Accent (Linguistics) Acoustic Phonetics Belt (Music) Histology Of Vocal Folds Intelligibility (Communication) Lombard Effect Manner Of Articulation Paralanguage: Nonverbal Voice Cues In Communication Phonation Phonetics Voice Change In Boys Speaker Recognition Speech Synthesis Vocal Loading Vocal Rest Vocal Range Vocal Warm Up Vocology Voice Analysis Voice Disorders Voice Frequency Voice Organ Voice Pedagogy Voice Projection Voice Synthesis Voice Types (Singing Voices) Use Of The Web By People With Disabilities

Human Voice
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying,screaming, etc. Human voice is specifically that part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. Generally speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds within the larynx, and the articulators. The lung (the pump) must produce adequate airflow and air pressure to vibrate vocal folds (this air pressure is the fuel of the voice). The vocal folds (vocal cords) are a vibrating valve that chops up the airflow from the lungs into audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source. The muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to µfine tune¶ pitch and tone. The articulators (the parts of the vocal tract above the larynx consisting of tongue, palate, cheek, lips, etc.) articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen it or weaken it as a sound source. The vocal folds, in combination with the articulators, are capable of producing highly intricate arrays of sound. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, surprise, or happiness. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. Voice types and the folds (cords) themselves Adult men and women have different vocal folds sizes; reflecting the male-female differences in larynx size. Adult male voices are usually lower-pitched and have larger folds. The male vocal folds (which would be measured vertically in the opposite diagram), are between 17 mm and 25 mm in length. the female vocal folds are between 12.5 mm and 17.5 mm in length.

A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords.


As seen in the illustration, the folds are located just above the vertebrate trachea (the windpipe, which travels from the lungs). Food and drink do not pass through the cords but instead pass through the esophagus, an unlinked tube. Both tubes are separated by the epiglottis, a "flap" that covers the opening of the trachea while

The folds in both sexes are within the larynx. They are attached at the back (side nearest the spinal cord) to the arytenoids cartilages, and at the front (side under the chin) to the thyroid cartilage. They have no outer edge as they blend into the side of the breathing tube (the illustration is out of date and does not show this well) while their inner edges or "margins" are free to vibrate (the hole). They have a three layer construction of anepithelium, vocal ligament, then muscle (vocalis muscle), which can shorten and bulge the folds. They are flat triangular bands and are pearly white in color. Above both sides of the vocal cord is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds (not illustrated). The difference in vocal folds size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices. Additionally, genetics also causes variances amongst the same sex, with men and women's singing voices being categorized into types. For example, among men, there are bass, baritone, tenor and countertenor(ranging from E2 to even F6), and among women, contralto, mezzo-soprano and soprano (ranging from F3 to C6). There are additional categories for operatic voices, see voice type. This is not the only source of difference between male and female voice. Men, generally speaking, have a larger vocal tract, which essentially gives the resultant voice a lower-sounding timbre. This is mostly independent of the vocal folds themselves. Voice modulation in spoken language Human spoken language makes use of the ability of almost all persons in a given society to dynamically modulate certain parameters of the laryngeal voice source in a consistent manner. The most important communicative, or phonetic, parameters are the voice pitch (determined by the vibratory frequency of the vocal folds) and the degree of separation of the vocal folds, referred to as vocal fold abduction (coming together) or adduction (separating). The ability to vary the ab/adduction of the vocal folds quickly has a strong genetic component, since vocal fold adduction has a life-preserving function in keeping food from passing into the lungs, in addition to the covering action of the epiglottis. Consequently, the muscles that control this action are among the fastest in the body. Children can learn to use this action consistently during speech at an early age, as they learn to speak the difference between utterances such as "apa" (having an abductory-adductory gesture for the p) as "aba" (having no abductory-adductory gesture). Surprisingly enough, they can learn to do this well before the age of two by listening only to the voices of adults around them who have voices much different from their own, and even though the laryngeal movements causing these phonetic differentiations are deep in the throat and not visible to them. If an abductory movement or adductory movement is strong enough, the vibrations of the vocal folds will stop (or not start). If the gesture is abductory and is part of a speech sound, the sound will be called Voiceless. However, voiceless speech sounds are sometimes better identified as containing an abductory gesture, even if the gesture was not strong enough to stop the vocal folds from vibrating. This anomalous feature of voiceless speech sounds is better understood if it is realized that it is the change in the spectral qualities of the voice as abduction proceeds that is the primary acoustic attribute that the listener attends to when identifying a voiceless speech sound, and not simply the presence or absence of voice (periodic energy). An adductory gesture is also identified by the change in voice spectral energy it produces. Thus, a speech sound having an adductory gesture may be referred to as a "glottal stop" even if the vocal fold vibrations do not entirely stop. for an example illustrating this, obtained by using the inverse filtering of oral airflow.] Other aspects of the voice, such as variations in the regularity of vibration, are also used for communication, and are important for the trained voice user to master, but are more rarely used in the formal phonetic code of a spoken language. Physiology and vocal timbre

volume. these areas are the chest. and the manner in which the speech sounds are habitually formed and articulated. and a certain type of sound. although in strictly scientific usage acoustic authorities would question most of them. tighten. the nasal cavity. Vocal registration Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the human voice. Within speech pathology the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch. and the falsetto register. (It is this latter aspect of the sound of the voice that can be mimicked by skilled performers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant. enlargement. and an individual's size and bone structure can affect somewhat the sound produced by an individual. Sound also resonates within different parts of the body.) Humans have vocal folds that can loosen. the pharynx. Registers originate in laryngeal functioning. the modal register. a register language is a language that combines tone and In linguistics. Vocal resonation Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air. or change their thickness. and prolongation. the tracheal tree. A register in the human voice is a particular series of tones. the oral cavity. The term register can be used to refer to any of the following:  A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper.The sound of each individual's voice is entirely unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but also due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body. The shape of chest and neck. Various terms related to the resonation process include amplification. enrichment.  A phonatory process  A certain vocal timbre  A region of the voice that is defined or delimited by vocal breaks. This view is also adopted by many vocal pedagogists. the term register can be somewhat confusing as it encompasses several aspects of the human voice.  A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. or lower registers. or should be. They occur because the vocal folds are capable of producing several different vibratory patterns. which has been shown to be a resonance added to the normal resonances of the vocal tract above the frequency range of most instruments and so enables the singer's voice to carry better over musical accompaniment. improvement. There are seven areas that maybe listed as possible vocal resonators. middle. Singers can also learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract. and the whistle register. the position of the tongue. the larynx itself. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register. to make a better sound. Influences of the human voice . and the sinuses. which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. especially the vocal tract. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular Vocal range range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds. These different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The main point to be drawn from these terms by a singer or speaker is that the end result of resonation is. produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. In sequence from the lowest within the body to the highest.  A subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx. This is known as vocal resonation. intensification. and the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. and possessing the same quality. vowel phonation into a single phonological system. a certain series of pitches. timbre. or tone of the sound produced.

but 17. Talking for improperly long periods of time causesvocal loading. according to a study published by the New Scientist. In linguistics.186.The twelve-tone musical scale. Voice disorders There are many disorders that affect the human voice. hence phonography is much the shortest and simplest mode of short-hand writing. and so on.there being about 9 perfect tones. ditto. Voice therapy is generally delivered by a Speechlanguage pathologist. Canada and Australia. Dialects are usually spoken by a group united by geography or social status. an accent is a manner of pronunciation of a language. Hoarseness or breathiness that lasts for more than two weeks is a common symptom of an underlying voice disorder and should be investigated medically Range Of The Human Voice Voice. as well as pronunciation. . The range of the human voice is quite astounding. Human (Range Of The). A man's voice ranges from bass to tenor. developed from the . An accent may be associated with the region in which its speakers reside (ageographical or regional accent). The female voice ranges from contral o to soprano. instead of their sound. the interaction of people from many ethnic backgrounds contributed to the formation of the different varieties of North American accents. and all in co-operation produce the number we have named . or between a tenor and a treble. alone. the medium being tinned a mezzo-soprano. often an ENT specialist may be able to help. or together. Accents in the USA. Analysis of recorded speech samples found peaks in acoustic energy that mirrored the distances between notes in the twelve-tone scale. their ethnicity. but the best treatment is the prevention of injuries through good vocal production. 30 indirect muscles. and morphology. and growths and lesions on the vocal folds. upon which some of the music in the world is based. the medium being whs called a barytone.741. their caste or social class.383 . In North America. their first language (when the language in which the accent is heard is not their native language).whereas. It is difficult to measure or predict how long it takes an accent to formulate.823. Accent (linguistics) .Stenography uses characters to representwords by their spelling. and these. Over time these can develop into identifiable accents. for example. It differs from stenography in this respect: . produce 16. these include speech impediments. a boy's Voice is alto.515 different sounds. When vocal injury is done. which is stress inflicted on the speech organs.592.044. 173. . stresses and peculiarities develop. independently of different degrees of intensity. Phonography includes every. the socio-economic status of its speakers. Phonography Phonography.method of writing by signs that represent the sounds of the language. may have its roots in the sound of the human voice during the course of evolution. Accents can be confused with dialects which are varieties of language differing in vocabulary. History As human beings spread out into isolated communities. syntax. thus 14 direct muscles.

yet North American accents remain more distant. speakers who deviate from it are often said to "speak with an accent". everyone speaks with an accent. In many cases. The critical period theory states that if learning takes place after the critical period (usually considered around puberty) for acquiring native-like pronunciation. after which a person's accent seems to become more entrenched. acquiring a native-like accent in a non-native language is near impossible. Accent Stereotyping and Prejudice . such as length of residence. though both children and parents may have a noticeable non-native accent. Accents such as BBC English or General American or Standard American may sometimes be erroneously designated in their countries of origin as "accentless" to indicate that they offer no obvious clue to the speaker's regional or social background. However. generally have a more native-like pronunciation than their parents. either as a result of time or of external or "foreign" linguistic interaction. neurological constrains associated with brain development appear to limit most non-native speakers¶ ability to sound native-like. Prestige Certain accents are perceived to carry more prestige in a society than other accents. the accents of non-English settlers from Great Britain and Ireland affected the accents of the different colonies quite differently. This theory. they either place it earlier than puberty or consider it more of a critical ³window. is quite controversial among researchers. Scottish and Welsh immigrants had accents which greatly affected the vowel pronunciation of certain areas of Australia and Canada. accents are not fixed even in adulthood. such as the Italian accent. Accents seem to remain relatively malleable until a person's early twenties. For example in the United Kingdom. there is no differentiation among accents in regards to their prestige. Nevertheless. There are also rare instances of individuals who are able to pass for native speakers even if they learned their non-native language in early adulthood. The most important factor in predicting the degree to which the accent will be noticeable (or strong) is the age at which the non-native language was learned. in linguistics. Irish. Received Pronunciation of the English language is associated with the traditional upper class. however. and the frequency with which both languages are used. Non-native accents Pronunciation is the most difficult part of a non-native language to learn. This is often due to their association with the elite part of society. for example. An acoustic analysis by Jonathan Harrington of Queen Elizabeth II's Royal Christmas Messages revealed that the speech patterns of even so conservative a figure as a monarch can continue to change over her lifetime. an individual is unlikely to acquire a nativelike accent. All the same. Most individuals who speak a non-native language fluently speak it with an accent of their native tongue. Most researchers agree that for adults. Development Children are able to take on accents relatively quickly. similarity of the non-native language to the native language. People from theUnited States would "speak with an accent" from the point of view of an Australian. and vice versa. and the effect of this on the various pronunciations of the British settlers. aesthetics. All languages and accents are linguistically equal. or correctness. children as young as 6 at the time of moving to another country often speak with a noticeable non-native accent as adults. Children of immigrant families.´ which may vary from one individual to another and depend on factors other than age.However.combinations of different accents and languages in various societies. Although many subscribe to some form of the critical period. However. Social factors When a group defines a standard pronunciation.

Thus. The perception or sensitivity of others to accents means that generalizations are passed off as acceptable. from using race.[22][23] For example. Individuals with non-standard accents often have to deal with both negative stereotypes and prejudice because of an accent. individuals with nonstandard accents are more likely to evaluated negatively. On average. One example would be Viggo Mortensen's use of a Russian accent in his portrayal of Nikolai in the movie Eastern Promises. non-native speaking graduate students. one's way of speaking is used as a basis for arbitrary evaluations and judgments. Missouri-born actor Dick van Dyke attempted to imitate a cockney accent in the film Mary Poppins. For example. although negative are more common. having poor English/language skills. homeland or economics more directly. In accent discrimination. and roles that a group and its members are believed to possess. Accent Discrimination Discrimination refers to specific behaviors or actions directed at a group or its individual members based solely on the group membership. Rosina Lippi-Green writes. however. there are no strong norms against accent discrimination in the general society. traits. by law and social custom. Acting and accents Actors are often called upon to speak varieties of language other than their own. and perhaps by a prevailing sense of what is morally and ethically right. accent becomes a litmus test for exclusion.Stereotypes refer to specific characteristics. . landlords are less likely to call back speakers who have foreign or ethnic accents and are more likely to be assigned by employers to lower status positions than are those with standard accents. but individuals with accent also often stereotype against their own or others' accents. ethnicity. they were shown a picture of the lecturer who was either a Caucasian or Asian. Studies have shown the perception of the accent. less educated. Speakers with accents often experience discrimination in housing and employment. across college campuses in the US have been target for being unintelligible because of accent.[21] Unlike other forms of discrimination. less competent. an actor may portray a character of some nationality other than his or her own by adopting into the native language the phonological profile typical of the nationality to be portrayed ± what is commonly called "speaking with an accent". Stereotypes can be both positive and negative. Accent serves as the first point of gate keeping because we are forbidden. Angelina Jolie attempted a Greek accent in the film Alexander that was said by critics to be distracting. however. We have no such compunctions about language. and excuse to turn away. In a study conducted by Rubin (1992). However. lecturers. such as Brad Pitt's Jamaican accent in Meet Joe Black. and professors. Gary Oldman has become known for playing eccentrics and for his mastery of accents. Accent discrimination is also present in educational institutions. students taught by non-native English speaker do not underperform when compared to those taught by native speakers of English. to recognize the other. Researchers consistently show that people with accents are judged as less intelligent. students listened to a taped lecture recorded by the same native English speaker with a standard accent. Participants in the study who saw the Asian picture believed that they had heard an accented lecturer and performed worse on a task measuring lecture comprehension. Similarly. which is defined as having negative attitudes toward a group and its members. Negative evaluations may reflect the prejudices rather than real issues with understanding accents. not the accent by itself. Stereotypes may result in prejudice. In business settings. often results in negative evaluations of speakers. For example. [19][20] Not only people with standard accents subscribe to these believes and attitudes. and unpleasant to listen to.

Accents may have associations and implications for an audience. For example, in Disney films from the 1990s onward, English accents are generally employed to serve one of two purposes: slapstick comedy or evil genius. Examples include Aladdin (the Sultan and Jafar, respectively), The Lion King (Zazu and Scar, respectively), The Hunchback of Notre Dame(Victor the Gargoyle and Frollo, respectively), and Pocahontas (Wiggins and Ratcliffe, respectively - both of whom happen to be played by the same actor, American David Ogden Stiers). Legal implications In the United States, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on national origin, implying accents. However, employers can insist that a person¶s accent impairs his or her communication skills that are necessary to the effective business operation and be off the hook. The courts often rely on the employer¶s claims or use judges¶ subjective opinions when deciding whether the (potential) employee¶s accent would interfere with communication or performance, without any objective proof that accent was or might be a hindrance. Kentucky's highest court in the case of Clifford vs. Commonwealth held that a white police officer, who had not seen the black defendant allegedly involved in a drug transaction, could, nevertheless, identify him as a participant by saying that a voice on an audiotape "sounded black." The police officer based this "identification" on the fact that the defendant was the only African American man in the room at the time of the transaction and that an audio-tape contained the voice of a man the officer said ³sounded black´ selling crack cocaine to a white informant planted by the police.

