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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Contents
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 6

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 7

CHALLENGES AND NECESSITY FOR DATA GOVERNANCE .............................................................................. 8

1. Data Silos:.......................................................................................................................................... 8

2. Mandate enterprise data management: .......................................................................................... 9

Data Architecture Office ....................................................................................................................... 9

Data Integration Office ......................................................................................................................... 9

Master and Reference Data Management ........................................................................................... 9

Data Quality Management.................................................................................................................. 10

Metadata Management ...................................................................................................................... 10

Data warehousing and Business Intelligence...................................................................................... 11

Data Security (Data Classification) ...................................................................................................... 12

3. Increasing volumes of data ............................................................................................................. 12

4. Self-Service Analytics ...................................................................................................................... 12

5. Impact of regulatory requirements ................................................................................................ 12

6. Common business language ........................................................................................................... 12

7. Assigning accountabilities (ownerships) ......................................................................................... 12

BENEFITS OF DATA GOVERNANCE .............................................................................................................. 13

AREAS EFFECTED BY DATA GOVERNANCE .................................................................................................. 15

PILLARS OF DATA GOVERNANCE ................................................................................................................ 18

DATA GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK............................................................................................................. 19

Organization:........................................................................................................................................... 19

Roles and Responsibilities ....................................................................................................................... 20

Policies and Processes............................................................................................................................. 25

List of Policies ...................................................................................................................................... 25

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

1. Assigning roles policy .................................................................................................................. 25

2. Metadata Management Policy.................................................................................................... 25

3. Business Glossary Management Policy ....................................................................................... 25

4. Identifying Critical Data Element Policy ...................................................................................... 25

5. Data Governance issue resolution and escalation policy ........................................................... 26

6. Data Access Policy ....................................................................................................................... 26

7. Data Sharing Policy ..................................................................................................................... 26

8. Data Usage Policy ........................................................................................................................ 26

9. Data Sourcing Policy.................................................................................................................... 26

10. Data Collection Policy ............................................................................................................. 26

List of Processes .................................................................................................................................. 26

List of Processes .................................................................................................................................. 27

Data Governance Program...................................................................................................................... 28

Maturity Matrix ................................................................................................................................... 29

Data Governance Approach and Data Governance Structure ................................................................ 34

Data Governance Approach ................................................................................................................ 34

Centralized Approach.......................................................................................................................... 35

Hybrid or Balanced or Federated Approach ....................................................................................... 37

Data Governance Structure .................................................................................................................... 39

Data Governance Operating Model ............................................................................................................ 41

Asset Reference Model ........................................................................................................................... 43

Asset Types ......................................................................................................................................... 43

Business Assets ................................................................................................................................... 43

Business Assets Types ......................................................................................................................... 44

Data Assets.......................................................................................................................................... 45

Data Asset Types ................................................................................................................................. 45

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Technology Assets ............................................................................................................................... 47

Technology Asset Types ...................................................................................................................... 47

Governance Assets .............................................................................................................................. 47

Governance Asset Types ..................................................................................................................... 47

Issue .................................................................................................................................................... 49

Governing Bodies (Offices) ..................................................................................................................... 50

Executive / Corporate Sponsor ........................................................................................................... 50

Data Governance Board ...................................................................................................................... 50

Data Governance Council.................................................................................................................... 51

Data Stewardship Council ................................................................................................................... 51

Data Governance Office ...................................................................................................................... 51

Data Architecture Office ..................................................................................................................... 51

Data Integration Office ....................................................................................................................... 52

BICC ..................................................................................................................................................... 52

Data Quality Management Office ....................................................................................................... 52

Data Governance Metrics and Measures ............................................................................................... 53

Data Governance Implementation Methodology....................................................................................... 56

Strategy Phase ........................................................................................................................................ 57

Approach ................................................................................................................................................. 57

Identify .................................................................................................................................................... 57

Quickwin ................................................................................................................................................. 57

Refine ...................................................................................................................................................... 58

Cultural Change Adoption ....................................................................................................................... 58

Cultural Change Management ................................................................................................................ 58

Analysis ................................................................................................................................................... 58

Term of References for governing bodies .................................................................................................. 60

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

The Data Governance Board ................................................................................................................... 60

Responsibilities ................................................................................................................................... 60

Members ............................................................................................................................................. 61

Schedule .............................................................................................................................................. 61

The Data Governance Council................................................................................................................. 61

Responsibilities ................................................................................................................................... 61

Inputs / Supporting Documentation ................................................................................................... 61

Outputs / Decisions Made .................................................................................................................. 62

Members ............................................................................................................................................. 62

Schedule .............................................................................................................................................. 62

References .................................................................................................................................................. 62

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Acknowledgement

Data for organizations is becoming more critical for decision making. The necessity of managing
and controlling data and data related processes are more been focused. This gives an
opportunity for a more comprehensive approach and methodology to be developed and
practiced.
There are many standards on the domain of data governance including DAMA , DGI and more
that have defined set of practices and standards to follow.
This book focuses on the domain of data governance generically, the methodology, approach
and structure defined are designed to be customized for different organizational needs. A set of
policies and processes are listed serving as a set of examples and other processes and policies
can be added as required. The maturity matrix which is a direct contribution of Christopher
Bradly (VP of DAMA) enables to measure the level readiness for a DG program in any
organization. The methodology briefed in this book, is a result of continuous effort and
improvement from the experience of implementing these DG programs in several organizations.
The methodology is purely iterative in nature as the DG Programs requires. The governance KPIs
and measures represents a set of KPIs that can directly be used to measure the effectiveness of
the initiated DG program.

The book will help an organization to eliminate silos based data development, helps the
organization to consider data development at enterprise level, helps in maintaining cross
department common business vocabulary and helps reform the organization to an information
centric culture. The organization bodies and their responsibilities are also highlighted.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

INTRODUCTION

“Organizations that rely on data to make decisions, considers data to be a vital asset for the
organization”.

Customer names, addresses, emails, product names, order details hence everything that an
enterprise collect from a customer or for a customer serves as data for the organization. Data in
any organization can be categorized differently, for example, there can be customer data,
product data, orders data, supplier’s data, employees’ data, financial data, and operations data
and so on. The aggregation and segregation of data is a known fact to drive analytical needs of
the business, for example the financial data is a collective sum of many different attributes of
the organizational data. If we brief, how can we answer “What is the yearly profit a clothing
company is generating through selling online clothes”. In order to answer this question we need
data. And the data comes in from different attributes of the organization. It involves product
data, orders data, in certain cases the logistics data, in case of returns the returns data and a
certain business formula to calculate the profit.

Profit in this example becomes a KPI (Key Performance Indicator) or a measure for the business,
it must have a definition or a description. It must have a business formula, it must have an
owner who is accountable for the accuracy of this term Profit, it must be developed from data
that resides somewhere in the organization and the data must be produced, collected,
transformed and published by some people according to some conditions for the business using
certain technology.

The consistency or accuracy of the term Profit and the quality of the data involved in producing
Profit is a collective responsibility of the people involved in collecting, storing, retrieving,
transforming and using this data. Quality of data becomes more important than data itself. If the
data is of no quality neither only it does not server its purpose but also may be a factor in
making a wrong decision.
Secondly, the term Profit can be used differently by different departments or people, so who
will make sure what exactly Profit will be for the organization. And who will decide who is
responsible of what (this for certain is not the HR Job description) in terms of data to be
managed, owned, accurate and fit for purpose.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

The terms Master Data Management, Metadata Management, Data Quality, Data Strategy, Data
warehouse, Data Integration, Enterprise data or information model, Business Intelligence,
Database Operations, Data Security, Reference Data, Data Architecture; all are involved in
governing enterprise data.

Data Governance will answer the What, Who and How for managing, owning, producing and
using the data (asset) of the organization. What covers the assets of the organization. Assets can
be of different types namely business assets, data assets, technology assets and governance
assets (this we will discuss in detail). Who involves the Roles and Responsibilities of the people
taking part in data activities. How involves the Processes the Who(s) will follow in order to
govern a certain asset.

