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MIDTERMS  is a graphical display of a quality  TYPE OF VARIABILITY

IQC characteristic that has been o presents data from three

measured or computed from a different processes
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) sample versus the sam- ple number  Stationary and uncorrelated
 Is a powerful collection of problem- or time. (white noise)
solving tools useful in achieving  The chart contains a center line -  Stationary and autocorrelated
process stability and improving that represents the average value of  Nonstationary
capability through the reduction of the quality characteristic
variability corresponding to the in-control state. CONTROL CHARTS FIVE REASONS FOR
 Is one of the greatest technological  Two other horizontal lines, called the THEIR POPULARITY
developments of the twentieth upper control limit (UCL) and the
century because it is based on sound lower control limit (LCL), are also 1. Control charts are a proven technique for
underlying principles, is easy to use, shown on the chart. improving productivity. 

has significant impact, and can be 2. Control charts are effective in defect
applied to any process. HYPOTHESIS TESTING prevention. 

 Its goal is the elimination of  There is a close connection between 3. Control charts prevent unnecessary
variability in the process control charts process adjustment. 

 Its seven major tools are: 4. Control charts provide diagnostic
1. Histogram or stem-and-leaf plot 
 SUSTAINED SHIFT information. 

2. Check sheet 
  The mean could shift instantaneously 5. Control charts provide information about
3. Pareto chart 
 to a new value and remain there process capability. 

4. Cause-and-effect diagram 

5. Defect concentration diagram 
6. Scatter diagram 
  Is useful in analyzing the CHECK SHEET
7. Control chart 
 performance of a control chart.  In the early stages of process
often called “the magnificent improvement, it will often become
seven” OUT-OF-CONTROL-ACTION PLAN (OCAP) necessary to collect either historical
 Is a flow chart or text-based or current operating data about the
SHEWHART CONTROL CHART description of the sequence of process under investigation.
 Of the seven tools, it is probably the activities that must take place
most technically sophisticated. following the occurrence of an PARETO CHART
 It was developed in the 1920s by activating event.  Is simply a frequency distribution (or
Walter A. Shewhart of the Bell  These are usually out-of-control histogram) of attribute data arranged
Telephone Laboratories. signals from the control chart. by category
 Consists of checkpoints, which are  Are often used in both the measure
STABLE SYSTEM OF CHANCE CAUSES potential assignable causes, and and analyze steps of DMAIC
 Natural variability or “background terminators, which are actions taken  Does not automatically identify the
noise” to resolve the out-of-control most important defects, but only the
 A process that is operating with condition, preferably by eliminating most frequent
only chance causes of variation the assignable cause.  Are widely used in
present is said to be in statistical  Is a living document in the sense that nonmanufacturing applications of
control. it will be modified over time as more quality improvement methods
knowledge and understanding of the
This variability in key quality process is gained. CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM
characteristics usually arises from three  Is a formal tool frequently useful in
sources: VARIABLE unlayering potential causes.
 Improperly adjusted or controlled  If the quality characteristic can be  Is very useful in the analyze and
machines, measured and expressed as a number improve steps of DMAIC
 Operator errors, or on some continuous scale of
 Defective raw material. measurement DEFECT CONCENTRATION DIAGRAM
 Is a picture of the unit, showing all
 Refer to these sources of variability  Control charts for central tendency  To determine whether the location
that are not part of the chance cause and variability of the defects on the unit conveys any
pattern useful information about the
ATTRIBUTES CONTROL CHARTS potential causes of the defects
OUT-OF-CONTROL PROCESS  Control charts of whether or not it
 Process that is operating in the possesses certain attributes, or we SCATTER DIAGRAM
presence of assignable causes may count the number of  Is a useful plot for identifying a
nonconformities (defects) appearing potential relationship between two
CONTROL CHART on a unit of product. variables.
 is an on-line process-monitoring
technique widely used
 may also be used to estimate the MOST VITAL COMPONENTS OF SPC’S
parameters of a production process, IMPORTANT FACTORS IN CONTROL POTENTIAL SUCCESS
and, through this informa- tion, to CHART USE  Management Involvement
determine process capability.  DESIGN OF THE CONTROL CHART  Commitment
 may also provide information useful o By this we mean the selection of
in improving the process. the sample size, control limits,
 is an effective tool in reducing and frequency of sampling
variability as much as possible.
1. Management leadership
2. A team approach, focusing on project- 3. Cycle time (CT)—how often a product is
oriented applications completed by a process. Cycle time
3. Education of employees at all levels is a rate, calculated by dividing the
4. Emphasis on reducing variability processing time by the number of
5. Measuring success in quantitative people or machines doing the
(economic) terms work. 

6. A mechanism for communicating 4. Setup time (ST)—these are activities
successful results throughout the such as loading/unloading,
organization machine preparation, testing, and
trial runs. In other words, all
FLOW CHART activities that take place between
 is simply a chronological sequence of completing a good product until
process steps or work flow. starting to work on the next unit
 Sometimes called process mapping or batch of product. 

 is helpful in visualizing and defining 5. Available time (AT)—the time each day
the process so that non-value-added that the value stream can operate
activities can be identified. if there is product to work on. 

6. Uptime (UT)—the percent of time the
WAYS TO ELIMINATE NON-VALUE- process actually operates as
ADDED ACTIVITIES compared to the available time or
1. Rearrange the sequence of worksteps planned operating time. 

2. Rearrange the physical location of the 7. Pack size—the quantity of product
operator in the system required by the customer for
3. Change work methods shipment. 

4. Change the type of equipment used in the 8. Batch size—the quantity of product
process worked on and moved at one time.
5. Redesign forms and documents for more 

efficient use 9. Queue time—the time a product spends
6. Improve operator training waiting for processing. 

7. Improve supervision
8. Identify more clearly the function of the 10. Work-in-process (WIP)—product
process to all employees 9. Try to eliminate that is being processed but is not
unnecessary steps yet complete. 

10. Try to consolidate process steps
11. Information flows—schedules,
OPERATION PROCESS CHART forecasts, and other information
 the team used special symbols in that tells each process 
what to do
their flow chart next. 


 is another way to see the flow of
material and information in a process
 is much like a flow chart, but it
usually incorporates other infor-
mation about the activities that are
occurring at each step in the process
and the information that is required
or generated
 It is not a flow chart of what people
do, but what actually happens to the

Some of the data typically collected

1. Lead time (LT)—the elapsed time
it takes one unit of product to
move through the entire value
stream from beginning to end. 

2. Processing time (PT)—the elapsed time

from the time the product enters a
process until it leaves that process.