Acoustic phonetics Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics which deals with acoustic aspects Acoustic phonetics investigates properties like the mean of speech sounds. squared amplitude of awaveform, its duration, its fundamental frequency, or other properties of its frequency spectrum, and the relationship of these properties to other branches of phonetics (e.g. articulatory orauditory phonetics), and to abstract linguistic concepts like phones, phrases, or utterances. The study of acoustic phonetics was greatly enhanced in the late 19th century by the invention of the Edison phonograph. The phonograph allowed the speech signal to be recorded and then later processed and analyzed. By replaying the same speech signal from the phonograph several times, filtering it each time with a different band-pass filter, a spectrogram of the speech utterance could be built up. A series of papers by Ludimar Hermann published in Pflüger's Archiv in the last two decades of the 19th century investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants using the Edison phonograph, and it was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. Hermann also played back vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds to distinguish between Willis' and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production. Further advances in acoustic phonetics were made possible by the development of the telephone industry. (Incidentally, Alexander Graham Bell's father, Alexander Melville Bell, was a phonetician.) During World War II, work at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (which invented the spectrograph) greatly facilitated the systematic study of the spectral properties of periodicand aperiodic speech sounds, vocal tract resonances and vowel formants, voice quality, prosody, etc. On a theoretical level, acoustic phonetics really took off when it became clear that speech acoustic could be modeled in a way analogous to electrical circuits. Lord Rayleigh was among the first to recognize that the new electric theory could be used in acoustics, but it was not until 1941 that the circuit model was effectively used, in a book by Chiba and Kajiyama called "The Vowel: Its Nature and Structure". (Interestingly, this book by Japanese authors working in Japan was published in English at the height of World War II.)

In 1952, Roman Jakobson,Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle wrote "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis", a seminal work tying acoustic phonetics and phonological theory together. This little book was followed in 1960 by Fant "Acoustic Theory of Speech Production", which has remained the major theoretical foundation for speech acoustic research in both the academy and industry. (Fant was himself very involved in the telephone industry.) Other important framers of the field include Kenneth N. Stevens, Osamu Fujimura, and Peter Ladefoged. Belt (music) Belting (or vocal belting) refers to a specific technique of singing by which a singer produces a loud sound in the upper middle of the pitch range. It is often described as a vocal registeralthough some dispute this since technically the larynx is not oscillating in a unique way . Singers can use belting to convey heightened emotional states . Technique The term "belt" is sometimes mistakenly described as the use of chest voice in the higher part of the voice. (The chest voice is a very general term for the sound and muscular functions of the speaking voice, singing in the lower range and the voice used to shout. Still, all those possibilities require help from the muscles in the vocal folds and a thicker closure of the vocal folds. The term "chest voice" is therefore often a misunderstanding, as it describes muscular work in the chest-area of the body, but the "sound" described as "chestvoice" is also produced by work of the vocal folds.) However, the proper production of the belt voice according to some vocal methods involves minimizing tension in the throat and change of typical placement of the voice sound in the mouth, bringing it forward into the hard palate. It is possible to learn classical vocal methods like bel canto and to also be able to belt; in fact, many musical roles now require it. The belt sound is easier for some than others, but the sound is possible for classical singers, too. It requires muscle coordinations not readily used in classically trained singers, which may be why some opera singers find learning to belt challenging. In order to increase the number of high notes one can belt, one must practice. This can be by repeatedly attempting to hit the note in a melody line, or by using vocalise programs utilizing scales. Many commercial learn-to-sing packageshave a set of scales to sing along to as their main offering, which the purchaser must practice with often to see improvement. 'Belters' are not exempt from developing a strong head voice, as the more resonant their higher register in head voice, the better the belted notes in this range will be. Some belters find that after a period of time focusing on the belt, the head voice will have improved and, likewise, after a period of time focusing on the head voice, the belt may be found to have improved. Physiology There are many explanations as to how the belting voice quality is produced. When approaching the matter from the Bel Canto point of view, it is said that the chest voice is applied to the higher register However, through studying singers who use a "mixed" sound practitioners have defined mixed sound as belting. One researcher,Jo Estill, has conducted research on the belting voice, and describes the belting voice as an extremely muscular and physical way of singing. When observing the vocal tract and torso of singers, while belting, Estill observed:  Minimal airflow (longer closed phase (70% or greater) than in any other type of phonation)  Maximum muscular engagement of the torso (In Estill terms: Torso anchoring).  Engagement of muscles in the head and neck in order to stabilize the larynx) (in Estill terms: Head and neck anchoring)  A downwards tilt of the cricoid cartilage (An alternative option would be the thyroid tilting backwards. Observations show a larger CT space).  High positioning of the larynx

Maximum muscular effort of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles, minimum effort at the level of the true vocal folds.  Narrowing of the aryepiglottic sphincter (the "twanger") Possible dangers of belting Use of belting without proper coordination can lead to forcing. Forcing can lead consequently to vocal deterioration. Moderate use of the technique and, most importantly, retraction of the ventricular folds while singing is vital to safe belting. Without proper training in retraction, belting can indeed cause trauma to the vocal folds that requires the immediate attention of a doctor. Most tutors and some students of the method known as Speech Level Singing, created and supported by Seth Riggs, regard belting as damaging to long term vocal health. They may teach an alternative using a "mixed" or middle voice which can sound almost as strong, as demonstrated by Aretha Franklin, Patti LaBelle, Celine Dion, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey,Lara Fabian, Ziana Zain, and Regine Velasquez. The subject of belting is a matter of heated controversy among singers, singing teachers and methodologies. Proponents of belting say that it is a "soft yell," and if produced properly it can be healthy. It does not require straining and they say it is not damaging to the voice. Though the larynx is higher than in classical technique,and many experts on the singing voice believe that a high larynx position is both dangerous to vocal health and produces what many find to be an unpleasant sound. According to master teacher David Jones, "Some of the dangers are general swelling of the vocal cords, pre-polyp swelling, ballooning of capillaries on the surface of the vocal cords, or vocal nodules. A high-larynxed approach to the high voice taught by a speech level singing instructor who does not listen appropriately can lead to one or ALL of these vocal disorders". However, it is thought by some that belting will produce vocal nodules. This may be true if belting is produced incorrectly. If the sound is produced is a mixed head and chest sound that safely approximates a belt, produced well, there may be no damage to the vocal folds. As for the physiological and acoustical features of the metallic voices, a master thesis has drawn the following conclusions:  No significant changes in frequency and amplitude of F1 were observed  Significant increases in amplitudes of F2, F3 and F4 were found  In frequencies for F2, metallic voice perceived as louder was correlated to increase in amplitude of F3 and F4  Vocal tract adjustments like velar lowering, pharyngeal wall narrowing, laryngeal raising, aryepiglottic and lateral laryngeal constriction were frequently found. 

Histology of the vocal folds
Histology is the study of the minute structure, composition, and function of tissues. The histology of the vocal folds is the reason for vocal fold vibration. Histoanaomy of the Glottis The glottis is defined as the true vocal folds and the space between them. It is composed of an intermembranous portion or anterior glottis, and an intercartilaginous portion or posterior glottis. The border between the anterior and posterior glottises is defined by an imaginary line drawn across the vocal fold at the tip of the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage. The anterior glottis is the primary structure of vocal fold vibration for phonation and the posterior glottis is the widest opening between the vocal folds for respiration. Thus, voice disorders often involve lesions of the anterior glottis. There are gradual changes in stiffness between the pliable vocal fold and hard, hyaline cartilage of the arytenoid. The vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages form a firm framework for the glottis but are made of elastic cartilage at the tip. Therefore, the vocal process of the arytenoid bends at the elastic cartilage portion during adduction and abduction of the vocal folds. Attachments of the Vocal Fold

The epithelium has been described as a thin shell. which can result in the inability of the epithelium to retain an adequate mucous coat. Age-related changes in the macula flava influence the fibrous components of the vocal folds and are partially responsible for the differences in the acoustics of the adult and aged voice. it is a potential space. the anterior glottis. The superficial layer of the lamina propria is a structure that vibrates a great deal during phonation. the macula flavae are probably required for metabolism of the extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. The posterior glottis is covered with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. replacing damaged fibers in order to maintain the integrity and elasticity of the vocal fold tissues. is covered with stratified squamous epithelium. The basal lamina or BMZ mainly provides physical support to the epithelim through anchoring fibers and is essential for repair of the epithelium. Like the pleural cavity. In the adult. The lamina densa has a greater density of filaments and is adjacent to the lamina propria. there is a problem. The transition is composed of the intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria. Posteriorly. and the body. The cover is composed of the epithelium (mucosa). This layered structure of tissues is very important for vibration of the true vocal folds. or Broyle's ligament. which will in turn impact lubrication of the vocal folds. The primary extracellular matrices of the vocal fold cover are reticular. providing tensile strength and resilience so that the vocal folds may vibrate freely but still retain their shape. Lubrication of the vocal folds through adequate hydration is essential for normal phonation to avoid excessive abrasion. which can then be grouped into three sections as the cover. Surgery of the vocal folds can disturb this layer with scar tissue. If there really is a space. On the surfaces of the epithelial cells are microridges and microvilli. depending on the source. These fibers run . and the superficial layer of the lamina propria. Basal Lamina or Basement Membrane Zone (BMZ) This is transitional tissue composed of two zones. this vibratory portion is connected to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage by the posterior macula flava. and the microridges and microvilli help to spread and retain a mucous coat on the epithelium. The Cover Epithelium The free edge of the vibratory portion of the vocal fold. collagenous and elastic fibers. Layered Structure of the Adult Vocal Fold The histological structure of the vocal fold can be separated into 5 or 6 tissues. the lamina lucida and lamina densa. The lamina lucida appears as a low density clear zone medial to the epithelial basal cells. basal lamina (or basement membrane zone).The vibratory portion of the vocal fold in the anterior glottis is connected to the thyroid cartilage anteriorly by the macula flava and anterior commissure tendon. The body is composed of the thyroarytenoid muscle. This layer is also known as Reinke¶s space but it is not a space at all. the transition. Superficial Layer of the Lamina Propria This layer consists of loose fibrous components and extracellular matrices that can be compared to soft gelatin. and the viscoelasticity needed to support this vibratory function depends mostly on extracellular matrices. as well as glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan. This epithelium is five to twenty-five cells thick with the most superficial layer consisting of one to three cells that are lost to abrasion of the vocal folds during the closed phase of vibration. The macula flava in newborn vocal folds is important for the growth and development of the vocal ligament and layered structure of the vocal folds. These fibers serve as scaffolds for structural maintenance. the purpose of which is to maintain the shape of the vocal fold. The Transition:Intermediate and Deep Layers of the Lamina Propria The intermediate layer of the lamina propria is primarily made up of elastic fibers while the deep layer of the lamina propria is primarily made up of collagenous fibers.

depending on the source. giving the vocal fold support as well as providing adhesion between the mucosa. Puberty Puberty usually lasts from 2±5 years. The adult fold is approximately three-fifths membranous and two-fifths cartilaginous. In females during puberty. Two layers appear in the lamina propria between the ages of six and twelve. As vocal fold vibration is a foundation for vocal formants. Estrogens have a hypertrophic and proliferative effect on mucosa by reducing the desquamating effect on the superficial layers. and typically occurs between the ages of 12 to 17. It causes a menstrual-like cycle in the vocal fold epithelium and a drying out . The infant vocal fold is half membranous or anterior glottis. Vocal Fold Lesions The majority of vocal fold lesions primarily arise in the cover of the folds. For women. If a person has a phonotrauma or habitual vocal hyperfunction. intermediate and deep layers. this presence or absence of tissue layers influences a difference in the number of formants between the adult and pediatric populations. swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fluid. The vocal ligament begins to be present in children at about four years of age. The transition layer is primarily structural. occurs in the superficial lamina propria or Reinke¶s space. In females. the actions of estrogens and progesterone produce changes in the extravascular spaces by increasing capillary permeability which allows the passage of intracapillary fluids to the interstitial space as well as modification of glandular secretions. as opposed to the pediatric voice with three to six. and the mature lamina propria. The sub. The length of the vocal fold at birth is approximately six to eight millimeters and grows to its adult length of eight to sixteen millimeters by adolescence. Since the basal lamina secures the epithelium to the superficial layer of the lamina propria with anchoring fibers. and the body. Histological Changes From Birth to Old Age The histologic structure of the vocal fold differs from the pediatric to the adult and old-age populations. Pediatrics The infant lamina propria is composed of only one layer. the thyroarytenoid muscle. this is a common site for injury. causing vocal fold injury. but remains very supple and narrow.roughly parallel to the vocal fold edge and these two layers of the lamina propria comprise the vocal ligament. or cover. and half cartilaginous or posterior glottis. as compared to three in the adult. This causes the vocal fold mucosa to appear floppy with excessive movement of the cover that has been described as looking like a loose sock. which increase the mass and thickness of the cover. with the superficial. the vocal muscle thickens slightly. the voice is three tones lower than the child¶s and has five to twelve formants. The squamous cell epithelium of the anterior glottis are also a frequent site of layrngeal cancer caused by smoking. The thyroid hormones also affect dynamic function of the vocal folds (Hashimoto¶s Thyroiditis affects the fluid balance in the vocal folds). and there is no vocal ligament. Reinke¶s Edema A voice pathology called Reinke¶s edema. the proteins in the basal lamina can shear. is only present by the conclusion of adolescence. The squamous mucosa also differentiates into three distinct layers (the lamina propria) on the free edge of the vocal folds.and supraglottic glandular mucosa becomes hormone-dependent to estrogens and progesterone. The greater mass of the vocal folds due to increased fluid lowers thefundamental frequency (F°) during phonation. Progesterone has an anti-proliferative effect on mucosa and accelerates desquamation. also known as pressed phonation. usually seen as nodules or polyps. The Body: The Thyroarytenoid Muscle This muscle is variously described as being divided into the thyroarytenoid and vocalis muscles or the thyrovocalis and the thyromuscularis . voice change is controlled by sex hormones. During puberty.

androgens are secreted principally by the adrenal cortex and the ovaries and can have irreversible masculinizing effects if present in high enough concentration. Noise levels For satisfactory communication. Testosterone. the vocal fold cover thickens with aging. the average speech level should exceed that of an interfering noise by 6dB. comprehensibility.of the mucosa with a reduction in secretions of the glandular epithelium. that a band of frequencies from 1000Hz to 2000Hz is sufficient (sentence articulation score of about 90%). However. Old Age There is a thinning in the superficial layer of the lamina propria in old age. and the change is irreversible. Adulthood There is a steady increase in the elastin content of the lamina propria as we age (elastin is a yellow scleroprotein. Intelligibility (communication) In phonetics. and a reduction in the whole body fatty mass. explicitness. Progesterone has a diuretic effect and decreases capillary permeability. In muscles. Manifesting in a wide frequency range. for example. the vocal fold undergoes considerable sex-specific changes. perspicuity. the vocal folds lengthen and become rounded. Androgens are the most important hormones responsible for the passage of the boy-child voice to man voice. the essential constituent of the elastic connective tissue) resulting in a decrease in the ability of the lamina propria to expand caused by cross-branching of the elastin fibers. The deep layer of the lamina propria of the male vocal fold thickens because of increased collagen deposits. lower sound:noise ratios are rarely acceptable (Moore. this leads to the mature voice being better suited to the rigors of opera. an androgen secreted by the testes. In women. Intelligibility is a measure of how comprehendible speech is. thus trapping the extracellular fluid out of the capillaries and causing tissue congestion. It is not only louder but the frequencies of its phonetic fundamental are increased and the . Among other things. 1997). and the epithelium thickens with the formation of three distinct layers in the lamina propria. Word articulation remains high even when only 1±2% of the wave is unaffected by distortion: Quantity to be measured Unit of measurement %ALcons C50 STI (RASTI) Articulation loss (popular in USA) Intelligibility (international known) Good values < 10 % > 0. The vocalis muscle atrophies in both men and women. The thyroid prominence appears. In the female larynx. speech is quite resistant to many types of masking frequency cut-off²Moore reports. or the degree to which speech can be understood. will cause changes in the cartilages and musculature of the larynx for males during puberty. In men.6 Clarity index (widespread in Germany) > 3 dB Intelligibility with different types of speech Lombard speech The human brain automatically changes speech made in noise through a process called the Lombard effect. The superficial layer of the lamina propria loses density as it becomes more edematous. lucidity. they are essential to male sexuality. Such speech has increased intelligibility compared to normal speech. Intelligibility is affected by spoken clarity. and precision. The intermediate layer of the lamina propria tends to atrophy only in men. the majority of elderly patients with voice disorders have disease processes associated with aging rather than physiologic aging alone. In aging. they cause a hypertrophy of striated muscles with a reduction in the fat cells in skeletal muscles.