Data Governance can serve as a platform that enables People to collaborate with each other in a
pre-defined workflow or Process using Technology.

CHALLENGES AND NECESSITY FOR DATA GOVERNANCE

“You cannot improve what you cannot manage; you cannot manage what you cannot measure;
you cannot measure what you cannot define; you cannot define what you do not govern.”

— Daniel J. Paolini

1. Data Silos:
The ability of data systems (sales force) supporting business processes (sales process), degrades
over time, because of the ever changing requirements of business that reflects bad quality of
data in every change. Moreover, these data systems are usually developed “bottom-up” to meet
the business need of a particular business unit / department, commonly funded by these
particular business units / departments. Although the exchange of data through these data
systems happens between two or different departments, it happens without mutually agreed
definitions of data and terms used. This typically is the biggest factor of encouraging data silos
(departmental level data marts) and discourages cooperation between departments and
enterprise data warehousing. This results in quality issues making it more cost effective to
resolve these issues as the effort and resources add to the timeline of decision making and the
accuracy of the decision to be made.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

2. Mandate enterprise data management:


Enterprise approach to data management is the solution for data silos, it enables an
organization to take fully control over the management of data and making data an enterprise
asset rather than a business unit / department level asset.
EDM empowers the enterprise to define enterprise level business models, enabling common
business language across multiple departments. The business or logical model contains business
vocabulary that is utilized at enterprise level and can be helpful across multiple departments as
a common glossary for daily business needs.

NOTE: The term Profit described in the introduction session, must be a part of enterprise
business glossary, must be defined in one of the business or logical model to enforce the use of
Profit as an enterprise entity rather than departmental. Off course the definition of Profit may
differ from department to department or from people to people, it remains a consolidated
enterprise entity. Each department may have a term similar to Profit but with a different
description, definition, business formula and name, the name might be the synonym for Profit.

EDM involves the following in respect to manage data at enterprise level

Data Architecture Office


Responsible to design and document data structures, Objects and their definitions. It also
contributes in preserving the interest to enable a single version of truth of the data, which is
reusable for different needs and requirements of the business.

Data Integration Office


Responsible to design and implement the data integration flow that enables reuse of data from
multiple resources. DIO primary accountability is to ensure the integration of data from multiple
sources is in accordance to the Enterprise Data Management policy and fulfills the DAO
objective.

Master and Reference Data Management


Responsible to provide a single point of reference for Critical data elements that might change
and will reflect the business outcome ultimately. For example the customer address is stored in
multiple data systems, any change in one of the system is unrecognizable by any other system,
MDM provides a mechanism for a golden record of this data change. Also the code values and
code sets of reference data, for example the country codes, product codes that are used by the
business for analytical or reference purposes.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Data Quality Management


Responsible to manage the data quality of data that is used by business for analytical or
operational purposes. The data quality team is responsible to participate with business users
and understand the required format and quality of data. They are responsible for the data to be
fit to purpose for business decision making. DQM involves collecting business rules for
transforming data, the data quality results and data quality dimensions. Though data quality is
the responsibility of all the user involved in creating, using and transforming data, the DQ team
will be held accountable for managing and publishing DQ results and quality data.

Metadata Management
Cataloguing information about data objects is referred as Metadata Management. Information
is stored in an organization across disparate heterogeneous system, these systems are owned,
managed and accessed by different users and departments that often lack in communication
with each other. Metadata management and documentation is part of data governance
initiatives that helps an organization to take majors about quality and reliability of data in
planning and decision making processes. Metadata management ensures that the final reports
and analysis are from the right data sources, are complete, and have quality.

The purpose is to establish the foundation for managing and documenting metadata across the
entire enterprise, covering all the terminologies and related data attributes used across the
enterprise covering different goals. Responsible to collect and maintain a repository for
metadata that would be utilized by every department.

Metadata is generically divided into the following categories

1. Business Metadata

Business Metadata is usually business driven, it is the information about the glossary,
KPIs, business rules etc. For example the term Profit has a definition, a description, a
type, a frequency of use, involvement of data elements, involvement of system, an
accountable owner etc. all these are the business metadata for the term Profit.

Business metadata enable the business users at large to answer the following
questions:

 What does profit means in a report?


 Where does the data for calculating the profit resides?
 Who owns this data?
 What other reports utilizes profit?
 What kind of rules are applied?

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

2. Technical Metadata

Technical metadata consist of the technical description of the data assets, including
information about schema, table, column, physical attribute of data mapping,
specifications of transformation jobs. It defines the semantics of a physical data
assets and its effect on management and business planning decisions.

Technical metadata enable the users to answer the following questions:

What systems and databases exists?


Where the schema, tables and views does resides?
How the data is processed?
What valid values are allowed in a column?
What kind of quality rules are applied?
How the transformation rules are applied?

3. Operational Metadata

Operational metadata comprises the information about the execution of a job,


including time, data, number of records processed and rejected, login details, errors and
exceptions. It defines the semantics of the administrative and operational tasks involved
with the data.

Operational metadata is used to answer the following questions:

At what date and time was a job last executed?


How long the execution took?
Who started the transaction?
How many records were processed and rejected?
 Users’ activities and logs detail?

Data warehousing and Business Intelligence


The office of data warehousing is responsible to provide in coordination with Enterprise data
management office; a single version of truth for the enterprise. The SVoT serves as a data layer
that compliments the enterprise data strategy. Departmental data marts are built on top of
SVoT data layer to fulfill departmental managed reports and queries.

Business Intelligence layer serves the analytical needs of the business. Each department may
have multiple BI Applications or dashboards providing multiple analytics. Business Intelligence
Office in coordination with business users and data warehousing resources, built a platform

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

where self-service analytics is made possible for ad-hoc reports and operational and predictive
analytics.

Data Security (Data Classification)


Data Security Office provides best in class mechanisms to facilitate security of data. It ensures
that the organization is complying with certain regulators like GDPR, HIPAA etc. The
classification of data categorizing in Private, public, Protected or Restricted data. Policies are
drafted to make sure that access of data is according to the regulator and without any data
breach.

3. Increasing volumes of data


Business transformations results in the increasing number of data sources results in increasing
data volumes, effecting data inconsistency and accuracy that results in wrong decision making.

4. Self-Service Analytics
Organizations needs more self-service analytical and reporting capabilities for their end users,
creating a necessity for a common understanding of data across the organization.

5. Impact of regulatory requirements


The continuing impact of regulatory requirements like GDPR, makes it mandatory for an
organization to have a strong grasp over their data. In order to know what data is stored where
and is been given access to whom.

6. Common business language


The increasing demand for a common business language enabling cross department analytics
and decision making.

7. Assigning accountabilities (ownerships)


Defining ownership becomes an integral part of data governance. Without clearly defined
ownership of subject areas, conflicts may occur between the workloads of different resources.
In order to avoid any conflict, a clear data ownership, escalation methods, monitoring and
supervision of the asset and the stewards, has to be defined for each department across the
enterprise.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

BENEFITS OF DATA GOVERNANCE

1. Create an information-centric and informed organizational culture.


2. Establish a foundation to provide accountability for information assets.
3. Provide effective and appropriate information security.
4. Improves the quality and usefulness of information by making it timelier, more accurate,
more complete and more accessible.
5. Reduces the costs of managing information.
6. Allow sharing of data through reusable processes; reuse data through shared processes.
7. Provide self-service business intelligence capabilities.
8. Develops enterprise-class data management staff.
9. Adopt enterprise-class data management tools.
10. Data governance provides a comprehensive view of all data assets.
11. Helps eliminate data silos as much as possible.
12. High light data life cycle and prevent data breach and provides data that is fit for
purpose
13. Enable the enterprise to adopt self-services related to the involvement of data
14. Make data change management easier and controllable, helps in data migration
projects.
15. Provides a collaborative mechanism for different roles and people to coordinate in a
defined and agreed upon workflow with agreed accountabilities.
16. Enables the use of best in class data management practices.
17. Provides a common understanding of business vocabulary and logical names for the
underlying data elements, data sets, and data catalogs.
18. Enables the traceability of assets covering the lifecycle from been created to be
published.
19. Enables the organization to make proper use of policies and processes that were agreed
and defined to solve the underlying situation with the mentioned roles and
responsibilities.
20. Reduces the effort to find data, by sharing accountabilities to those responsible for data
sharing, data exchange, data access and data change requests.

