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Coordination of Earthing Systems It is POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES set up between and in systems which cause propagation of surge voltages. “Direct lightning strikes to structures housing equipment systems will cause potential rises and hence potential differences. + Entry of lightning currents into the earth will cause Ground Potential Rises (GPR) and hence Ground Potential Differences (GPD). To reduce / eliminate GPD, we implement POTENTIAL | Coordination of Earthing Systems (Cont'd) EQUALIZATION. This can be achieved by: + A.dlosed metal box or Faraday cage + Azero Potential reference grid (ZPRG) + Bonding between various earth systems 1 current Metal box 1 Ametal box used as a Faraday cage Clousto-coud al Ty _ ie ‘ohn stort a ~ : t wc) a T Potential rises and hence potential differences caused by rect lig strikes to structures housing equipment Stike to Building 2 Lightning strike Building 1 ae Potente ference Bing 2 (perhaps hundreds ground | - | Building 1 ground! bs KV) between ends of Ground Potential Rises (GPR) and hence Ground Potential Differences (GPD) caused by entry of Spread of Ground Voltages G 1361 Soil resistivity p= 500 om Spread of Ground Voltages (Cont’d) Voltage at distance r = V(r) = = V(5m) = 573 kV ‘V(100m) = 28.6 kV (10m) = 286 kV (200m) = 14,3 kV (50m) = 57.3kV (1m) = 2.86 MV The Ideal Earthing System ~~ next best thing to a closed metal box. Salient points / requirements of the ideal system which virtually eliminates problems with surges are: (@) All equipment is metal-cased. (b) All equipment sits directly on a metal sheet to which it is electrically bonded. Everything shares the same low-impedance zero volt reference, (©) For good measure, the metal “earth plane” is at ground level ‘and connected to ground by a system of rods driven into the soil so that it is at local ground potential. (d) There is no connection to other electronic systems. (e) The system is physically small, a few square metres at most, so making the likelihood of a direct strike negligible. [Ground Rods The perfect earth — sitting on a metal earth plane | The Ideal Earthing System (Cont'd) However, real systems inevitably have cables connected to its systems from the “external world” making a less than ideal system. The connected cables can be: mains power, telephone, telemetry, antennas, computer networks, external lighting power cables, etc. Voltage surges can be transmitted to and from the equipment via these cables by potential differences generated. laren The Ideal Earthing System (Cont‘d) Telephone cable Aless than ideal system — with connections to the external world The Ideal Earthing System (Cont’d) Antenna et ‘Computer ‘Telephone cable Surge Protection Devices (SPDs) are required to limit both COMMON and DIFFERENTIAL mode voltages to the equipment. Surges and Surge Protection Common and Difference Mode Surges Cables consist of more than one conductor. During a surge, all conductors will tend to move together in potential relative to local ground. This is referred to as common mode. With respect toa local vottage reference point the voltage shit is the same for both conductors. Pair of signal conductors. t 1 ZS oval votage =" reference point