Research upon Great tits and Beluga whales that live in environments with noise pollution finds that the effect also occurs in the vocalizations of nonhuman animals. In humans. Infant-directed speech Infant-directed speech²or Baby talk²uses a simplified syntax and a small and easier-tounderstand vocabulary than speech directed to adults Compared to adult directed speech. Screaming Shouted speech is less intelligible than Lombard speech because increased vocal energy produces decreased phonetic information. elevated speech intensity. People also tend to make more noticeable facial movements. listeners hear speech recorded in noise better compared to that speech which has been recorded in quiet and then played given with the same level of masking noise. the Lombard effect results in speakers adjusting not only frequency but also the intensity and rate of pronouncing word syllables. devoicing of word-final consonants) than normal speech. also known as the hyperspace effect. more and longer pauses.g.. It has a slower tempo and fewer connected speech processes (e. exaggerated pitch range. Due to the Lombard effect. a French otolaryngologist. Great tits sing at a higher frequency in noise polluted urban surroundings than quieter ones to help overcome the auditory masking that would otherwise impair other birds hearing their song. Since the effect is also involuntary it is used as a means to detect malingering in those simulating hearing loss. and slower rate. increased consonant intensity compared to adjacent vowels. This compensation effect results in an increase in the auditory signal-tonoise ratio of the speaker¶sspoken words. occurs when people are misled about the presence of environment noise. The effect links to the needs of effective communication as there is a reduced effect when words are repeated or lists are read wherecommunication intelligibility is not important. It is characterized by a slower speaking rate. and a number of phonological changes (including fewer reduced vowels and more released stop bursts).durations of its vowels are prolonged. Changes between normal and Lombard speech include: Lombard effect . Clear speech Clear speech is used when talking to a person with a hearing impairment. Hyperspace speech Hyperspace speech. It involves modifying the F1 and F2 of phonetic vowel targets to ease perceived difficulties on the part of the listener in recovering information from the acoustic signal. it has a higher fundamental frequency. "targeted" vowel formants. increased word duration. The Lombard effect or Lombard reflex is the involuntary tendency of speakers to increase the intensity of their voice when speaking inloud noise to enhance its audibility. This change includes not only loudness but also other acoustic features such as pitch and rate and duration of sound syllables. Citation speech Citation speech occurs when people engage self-consciously in spoken language research. Lombard speech When heard with noise. The effect was discovered in 1909 by Étienne Lombard. shortening of nuclear vowels.

The Lombard effect also occurs following laryngectomy when people following speech therapy talk with esophageal speech. Great tits in Leiden sing with a higher frequency than        . increase in vowel duration. Both processes are involved in the Lombard effect.  great lung volumes are used. It has been suggested that the Lombard effect might also involve the higher cortical areas that control these lower brainstem areas. though people can learn control with feedback.increase in phonetic fundamental frequencies shift in energy from low frequency bands to middle or high bands. when made in noise. In this auditory self-monitoring adjusts vocalizations in terms of learnt associations of what features of their vocalization. the duration of content words are prolonged to a greater degree in noise than function words. Development Both private and public loop processes exist in children. or it can be adjusted indirectly in terms of how well listeners can hear the vocalization (public loop). There is a development shift however from the Lombard effect being linked to acoustic self-monitoring in young children to the adjustment of vocalizations to aid its intelligibility for others in adults. Choral singing Choral singers experience reduced feedback due to the sound of other singers upon their own voice.  it is accompanied by larger facial movements but these do not aid as much as its sound changes. These changes cannot be controlled by instructing a person to speak as they would in silence. This results in a tendency for people in choruses to sing at a louder level if it is not controlled by a conductor. increase in sound intensity. shift in formant center frequencies for F1 (mainly) and F2. Neurology The Lombard effect depends upon audio-vocal neurons in the periolivary region of the superior olivary complex and the adjacent pontine reticular formation. Public loop A speaker can regulate their vocalizations at higher cognitive level in terms of observing its consequences on their audience¶s ability to hear it. Mechanisms The intelligibility of an individual¶s own vocalization can be adjusted with audio-vocal reflexes using their own hearing (private loop). Such auditory feedback is known to maintain the production of vocalization since deafness affects the vocal acoustics of both humans and songbirds Changing the auditory feedback also changes vocalization in human speechor bird song. The Lombard effect has been found to be greatest upon those words that are important to the listener to understand a speaker suggesting such cognitive effects are important. Trained soloists can control this effect but it has been suggested that after a concert they might speak more loudly in noisy surrounding as in after-concert parties. create effective and efficient communication. The Lombard effect also occurs to those playing instruments such as the guitar Animal vocalization Noise has been found to effect the vocalizations of animals that vocalize against a background of human noise pollution. spectral tilting. Private loop A speaker can regulate their vocalizations particularly its amplitude relative to background noise with reflexive auditory feedback. Neural circuits have been found in the brainstem that enable such reflex adjustment.

manner of articulation describes how the tongue. or blocked airflow). sounds may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition. the Lombard effect has also been found in the vocalization of:  Budgerigars  Cats  Chickens  Common marmosets  Cottontop tamarins  Japanese quail  Nightingales  Rhesus Macaques  Squirrel monkey. sibilants being the more common. . and the sibilancy of fricatives. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner. approximants (with only slight turbulence). Historically. For any place of articulation. Stricture From greatest to least those in quieter area to overcome the masking effect of the low frequency background noise pollution of cities. One parameter of manner is stricture. how closely the speech organs approach one another. there may be several manners. lips. but phonetically they are sequences of stop plus fricative. and vowels (with full unimpeded airflow).  Zebra finches Manner of articulation Human vocal tract In linguistics (articulatory phonetics). Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. Lawrence River estuary adjust their whale song so it can be heard against shipping noise Experimentally. fricative consonants (with partially blocked and therefore strongly turbulent airflow). that is. speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants (with occlusion. Beluga whales in the St. The reverse process is fortition. jaw. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives. and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Parameters other than stricture are those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills). and therefore severalhomorganic consonants. Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant. Other parameters Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth. but phoneticians such as Peter Ladefoged consider them to be independent.

in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place. such as Spanish. . Nearly all languages have nasals. Examples include English /w/ and /r/. the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. n/. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually. These are by far the most common fricatives. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue. where there is complete occlusion (blockage) of both the oral and nasal cavities of the vocal tract. sibilants. Individual manners  Plosive. It is most commonly found in nasal stops and nasal vowels. if it is voiceless.  Affricate. However. In some languages. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. the two may be combined.  Approximant. When a sound is not nasal. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasal stops their characteristic sounds. However. lateral flaps. but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. No language relies on such a difference. There are also lateral flaps. resulting in lateral approximants (the most common). creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. and the air passes instead through the nose. usually shortened to nasal. Affricates are quite common around the world. is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation.  Flap. rather than just length. constitute a class of consonant called rhotics. /v. and therefore no air flow. where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue. or oral stop. Most languages have fricatives. If the consonant is voiced. The double "r" of Spanish "perro" is a trill. All languages have plosives. and approximants are also found. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/. Examples include English /m. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel.Taps and flaps are similar to very brief stops. Trilled affricates are also known. Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the  tongue toward the teeth. though less common than fricatives. Examples include English /f. Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap in North American English. a plosive is completely silent. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. z/ (voiced). their articulation and behavior is distinct enough to be considered a separate manner. The "ll" of Welsh and the "hl" of Zulu are lateral fricatives.while a nasal stop is generally just called a nasal. the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion. as well as therelease burst and its effect on the following vowel. it is called oral. sometimes called spirant. though not always. there are sounds which seem to fall between fricativeand approximant. the Indigenous Australian languages are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind.  Trill. Trills and flaps. though many have only an /s/. where there are one or more brief occlusions. often called a tap.  Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. taps. where there is very little obstruction. where there is complete occlusion of the oral cavity. and the airstream causes it to vibrate. s/ (voiceless).  Nasal stop.  Fricative. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture. which begins like a plosive. and lateral fricatives and affricates. An oral stop is often called a plosive. The shape and position of the tongue (the place of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different plosives their characteristic sounds. Many linguists distinguish taps from flaps. but nasal fricatives. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d g/ (voiced). This can also be combined with other manners. etc.

affricates are considered to be both. and also vowels) are called sonorants because they are nearly always voiced. Clicks. the airstream is powered by an upward movement of the glottis rather than by the lungs or diaphragm. These are prototypically voiceless. approximants. and the "wh" in those dialects of English which distinguish "which" from "witch". and is powered by the lungs (actually the ribs and diaphragm). The word may also be used to cover both concepts. which are glottalic egressive. Other descriptions usesemivowel for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic. Sonorants may also be called resonants. Paralanguage Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Here the back of the tongue is used to create a vacuum in the mouth. which are velaric ingressive. Implosives. in Tibetan (the "lh" of Lhasa). voiced or voiceless. and some linguists prefer that term. nasals and liquids. Here the glottis moves downward. which is not necessarily tied to speech. Manners without such obstruction (nasals.  Lateral approximants. The term 'paralanguage' is sometimes used as a cover term for body language. which are glottalic ingressive. Another common distinction is between stops (plosives and nasals) and continuants (all else). in some cases. affricates) are called obstruents. Together with the rhotics. restricting the word 'sonorant' to non-vocoid resonants (that is. English /l/ is a lateral. but not vowels or semi-vowels). and. . and paralinguistic phenomena in speech. Plosives. They are extremely rare in normal words outside Southern Africa. fricatives. sometimes called a glide. and another is often used to say "giddy up" to a horse. these form a class of consonant called liquids. Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds. causing air to rush in when the forward occlusion (tongue or lips) is released. but implosive affricates and fricatives are rare. English has a click in its "tsk tsk" (or "tut tut") sound.    One use of the word semivowel. but are found in Welsh and Classical Greek (the spelling "rh"). and /j/ (spelled "y") is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /i/ in this usage. Broader classifications Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow (plosives. because they are sequences of stop plus fricative. affricates. which have similar behavior in many languages. /w/ is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /u/. and in some languages no air may actually flow into the mouth. and occasionally fricatives may occur as ejectives. stop or affricate. Sounds that rely on some of these include: Ejectives. usually shortened to lateral. The latter are phenomena that can be observed in speech (Saussure's parole) but that do not belong to the arbitrary conventional code of language (Saussure's langue). Implosive oral stops are not uncommon. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously. but voiced obstruents are extremely common as well. liquids. central or lateral. However. Other airstream mechanisms are possible. but the lungs may be used simultaneously (to provide voicing). is a type of approximant. These are found as elements in diphthongs. Voiceless sonorants are uncommon. pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth. The study of paralanguage is known asparalinguistics. and it includes the pitch. Voiceless implosives are also rare. are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. Clicks may be oral or nasal. volume. All ejectives are voiceless. That is. In English. meaning that the air flows outward. Other airstream initiations All of these manners of articulation are pronounced with an airstream mechanism called pulmonic egressive. but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. intonation of speech. so that there is slight turbulence.

to some extent. by the Tadoma method. This code works even in communication across species. It will be expressed independently of the speaker¶s intention. speaking rate. font and color choices. 1984). A most fundamental and widespread phenomenon of this kind is known as the "frequency code" (Ohala. McGurk effect). their organs of speech become larger and there are differences between male and female adults. while meanings such as 'dangerous'. which characterize the differentspeech sounds. 'dominant'.. since speech requires the presence of a voice that can be modulated. paralanguage in written communication is limited in comparison with face-to-face conversation. attitudes are expressed intentionally and emotions without intention. The differences concern not only size. direction). However. Linguistic aspects These aspects are the main concern of linguists. There are no utterances or speech signals that lack paralinguistic properties. are paralinguistic or pre-linguistic in origin. the distinction linguistic vs. the frequency code also serves the purpose of distinguishing questions from statements. in particular of its prosody. It has its origin in the fact that the acoustic frequencies in the voice of small vocalizers are high while they are low in the voice of large vocalizers. which are naturally associated with smallness. and even felt. Sound localization functions in a similar way also for non-speech sounds. since it is merely informative about the speaker. e. In text-only communication such as email. This voice must have some properties. but also proportions. The problem of how listeners factor out the linguistically informative quality from speech signals is a topic of current research. The organic quality of speech has a communicative function in a restricted sense. Expressive variation is central to paralanguage. Expressive aspects The properties of the voice and the way of speaking are affected by emotions and attitudes. Ordinary phonetic transcriptions of utterances reflect only the linguistically informative quality. pitch. and it is reasonable to assume that it has phylogenetically given rise to the sexual dimorphism that lies behind the large difference in pitch between average female and male adults. and it is not bound to any sensory modality. pitch range and. sometimes leading to misunderstandings. paralinguistic elements can be displayed by emoticons. Some of the linguistic features of speech. Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. The perspectival aspects of lip reading are more obvious and have more drastic effects when head turning is involved. This gives rise to secondary meanings such as 'harmless'. Organic aspects The speech organs of different speakers differ in size. Even vocal language has some paralinguistic as well as linguistic properties that can be seen (lip reading.g. 'submissive'. language is not . i. Typically. As children grow up. It affects loudness. One can distinguish the following aspects of speech signals and perceived utterances: Perspectival aspects Speech signals that arrive at a listener¶s ears have acoustic properties that may allow listeners to localize the speaker (distance. also the formant frequencies.e. Nonetheless. and 'assertive' are associated with largeness. and all the properties of a voice as such are paralinguistic. 'unassertive'. In most languages. They affect the pitch of the voice and to a substantial extent also the formant frequencies. paralinguistic applies not only to speech but to writing and sign language as well. It is universally reflected in expressive variation. chatrooms and instant messaging.The paralinguistic properties of speech play an important role in human speech communication. but attempts to fake or to hide emotions are not unusual. capitalization and the use of non-alphabetic or abstract characters.