Data Governance helps organization to achieve their organizational strategies that requires the
underlying assets to be governed and managed. Though DG does not results in direct revenue
generation for the enterprise, rather it helps the enterprise to strategies all those factors that
result in direct revenue for the enterprise.
More than 50% of the time of a Business Analyst is utilized to find the right data, DG helps in
reducing the time to allocate the right data source thus resulting in maximizing the productivity
of a BA that helps in the acknowledgement of a correct decision.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Data breaches and Data security issues that has to comply with certain regulations, usually
results in heavy fines for the enterprise, DG provides a comprehensive way to protect data
breaches and data security concerns.
DG improves the operational efficiency of an enterprise, by providing a structures approach to
bridge business and IT through common goal, and by giving accountabilities for establishing and
maintaining data quality.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

AREAS EFFECTED BY DATA GOVERNANCE

Organizations operate through business units or departments, responsible to fulfill a particular


business function. Sales department is responsible for the sales of products, while finance
department is taking care of the financial numbers, similarly marketing, procurement, HR and
these department differ from industry to industry. Insurance organization may have an
underwriting and actuarial department, while a bank may have credit, debit and loans

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

departments. But the basic structure of any organization are these business units or department
that contribute in generating revenue for the organization. The departments have business
processes to follow, that requires technology to help the business minimize manual efforts. Thus
these departments use transactional systems like ERP, Salesforce, CRM, LMS to record business
and customer transactions, though in a large organization these system are not directly used by
the business to perform analytics or to calculate reports for management.
Organizations that are driven by data for decision making utilizes the power of a data
warehouse for analytical purposes. The data warehouse is utilized in forms of separate data
marts that are department specific or in order words these data marts are built to fulfill the
requirements of a specific department, requirements that are essential to run business
operation. Thus the foundation of data in silos are formed. Although these data marts are
created to fulfill the needs of the business and are driven by business people, the use of
business vocabulary differs from department to department, therefore a common
understanding of the business is missed from the very essence of a data mart. Still many
business taxonomies are similar between the departments but the difference of vocabulary
usually results in delays and wrong decision making.
Business Intelligence tools and dashboards provides self-service capabilities for the business, but
the uncommon vocabulary remains as still. Data is integrated from several system causing
inconsistency of data as the same data is integrated several time with different business
transformation making it harder to track back to the real source. Also data integrators are
pulling and pushing the data as required by the business unit rather than as it should be utilized
for the enterprise instead. This means the entity Customer is rather an Enterprise entity than a
departmental entity, there may be credit customers, debit customers, and loan customers for a
bank, but they all are Customer for the Bank itself. Similarly Profit / Revenue will be different for
Credit Customers, Debit Customers and a Loan Customer but for the enterprise is a collective
sum.

In order to resolve the impact of data silos in an organization the Enterprise Data Management
Office plays a vital role. It resolves the effect of data being used in silos by maintaining an
Enterprise Data Model or Business Information Model or Subject Areas to be utilized as a first
layer for the data to be loaded. This helps in maintaining the term Customer or Profit / Revenue
at enterprise level and giving the opportunity of the Data Integrators to push and transform the
customer data to the customer subject area with the defined data and quality rules.
The EDMO subsequently enhances the functions of all sub departments for Data Integration,
Data Quality, Data Security by classifying data attributes for access and sharing. On the other
hand since a golden source helps maintaining the integrity of data that might change in one of
the system and reflects unconditional effects on the other. EDMO helps enabling Master &
Reference Data Management.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

EDMO is responsible to provide models for data and information management, these models
differ in enterprise and departmental level models. But these model based data development
helps eliminate redundancy and helps maximize accuracy and consistency of the data used at
both enterprise and department level.

Data Governance helps to control the management of data in an agreed, predefined and best in
class practice by involving and giving accountabilities to each of the data offices including
EDMO, DQM, DI, MDM, business stakeholder and IT people.

DG establishes a three or four tier structure including Executive Sponsor, Data Governance
Board, Data Governance Council and Data Stewardship council. Each tier has a defined
responsibility and are accountable for their action that will impact the governance program as a
whole. Each tier has members involving from EDMO, DI, DQM, BICC, business and technology.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

PILLARS OF DATA GOVERNANCE

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

DATA GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK


DG Framework refers to a process of building a model for managing enterprise data. The
frameworks sets rules and guidelines to look into a situation and engage the right stakeholders
from business and technology and specially those involved in the manipulation or management
of data.

The framework is categorized in to several components that are essential in governing any
situation that may arise in the management of data.

Organization:
It includes The Offices of Data Management and Data Governance along with business and IT
stakeholders to form an organization structure to manage data issues. The organization
structure describes the responsibilities of each participating office. The terms of reference for
each office is set, and a method to collaborate with other participating members. The frequency
and objectives of the meeting of working groups (Data Integrators, Data quality personals,
enterprise architect and so on) are documented and followed.

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Roles and Responsibilities


The people involved in a DG program are assigned certain responsibilities for which they are
hold accountable. This means defining clear ownership model of each member and office
involved.
The roles involved are held Accountable, Responsible, Consulted and Informed (RACI) for any
task happening in the DG process. This is also referred to RACI Chart. The RACI chart identifies
who is responsible and accountable for a particular action to be taken (This will be explained in
detail later). The typical roles involves Data Owner, Data Steward, Data Custodian, Lead Steward
and in many cases a Policy Owner, System Owner, Data Domain Owner, Coordinating Steward,
Data Consumer, Data Producer.

All the above roles exist in the business and are performing other duties than DG itself. For
example the Data Owner is usually the person who is heading a particular department, he is
hold accountable for the activities happening in managing the data of that department. A Data
Steward is usually the manager of a particular department, he is held responsible for the
activities happening in managing the data of his department. The relation between accountable
and responsible is, the person held responsible is the DOER and accountable person will be

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

questioned if things are not in the defined manner. In a real world example, the head of the
department who is accountable for the quality of data used for his department will not usually
deal with the data quality issues directly, rather the manager of the department who is
responsible to make sure the data is of correct quality will do the handful of things required to
make sure the data quality is matched by involving the data people who act as Data Custodians.

Following are the typical roles involved in a DG Program, though it depends on the strategic
objective of the program but the below mentioned roles are used typically to solve DG related
issues.

Roles & Functions Accountability & Responsibility

Data Owner  Accountable for data– definition, content and quality


(An individual with  Accountable for approving data standards and metadata (developed
accountability for a in conjunction with Data Stewards and BDAs)
particular domain of
 Accountable for ensuring all meta-data (e.g. definition, format) for
data produced by
Business Data Elements is clear, accurate and documented in the
their Business/
appropriate manner.
Function)
 Accountable for the quality of the data produced in their Business/
Function
 Approves access to data for which they are responsible
 Approves change request

Business Data  Participate on one or more Data Stewardship Teams


Steward
 Identify and define local and enterprise information needs
(A knowledge worker
 Propose, draft, review, and refine business names, definitions, and
and business leader
other data model specifications for assigned entities and data
recognised as a
attributes
subject matter expert
who is assigned  Ensure the validity and relevance of assigned data model subject
accountability for the areas
data specifications
 Accountable for governance activities of data at Business/ Function or
and data quality of
system level
specifically assigned
business entities,  Responsible to the Data Owner
subject areas or
 Responsible for monitoring, verifying and reporting data quality status
databases)
 Responsible for assisting business areas implement data
management strategy and the Data Management Policy Framework

