: Sunrise Publisher nad Distrubutors.
Purnama, Dian. 2010. Cermat Memilih Sekolah Menengah yang Tepat. Jakarta:
Gagas Media
Reid, Joy M. 1993. Teaching ESL Writing. California: Practice Hill Regents.
Reiser, R.A & Dempsey, J.A. 2007. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design
and Technology. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice.
Richards, Jack and Nunan, David. 1990. Second Language Teacher Education.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, Jack C. Rodgers, Theodore, S. 1986. Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching. London: Cambridge University Press.
−−−−−2001. Approaches and Method in Language Teaching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Richards, Jack C. 2001. Curriculum development in Language Teaching. United
Kingdom: Cambrige University press.
−−−−−1994. Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. New York:
Cambrige University Press.

122
Richards, J.C. and W.A. Renandya. (eds). 2002. Methodology in Language
Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge
University.
Richards, Jack C & Scmidt, Richards. 2010. Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching & Applied Linguistics, 4th Ed. New York: Pearson Education
Limited.
Rifai, Dian Muhammad. 2013. An Instructional Design for the Teaching of
English at SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Kartasura 2013 Academic Year: A
Naturalistic Study. Unpublished Research Paper: Muhammadiyah
University of Surakarta.
Sadiman, Arief. 1986. Media Pendidikan: pengertian, pengembangan dan
pemanfaatannya. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.
Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang. 2006. Teaching English as a Foreign Language.
Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
Shariffudin, Rio Sumarni. 2007. Design of Instructional Materials For Teaching
and Learning Purposes: Theory into Practice. Vol. 1.
Smaldino, Sharon E., Lowther, Deborah L., & Rusel, James D. 2008.
Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. 9th Ed. New Jersey:
Pearson Education Inc.
Sudjana, Nana and Rivai, A. 2002. Media Pengajaran. Bandung: C.V. Sinar Baru
Sugiyono. 2013. Memahami Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.
−−−−−2015. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif
dan R&D). Bandung: Penerbit CV. Alfabeta.
Sutopo. 2006. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif: Dasar Teori dan Terapannya
dalam Penelitian. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret.
Tafani. 2009. Teaching English Through Mass Media. Acta Didactica
Napocensia. Vol. 2. No. 1
Ur, Penny. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Practice and theory:
Cambridge University Press.

123
Velasquez and Cardona. 2012. Describing Two Teachers: Instructional Design
For Language Teaching And Its Relation To Colombian Standards For
Learning English. Thesis. University of Technology Pereira.
Wilkinson, D., & Birmingham, P. 2003. Using research instruments: A guide for
researchers. London: Routledge.
Widdowson, H. G. 1996. Learning Purpose and Language Use. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

124