by facial expression and eye contact. disgust. or singing a wordless note. a large proportion is also to some extent iconic and may be universally understood. intonation and stress. where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place. hairstyles or even architecture. Studies now range across a number of fields. Sign languages and writing are generally understood as forms of verbal communication. sadness and surprise are universal. fear." (Givens. which differ from culture to culture. Arbitrariness While much nonverbal communication is based on arbitrary symbols. or the use of emoticons. meaning "of or concerned with words". 4) History The first scientific study of nonverbal communication was Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). including . touch or taste. there are other means also. oral communication Scholars in this field usually use a strict sense of the term "verbal". Clothing and bodily characteristics . However. and behaviors of communicators during interaction. 2000. and do not use "verbal communication" as a synonym for oral or spoken communication. NVC is important as: "When we speak (or listen). Thus. our attention is focused on words rather than body language. are nonverbal. Paul Ekman's influential 1960s studies of facial expression determined that expressions of anger. An audience is simultaneously processing both verbal and nonverbal cues. smell. But our judgment includes both. spatial arrangement of words. the physical characteristics of the communicators. as well as prosodic features such as rhythm. the situation and the message will determine the appraisal. emotion and speaking style. Nonverbal communication can occur through any sensory channel ² sight. such as a grunt. He argued that all mammals show emotion reliably in their faces. vocal sounds that are not considered to be words. semiotics and social psychology. including voice quality. joy. Body movements are not usually positive or negative in and of themselves. both may contain paralinguistic elements and often occur alongside nonverbal messages. Likewise.the only source of communication. written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style. rather. linguistics. as both make use of words ² although like speech. Verbal vs. Dance is also regarded as a nonverbal communication. NVC can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication). sound. much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction. NVC can be communicated through object communication such as clothing. by body language or posture. symbols and infographics. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. p.

clothing sent signals about interest in courtship. there is no ³right´ to occupancy. Austria. but people may still feel some degree of ownership of a particular space. noise. Although people have only a limited claim over that space. it was found that people take longer to leave a parking space when someone is waiting to take that space. odors. p. Chronemics: time in communication Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. they often exceed that claim. The space between the sender and the receiver of a message influences the way the message is interpreted. height. The way we perceive time. skin color. interior decorating. For example. hair. lighting conditions. carried out in Vienna. a study. and helps set the stage for communication. for example. structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool. Melamed & Bozionelos (1992) studied a sample of managers in the UK and found that height was a key factor affecting who was promoted. 2. Elements such as physique. to some degree. weight. For example. social. The term territoriality is still used in the study of proxemics to explain human behavior regarding personal space. Interaction territory: this is space created by others when they are interacting. For example. the speed of speech and how long people are willing to listen. and public space. 4. Hargie & Dickson (2004. For example. and the presence of sheer clothing. The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different settings within cultures. Time perceptions include punctuality and willingness to wait. The timing and frequency of an action as well as the tempo and rhythm of communications within an interaction contributes to the interpretation of nonverbal messages. a house that others cannot enter without the owner¶s permission. Gudykunst & TingToomey (1988) identified 2 dominant time patterns: . Secondary territory: unlike the previous type. were correlated with aspects of the clothing.g. and music affect the behavior of communicators during interaction. others will walk around the group rather than disturb it. and clothing send nonverbal messages during interaction. such as a parking space or a seat in a library. standing on a platform. 3. architectural style. hisbadges and shoulder sleeve insignia give information about his job and rank. Primary territory: this refers to an area that is associated with someone who has exclusive use of it. This man's clothes identify him as male and a police officer. e. Research into height has generally found that taller people are perceived as being more impressive. Thus. Physical environment Environmental factors such as furniture. but only for a set period. temperature. personal. 69) identify 4 such territories: 1. when they want to make more of an impact with their speaking. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into four main categories: intimate. Often people try to make themselves taller. at the arms. colors. and levels of sexual hormones. gender. The furniture itself can be seen as a nonverbal message Proxemics: physical space in communication Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them. For example. of the clothing worn by women attending discothèques showed that in certain groups of women (especially women who were in town without their partners) motivation for sex. especially the amount of skin displayed. someone may sit in the same seat on train every day and feel aggrieved if someone else sits there. when a group is talking to each other on a footpath.Uniforms have both a functional and a communicative purpose. Public territory: this refers to an area that is available to all.

1997. Canada. Unlike Americans and most northern and western European cultures. Egypt.´ As communication scholar Edward T. arranged and managed. 238). Hall wrote regarding the American¶s viewpoint of time in the business world. Cohen notes that "Traditional societies have all the time in the world. such as the American culture. This perception of time is learned and rooted in the Industrial Revolution. and a more fluid approach is taken to scheduling time. and the calendar of religious festivities" (Cohen. We use time to structure both our daily lives and events that we are planning for the future. small units. such as the German and Swiss. 1999. days. spend time and make time. For Americans. rather than watching the clock. and Scandinavia. They have no problem being ³late´ for an event if they are with family or friends. Our time can be broken down into years. Under this system time is scheduled. Movement and body position Kinesics . Polychronic Time A polychronic time system is a system where several things can be done at once.´ Polychronic cultures include Saudi Arabia. classes that start and end at certain times. seconds and even milliseconds. We have schedules that we must follow: appointments that we must go to at a certain time.´ These cultures are committed to regimented schedules and may view those who do not subscribe to the same perception of time as disrespectful. DeVito & Hecht. The arbitrary divisions of the clock face have little saliency in cultures grounded in the cycle of the seasons. Latin American and Arabic cultures use the polychronic system of time. Rather. months.´ The result of this perspective is that Americans and other monochronic cultures. ³time is tangible´ and viewed as a commodity where ³time is money´ or ³time is wasted. These cultures are much less focused on the preciseness of accounting for each and every moment. and even our favorite TV shows. work schedules that start and end at certain times. because the relationship is what really matters. save time. p. ³cultures that use the polychronic time system often schedule multiple appointments simultaneously so keeping on schedule is an impossibility.Monochronic Time A monochronic time system means that things are done one at a time and time is segmented into precise. As a result. tasks and ³getting the job done. place a paramount value on schedules. Switzerland. 34). p.´ Hall says that for monochronic cultures. minutes. Philippines. As Raymond Cohen notes. India. where "factory life required the labor force to be on hand and in place at an appointed hour" (Guerrero. hours. polychronic cultures have a much less formal perception of time. They are not ruled by precise calendars and schedules. Mexico. Instead. "We buy time. that start and end at a certain time. The United States is considered a monochronic society. United States. their culture is more focused on relationships. ³the schedule is sacred. Monochronic cultures include Germany. and many in Africa. time is a precious resource not to be wasted or taken lightly. polychronic cultures are deeply steeped in tradition rather than in tasks²a clear difference from their monochronic counterparts. the invariant pattern of rural life.

or rolling ones' eyes. The term was first used (in 1952) by Ray Birdwhistell. body orientation. Posture Posture can be used to determine a participant¶s degree of attention or involvement.Information about the relationship andaffect of these two skaters is communicated by their body posture. Part of Birdwhistell's work involved making film of people in social situations and analyzing them to show different levels of communication not clearly seen otherwise. and also include movements of the head. arm position. including Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures. can be hard to identify. and body openness. the difference in status between communicators. an anthropologist who wished to study how people communicate through posture. nodding. . stance. face and eyes. The study was joined by several other anthropologists. such as winking. and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator. Gesture A wink is a type of gesture. arms or body. and movement. leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech. or verbal and nonverbal communication. eye gaze andphysical contact. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean. gesture. a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication. where one person¶s left side is parallel to the other person¶s right side. The boundary between language and gesture. A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They may be articulated with the hands.

such as the hand-wave used in the US for "hello" and "goodbye". For a list of emblematic gestures. Gestures can also be categorized as either speech-independent or speech-related. Speech related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion. this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. holding. and scratching. Examples of immediacy behaviors are: smiling. hand). and the manner of touch. These gestures are closely coordinated with speech. These are conventional. Touching of oneself may include licking. picking." Gestural languages such as American Sign Language and its regional siblings operate as complete natural languages that are gestural in modality. see list of gestures. Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. A single emblematic gesture can have a very different significance in different cultural contexts. Another broad category of gestures comprises those gestures used spontaneously when we speak. culture-specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words. Haptics: touching in communication A high five is an example of communicative touch. back slapping. lips. Touches that can be defined as communication include handshakes. Speechindependent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation. Humans communicate interpersonal closeness through a series of non-verbal actions known as immediacy behaviors. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. in which a set of emblematic gestures are used to represent a written alphabet. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent upon the context of the . a pat on the shoulder. some broad categories of gestures have been identified by researchers. Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition. ranging from complimentary to highly offensive. high fives. holding hands. a gesture that depicts the act of throwing may be synchronous with the utterance. and brushing an arm. the relationship between communicators. Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures. Other spontaneous gestures used when we speak are more contentful and may echo or elaborate the meaning of the co-occurring speech.Although the study of gesture is still in its infancy. "He threw the ball right into the window. touching. These types of gestures are integrally connected to speech and thought processes. The so-called beat gestures are used in conjunction with speech and keep time with the rhythm of speech to emphasize certain words or phrases. They should not be confused with finger spelling.For example. kissing (cheek. These behaviors are referred to as "adapter" or "tells" and may send messages that reveal the intentions or feelings of a communicator.

while only a subset have sight and hearing. To 'touch oneself' is a euphemism for masturbation.(Harlow.[citation needed] In chimpanzees the sense of touch is highly developed. looking while listening.5%) sample. Touch is the earliest sense to develop in the fetus. France (5%) and the Netherlands (4%) touching was rare compared to their Italian (14%) and Greek (12. The word touch has many other metaphorical uses. pupil dilation. In the Thai culture. Paralanguage: nonverbal cues of the voice Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. and eye contact. amount of gaze. pulling. Gaze comprises the actions of looking while talking. touching someone's head may be thought rude. Stoeltje (2003) wrote about how Americans are µlosing touch¶ with this important communication skill. pitch and accent. Touch can be thought of as a basic sense in that most life forms have a response to being touched. As newborns they see and hear poorly but cling strongly to their mothers. and blink rate.1958) Touching is treated differently from one country to another. American children were said to be more aggressive than their French counterparts while playing at a playground. can all give off nonverbal cues. It can be both sexual (such as kissing) and platonic (such as hugging or tickling). were considerably more emotionally stable as adults than those with a mere wire mother. strangling and hand-to-hand fighting are forms of touch in the context of physical abuse. . as well as providing information about surfaces and textures it is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships. To say "I was touched by your letter" implies the reader felt a strong emotion when reading it. Touch Research Institutes. Harry Harlow conducted a controversial study involving rhesus monkeys and observed that monkeys reared with a "terry cloth mother". It was noted that French women touched their children more Eye gaze The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication is sometimes referred to as "oculesics". Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone. Socially acceptable levels of touching varies from one culture to another. kicking.[citation needed] Striking. and vocalization. One can be emotionally touched. Babies who can perceive through touch. During a study conduced by University of Miami School of Medicine. attention. disgust or other forms of emotional rejection unless used in a sarcastic manner. referring to an action or object that evokes an emotional response. and involvement. Eye contact can indicate interest. a wire feeding apparatus wrapped in softer terry cloth which provided a level of tactile stimulation and comfort. In a sentence like "I never touched him/her" or "Don't you dare to touch him/her" the term touch may be meant as euphemism for either physical abuse or sexual touching. Remland and Jones (1995) studied groups of people communicating and found that in England (8%). even without sight and hearing. The development of an infant's haptic senses and how it relates to the development of the other senses such as vision has been the target of much research. pinching. Trager developed a classification system which consists of the voice set. and vital in conveying physical intimacy. Usually does not include anger. Touch is an extremely important sense for humans.body positions. and frequency of glances. Haptic communication is the means by which people and other animals communicate via touching. tend to fare much better. voice qualities. even if they retain sight and hearing. patterns of fixation. Cultures that display these immediacy behaviors are known to be high contact cultures. Human babies have been observed to have enormous difficulty surviving if they do not possess a sense of touch. Paralanguage may change the meaning of words. pushing. collectively known asprosody. The linguist George L.

qualifiers and segregates. is widely cited.e. articulation. Vocal segregates such as "uhhuh" notify the speaker that the listener is listening. the figures are obtained by combining results from two different studies which potentially cannot be combined. it is extremely weakly founded. a study  . resonance. This is the conclusion of a study where people watched made-up interviews of persons accused of having stolen a wallet. and accent. the larger was the trend that interviewees who actually lied were judged to be truthful.  Vocalization consists of three subsections: characterizers. other studies have analysed the relative contribution of verbal and nonverbal signals under more naturalistic situations. They give each individual a unique "voice print". from the voice tone. it relates only to women. and .38. It is presented on all types of popular courses with statements like "scientists have found out that . .with coefficients of . ". age and a person's culture. In reality. analysed the communication of submissive/dominant attitude and found that non-verbal cues had 4. The most important effect was that body posture communicated superior status in a very efficient way. . This can include the situation.3 times the effect of verbal cues. vocal.for example. and how much is communicated non-verbally? This was investigated by Albert Mehrabian and reported in two papers . mood. it is based on the judgment of the meaning of single taperecorded words. Characterizer's are emotions expressed while speaking. i. however. respectively.07. The latter paper concluded: "It is suggested that the combined effect of simultaneous verbal. That is. how much of the meaning is communicated verbally. non-verbal codes are used to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships. First.. for instance in order to avoid embarrassing situations . and 55 % respectively to the total meaning. tempo. People had access to either written transcripts of the interviews. such as laughing. a very artificial context.55. On the other hand. The more clues that were available to those watching. as opposed to whispering "Hey stop that". or video recordings. crying. Argyle . Argyle (1988) concluded there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication:  Express emotions  Express interpersonal attitudes  To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners  Self-presentation of one¶s personality  Rituals (greetings) Concealing deception Nonverbal communication makes it easier to lie without being revealed. Since then." This "rule" that clues from spoken words. . rhythm. gender. as men did not participate in the study.  The voice qualities are volume. and from the facial expression. pitch. using video tapes shown to the subjects. it relates only to the communication of positive versus negative emotions. and facial attitude communications is a weighted sum of their independent effects . The interviewees lied in about 50 % of the cases. or audio tape recordings. nasality. contribute 7 %. and yawning. 38 %.)) Functions of nonverbal communication Argyle (1970) put forward the hypothesis that whereas spoken language is normally used for communicating information about events external to the speakers. Third. yelling "Hey stop that!". It is considered more polite or nicer to communicate attitudes towards others non-verbally rather than verbally. Fourth. people that are clever at lying can use voice tone and face expression to give the impression that they are truthful The relation between verbal and nonverbal communication The relative importance of verbal and nonverbal communication An interesting question is: When two people are communicating face-to-face. A voice qualifier is the style of delivering a message .The voice set is the context in which the speaker is speaking. Second.