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

 Responsible for ensuring all data management activities are adhered


to by the Business they represent
 Responsible for ensuring the Business they represent is informed of
updates and changes to data management strategy
 Responsible for supporting data champions and data experts and
analysts

Co-ordinating Data  Provide business leadership for a Data Stewardship Team


Steward
 Participate on a Data Stewardship Steering Committee
(A business data
 Identify business data steward candidates
steward with
additional co-  Review and approve changes to reference data values and meanings
ordination
 Review and approve logical data models
responsibilities)
 Ensure application data requirements are met
 Review data quality analysis and audits

Executive Data  Serve as an active Data Governance Council member


Steward
 Represent departmental and enterprise data interests
(A role held by a
 Appoint coordinating and business data stewards
senior manager
sitting on the Data  Review and approve data policies, standards, metrics, and
Governance Council) procedures
 Review and approve data architecture, data models, and
specifications
 Resolve data issues
 Sponsor and oversee data management projects and services
 Review and approve estimates of data asset value
 Communicate and promote the value of information
 Monitor and enforce data policies and practices within a department

Business Data  Accountable for design, development and effectiveness of the


Architect (BDA) Business Information Model
(An individual with  Accountable for the implementation strategy and communication of
responsibility for a Business Information Model
particular Business
 Responsible for assisting Data Owners and Data Stewards to identify
Information Model
and define relevant artefacts within the Business Information Model
produced in their
business area)  Responsible for understanding the business architecture for the
Business they represent and proposing architectural changes
 Responsible for working with IT Architects to identify Golden Sources

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

(and black sources)


 Work with SDLC to implement necessary changes

Senior Manager of  Accountable for the data strategy and vision within their Business /
Data Management Function
(An individual with  Accountable for the execution against strategy and vision
accountability for
 Accountable for the governance structure within B/ F including Policy
Business / Function)
adherence
 Accountable for representing the Business at the SDDA and SDSB
 Accountable for the communication of data management strategy to
the Business they represent
 Responsible for the identification of key data
 Responsible for data Governance, BDA and data stewardship
activities
 Responsible for Data Program Execution within programs and
projects
 Responsible for Data Quality programs
 Responsible for Relationship Management
 Responsible for the creation and monitoring of data standards with
input from data producers, consumers, and data stewards

Roles & Functions Accountability & Responsibility

Data Producer  Accountable for their processes to ensure data is captured


accurately
(An individual with responsibility
for a particular set of data  Responsible for ensuring data management activity in their
produced in their business area) business area complies with the Global Data Management
Policy Framework
Data Delegate
 Responsible for the quality of the data produced in their
(1 or more individuals appointed
business area
to act on behalf of the data
producer)  Responsible for ensuring all Business Data Elements are
identified and data standards are documented, governed
and maintained in accordance with CDO guidance
 Responsible for appointing Data Delegates as necessary
 Responsible for ensuring adherence to data standards and
retention policies

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 Remediation

Data Custodian  Responsible for the security and transportation of data


(Generally aligned to an IT  Responsible for maintaining the systems & infrastructure to
function rather than a business meet the needs of the business
role)
 Responsible for ensuring the storage and backup of data is
appropriate to meet the needs of the business

Data Consumer  Responsible for ensuring the data consumed in their


business area meets the business requirement
(An individual who receives data
from an upstream process to  Responsible for understanding the purpose and usage of
fulfil a specific business the data consumed in their business area
objective)
 Responsible for maintaining the integrity of Golden Copy
data
 Responsible for managing data deficiencies and reporting
them to the Data Producer or business system owner
 Responsible for defining business data quality rules
 Responsible for defining data usage
 Responsible for identifying requirements as input for the
development of data standards
 Raise change requests as appropriate

 Accountable for managing and controlling production data


Data Administrator authority and coordinating among various data owners.
 Define Data Security Steward throughout the organization.

Business System Owner  Accountable for the Business Management of the system
(An individual who is  Accountable for the planning, use and budget of system
accountable for the physical
 Responsible for ensuring SLAs are in place and managed
system)
 Responsible for working with the IT Owner to ensure Policy
and Requirements are implemented

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Policies and Processes


A set of defined standards and task needed to be completed with collaboration of the roles
defined are drafted and implemented throughout the organization.
A policy can be defined as a set of guidelines or rules that determine a course of action for a
particular outcome for an organization. Policies utilized in a data governance program are
mainly related to the management of data. It may include data quality policy for addressing
quality requirements of data. It may include data access policy for controlling the access of data.
A policy is a statement that is followed by a procedure in order to comply with the policy
statement.
Processes are following the procedure of the policies. The processes include roles (people) in
order to take decisions for data related cases. With DG policies and processes the organization
always have a checklist to respond to a particular situation and the delegated roles responsible
to act as been agreed with them.

Below is the list of policies and processes that are typically used in a DG Program.

List of Policies
The following list an example of policies that are used in contrast to DG, these are not the
ultimate policies, and others can be added or deleted from the list.

1. Assigning roles policy

The purpose of this policy is to ensure success of Data Governance by efficiently


onboarding resources through knowledge sharing and productivity increase

2. Metadata Management Policy


The purpose of this policy is to govern the management and documentation of
metadata of all data processed and controlled by the organization and its subsidiaries

3. Business Glossary Management Policy


The purpose of this policy is to govern a central business repository that manages the
name and definition of all data processed and controlled by the organization and its
subsidiaries.

4. Identifying Critical Data Element Policy


The purpose of this policy is to govern the identification and documentation of Critical
Data Elements (CDEs) that are vital to the successful operation of the organization and
its subsidiaries.

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5. Data Governance issue resolution and escalation policy


The purpose of this policy is to solve and escalate Data Governance issues in a timely
manner for all data processed and controlled by the organization and its subsidiaries.

6. Data Access Policy


The purpose of the Data Access Policy is to govern access to all data processed and
controlled by the organization and its subsidiaries, thereby mitigating enterprise risk and
exposure.

7. Data Sharing Policy


The purpose of the Data Sharing Policy is to define the standards for sharing all data
processed and controlled by the organization and its subsidiaries to ensure optimal data
protection

8. Data Usage Policy


The purpose of the Data Usage Policy is to govern the usage of all data processed and
controlled by the organization and its subsidiaries.

9. Data Sourcing Policy


The purpose of this policy is to govern the sourcing of all internal and external data that
is processed and controlled by the organization and its subsidiaries.

10. Data Collection Policy

The purpose of this policy is to govern the collection of all data processed and controlled
by the organization and its subsidiaries.

List of Processes
A process is a series of steps and decisions involved in the way work is completed. A DG process
involves a series of defined steps to be taken by a number of different roles in a particular
structure in order to govern the management of data. Every process is been carefully drafted to
handle a particular situation. Every situation has to involve different roles, not every role is
involved in every process but only the required ones. These roles are involved in a process as
these roles are held accountable to mitigate the risks associated with data and its management.
The roles are dependent on one another to make a correct decision to overcome a situation.
Process are designed to be proactive and reactive from their behavior depending on the
situation they were designed to handle.

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A process includes a process flow defined step by step, roles responsible to complete the tasks
required to successfully end the process, a description of all the terminologies that may be used
within that process, any association with the policy (if any) and the type of issue that will be
resolved using the process.

Below is a list of processes that can be used in a governance program depending on the DG
Strategy.

List of Processes
The following list is not the ultimate list of process that can be used in a governance program,
but it fulfill the needs of any governance program. More processes can certainly be added
depending upon the requirements and objectives of a DG Program.

1. Monitoring Data Cleansing Process

The objective of the Monitor Data Cleansing process is to address identified gaps
and needs for high quality data as the enterprise may leverage the results from the
Data Quality Metrics reports.

2. Fast Track Escalation Process

The objective of the Data Governance Fast Track Escalation process is to efficiently
solve any severe and important data issue in an accelerated manner.

3. Data Change Request Process

The objective of the Change Data Request process is to track data related changes
that occur within the organization.

