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CHAPTER 1 – Intro to Perception: The Perceptual Process

1. Discuss four reasons why it is important to study perception.

- It's the ability to see, hear, understand or become aware of something. It is important
because it’s (1) a physiological process through which everything is this world is interpreted
and understood (2) to understand how we perceive the world (3) to help us become more
aware of our own perceptual experiences (4) for knowledge that can help us in our future
careers especially if interested in medical application

2. (a) Define "top-down" and "bottom-up" processing. (b) Discuss how the "rat-man"
demonstration is used to exemplify the distinction between these two types of processing.
- Top-down processing is based on prior knowledge while bottom-up processing is based on
data or the stimuli reaching the receptors. The rat-man demonstration is an example of how
top-down processing can change our perception by exposing people to a rat figure before
the ambiguous rat-man figure, it depends on which form is seen first.

3. What is meant by a "response criterion"? How might this affect the outcome of a detection
- Liberal responder: responds yes if there is the slightest possibility of experiencing the
stimulus. Conservative responder: responds yes if he or she is sure that a stimulus was
present. These differences in response criterion will produce differing results because
threshold measurement depends on how a person chooses to respond.

CHAPTER 2/3 – Intro to Vision

1. Name, define, and discuss the treatment for three kinds of focusing problems.
2. (a) What is the "blind spot"? (b) Discuss two reasons why we are not usually aware of the blind
3. (a) What is "White's Illusion"? (b) Discuss why this can't be explained by lateral inhibition, and
what mechanism has been proposed to explain this illusion.

CHAPTER 5 – Perceiving Objects and Scenes

1. State, define, and give an example of Gestalt Laws of perceptual organization.

 Law of Proximity: elements that are closely placed together are perceived as a group.
 Law of Similarity: placing similar objects with one another as a pattern or group.
 Law of Continuation: compelling movement of the eyes through an object to another object.
 Law of Closure: incompleteness or a space unenclosed in an object. For example, the
panda below shows some incompleteness in its figure.
 Law of Symmetry: This is described as the regions bounded by some symmetrical borders
and they are perceived to be coherent figures. Example of this is the figure below.
 Law of Simplicity: Any ambiguous stimuli have the tendency to determined to favor the
 Law of Pragnanz: reduction and organization to see object in its simplest possible form

- Good continuation : When connected by smooth/curving lines they appear together

- Pragnanz/simplicity/good figure : Objects are seen in their simplest form.
- Similarity : Grouping of similar objects, by colour, size or shape.
- Proximity : Grouping by distance (relative)
- Common Fate : Things moving in the same direction (birds flying)
- Common Region : Elements in the same area of space (background, or bounding)
- Uniform Connectedness : A connected region of the same visual properties (colour,
brightness, texture, motion), even if covered by other stimuli.

2. Discuss why the Gestalt laws are more accurately described as heuristics
- Heuristics are mental shortcuts for solving problems. Heuristics are usually designed for
speed, which is why our perceptual systems sometimes make mistakes and we experience
perceptual inaccuracies. Gestalt laws do the same for us.

3. Name and describe five “global image features”.

- Global descriptors are generally used in image retrieval, object detection and classification,
while the local descriptors are used for object recognition/identification. There is a large
difference between detection and identification. Detection is finding the existence of
something/object (Finding whether an object is exist in image/video) where as Recognition
is finding the identity (Recognizing a person/object) of an object.
- Global features describe the image as a whole to the generalize the entire object where as
the local features describe the image patches (key points in the image) of an object. Global
features include contour representations, shape descriptors, and texture features and local
features represents the texture in an image patch.

CHAPTER 9 – Perceiving Colours

1. Explain (with examples) the difference between additive color mixture and subtractive color
2. Describe three demonstrations that support the opponent-process theory of color vision.
3. (a) What is the difference between an illumination edge and a reflectance edge? (b) Discuss
what the "penumbra" demonstration and the "folded card" demonstration reveal about
perception of these types of edges.

CHAPTER 10 – Perceiving Depth and Size

1. Suppose you watch a "3-D" movie (using red/blue "3-D glasses") with your friends. After the
movie, a friend asks "Why do we see such depth in this movie?" Summarize how you would
answer this question.
2. Describe the differences in how depth is perceived in cats, insects, and bats.
4. Discuss research that supports the hypothesis that a person's action in the environment affects
depth perception.