ambivalence. and body positioning as corresponding with specific feelings and intentions.Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh. messages have been shown to be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal exchange. or frustration. voice pitch. nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways: repeating. Thus. Means of self-expression. Interaction of verbal and nonverbal communication When communicating. Touch. Dance. conflicting. the influence of disease and drugs on receptivity of nonverbal communication was studied by teams at three separate medical schools using a similar Hsee et al. substituting. creativity and memory as does verbal language in speaking and writing. Yale University and Ohio State University had subjects observe gamblers at a slot machine awaiting payoffs. both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance). when nonverbal behavior does not effectively communicate a message. assembles (choreographs) these elements in a manner that more often resembles poetry. such as pointing to the object of discussion. Nonverbal signals can be used without verbal communication to convey messages. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when trying to achieve communicative goals. Repeating "Repeating" consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message. complementing. Dance and nonverbal communication Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires the same underlying faculty in the brain for conceptualization.[20] Substituting Nonverbal behavior is sometimes used as the sole channel for communication of a message. nonverbal behavior can also be used to moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages as well. regulating and accenting/moderating. touching someone's arm can signal that you want to talk next or interrupt.[23]. the relative importance of spoken words and facial expressions may be very different in studies using different set-ups. grammar (rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning. symbolic and elusive meanings. however. had subjects judge a person on the dimension happy/sad and found that words spoken with minimal variation in intonation had an impact about 4 times larger than face expressions seen in a film without sound.[21] Regulating Nonverbal behavior also regulates our conversations. A person verbally expressing a statement of truth while simultaneously fidgeting or avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed message to the receiver in the interaction. and gestures are some of the tools people use to accent or amplify the message that is sent. People learn to identify facial expressions. a person who is verbally expressing anger may accent the verbal message by shaking a fist. For example. Clinical studies of nonverbal communication From 1977 to 2004. Conflicting Verbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing or conflicting messages. with its ambiguity and multiple.[21] Accenting/Moderating Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of verbal messages. great attention is placed on bodily movements and positioning when people perceive mixed messages during interactions. verbal methods are used to enhance understanding. The amount of .[22] For example.[19] When mixed messages occur. body movements. Complementing Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement each other. Conflicting messages may occur for a variety of reasons often stemming from feelings of uncertainty. nonverbal communication becomes the primary tool people use to attain additional information to clarify the situation.

or pathologists. the members of the research team hypothesized a biochemical site in the brain which was operative for reception of nonverbal cues. Robert E. Medical students at Ohio State University. psychiatry. Freitas-Magalhaes studied the effect of smile in the treatment of depression and concluded that depressive states decrease when you smile more often. Internal medicine and plastic surgery candidates scored at levels near the mean[35]. These groups reported diminished receptive ability in heroin addicts [24] and phencyclidine abusers[25] was contrasted with increased receptivity in cocaine addicts. Measurements of the ability to communicate nonverbally and the capacity to feel empathy have shown that the two abilities are independent of each other [40]. Phonation Phonation Glottal states From open to closed: Voiceless (full . Based on the available data. Their scores were the highest of any subgroup. especially in interpersonal relationships. women are better at nonverbal communication than are men[36][37][38][39]. on average. pediatrics and obstetrics-gynecology achieved significantly higher levels of accuracy than those students who planned to train as surgeons. Dr.[31]. This technique was developed by and the studies directed by psychologist. Thus. The final target of study for this group was the medical students they taught. however. Miller and psychiatrist.[33] Rape victims were next tested. Students indicating a preference for the specialties of family practice. In contradistinction. including Asperger syndrome. men with bipolar disorder possessed increased abilities. A byproduct of the work of the Pittsburgh/Yale/ Ohio State team was an investigation of the role of nonverbal facial cues in heterosexual nondate rape. There exist resources that are tailored specifically to these people. the primary cause and primary effect could not be sorted out on the basis of the paradigm employed[32].[34] These results were troubling. A. A specific group of persons that face these challenges are those with autism spectrum disorders. James Giannini. the neurotransmitters dopamine and endorphin were considered to be likely etiological candidate. Ohio University and Northest Ohio Medical College were invited to serve as subjects. Difficulties with nonverbal communication People vary in their ability to send and receive nonverbal communication. this can pose significant challenges. Because certain drugs enhanced ability while others diminished it. The authors did note that whatever the nature of these preliminary findings the responsibility of the rapist was in no manner or level. Males who were serial rapists of adult women were studied for nonverbal receptive abilities. Because of the changes in levels of accuracy on the levels of nonverbal receptivity. Men with major depression[26] manifested significantly decreased ability to read nonverbal cues when compared with euthymic men.[27] Obese women[28] and women with premenstrual syndrome[29] were found to also possess diminished abilities to read these cues. which attempt to assist those in understanding information which comes more easily to others.diminished. to a moderate degree. For people who have relatively large difficulties with nonverbal communication. indicating a predator-prey model. radiologists.[30].this payoff was read by nonverbal transmission prior to reinforcement. A woman with total paralysis of the nerves of facial expression was found unable to transmit any nonverbal facial cues whatsoever. It was reported that women who had been raped on at least two occasions by different perpetrators had a highly significant impairment in their abilities to read these cues in either male or female senders. Dr.

and they use the vibration) termphonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream. In linguistics. As such. though there is also Harsh voice ("pressed") some superior component as well. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone. occurs when air is expelled airstream) from the lungs through the glottis. The sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series. though. and for humans with normal vocal folds. which are multiples of the fundamental frequency . the Supravocal folds start to oscillate. voiceless and supra-glottal phonation are included under this definition. The vocal folds will not oscillate if they are not sufficiently close to one another. The motion of the vocal folds during voice ("hollow") oscillation is mostly in the lateral direction. which is common in the field of Creaky voice (restricted airstream) linguistic phonetics. can be varied through a variety of means. In addition to tension changes. the main acoustic cue for the Falsetto percept pitch) accompanied by harmonic overtones. When this drop becomes sufficiently large. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and Slack voice speech production in general. and placed laterally (abducted) when compared to vocal folds during phonation. The oscillation of the Strident (harsh trilled) vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx. of which voicing is just Stiff voice one example. However. either volitionally or through movement of the tongue to which the larynx is attached via the hyoid bone. A third theory. voiceless phones are associated with vocal folds that are elongated. Large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Smaller changes in tension can be effected by contraction of the thyroarytenoid muscle or changes in the relative position of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. and this modulated airflow is the main Non-phonemic phonation component of the sound of most voiced phones. According to the Source-Filter Theory. the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch. Fundamental frequency. call Modal voice (maximum this process quasi-periodic vibration voicing. Other phoneticians. which is mostly affected by the pressure in the lungs. Voicing Glottalized (blocked The phonatory process. there is almost no motion along the length of the vocal folds. it is Faucalized approximately 2±3 cm H2O. or if the pressure drop across the larynx is not sufficiently large. creating a pressure drop across the larynx. Among some phoneticians. as may occur when the larynx is lowered or raised. fundamental frequency is also affected by the pressure drop across the larynx. These two theories are not in contention with one another and it is quite possible that both theories are true and operating simultaneously to initiate and maintain vibration. The minimum pressure drop glottal phonation required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure. it consists of a fundamental tone (called the fundamental frequency. are not under sufficient tension or under too much tension. There are currently two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated: the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory. the resulting sound excites the resonance chamber that is the vocal tract to produce the individual speech sounds. and will also vary with the distance between the vocal folds. In Whisper other words. phonation is the process by which thevocal folds produce certain sounds Breathy voice (murmur) through quasi-periodic vibration. a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. In speech. . or voicing.Phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the airstream) subfield of phonetics. highly tensed.

allowing air to escape and reducing the pressure enough for the muscle tension recoil to pull the folds back together again. persons with paralyzed vocal folds can produce phonation. phonation was considered to be a matter of points on a continuum of tension and closure of the vocal cords. Advocates of this theory thought that every single vibration of the vocal folds was due to an impulse from the recurrent laryngeal nerves and that the acoustic center in the brain regulated the speed of vocal fold vibration.. the aperture of the arytenoid cartilages. Phonation occurring in excised larynges would also not be possible according to this theory. with the arytenoid cartilages apart for maximum airflow. Pressure builds up once again until the cords are pushed apart. and there are several intermediate situations utilized by various languages to make contrasting sounds. causing the cycles to repeat. In addition. s Janwillem van den Berg as the originator of the theory and provides detailed mathematical development of the theory. If the vocal cords are completely relaxed. In between there is a sweet spot of maximum vibration. and therefore the tension in the vocal cords.the neurochronaxic theory.R. and until recently the state of the glottis and phonation were considered to be nearly synonymous. The textbook entitled Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation by Ingo Titze cr . Speech and voice scientists have long since left this theory as the muscles have been shown to not be able to contract fast enough to accomplish the vibration. and the whole cycle keeps repeating itself. the vocal cords block the airstream. which would not be possible according to this theory. The aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids. but they were difficult to investigate. the sail shapes the vocal cords. More intricate mechanisms were occasionally described. In linguistic phonetic treatments of phonation. a push-pull effect is created on the vocal fold tissues that maintains self-sustained oscillation. This is modal voice. Gujarati has vowels with a partially lax phonation called breathy voice or murmured. producing stop sounds such as the glottal stop. is one of degree between the end points of open and closed. when the glottis is divergent. such as those of Peter Ladefoged. but has since been largely discr . the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and the flow starts up again. The push occurs during glottal opening. As the state of the glottis A continuum from closed glottis to open. If the arytenoids are pressed together for glottal closure. The rate at which the cords open and close²the number of cycles per second²determines the pitch of the phonation. when the glottis is convergent. and is extremely common with obstruents. while Burmese has vowels with a partially tense phonation called creaky voice orlaryngealized.I. and not by breath pressure or muscular tension. whereas the pull occurs during glottal closing. was in considerable vogue in the 1950s. During glottal closure. For example. 2006 Neurochronaxic theory This theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxy of the recurrent nerve. This is voicelessphonation. Both of these phonations have dedicated IPA .Template:Titze. and is the normal state for vowels and sonorants in all the world's languages. and the dotted circle the windpipe. ed. Myoelastic and aerodynamic theory The myoelastic theory states that when the vocal cords are brought together and breath pressure is applied to them. the cords remain closed until the pressure beneath them²the subglottic pressure²is sufficient to push them apart. the cords do not vibrate. The theory states that when a stream of breath is flowing through the glottis while the arytenoid cartilages are held together by the action of the interarytenoid muscles. The black triangles represent the arytenoid cartilages. However.

Glottal consonants It has long been noted that in many languages. d. with more moderate departures from modal voice.) Alsatian. Supra-glottal phonation . are sometimes added to the symbol for a voiced sound to indicate more lax/open (slack) and tense/closed (stiff) states of the glottis. / / (ambiguously called "lenis") are partially voiced: The vocal cords are positioned as for voicing. both phonologically and historically. and open airstream for [h]. has a typologically unusual phonation in its stops. /d/. but instead as instances of pure phonation. Although each language may be somewhat different. because a modally voiced sound is already fully voiced. but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale. The latter two translations may have been mixed up. but do not actually vibrate. t. an under-umlaut and under-tilde. ing error in the source of this information. like several Germanic languages. . respectively. as well as aspirated /k / word initially. (Note that Mazatec is a tonal language.) Mazatec breathy voice [ja] he wears modal voice creaky voice [já] tree [ja] he carries Note: There was an . Phonetically. adding the 'voicing' diacritic to the symbol for a voiced consonant indicates less modal voicing. A series of seven alveolar plosives. they contrast with tenuis and aspirated consonants. (Ironically. are: Open glottis [t] voiceless (full airstream) [d] breathy voice [d] slack voice Sweet spot [d] modal voice (maximum vibration) [d] stiff voice [d] creaky voice Closed glottis [ t] glottal closure (blocked airstream) The IPA diacritics under-ring and subscript wedge. k/ in French borrowings. at least in many European languages. they are technically voiceless.diacritics. so the glottis is making several tonal distinctions simultaneously with the phonation distinctions. commonly called "voiceless" and "voiced". h] do not behave like other consonants. The consonants transcribed /b/. in Semitic languages they do appear to be true glottal consonants. / and modally voiceless /p. it is convenient to classify these degrees of phonation into discrete categories. they have nomanner or place of articulation other than the state of the glottis: glottal closure for [ ]. The Jalapa dialect of Mazatec is unusual in contrasting both with modal voice in a three-way distinction. at its sweet spot. with phonations ranging from an open/lax to a closed/tense glottis. not more. That is. breathy voice for [ ]. Some phoneticians have described these sounds as neither glottal nor consonantal. and any further tension in the vocal cords dampens their vibration. The "muddy" consonants in Shanghainese are slack voice. Javanese does not have modal voice in its plosives. but without the open glottis usually associated with voiceless stops. the glottal consonants [ . They contrast with both modally voiced /b. called slack voice and stiff voice. However.

raising or lowering of the entire larynx 6. producing the distinctions described above 2. Sui. Amis. Korean. [a]. glottal (the vocal cords). partially covering and damping the glottis) 3. with as many as six valves and muscles working either independently or together. faucalized. breathy. Nuuchahnulth. one modally voiced and one voiceless. Outside of Europe.[citation needed] In English. these articulations are: 1. epiglotto-pharyngeal (retraction of the tongue and epiglottis. which involves overall expansion of the larynx.Tigrinya. simultaneous glottal. and the interactions among the six laryngeal articulators is still poorly understood. breathy. in Australian languages it is nearly universal.[citation needed] Certain English morphemes have voiced and voiceless allomorphs. and possessive endings spelled -s (voiced in kids /k dz/ but voiceless in kits /k ts/) and the past-tense ending spelled -ed (voiced in buzzed /b zd/ but voiceless in fished /f t/. narrowing of the pharynx Until the development of fiber-optic laryngoscopy. The ad hoc diacritics employed in the literature are a subscript double quotation mark for faucalized voice. at least two supra-glottal phonations appear to be widespread in the world's languages. which involves overall constriction of the larynx. the distinction is better specified as voice onset time rather than simply voice: In initial position /b d g/ are only partially voiced (voicing begins during the hold of the consonant). previously seen as ATR). and harsh voice). Thai. ventricular (the 'false vocal cords'. have no phonemically voiced obstruents but pairs of long and short consonants instead. while /p t k/ are aspirated (voicing doesn't begin until well after its release). a lack of voicing distinctions is not uncommon. it is often found that they are realized as voiced in voiced environments such as between vowels. and voiceless elsewhere. Nlaka'pamux. all obstruents occur in pairs.In the last few decades it has become apparent that phonation may involve the entire larynx. verbal. the full involvement of the larynx during speech production was not observable. For example. arytenoid (sphincteric compression forwards and upwards) 4. and faucalized voice ('hollow' or 'yawny' voice). From the glottis upward. For the pairs of English plosives.   . [a]. Ca ntonese. Pame. Arabic. and harsh voice in its vowels. However.[citation needed] A few European languages. Voice modal breathy harsh t ìt t ìt faucalized t ìt Bor Dinka t ìt diarrhea go ahead scorpions to swallow Other languages with these contrasts are Bai (modal. indeed. These are harsh voice ('ventricular' or 'pressed' voice). Elements of laryngeal articulation or phonation may occur widely in the world's languages as phonetic detail even when not phonemically contrastive. Kabiye (faucalized and harsh voice. every voiced fricative corresponds to a voiceless one. Somali (breathy and harsh voice). such as the plural. In languages without the distinction between voiceless and voiced obstruents. Examples are. such as Finnish. The Bor dialect of Dinka has contrastive modal. and Yi. and underlining for harsh voice. as well as three tones. however. Familiar language examples In languages such as French. and arytenoid activity (for something other than epiglottal consonants) has been observed in Tibetan. ventricular. potentially closing onto the pharyngeal wall) 5.