4. Proactive Data Quality Process

Proactively identify potential Data Quality issues before they occur and have a
negative business impact.

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5. Reactive Data Quality Process

Data must be of high quality with quality targets defined by Data Stewards and Data
Owners.

6. Business Glossary Management Process

The objective of the Update/Remove/Purposed Business Term Approval Process is


to approve the business terms at enterprise level, which include different roles that
need to do the collaboration amongst themselves in a defined process.

7. CDE Management Process

The objective of the Critical Data Element Identification process is to govern the
identification and documentation of Critical Data Elements (CDEs), and the
underlying criteria (rules) for the Critical Data Elements.

8. Data Governance Compliance Process

The objective of the Data Governance Compliance process is to ensure compliance


with Data Governance policies, processes, standards and guidelines adopted in the
organization and to data regulations enforced in the region.

9. Data Access Process

The objective of this process is to ensure that proper data access is granted to
protect all enterprise data from unauthorized access.

Data Governance Program

Data Governance Programs, must be an enterprise initiative, data governance is a business


responsibility. It must be endorsed by senior executive management. It must be led by executive
management. It must require involvement by business unit representatives to make sure that
data is properly identified and defined, made fit for purpose and used appropriately.

Data Governance programs are initiated to achieve certain objectives, these objectives differ
from organization to organization. So, at the end, the proper initiation of a DG program depends
on what outcome an organization is expecting, directly influencing the DG Strategy.

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Organizations are different in their businesses as well as in the management of data. Some
organizations are mature in a certain way than others. Organizations that have the leadership of
a CDO usually consider data at enterprise level to be managed, these organization have
developed skills of data management and are endorsing these practices in an invasive manner.
Meaning somehow they have the processes of data management but they lack in governing
these processes which results in certain misunderstanding of business vocabulary and
ownerships of these business critical issues.

The planning of a DG program consider all different aspects of data to be managed, including
highlighting missing roles, considering the maturity of the organization in data management and
the requirement of data governance measures. If an organization is missing offices of data
management including data quality, data integration, enterprise business and logical models,
the objective of DG Program will be to enable these offices, by establishing them and by defining
the term of references for these offices which take their contribution in the governance bodies.
If an organization is having some of these offices, the objective of the DG Program is to establish
the rest and create a communication plan to collaborate between these offices and define tasks
that have to be fulfilled by these offices.

A part from these governance offices and bodies, the governance program also includes the
assets those are to be governed. Once these assets are categorized and linked together, the
traceability and lineage of assets along with it lifecycle is captured to govern each and every
stage of data and information life cycle. These asset types are brief in detail in Asset Reference
Model section later in the book.

The data governance program measures the maturity level of an organization for models and
taxonomies, for data governance council, for data ownership and data stewardship and some
more to finalize the objectives for this program. The maturity matrix is categorized in the below
section.

Maturity Matrix
Maturity Matrix provides the understanding of the maturity level of an organization in terms of
different aspects of data governance. It can be defined for a particular component of
governance or could evaluate the overall program.
To evaluate the maturity for using models and common taxonomies the Model and Taxonomy
maturity matrix can be used to identify the maturity level of any organization. Similarly for
Policies and Principles, as well as Overall Data Governance Maturity Matrix.

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Below is the list of maturity matrix, these are still an example and been used by many DAMA
followers, these are the direct contribution of Christopher Michael Bradly, who is one of the
founder of DAMA.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Maturity: DG Maturity by Components

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Data Governance Approach and Data Governance Structure

Data Governance Approach


To identify what approach an organization can adopt is the initial step in setting up a data
governance program. As the approach highlights how the program will operate. It sets the
expectation of escalation path and decision making also to oversee the program for efficient and
successful delivery. The approach also provides the ownership model and principles.

Data Governance approaches are categorized into mainly three broader categories as follows,
each having its own pros and cons. The vision and strategy of an organization finalizes the type
of approach to be chosen.

1. Centralized Approach

2. Decentralized or federated approach

3. Hybrid or balanced or federated approach

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Centralized Approach
It is much similar to a top-down approach, where the highest authority is responsible to make
decision and guide the rest to follow. Usually the person leading the data governance program is
a Chief Data Officer, Data Governance Program Director, Chief Information Officer or to simplify
this role let call it the Lead Data Governance.

Pros
1. A centralized approach makes it easier to focus on policies and guidelines

2. Enables the organization to make more efficient decisions.

3. Provides a dedicated data governance lead

4. The reporting structure is clearly defined according to the organization chart

5. More cost effective.

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Cons
1. Increases the bureaucracy because of it linear structure

2. Increases the time required to complete data governance operations.

3. Highlights more of the enterprise priorities

4. Potential loss of oversight over unique and detailed business considerations

Decentralized Approach

Almost the opposite of a centralized approach, there is no central governance or single authority
as a data governance program owner, rather the ownership is based on committee decision. The
committee consists of group of people from different management domain as shown below.

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Pros
1. Relatively easy to accomplish

2. Comprehensive representation from the business

3. Task and actions are divided into proper resources with delegated ownership of issue
resolution.

4. Comparatively flat structure

Cons
1. Reaching to an agreement tends to take longer

2. Due to the availability of the required resources, it is harder to commit and coordinate
with the required resources to participate in scheduled meet ups.

3. The committee’s direction can be heavily influenced by those in greater power.

Hybrid or Balanced or Federated Approach

As the name suggests, a hybrid approach is a combination of centralized and decentralized


advantages. There is still a centralized structure to oversee the enterprise data level for which it
has bottom-up input a wide participation from the business units. The centralized structure
provides a framework, tools, and best practices for the business units to follow, but in theory it
also provides the units with enough autonomy to manage business unit specific data and offers
channels of influence to gather input for data sets impacting enterprise data or the other way
around.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Pros
1. Allows top-down decision making with bottom-up inputs.

2. Centralized enterprise strategy with a decentralized execution and implementation plan

3. Ownership delegated to application owners for data and metadata definitions

4. Provides ability to focus on specific data sets at the business unit level and their
relationship with the enterprise data

5. Full autonomy to develop standards, policies, procedures for the business level

6. Issues are resolved using a bottom-up approach.

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Cons
1. A highly skilled DG lead position is required full-time – not an easy find

2. Can get very political at the working group level

3. Decisions made at the group level will be pushed up to the upper levels for approval

4. Difficult to find balance between enterprise priorities and those of the individual
business units

5. Oversight over the autonomy of the business units can be challenging and relies a lot on
self-reporting

6. Business unit’s efficiency depends on localized skills

7. Metadata management not simple to address as it can differ widely from one unit to
another.

Data Governance Structure

A data governance structure defines the layers (committees) required to compliment the agreed
DG Approach. In a data governance structure the governing, managing and performing groups
are identified and the roles required to fulfil the governance needs are addressed. These roles
are than associated with one or more of these committees to be held accountable and
responsible for the actions to be taken.

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Data Governance Board


The Data Governance Board is responsible for approving the budget required for supporting
Data Governance initiatives, approve the strategic vision of Data Governance and resolve any
disputes escalated from the Data Governance Council

Data Governance Council


The Governance Council is responsible to set the strategic vision of Data Governance across the
organization, resolve any dispute reported by the Data Stewards Council, approve policies,
processes, assign Data Stewards and do Data Governance communication across the
organization

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Data Stewardship Council


Data Stewards Council is responsible for the daily activities related to Data, setting business
rules, policies & standards…etc

Data Governance Operating Model

A data governance operating model is a structured approach to consolidate the DG Approach,


DG Structure, DG Governing Bodies and the Roles and Responsibilities of individuals as well as
the offices of data and business management.
The operating model provides a holistic view of What the organization will govern, How it will
govern it, and Who will participate in this governance initiative.

It is categorized in to three categories each addressing a key design question.

1. ‘What is to be governed?

The What part will cover the required assets to be governed, this includes assets that
are distributed across the organization and results in decision making process.
Considering data to be an important assets is the main essence of the What part of the
operating model. The Asset reference model is described in detail below.

2. ‘How is it to be governed?

How helps the organization develop the required process essential to contribute in the
management of certain strategic objectives of the data governance program. These
processes may include asset level change processes and enterprise level process
depending on the type of requirement.

3. ‘Who governs it?

Who assembles the roles and responsibilities of the governing bodies including the
office of enterprise data management, data quality management and others
participating in the DG Program along with IT and business unit.

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The diagram below demonstrate the underlying question.

Who governs it? What is to be governed?


How is it to be governed?

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Asset Reference Model

Asset Types

An Asset is the capital building block in the Data Governance Center. An asset captures the
authoritative lifecycle metadata, in terms of attributes and relations with other assets, for one
of the following five classes of assets:

1. A governance asset (such as a policy or data quality rule);


2. A business asset (such as a business term or metric);
3. A data asset (such as e.g., logical and physical data dictionary);
4. A technology asset (such as a database or system);
5. An issue (such as a data quality issue).

An Asset Type formally defines the semantics of an asset in terms of attribute types and relation
types that can be instantiated for it. In other words, it serves as a template. Therefore, all Asset
Types are specializations on of five core asset types, or ‘asset classes’ as illustrated below.

Business Assets
A type of asset that is exclusively used and governed by the business user community. Its
instance assets, and all instances instantiating its subtypes, pertain to the business organization.
Business assets typically include business concepts like Business Term, Business Process, Line of
Business, etc. that help to build the semantics of any organization with insufficient details to
build an actual business application.

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Business Assets Types


Business Assets are further categorized but not limited for the following asset types:

1. Business Dimension:

A set of reference information that categorizes and describes a Business Term in such a way that
it provides context and meaningful answers to business questions. Examples: Business Process,
Line of Business, Region, Business Capability.

2. Business Process:

A set of activities and tasks that, once completed, produce a specific result and added value to
the business. Examples: Campaign Management, Talent Recruitment & Staffing.

3. Data Category:

Also known as Data Domain or Subject area, this is a container of all the business definitions
that encompass associated terminology and definitions that an organization is trying to govern.
Examples: Master Data (Customer, Product), Reference Data.

4. Line of Business:

Also known as Business Unit or Business Area, the Line of Business is a logical element or
segment of an organization that serves a particular Business need. Examples: Asset
Management, Retail, E-com, Investment Management.

5. Business Term:

A word or phrase that is used to describe something or to express a concept in a particular kind
of language or branch of business. Examples: Customer, Person Purchase Count, Loan Amount.

6. Acronym:

An abbreviation that is used as a word. It is formed from the initial letters of a Business Term.
Examples: ERP, EDW, EAD.

7. Dashboard:

A dashboard is a data visualization that displays the current status of metrics and key
performance indicators (KPI) for an enterprise. Dashboard consolidate and arrange
numbers, metrics and performance scorecards on a single screen.

8. Measure:

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An asset type on which calculations (e.g. sum, count, average, minimum, maximum) can be
made. Examples: Net Sales, Top Customers, On-hand Inventory.

9. KPI:

An indicator to periodically measure the success or progress of a particular activity or of an


organization, towards a strategic goal. Examples: Employee Turnover, Customer Attrition, Claims
Denial Rate.

10. Report:

A document containing information that is organized in a narrative, graphic, or tabular form. The
document is prepared on an ad hoc, periodic, recurring, regular or as required basis. Reports
may refer to specific periods, events, occurrences or subjects. They may be tailored for a specific
role and display information targeted to a single point of view or a business unit. Examples:
Monthly Financial Statement, Quarterly Marketing Expense Report.

Data Assets
A type of asset that represents details of organizational data in two layers. One layer is
independent of any particular technology for non-technical stakeholder communication. The
other one is taking the implementation system for technical stakeholder communication into
account. Examples: Data Element, Table.

Data Asset Types


Data Assets are further categorized but not limited for the following asset types:

1. Code Set:
An enumerated list of valid code values for a specific topic, where the code set is the
whole and the code values are parts of that whole. It is a data asset that defines the set
of permissible values to be used by other data assets. Examples: Product Code Set,
Person Gender Code, ISO 3166 Country Code.
2. Code Value:
A valid form of representation for an asset, shortened or covert. Examples: In the Person
Gender Code, "male", "female", "not known" and "not specified" are represented by the
valid code values "1", "2", "0" and "9". "US" is part of the "ISO 3166 code set" and refers
to The United States of America.
3. Crosswalk:
Mapping between two or more Code Sets.
4. Data Element:

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A unit of data that is defined for processing. It usually documents an aspect of


something abstract. Examples: Person Birth Date, Person Address, Customer Account
Number.
5. Column:
An atomic unit of data that can be stored in a database table. Examples: FST_NM,
EMPID.
6. Data Attribute:
A specification that defines a property of a data entity. Examples: CustomerBirthDate,
EmployeeFirstName.
7. Field:
An atomic unit of data that can be stored in a file. Examples: FirstName, EmpID.
8. Report Attribute:
An atomic unit of data that represents a report. Examples: ExpenseAmount,
RiskAmount.
9. Data Set:
A collection of related sets of Data Assets that are Data Elements or composed of Data
Elements. Example: Customer contact information.
10. Data Structure:
A logical grouping of data elements, where the data structure is the whole and the data
elements are parts of that whole. Example: cfPerson is a Data Structure that contains
the data elements cfBirthDate, cfPersonFullName.
11. Data Entity:
A unit of data that can be classified and can have a stated relationship to other units of
data. Examples: Customer, Employee.
12. Data Model:
A diagram that organizes data elements and standardizes how the data elements relate
to one another. The Data Model is often used as a communication aid between business
and technology. Examples: Customer Subject area model, Event Subject area model.
13. Schema:
An organized structure described in a formal language supported by implementing
technology that defines the objects in the technology assets (Table and columns in a
relational database, fields in a file). E.g. CRM_001_PRD, HDP_CNT_CLD.
14. Table:
An implementation of Data Entities in columns and rows, in a given database system. It
is the basic structure of a relational database. Examples: Account_tbl, CUST_ADDR.
15. Data Usage:
An asset that clearly documents how the data can be used between data producers and
consumers for specific purpose Example: Sales growth information that is available to
share for read only requirements.
16. Mapping Specification:
Mapping between two or more Data Structures.

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Technology Assets
A piece of information technology (hardware, software, database, software platform) that helps
an organization to run a business application. Examples: Database, File.

Technology Asset Types


Technology Assets are further categorized but not limited for the following asset types:

1. Database:
A collection of data that is systematically organized or structured in order to make it
easy to create, update and query the information. Examples: Ora_DGC_V45,
SalesDB2020.
2. Directory:
An organizational structure that contains files and/or other directories. Examples:
C:/example
3. File:
A collection of data that is treated by a computer as a unit, for the purposes of input and
output. Examples: businessGlossary.xls, dataDictionary05220.csv, datacatalogv25.txt.
4. System:
Executable software that you can buy commercially off the shelf (COTS), or build
internally, to automate one or more business functions that help run a business
smoothly and efficiently. Examples: CRM, ERP, EDW.

Governance Assets
A type of asset that is used to monitor and advocates to maximize performance or utilization of
other Business and Data assets while minimizing the risk factors in alignment with
Organizational/Business goals.

Governance Asset Types


Governance Assets are further categorized but not limited for the following asset types:

1. Data Quality Dimension:

Represents a criterion relevant for assessing quality and categorizes different aspects of
how data quality is measured. Examples: Accuracy, Completeness, Consistency.

2. Data Sharing Agreement:

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An arrangement between data producers and consumers with terms and conditions
including provisions concerning access and dissemination to 'pool' a set of data for
specific purposes. Examples: Sales growth information that is available only for Risk
team to generate internal reports only.

3. Issue Category:

An asset that's used to categorize related issues based on a particular criteria which will
help to assign right people to resolve them. Example:Incomplete Defintion, Inconsistent
Data.