These four registers contrast with each other. creak. . which possesses a characteristic sound quality. voice") is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. Subfields Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:  articulatory phonetics is concerned with the articulation of speech: The position. a vocal register also refers to a particular phonation limited to a particular range of pitch. also for invention of phonograph. breath. By replaying the same speech signal from the phonograph several times. acoustic properties. ph n . The term "register" may be used for several distinct aspects of the human voice::  A particular part of the vocal range. The Ancient Greeks are cr . among its vowels. For example. and movement of articulators or speech organs. low. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones): their physiological production. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to P ini's classification. and the whistle register. or lower registers. whose Visible Speech (1867) introduced a system of precise notation for writing down speech sounds. but no other combination of phonation (modal. falling) is found. A series of papers by Ludimar Hermann published in Pflüger's Archiv in the last two decades of the 19th century investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants using the Edison phonograph. History Phonetics was studied as early as 2500 years ago in ancient India. Phonetics Phonetics (from the Greek: . Modern phonetics began with Alexander Melville Bell. middle. "sound. that allowed the speech signal to be recorded and then later processed and analyzed. filtering it each time with a different band-pass filter. on the other hand. auditory perception. is concerned with abstract. which may be bounded by vocal breaks  A particular phonation  A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice  A certain vocal timbre Four combinations of these elements are identified in speech pathology: the vocal fry register.Vocal registers In phonology In phonology. and vocal folds. such as the upper. breathy voice with falling tone. ed as the first to base a writing system on a phonetic alphabet. Burmese combines modal voice with low tone. a register is a combination of tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological parameter. the falsetto register. The studies about phonetic was strongly enhanced in the late 19th century. closed) and tone (high. tongue. and glottal closure with high tone. the modal register. Phonology. In pedagogy and speech pathology Among vocal pedagogues and speech pathologists. with P ini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. Hermann also played back vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds to distinguish between Willis' and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production. and it was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. and neurophysiological status. shape. such as the lips. creaky voice with high tone. grammatical characterization of systems of sounds. a spectrogram of the speech utterance could be built up.

In a strict sense. Before puberty. e. etc. In response. Growth accelerates in the first half of puberty and stops at the completion of puberty. As part of this investigation. phonology is the study of how sounds and gestures pattern in and across languages. muscle. composition.. uses a one-to-one mapping between phones and written symbols. professional acting. categorization. but its boundaries are less precisely defined and it refers as  . Puberty is initiated by hormone signals from the brain to the gonads(the ovaries and testes). such as theirfrequency. features. Transcription Main article: Phonetic transcription Phonetic transcription is a system for transcribing sounds that occur in spoken language or signed language. the gonads produce a variety of hormones that stimulate the growth.) and their conditioned variation (via.g. and speech pathology. the term puberty (derived from the Latin word puberatum (age of maturity. bones. or derivational rules). syllables. However.. major differences of size. and/or perceptual representations. The IPA is a useful tool not only for the study of phonetics. function. Relation to phonology In contrast to phonetics.g. Adolescence is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood. dialects. Adolescence largely overlaps the period of puberty. blood. acoustic signals. and function develop in many body structures and systems. and recognition of speech sounds and the role of the auditory system and the brain in the same. constraints. phoneticians may concern themselves with the physical properties of meaningful sound contrasts or the social meaning encoded in the speech signal (e. and harmonic structure. While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics. phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics. or transformation of brain. body differences between boys and girls are almost entirely restricted to the genitalia. The most widely known system of phonetic transcription. shape.g. Applications Application of phonetics include:  forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes. which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures. concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e. The most obvious of these are referred to as secondary sex characteristics.). etc. During puberty. Phonology relates to phonetics via the set of distinctive features. the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). skin. amplitude. a substantial portion of research in phonetics is not concerned with the meaningful elements in the speech signal. mora. Puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ethnicity.phonemes. hair.acoustic phonetics is concerned with acoustics of speech: The spectro-temporal properties of the sound waves produced by speech.  Speech Recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system. manhood)) refers to the bodily changes of sexual maturation rather than the psychosocial and cultural aspects of adolescent development. Phonetics deals with the articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds. and how they are perceived. breasts. but also for language teaching. The standardized nature of the IPA enables its users to transcribe accurately and consistently the phones of different languages. and idiolects. allophonic rules.  auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: the perception. how they are produced. sexuality. relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. gender. and reproductive organs.

girls typically begin the process of puberty at age 10. While testosterone produces all boys' changes characterized as virilization. an androgen called testosterone is the principal sex hormone. and the major sex steroids involved. though levels rise later and more slowly than in girls. Girls attain reproductive maturity about 4 years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. accelerates more slowly. Although boys are on average 2 cm shorter than girls before puberty begins. Puberty is marked in green at right. Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15±17. Any increase in height beyond these ages is uncommon. Differences between male and female puberty Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins.much to the psychosocial and cultural characteristics of development during the teen years as to the physical changes of puberty. and lasts longer before theepiphyses fuse.2 inches) taller than women. In contrast. while boys usually complete puberty by ages 16±18.PRL For boys. adult men are on average about 13 cm (5. boys accelerate more slowly but continue to grow for about 6 years after the first visible pubertal changes. Most of this sex difference in adult heights is attributable to a later onset of the growth . a substantial product of testosterone metabolism in males is estradiol. boys at age 12. Although there is a wide range of normal ages. The male "growth spurt" also begins later. Approximate outline of development periods in child and teenager development. 1 Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH 2 Luteinizing hormone LH 3 Progesterone 4 Estrogen 5 Hypothalamus 6 Pituitary gland 7 Ovary 8 Pregnancy hCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin) 9 Testosterone 10 Testicle 11 Incentives 12 Prolactin .

which precedes the rise in sex hormones. and then decline to adult levels when puberty is completed. a male's scrotum will become larger and begin to dangle or hang below the body as opposed to being up tight. The first few hairs are described as stage 2. Puberty onset The onset of puberty is associated with high GnRH pulsing. Testicular size continues to increase throughout puberty. it is also the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure. Body and facial hair . Leptin might be the cause of the GnRH rise. the length and then the breadth of the shaft of the penis will increase and the glans penis and corpora cavernosa will also start to enlarge to adult proportions. Most of the increasing bulk of testicular tissue is spermatogenic tissue (primarily Sertoli and Leydig cells). The rise in GnRH might also be caused by genetics. While estradiol promotes growth of breasts anduterus. Sperm can be detected in the morning urine of most boys after the first year of pubertal changes. The testes have two primary functions: to produce hormones and to produce sperm. Brain tumors which increase GnRH output may also lead to premature puberty The cause of the GnRH rise is unknown. Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. The Leydig cells produce testosterone. Testes in prepubertal boys change little in size from about 1 year of age to the onset of puberty. and occasionally earlier[citation needed]. After the boy's testicles have enlarged and developed for about one year." Stage 5 refers to the spread of pubic hair to the thighs and upward towards the navel as part of the developing abdominal hair. The hormone that dominates female development is an estrogen called estradiol.spurt and a slower progression to completion.Exogenous GnRH pulses cause the onset of puberty. Stage 3 is usually reached within another 6±12 months. While 18±20 cc is an average adult size. and fertility In boys.5±2 cm in width. On average. The levels of leptin increase with the onset of puberty. The researchers hypothesized that Neurokinin B might play a role in regulating the secretion ofKisspeptin. Estradiol levels rise earlier and reach higher levels in women than in men. a direct result of the later rise and lower adult male levels of estradiol. averaging about 2±3 cm in length and about 1. but full fertility will not be gained until 14±16 years of age[citation needed]. which in turn produces most of the male pubertal changes. Pubic hair Pubic hair often appears on a boy shortly after the genitalia begin to grow. function. By stage 4. The pubic hairs are usually first visible at the dorsal (abdominal) base of the penis. potential fertility in boys is reached at 13 years old. A study discovered that a mutation in genes encoding both Neurokinin B as well as the Neurokinin B receptor can alter the timing of puberty. the pubic hairs densely fill the "pubic triangle. when the hairs are too many to count. reaching maximal adult size about 6 years after the onset of puberty. Physical changes in boys Testicular size. to accommodate the production of sperm whereby the testicles need a certain temperature to be fertile. testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty (and is termed gonadarche). During puberty. a compound responsible for triggering direct release of GnRH as well as indirect release of LH and FSH. there is wide variation in testicular size in the normal population. LH and FSH. Individuals who are deficient in leptin fail to initiate puberty.

Chest hair may appear during puberty or years after. Facial hair is often present in late adolescence. periareolar hair.[19] Facial hair will continue to get coarser. or even oral medication. and the beard area. Not all men have chest hair. is attained about one year after a male experiences his peak growth rate. This growth is far more prominent in boys. resulting in noticeably different male and female skeletal shapes. Acne can not be prevented or diminished easily. the rate of muscle growth. Physical changes in girls Breast Development .Facial hair of a male that has been shaved In the months and years following the appearance of pubic hair. It is usually not a permanent phenomenon. voice change is accompanied by unsteadiness of vocalization in the early stages of untrained voices. The peak of the so-called "strength spurt". It usually precedes the development of significant facial hair by several months to years. due to the fact that acne is emotionally difficult and can cause scarring. sometimes abruptly but rarely "over night. resulting in a more "adult" body odor. another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin and the resultant variable amounts of acne. the larynx of boys and girls is about equally small. Some of the bone growth (e. Arm. sideburn (preauricular) hair. and significant differences in timing and quantity of hair growth among different racial groups. this specific order may vary among some individuals. and muscle growth can continue even after boys are biologically adult.g. Often. sometimes. and about 50% of the body fat. this becomes more apparent and is termedgynecomastia. The average adult male has about 150% of the lean body mass of an average female. Body odor and acne Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration. and back hair become heavier more gradually.[20] Occasionally. adult men have heavier bones and nearly twice as much skeletal muscle. Full adult pitch is attained at an average age of 15 years. upper lip hair. Voice change Under the influence of androgens. As in girls. Some men do not develop full facial hair for up to 10 years after the completion of puberty. This muscle develops mainly during the later stages of puberty. shoulder width and jaw) is disproportionately greater. Before puberty. There is a large range in amount of body hair among adult men. The usual sequence is: underarm (axillary) hair. However. chest. or larynx. the fat pads of the male breast tissue and the male nipples will develop during puberty. it is not unusual for a fully grown adult to suffer the occasional bout of acne. As with most human biological processes. darker and thicker for another 2±4 years after puberty. Male musculature and body shape By the end of puberty. perianal hair. especially in one breast. causing the male voice to drop and deepen." about one octave. leg. Some may desire using prescription topical creams or ointments to keep acne from getting worse. though it is normally less severe than in adolescents. abdominal. because the longer and thicker vocal folds have a lower fundamental frequency. but may not appear until significantly later. the voice box. but it typically fully diminishes at the end of puberty. Most of the voice change happens during stage 3-4 of male puberty around the time of peak growth. other areas of skin that respond to androgens may develop androgenic hair. grows in both sexes.

occurring on average at about 10.[33] Timing of the onset of puberty . In most young women. Within six to 12 months.[25] The ovaries usually contain small follicular cysts visible by ultrasound. The first few hairs are described as Tanner stage 2. Progressive differences in fat distribution as well as sex differences in local skeletal growth contribute to the typical female body shape by the end of puberty. By stage 4. when the hairs are too numerous to count and appear on the pubic mound as well. This often precedes thelarche and pubarche by one or more years.[28] Initiation of ovulation after menarche is not inevitable. and can be felt and seen extending beyond the edges of the areolae. the lower half of the pelvis and thus hips widen (providing a larger birth canal).[21] This is referred to as thelarche. and pubis.[24] Whitish secretions (physiologic leukorrhea) are a normal effect of estrogen as well. this is stage 2 of breast development (stage 1 is a flat.[23] It is referred to as pubarche. with areolae and papillae forming a secondary mound.[29] In postmenarchal girls. On average. the uterus. ovaries The mucosal surface of the vagina also changes in response to increasing levels of estrogen. upper arms. hips. Pubic hair Pubic hair is often the second noticeable change in puberty. Another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin. By another 12 months (stage 4). resulting in a more "adult" body odor. buttocks. uterus. By the widely used Tanner staging of puberty. about 80% of the cycles were anovulatory in the first year after menarche. becoming thicker and duller pink in color (in contrast to the brighter red of the prepubertal vaginal mucosa).The first physical sign of puberty in girls is usually a firm. usually within a few months of thelarche. at 10 years. This is stage 3 of breast development. but may or may not accompany the earliest menses. 50% in the third year and 10% in the sixth year. softened. prepubertal breast).[21] In the two years following thelarche. although there is so much variation in sizes and shapes of adult breasts that stages 4 and 5 are not always separately identifiable. also in response to rising levels of estrogen. and body composition During this period.[30] Nubility is used to designate achievement of fertility. ovaries. Body shape." Stage 5 refers to spread of pubic hair to the thighs and sometimes as abdominal hair upward towards thenavel. the pubic hairs densely fill the "pubic triangle.[33] Acne varies greatly in its severity. the breasts are approaching mature size and shape. This change increases the susceptibility to acne.75 years. Menstruation and fertility The first menstrual bleeding is referred to as menarche.[32] Body odor and acne Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration. fat distribution. the earliest pubic hair appears before breast development begins.[28] Ovulation is necessary for fertility. the swelling has clearly begun in both sides. girls have 6% more body fat than boys. tender lump under the center of the areola of one or both breasts.[23] The average age of menarche in girls is 11. A high proportion of girls with continued irregularity in the menstrual cycle several years from menarche will continue to have prolonged irregularity and anovulation. and typically occurs about two years after thelarche.[23] The time between menstrual periods (menses) is not always regular in the first two years after menarche.[22][31] Fat tissue increases to a greater percentage of the body composition than in males. especially in the typical female distribution of breasts. and the follicles in the ovaries increase in size. thighs. In about 15% of girls. a skin condition that is characteristic of puberty. this mound disappears into the contour of the mature breast (stage 5). and are at higher risk for reduced fertility.[23] Vagina. The pubic hairs are usually visible first along thelabia.5 years of age.[22] Stage 3 is usually reached within another 6±12 months.