4. Policy:

A statement of intent that is implemented by a set of rules. Policies are usually set by a
data governance council. Examples: Personal Information must be adequately
protected, Customer Data Deduplication Policy.

5. Standard:

A specific low-level mandatory action or rule that helps to enforce and support a policy.
Example: All personal information has to be encrypted with a specific encryption type.

6. Rule:

Defines or constrains an aspect of business (data) and always resolves to either true or
false. Example: Where a Business Rule may state that 'A driver must be of eligible age', a
Data Quality Rule Spec says 'age must be 21'.

7. Business Rule:

Defines or constrains some aspects of specific business data. It is intended to control or


influence the behavior of the business data Examples: Customer Number should be an
uniquely identifiable. Country should have valid list of values. Customer Country of
origin should be in the valid list of countries.

8. Data Quality Metric:

An implementation of a data quality rule in a selected physical database system using a


particular data quality tool. Example: CRM.ACT.Tx_ID cannot be null and has to be 9
digits and has to follow 999-99-9999 format in CRM system.

9. Data Quality Rule:

A specification that defines which conditions have to be met to measure the quality
level of a data element for its intended use. Example: SSN must be 9 digits unique

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identification number for 100% of US personal accounts for Tax processing. Country of
origin code should be in taxing country code set for Accounting Business area.

10. Validation Rule:

A rule that describes a criterion to which content in DGC has to comply.

Issue
The parent asset type of all issues.

Issue Asset Types

Issue Assets are further categorized but not limited for the following asset types:

Data Issue:

A problem related to issue management; also referred to as issue.

An Initial Asset reference model

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The initial asset reference model provides the needed assets and their relationships with other
assets types. This helps defining the different types of asset, their ownership to the responsible
department or individual. So the business assets are contributed and taken care of by the
business unit people including data owner and data stewards. The data assets are contributes
and operationalized by the IT people, similarly for governance and technology assets. Each
established office or individual will take part in controlling the assets by using the HOW
processes defined along.

Governing Bodies (Offices)


The data governance bodies provides a framework for data related issues resolution. The
governing bodies are held accountable for their required input in order to resolve an issue. The
governance bodies are usually categorized in to 3 main areas of data management and
controlling

1. Data Governance Bodies,

2. Enterprise Data Management and

3. Other Data-related

The Data Governance Office acts as the facilitator, enabler and implementer of data
governance, the responsibility for enterprise data governance resides with executive
management. Enterprise Data Management follows from Enterprise Data Governance.

Executive / Corporate Sponsor


Acts as a main sponsor of Data Governance program across the organization, approves budget,
vision and support Governance Board. It resolves data governance and data management
priorities against other organizational priorities. It acts as an ultimate governance body.

Data Governance Board


The Data Governance Board (DGB) is responsible for approving data governance and data
management policies, resolving data governance issues presented by the Data Stewardship
Council and prioritizing enterprise data management efforts and initiatives. The DGB is led by
the CIO / CEO and consists of members of the extended Executive Management team. The DGB
serves as the de facto executive sponsor of the enterprise data governance and management
program.

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Data Governance Council


The Data Governance Council (DGC) is responsible for defining enterprise data, developing data
management policies, and guiding enterprise information architecture and data management
efforts. Ultimately, its responsibility is to help the enterprise improve the competing dimensions
of data quality, accessibility, security, and value. The DSC is led by the CIO/EDGO/CDO and
consists of the Enterprise Data Architect, the Data Integration Director, the Business Intelligence
Director, enterprise Chief Data Stewards, supervisors from the Department’s various analytic
and IT development units and business unit data stewards.

Data Stewardship Council


The Data Stewardship Council (DSC) is responsible for the definition and use of data collected or
maintained within its functional areas. A data stewardship organization is responsible for
developing policies specifically related to the use of the data, and for designating data stewards
to implement and enforce those policies. The Data Stewardship Council may also include the
Data Owner or the Data Custodian, but not always (or even usually).

Data Governance Office


The Data Governance Office (DGO) is the unit responsible for executing data governance policies
and supporting the Data Stewardship Council. All new data initiatives will be submitted for
review by the DGO as well as Information Security and IT Strategic Planning. The review
intensity will be based upon the initiative’s risk, size/cost, cross-unit impact and potential to
advance department objectives. The review will determine compliance with architecture and
standards and identify any need for a waiver from them. DGO servers the main purpose of
communication across different governing bodies and offices.

Data Architecture Office


The Data Architecture Office (DAO) is the unit responsible for maintaining the Enterprise Logical
Reference Model, reviewing application logical solution models for consistency, overseeing the
maintenance of the enterprise business glossary and other metadata resources and for the
proper application of enterprise data management policies, standards and practices. The DAO is
also responsible for the design of data warehouse subject area models and Master Entity and

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Master Reference Data processes maintained by the Data Integration Office. The DAO is led by
the Enterprise Data Architect (EDA).

Data Integration Office


The Data Integration Office (DIO) is the unit responsible for integrating and maintaining internal
and external data sources, supplying data to enterprise data marts, business unit data marts
and external partners, and managing enterprise master entity data and master reference data.
The DIO implements source system integration models provided by the Data Architecture Office
and data reporting and analysis models provided by the Business intelligence Office.

BICC
Business Intelligence Competency Center is the unit responsible for determining the information
needs of knowledge workers and other data consumers, developing appropriate data reporting
structures to meet those needs and providing them to the Data Integration Office, and
implementing self-service reporting, analysis and visualization (business intelligence) tools so
they are available throughout the organization. BICC is responsible for both EDW and BI offices.

Data Quality Management Office


Responsible to manage the data quality of data that is used by business for analytical or
operational purposes. The data quality team is responsible to participate with business users
and understand the required format and quality of data. They are responsible for the data to be
fit to purpose for business decision making. DQM involves collecting business rules for
transforming data, the data quality results and data quality dimensions. Though data quality is
the responsibility of all the user involved in creating, using and transforming data, the DQ team
will be held accountable for managing and publishing DQ results and quality data.

The roles and responsibilities of individual members are stated in Roles and Responsibilities
section above.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Data Governance Metrics and Measures


Data Governance Measures includes KPIs that monitor the contribution of participants reflecting
the maturity and success of the program. The KPIs can be categorized into several areas
including but not limited of the following

Data Governance Meeting Metrics

These metrics will allow the organization to measure the effectiveness of its Data Governance
meetings with the Data Governance Board, Data Governance Council and Data Stewards Council

Frequen
# Metric Description Calculation
cy

Total number of DG
=sum of DG Board meetings + DG
Total Number of DG Meetings held for all
1 Council meetings + DG Stewardship Quarterly
Meetings networks and steering
meetings + all one-off meetings
committee

Total Number of one- Total number of official = count one-off meetings for all
2 Quarterly
off meetings DG one-off Meetings networks in a period of time

Total number of official


Total Number of Data
DG Board Meetings = total number of Data Governance
3 Governance Board Quarterly
(acting as the DG Steering Board Meetings in a period of time
Meetings
Committee)

Total Number of Data


Total number of official = total number of Data Governance
4 Governance Council Quarterly
DG Council Meetings Council Meetings in a period of time
Meetings

Total Number of Data Total number of official


= total number of Data Stewards
5 Stewards Council Data Stewards Council Quarterly
Council meetings in a period of time
Meetings meetings

Total number of
Attendance at DG =sum of participants at all meetings
6 participants at the DG Quarterly
Meetings (including one-off meetings
Meetings

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Average attendance at
Average attendance at =total attendance at DG Meetings /
7 DG Meetings at a point in Quarterly
DG Meetings number of meetings
time

Data Governance Effectiveness Metrics

These metrics will assess the effectiveness of the Data Governance Board, Data Governance
Council and Data Stewards Council and determine the level of participation

# Metric Description Calculation Frequency

Sum of all members in


Total number of Data = sum of the members in
the DG Board, DG Council
1 Governance each Data Governance Quarterly
and Data Stewards
Members body
Council