3 years. Scientists believe the phenomenon could be linked to obesity or exposure to chemicals in the food chain. which are used in many cosmetics. and is putting girls at greater long-term risk of breast cancer.[41][42][43][44] The genetic association of timing is strongest between mothers and daughters.[35] The average age at which puberty begins may be affected by race as well. a juvenile female who has significant interaction with adult males will enter puberty earlier than juvenile females who are not socially overexposed to adult males. namely phthalates. In Norway. the average age of menarche in various populations surveyed has ranged from 12 to 18 years. clinical care of early or late pubescent individuals. Researchers have identified an earlier age of the onset of puberty. toys. The earliest average onset of puberty is for African-American girls and the latest average onset for high altitude subsistence populations in Asia. The later study identified as puberty as occurring in 48% of African-American girls by age nine. girls born in 1840 had their menarche at an average age of 17 years. the sample population was based on a small sample of white girls (200. but a number of others have been identified. hormonal versus physical) and purpose (establishing population normal standards. In the earlier example. started at an average age of 9 years and 10 months.[41] Among the candidates is an androgen receptor gene. etc. However. In England the average in 1840 was 16. However. One of the first observed environmental effects is that puberty occurs later in children raised at higher altitudes. hormonal. The age at which puberty begins is affected by both genetic factors and by environmental factors such as nutritional state and social circumstances.[36] Historical shift The average age at which the onset of puberty occurs has dropped significantly since the 1840s. In Japan the decline happened later and was then more rapid: from 1945 to 1975 in Japan there was a drop of 11 months per decade. If genetic factors account for half of the variation of pubertal timing. and the width of the spread may reflect unevenness of wealth and food distribution in a population. For example.The definition of the onset of puberty depends on perspective (e. The specific genes affecting timing are not yet known. The age at which puberty begins varies between individuals usually. In France the average in 1840 was 15. The most important of the environmental influences is clearly nutrition..g. The median age of menarche for a population may be an index of the proportion of undernourished girls in the population.[34] An example of social circumstances is the Vandenbergh effect.[45] Researchers[46] have hypothesized that early puberty onset may be caused by certain hair care products containing estrogen or placenta. much of the higher age averages reflect nutritional limitations more than genetic differences and can change within a few generations with a substantial change in diet. they have based their conclusions on a comparison of data from 1999 with data from 1969. These physical changes are the first visible signs of neural. A 2006 study in Denmark found that puberty. as evidenced by breast development. all which affect timing of female puberty and menarche more clearly than male puberty. a year earlier than when a similar study was done in 1991. and gonadal function changes.[40] Genetic influence and environmental factors Various studies have found direct genetic effects to account for at least 46% of the variation of timing of puberty in well-nourished populations. and plastic food containers. and 12% of white girls by that age. environment factors are clearly important as well. from Britain).[37][38][39] Researchers[who?] refer to this drop as the 'secular trend'. puberty begins between 10-13. In every decade from 1840 to 1950 there was a drop of four months in the average age of menarche among Western European females. and by certain chemicals. .5 years.) The most commonly used definition of the onset of puberty is physical changes to a person's body[citation needed].

which can bind and trigger estrogen receptors. nutritional differences accounted for majority of variation of pubertal timing in different populations. infants. and animal evidence. Sex steroids are sometimes used in cattle farming but have been banned in chicken meat production for 40 years. medical devices. and increases in childhood obesity have resulted in falling ages of puberty. Many plastic baby bottles contain BPA. Obesity influence and exercise Scientific researchers have linked early obesity with an earlier onset of puberty in girls. and as a coating in food and beverage cans. and children at current exposure levels because it can affect the prostate gland. Although agricultural laws regulate use to minimize accidental human consumption. . and lead to early puberty in girls. A high level of exercise. BPA mimics and interferes with the action of estrogen-an important reproduction and development regulator.Hormones and steroids There is theoretical concern.S.[47] Large amounts of incompletely metabolized estrogens and progestagens from pharmaceutical products are excreted into the sewage systems of large cities. They have cited obesity as a cause of breast development before nine years and menarche before twelve years. water bottles. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used to make plastics. Much evidence suggests that for most of the last few centuries. and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found measurable amounts of BPA in the bodies of more than 90 percent of the U. Harder to detect as an influence on puberty are the more diffusely distributed environmental chemicals like PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl). population studied. The highest estimated daily intakes of BPA occur in infants and children. but mild effects and the other potential exposures outlined above would not. the rules are largely self-enforced in the United States. mammary gland. are associated with later onset and slower progression of female puberty. More obvious degrees of partial puberty from direct exposure of young children to small but significant amounts of pharmaceutical sex steroids from exposure at home may be detected during medical evaluation for precocious puberty. and is frequently used to make baby bottles. whether for athletic or body image purposes. Although available dietary energy (simple calories) is the most important dietary influence on timing of puberty. especially in females. quality of the diet plays a role as well. It leaches out of plastic into liquids and foods. Recent worldwide increased consumption of animal protein. Surplus calories (beyond growth and activity requirements) are reflected in the amount of body fat. Significant exposure of a child to hormones or other substances that activate estrogen or androgen receptors could produce some or all of the changes of puberty. that environmental hormones and chemicals may affect aspects of prenatal or postnatal sexual development in humans.[50] The average level of daily physical activity has also been shown to affect timing of puberty. as occur with typical vegetarian diets. other changes in nutrition. Scientists are concerned about BPA's behavioral effects on fetuses. sports equipment. which signals to the brain the availability of resources for initiation of puberty and fertility. and even among social classes in the same population.[48] Nutritional influence Nutritional factors are the strongest and most obvious environmental factors affecting timing of puberty. and BPA is more likely to leach out of plastic when its temperature is increased. Lower protein intakes and higherdietary fiber intakes. and are sometimes detectable in the environment.[49] Early puberty in girls can be a harbinger of later health problems. mainly in those populations with the higher previous ages.[41] Girls are especially sensitive to nutritional regulation because they must contribute all of the nutritional support to a growing fetus. In many populations the amount of variation attributable to nutrition is shrinking. as when one warms a baby bottle or warms up food in the microwave.

or for daily subsistence, reduces energy calories available for reproduction and slows puberty. The exercise effect is often amplified by a lower body fat mass and cholesterol. Physical and mental illness Chronic diseases can delay puberty in both boys and girls. Those that involve chronic inflammation or interfere with nutrition have the strongest effect. In the western world, inflammatory bowel disease and tuberculosis have been notorious for such an effect in the last century, while in areas of the underdeveloped world, chronic parasite infections are widespread. Mental illnesses occur in puberty. The brain undergoes significant development by hormones which can contribute to mood disorders such as Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder,dysthymia and schizophrenia. Girls aged between 15 and 19 make up 40% of anorexia nervosa cases.[51] Stress and social factors Some of the least understood environmental influences on timing of puberty are social and psychological. In comparison with the effects of genetics, nutrition, and general health, social influences are small, shifting timing by a few months rather than years. Mechanisms of these social effects are unknown, though a variety of physiological processes, includingpheromones, have been suggested based on animal research. The most important part of a child's psychosocial environment is the family, and most of the social influence research has investigated features of family structure and function in relation to earlier or later female puberty. Most of the studies have reported that menarche may occur a few months earlier in girls in high-stress households, whose fathers are absent during their early childhood, who have a stepfather in the home, who are subjected to prolonged sexual abuse in childhood, or who are adopted from a developing country at a young age. Conversely, menarche may be slightly later when a girl grows up in a large family with a biological father present. More extreme degrees of environmental stress, such as wartime refugee status with threat to physical survival, have been found to be associated with delay of maturation, an effect that may be compounded by dietary inadequacy. Most of these reported social effects are small and our understanding is incomplete. Most of these "effects" are statistical associations revealed by epidemiologic surveys. Statistical associations are not necessarily causal, and a variety of covariables and alternative explanations can be imagined. Effects of such small size can never be confirmed or refuted for any individual child. Furthermore, interpretations of the data are politically controversial because of the ease with which this type of research can be used for political advocacy. Accusations of bias based on political agenda sometimes accompany scientific criticism. Another limitation of the social research is that nearly all of it has concerned girls, partly because female puberty requires greater physiologic resources and partly because it involves a unique event (menarche) that makes survey research into female puberty much simpler than male. More detail is provided in the menarche article. Variations of sequence The sequence of events of pubertal development can occasionally vary. For example, in about 15% of boys and girls, pubarche (the first pubic hairs) can precede, respectively,gonadarche and thelarche by a few months. Rarely, menarche can occur before other signs of puberty in a few girls. These variations deserve medical evaluation because they can occasionally signal a disease. Conclusion In a general sense, the conclusion of puberty is reproductive maturity. Criteria for defining the conclusion may differ for different purposes: attainment of the ability to reproduce, achievement of maximal adult height, maximal gonadal size, or adult sex hormone levels. Maximal adult height is achieved at an average age of 15 years for an average girl and 18 years for an average boy. Potential fertility (sometimes termed nubility) usually precedes

completion of growth by 1±2 years in girls and 3±4 years in boys. Stage 5 typically represents maximal gonadal growth and adult hormone levels. Neurohormonal process The endocrine reproductive system consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, the gonads, and the adrenal glands, with input and regulation from many other body systems. True puberty is often termed "central puberty" because it begins as a process of the central nervous system. A simple description of hormonal puberty is as follows: 1. The brain's hypothalamus begins to release pulses of GnRH. 2. Cells in the anterior pituitary respond by secreting LH and FSH into the circulation. 3. The ovaries or testes respond to the rising amounts of LH and FSH by growing and beginning to produce estradiol and testosterone. 4. Rising levels of estradiol and testosterone produce the body changes of female and male puberty. The onset of this neurohormonal process may precede the first visible body changes by 1±2 years. Components of the endocrine reproductive system The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. It has neurons which generate and release pulses of GnRH into the portal venous system of thepituitary gland. The arcuate nucleus is affected and controlled by neuronal input from other areas of the brain and hormonal input from the gonads, adipose tissue and a variety of other systems. The pituitary gland responds to the pulsed GnRH signals by releasing LH and FSH into the blood of the general circulation, also in a pulsatile pattern. The gonads (testes and ovaries) respond to rising levels of LH and FSH by producing the steroid sex hormones, testosterone and estrogen. The adrenal glands are a second source for steroid hormones. Adrenal maturation, termed adrenarche, typically precedes gonadarche in mid-childhood. Major hormones  Neurokinin B (a tachykinin peptide) and kisspeptin (a neuropeptide), both present in the same hypothalamic neurons, are critical parts of the control system that switches on the release of GnRH at the start of puberty.[52]  GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus which stimulates gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary.  LH (luteinizing hormone) is a larger protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The main target cells of LH are the Leydig cells of testes and the theca cells of the ovaries. LH secretion changes more dramatically with the initiation of puberty than FSH, as LH levels increase about 25-fold with the onset of puberty, compared with the 2.5-fold increase of FSH.  FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is another protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. The main target cells of FSH are the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells and spermatogenic tissue of the testes.  Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced primarily by the Leydig cells of the testes, and in lesser amounts by the theca cells of the ovaries and the adrenal cortex. Testosterone is the primary mammalian androgen and the "original" anabolic steroid. It acts on androgen receptors in responsive tissue throughout the body.  Estradiol is a steroid hormone produced by aromatization of testosterone. Estradiol is the principal human estrogen and acts on estrogen receptors throughout the body. The largest amounts of estradiol are produced by the granulosa cells of the ovaries, but lesser amounts are derived from testicular and adrenal testosterone.  Adrenal androgens are steroids produced by the zona reticulosa of the adrenal cortex in both sexes. The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione(which are precursors of testosterone),

and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate which is present in large amounts in the blood. Adrenal androgens contribute to the androgenic events of early puberty in girls.  IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) rises substantially during puberty in response to rising levels of growth hormone and may be the principal mediator of the pubertal growth spurt.  Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Its primary target organ is the hypothalamus. The leptin level seems to provide the brain a rough indicator of adipose mass for purposes of regulation of appetite and energy metabolism. It also plays a permissive role in female puberty, which usually will not proceed until an adequate body mass has been achieved. Endocrine perspective The endocrine reproductive system becomes functional by the end of the first trimester of fetal life. The testes and ovaries become briefly inactive around the time of birth but resume hormonal activity until several months after birth, when incompletely understood mechanisms in the brain begin to suppress the activity of the arcuate nucleus. This has been referred to as maturation of the prepubertal "gonadostat," which becomes sensitive to negative feedback by sex steroids. The period of hormonal activity until several months after birth, followed by suppression of activity, may correspond to the period of infant sexuality, followed by a latency stage, which Sigmund Freud described.[53] Gonadotropin and sex steroid levels fall to low levels (nearly undetectable by current clinical assays) for approximately another 8 to 10 years of childhood. Evidence is accumulating that the reproductive system is not totally inactive during the childhood years. Subtle increases in gonadotropin pulses occur, and ovarian follicles surrounding germ cells (future eggs) double in number. Normal puberty is initiated in the hypothalamus, with de-inhibition of the pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus. This inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is an ongoing active suppression by other areas of the brain. The signal and mechanism releasing the arcuate nucleus from inhibition have been the subject of investigation for decades and remain incompletely understood.Leptin levels rise throughout childhood and play a part in allowing the arcuate nucleus to resume operation. If the childhood inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is interrupted prematurely by injury to the brain, it may resume pulsatile gonadotropin release and puberty will begin at an early age. Neurons of the arcuate nucleus secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the blood of the pituitary portal system. An American physiologist, Ernst Knobil, found that the GnRH signals from the hypothalamus induce pulsed secretion of LH (and to a lesser degree, FSH) at roughly 1-2 hour intervals. The LH pulses are the consequence of pulsatile GnRH secretion by the arcuate nucleus that, in turn, is the result of an oscillator or signal generator in the central nervous system ("GnRH pulse generator").[54] In the years preceding physical puberty, Robert M. Boyar discovered that the gonadotropin pulses occur only during sleep, but as puberty progresses they can be detected during the day.[55] By the end of puberty, there is little day-night difference in the amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin pulses. Some investigators have attributed the onset of puberty to a resonance of oscillators in the brain.[56][57][58][59] By this mechanism, the gonadotropin pulses that occur primarily at night just before puberty represent beats.[60][61][62] An array of "autoamplification processes" increases the production of all of the pubertal hormones of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads[citation needed]. Regulation of adrenarche and its relationship to maturation of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis is not fully understood, and some evidence suggests it is a parallel but largely independent process coincident with or even preceding central puberty. Rising levels of adrenal androgens (termed adrenarche) can usually be detected between 6 and 11 years of age, even before the increasing gonadotropin pulses of hypothalamic puberty. Adrenal androgens contribute to the development of pubic hair (pubarche), adult body odor, and

Estradiol also induces at least modest development of breast tissue (gynecomastia) in a large proportion of boys. growth of the uterus. However. Hormonal changes in boys Early stages of male hypothalamic maturation seem to be very similar to the early stages of female puberty. nighttime levels of testosterone are higher than daytime. Regularity of frequency and amplitude of gonadotropin pulses seems to be less necessary for progression of male than female puberty. a significant portion of testosterone in adolescent boys is converted to estradiol. Smaller increases of FSH induce an increase in the aromatase activity of these granulosa cells. Hormonal changes in girls As the amplitude of LH pulses increases. though occurring about 1±2 years later. Rising levels of estradiol produce the characteristic estrogenic body changes of female puberty: growth spurt. IGF1 levels rise and then decline as puberty ends. The primary clinical significance of the distinction between adrenarche and gonadarche is that pubic hair and body odor changes by themselves do not prove that central puberty is underway for an individual child. Levels of adrenal androgens and testosterone also increase during puberty. which converts most of the testosterone to estradiol for secretion into the circulation. producing the typical androgenic changes of female puberty: pubic hair.5 in females)  spermarche (in males) Speaker recognition . . Stages  adrenarche (approximately age 7)  gonadarche (approximately age 8)  thelarche (approximately age 11 in females)  pubarche (approximately age 12)  menarche (approximately age 12. and widening of the lower pelvis. Growth hormone levels rise steadily throughout puberty. Boys who develop mild gynecomastia or even developing swellingsunder nipples during puberty are told the effects are temporary in some male teenagers due to high levels of estradiol. bone maturation. as it allows the mid cycle LH surge necessary for ovulation. and epiphyseal closure in boys just as in girls. the theca cells of the ovaries begin to produce testosterone and smaller amounts of progesterone. Growth finishes and adult height is attained as the estradiol levels complete closure of the epiphyses. body odor. For much of puberty. increased fat composition. Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. and most of the effects are mediated through the androgen receptors by way of conversion dihydrotestosterone in target organs (especially that of the bowels). breast growth. increased thickness of the endometrium and the vaginal mucosa. At this point in a males life the testosterone levels slowly rise. Much of the testosterone moves into nearby cells called granulosa cells. acceleration of bone maturation and closure. As the estradiol levels gradually rise and the other autoamplification processes occur. LH stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes to make testosterone and blood levels begin to rise. This attainment of positive feedback is the hallmark of female sexual maturity. Estradiol mediates the growth spurt.other androgenic changes in both sexes. acne. a point of maturation is reached when the feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamic "gonadostat" becomes positive. other androgenic hair as outlined above. Another hormonal change in males takes place during the teenage years for most young men.