Average number of =total number of DG Board,


Average number of
members in the DG DG Council and Data
2 Data Governance Quarterly
Board, DG Council and Stewards Council members
Members
Data Stewards Council / number of members

Total Attendance at
Total number of =sum of participants at the
3 Data Governance Quarterly
participants at the events events
Events

Total of all of the


Total number of =count number of CoPs
different CoPs under the
4 Communities of supported by Data Quarterly
Data Governance
Practice (COP’s) Governance
umbrella

Data Governance Training Metrics

These metrics will allow the Enterprise Data Governance organization to assess how effective
they are in training the participants of the Data Governance Operating Model

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

# Metric Description Calculation Frequency

Total Number of
Number of training training curricula =count of all active
1 Quarterly
curricula created created spanning all training curriculum
Data Governance areas

=total number of
Average number of Average number of
trainings
2 training courses trainings offered at a Quarterly
offered/number of
offered point in time
measurements

Number of Data Total number of the


=total number of
3 Governance members members trained at Quarterly
members trained
trained each level

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Data Governance Implementation Methodology

Data governance programs are time consuming, they require dedication, commitment and more
refinements for the organization to adopt the changes required to execute and successfully
implement the data governance initiatives. DG programs are more iterative in nature and thus
more difficult to implement with methodologies like water fall, these programs require iterative
agile approach.

The below stated methodology is designed specifically for DG Projects to be implemented with a
higher success rate considering the element of change management and adaption for the
organization.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Strategy Phase
The methodology begins with a strategy phase, in this phase, the basic objective to have a DG
Program is identified, the barriers if any known will be considered. This phase will drive the
vision of this program for the enterprise. The stakeholders along with the sponsors are clear
identified. As-is assessment is conducted and a basic / initial Data governance board is identified
or formulated.

Approach
Once the strategy and objectives are identified in the strategy phase, the approach for data
governance program is finalized, the To-Be structure is proposed, the organization structure is
developed and identified. The roles and responsibilities are drafted, an initial asset reference
model is finalized and a plan for change management is developed.

Identify
In the identify phase, a starting point is validated, a business unit or function is identified to start
with, since the approach, structure and roles are already identified in the approach phase, these
are applied on the agreed business unit. The development of policies and processes are initiated
and initial data governance council is identified / formed.

Quickwin
This phase emphasis on the implementation of agreed assets and process for the initiated
business unit or a report.

This is again an iterative phase, the number of assets and their implementation can be taken
iteratively. A business unit can begin with their most important assets for example business
terms, or KPIs and later in other iterations of the quickwin phase, more assets can be added,
covering the entire assets reference model.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Refine
Once the quickwin has completed its iterations, it is now time to make some noise, create
enterprise wide awareness and make ready the other departments to fully participate for the
program with in the departments. The plan for change management is enforced. More DG
trainings are scheduled and participants and asked to take part in the trainings and sessions. If
the structure has to be modified, in the refine phase these modifications are highlighted and
justified, planed and documented for later approvals and implementations.

Cultural Change Adoption


The purpose of this phase is to manage the change adoption process for the enterprise. The
quick win is showcased across the enterprise. Trainings and business emblements are
conducted. The importance of a DG program is highlighted and the benefits are magnified for
the rest of the business units for them to understand and start preparing accordingly.

Cultural Change Management


By now many different grey areas are identified, the trainings are given, feed backs are taken
from the new assigned roles, the need of a Master data management and subject areas are
clear. Business people are already assigned to their respective roles along with the data
management and operations people. The need of MDM is clarified and subject areas are
formed. The ownership of these MDM subject areas are identified and the plan is formulated.

Analysis
The analysis phase is the conclusion of change management program. This highlights the lessons
learned from the previous iteration, the need of any further modification in the requirements.
The analysis phase is directly following the approach phase for the next iteration or the strategy
phase. In case of adding more objectives in the DG program, the analysis phase is following
strategy phase where new objectives are strategized. Or otherwise the highlighted gaps or new
requirements from the stakeholders (if any) will be embedded in the approach and the new
iteration will begin.

Below is the sample of artifacts associated with each phase, its outcome and reason.

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Stage Artifacts Outcomes Reason


Assessment As-is
Project Stakeholder Identification Clear understanding
off program vision,
Strategy Business Acceptance Criteria Political
political obstacles,
Validate Program Sponsorship enterprise functions
Formulate Initial DG Council
To-Be Structure
Purposed Roles
Purpose Operating Model
Approach proposed solution Political
Organization Structure
Initial Asset Model
Manage Change Adoption
Identification of initial Business unit Start point for
Identification of processes & policies implementation with
Identify clearly defined Political
Initiate DG Council
structure and
Formulate Initial DG Board deliverables
Implementation from BU or Report
assigning roles Implementation of
Quickwin Technical
Identification of assets first iteration
Implementation of assets, processes and policies
Validate DG Structure Formal Business
Refine enforcement & adoption management acceptance and
Refine Political
Enterprise awareness sessions Solution marketing to
Make a noise the enterprise
Conducting seminars
Cultural
Showcasing quick win Cultural Change
Change Political
awareness session and training management
Adaption
follow up refinements and enhancements
Cultural Refine Changes if required Political
Client Readiness and
Change Identification of MDM elements &
MDM formulation
Management Identify Roles for Subject area Technical
Results and finding Analysis of work
Analysis lessons learned done and future Political
unconditional change enhancement

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Term of References for governing bodies


The following are supposed to be an example for the ToR. These can be utilized to formulate a
template for governing body charters and objectives. Similar ToR can be produced for Roles
along with their responsibilities and affiliation with the governing bodies or offices.

The Data Governance Board


The Data Governance Board (DGB) includes the leadership team which provides direction and
oversight to the overall Data Governance program, approving budget and resolving disputes
raised by the Data Governance Council.

Responsibilities
 Serve as the ultimate authority in defining Data Governance scope and strategic vision

 Review and approve the budget for the new initiatives and the continuation of the
program

 Take decision on how to resolve escalation provided by Data Governance Council

 Review and evaluate overall Data Governance effectiveness by reviewing and publishing
of Data Governance KPIs

 Review and approve the Data Governance Policies and Processes compiled by
Stewardship Leads

 Set strategic direction for Data Governance program.

Inputs / Supporting Documentation

 Data Governance and Quality Dashboards

 Data Governance Metrics results

 Escalation requests

Outputs / Decisions Made

 Approved Data Governance Strategy and Vision

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

 Updated Prioritization Matrix

 Funding Approval Decisions

 Assignment of new members within Data Governance Board and Council

 Approved Data Governance Policies, Standards, Processes

Members
Roles Member Name

Schedule
 On premises meeting + Conference Call

 Scheduled by Stewardship Leads

 Monthly or quarterly or weekly.

The Data Governance Council


The Data Governance Council (DGC) is a cross-functional, cross-entity leadership team that
oversee the Data Governance function

Responsibilities

 Mediate and arbitrate the resolution of escalated issues from the Data Stewards Council

 Set and communicate the Data Governance strategy across the organization

 Review and evaluate overall Data Governance effectiveness through Data Governance
KPIs

 Represent business needs – ensure solutions meet those needs

 Review and approve the Data Governance processes created by the Stewardship Leads

Inputs / Supporting Documentation


 Data Governance and Quality Dashboards

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Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

 Data Governance Metrics results

 Escalation requests

Outputs / Decisions Made


 Approved Data Governance Policies, Standards, Processes

 Updated Prioritization Matrix

 Assignment of new members within Data Governance Council and Body

Members
Roles Member Name

Schedule
 On premises meeting + Conference Call

 Scheduled by Stewardship Leads

 Weekly or Bi-weekly.

References
1. DAMA - the Data Management Association International

https://dama.org/content/body-knowledge

2. George Firican, Director of Data Governance and Business Intelligence at the University
of British Columbia.

3. Collibra university https://university.collibra.com/ .

Saad Khan
Data Governance: A handy book for laymen.

Saad Khan