If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. In forensic applications.: a common pass phrase) or unique. identification is different from verification. Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. On the other hand. For identification systems. as isvoice recognition. check if a user is already enrolled in a system.g.g. as in the case for many forensic applications.g.the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity.. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. etc. These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. As text-independent technologies do not compare what . size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. In a text-dependent system. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print. Because of the process involved. In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates. it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. verification is faster than identification. template.such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately.g. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said ." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. Conversely. alert automated systems of speaker changes. For example.: telephone banking). the use of shared-secrets (e. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process .[citation needed] Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. In addition.There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said). or model. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices it has been trained with. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print.g. this is called verification or authentication. voice pitch. Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. During enrollment. These two terms are frequently confused. If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim. In fact. Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e. In the verification phase. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. speaking style). In addition.. From a security perspective.

These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. Conversely.Vector Quantization and decision trees. such as cohort models. Speaker recognition Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. speaking style). Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation. but incorrect application can have the opposite effect. .g.such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process.. neural networks. and world models. On the other hand. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time. voice pitch. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy. Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel"). Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. These two terms are frequently confused. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process . pattern matching algorithms.g. as isvoice recognition. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless). If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. For example. There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said). hidden Markov models. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices it has been trained with. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. Gaussian mixture models. In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates. From a security perspective. In addition.was said at enrollment and verification. this is called verification or authentication. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said . identification is different from verification. matrix representation. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase..the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification.

Vector Quantization and decision trees. Because of the process involved.[citation needed] Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition. In a text-dependent system. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print.g. In addition.: telephone banking). Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation. alert automated systems of speaker changes. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless).g. the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel"). These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation. As text-independent technologies do not compare what was said at enrollment and verification. Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time. verification is faster than identification. the use of shared-secrets (e. For identification systems. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. In the verification phase. matrix representation.: a common pass phrase) or unique. Gaussian mixture models. In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. as in the case for many forensic applications.Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. hidden Markov models. template. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. neural networks. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. In forensic applications.g. and world models.Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. check if a user is already enrolled in a system. pattern matching algorithms. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy. such as cohort models. During enrollment. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. but incorrect application can have the opposite effect. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase. . In fact. it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. or model. etc.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario.

Overview of text processing Overview of a typical TTS system A text-to-speech system (or "engine") is composed of two parts: a front-end and a backend. the Danish scientist Christian Kratzenstein. and can be implemented in software orhardware. In 1779. The front-end has two major tasks. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its similarity to the human voice and by its ability to be understood. like phrases. This process is often called text normalization. working at the Russian Academy of Sciences. [e ]. The process of assigning phonetic transcriptions Phonetic to words is called text-to-phonemeor grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. History Long before electronic signal processing was invented. Faber built the "Euphonia". In certain systems. and sentences. and Roger Bacon (1214±1294). and divides and marks the text into prosodic units. An intelligible text-to-speech program allows people with visual impairments or reading disabilities to listen to written works on a home computer. phoneme durations). this part includes the computation of the target prosody (pitch contour. a system that stores phones or diphones provides the largest output range. pre-processing. enabling it to produce consonants as well as vowels. Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database. transcriptions and prosody information together make up the symbolic linguistic representation that is output by the front-end. 1003 AD). they are [a ]. Alternatively. This machine added models of the tongue and lips. and in 1857. Homer Dudley refined this device into the VODER. a keyboard-operated electronic speech analyzer and synthesizer that was said to be clearly intelligible. M. This was followed by the bellows-operated "acousticmechanical speech machine" by Wolfgang von Kempelen of Vienna. it converts raw text containing symbols like numbers and abbreviations into the equivalent of written-out words. which is then imposed on the output speech. clauses. which he exhibited at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Austria. In the 1930s. Charles Wheatstone produced a "speaking machine" based on von Kempelen's design. but may lack clarity. First. [i ]. Some early legends of the existence of "speaking heads" involved Gerbert of Aurillac (d. or tokenization. Bell Labs developed the VOCODER. In 1837. [o ] and [u ]). The back-end²often referred to as the synthesizer²then converts the symbolic linguistic representation into sound. a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a completely "synthetic" voice output. . Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units. Albertus Magnus (1198±1280).Speech synthesis Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. built models of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds (inInternational Phonetic Alphabet notation. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer. described in a 1791 paper. For specific usage domains. Many computer operating systems have included speech synthesizers since the early 1980s. Wheatstone's design was resurrected in 1923 by Paget. other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech. the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech. The front-end then assigns phonetic transcriptions to each word. there were those who tried to build machines to create human speech.

This process is typically achieved using a specially weighted decision tree. Coincidentally. making extensive use of Natural Language Processing methods. Dominant systems in the 1980s and 1990s were the MITalk system. the latter was one of the first multilingual language-independent systems. and the Bell Labs system. with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. while intelligibility is the ease with which the output is understood. duration. Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey. Unit selection synthesis Unit selection synthesis uses large databases of recorded speech. Synthesizer technologies The most important qualities of a speech synthesis system are naturalness and intelligibility. based largely on the work of Dennis Klatt at MIT. more people will benefit from the use of text-to-speech programs. Speech synthesis systems usually try to maximize both characteristics. research is still being conducted into mechanical speech synthesizers. the desired target utterance is created by determining the best chain of candidate units from the database (unit selection). and the first complete text-to-speech system was completed in 1968. words. physicist John Larry Kelly. differences between natural variations in speech and the nature of the automated techniques for segmenting the waveforms sometimes result in audible glitches in the output. Jr and colleague Louis Gerstman used an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech.where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song as it is being put to sleep by astronaut Dave Bowman. phrases. and the intended uses of a synthesis system will typically determine which approach is used. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer (vocoder) recreated the song "Daisy Bell". position in the syllable. An index of the units in the speech database is then created based on the segmentation and acoustic parameters like the fundamental frequency (pitch). concatenative synthesis produces the most natural-sounding synthesized speech. The two primary technologies for generating synthetic speech waveforms are concatenative synthesis and formant synthesis. half-phones. At runtime. each recorded utterance is segmented into some or all of the following: individual phones. Cooper and his colleagues at Haskins Laboratories in the late 1940s and completed in 1950. However. In 1961. As the cost-performance ratio causes speech synthesizers to become cheaper and more accessible to the people. Each technology has strengths and weaknesses. Alvin Liberman and colleagues were able to discover acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments (consonants and vowels). The ideal speech synthesizer is both natural and intelligible. Electronic devices The first computer-based speech synthesis systems were created in the late 1950s. Concatenative synthesis Concatenative synthesis is based on the concatenation (or stringing together) of segments of recorded speech. There are three main sub-types of concatenative synthesis. Early electronic speech synthesizers sounded robotic and were often barely intelligible. Typically. morphemes. and neighboring phones.The Pattern playback was built by Dr. Despite the success of purely electronic speech synthesis. Arthur C. Using this device. The machine converts pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech in the form of a spectrogram back into sound. but output from contemporary speech synthesis systems is still clearly distinguishable from actual human speech. using visual representations such as the waveform and spectrogram. Franklin S. an event among the most prominent in the history of Bell Labs.diphones. During database creation. Naturalness describes how closely the output sounds like human speech. The quality of synthesized speech has steadily improved. . the division into segments is done using a specially modified speech recognizer set to a "forced alignment" mode with some manual correction afterward. Generally. Clarke was visiting his friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility. There were several different versions of this hardware device but only one currently survives. syllables. and sentences.

although some systems use a small amount of signal processing at the point of concatenation to smooth the waveform. This alternation cannot be reproduced by a simple word-concatenation system. and formant synthesis systems have advantages over concatenative systems. The blending of words within naturally spoken language however can still cause problems unless the many variations are taken into account. the target prosody of a sentence is superimposed on these minimal units by means of digital signal processing techniques such as linear predictive coding. Spanish has about 800 diphones. only one example of each diphone is contained in the speech database. "clear out" is realized as / kli t/). Also. For example. Diphone synthesis suffers from the sonic glitches of concatenative synthesis and the robotic-sounding nature of formant synthesis. in some systems ranging into the gigabytes of recorded data. Instead. representing dozens of hours of speech. maximum naturalness is not always the goal of a speech synthesis system. an effect called liaison. they are not general-purpose and can only synthesize the combinations of words and phrases with which they have been preprogrammed. Many systems based on formant synthesis technology generate artificial. and noise levels are varied over time to create a waveform of artificial speech. which would require additional complexity to be context-sensitive.Unit selection provides the greatest naturalness. and German about 2500. The level of naturalness of these systems can be very high because the variety of sentence types is limited. but more natural-sounding than the output of formant synthesizers. and they closely match the prosody and intonation of the original recordings. Likewise in French. This method is sometimes called rules-based synthesis. like transit schedule announcements or weather reports. its use in commercial applications is declining. minor words become unclear) even when a better choice exists in the database. Formant synthesis Formant synthesis does not use human speech samples at runtime. As such.g. many concatenative systems also have rules-based components. In diphone synthesis. The output from the best unit-selection systems is often indistinguishable from real human voices. Parameters such as fundamental frequency. Formant- .g. At runtime.[19] The technology is very simple to implement. the synthesized speech output is created using additive synthesis and an acoustic model (physical modelling synthesis)[20]. in devices like talking clocks and calculators. Domain-specific synthesis Domain-specific synthesis concatenates prerecorded words and phrases to create complete utterances. however. voicing.[citation needed] Because these systems are limited by the words and phrases in their databases.PSOLA or MBROLA. DSP often makes recorded speech sound less natural. and has few of the advantages of either approach other than small size. in non-rhotic dialects of English the "r" in words like "clear" / kli / is usually only pronounced when the following word has a vowel as its first letter (e. Diphone synthesis Diphone synthesis uses a minimal speech database containing all the diphones (sound-tosound transitions) occurring in a language. robotic-sounding speech that would never be mistaken for human speech. although it continues to be used in research because there are a number of freely available software implementations. The number of diphones depends on thephonotactics of the language: for example. especially in contexts for which the TTS system has been tuned. However. It is used in applications where the variety of texts the system will output is limited to a particular domain. However. and has been in commercial use for a long time. many final consonants become no longer silent if followed by a word that begins with a vowel. The quality of the resulting speech is generally worse than that of unit-selection systems. unit selection algorithms have been known to select segments from a place that results in less than ideal synthesis (e. because it applies only a small amount of digital signal processing (DSP) to the recorded speech. maximum naturalness typically require unitselection speech databases to be very large.

The system. various heuristic techniques are used to guess the proper way to disambiguate homographs. known as ASY. and duration (prosody) of speech are modeled simultaneously by HMMs. provides full articulatory-based text-to-speech conversion using a waveguide or transmission-line analog of the human oral and nasal tracts controlled by Carré's "distinctive region model". The first articulatory synthesizer regularly used for laboratory experiments was developed at Haskins Laboratories in the mid-1970s by Philip Rubin. Texts are full of heteronyms. arcade games[22] using the TMS5220 LPC Chips. and abbreviations that all require expansion into a phonetic representation. a wide variety of prosodies and intonations can be output.fundamental frequency (vocal source). High-speed synthesized speech is used by the visually impaired to quickly navigate computers using a screen reader.synthesized speech can be reliably intelligible. Because formant-based systems have complete control of all aspects of the output speech. also called Statistical Parametric Synthesis. even at very high speeds. with work continuing as gnuspeech. where much of the original research was conducted.[25] Challenges Text normalization challenges The process of normalizing text is rarely straightforward. well understood. a spin-off company of the University of Calgary. "My latest project is to learn how to better project my voice" contains two pronunciations of "project". where memory andmicroprocessor power are especially limited. As a result. first marketed in 1994. Following the demise of the various incarnations of NeXT (started by Steve Jobs in the late 1980s and merged with Apple Computer in 1997).[21] and in many Atari. conveying not just questions and statements. HMM-based synthesis HMM-based synthesis is a synthesis method based on hidden Markov models. numbers. the frequency spectrum (vocal tract). Speech waveforms are generated from HMMs themselves based on themaximum likelihood criterion.[23] Articulatory synthesis Articulatory synthesis refers to computational techniques for synthesizing speech based on models of the human vocal tract and the articulation processes occurring there. Inc. They can therefore be used in embedded systems. or computationally effective. and the results have yet to be matched by real-time text-to-speech interfaces. articulatory synthesis models have not been incorporated into commercial speech synthesis systems. Most text-to-speech (TTS) systems do not generate semantic representations of their input texts. and in the early 1980s Sega arcade machines. There are many spellings in English which are pronounced differently based on context. A notable exception is the NeXT-based system originally developed and marketed by Trillium Sound Research. Cecil Coker. This synthesizer. as processes for doing so are not reliable. Until recently. the Trillium software was published under the GNU General Public License. like examining neighboring words and using statistics about frequency of occurrence. Tom Baer. In this system. and colleagues. This technique is quite successful for many . Creating proper intonation for these projects was painstaking. avoiding the acoustic glitches that commonly plague concatenative systems. but a variety of emotions and tones of voice. was based on vocal tract models developed at Bell Laboratories in the 1960s and 1970s by Paul Mermelstein. For example.[24] Sinewave synthesis Sinewave synthesis is a technique for synthesizing speech by replacing the formants (main bands of energy) with pure tone whistles. and Paul Mermelstein. Examples of non-real-time but highly accurate intonation control in formant synthesis include the work done in the late 1970s for the Texas Instruments toy Speak & Spell. Formant synthesizers are usually smaller programs than concatenative systems because they do not have a database of speech samples. Recently TTS systems have begun to use HMMs (discussed above) to generate "parts of speech" to aid in disambiguating homographs.

These techniques also work well for most European languages. which have extremely irregular spelling systems. The simplest approach to text-to-phoneme conversion is the dictionarybased approach. nearly all speech synthesis systems use a combination of these approaches. On the other hand. It is a simple programming challenge to convert a number into words (at least in English). This is similar to the "sounding out". like foreign names and borrowings.) As a result. whose pronunciations are not obvious from their spellings. numbers occur in many different contexts. The dictionary-based approach is quick and accurate. and to use rule-based methods only for unusual words. but completely fails if it is given a word which is not in its dictionary.cases such as whether "read" should be pronounced as "red" implying past tense. TTS systems with intelligent front ends can make educated guesses about ambiguous abbreviations. For example "Henry VIII" reads as "Henry the Eighth". Evaluating speech synthesis systems has therefore often been compromised by differences between production techniques and replay facilities. Text-to-phoneme challenges Speech synthesis systems use two basic approaches to determine the pronunciation of a word based on its spelling. Each approach has advantages and drawbacks. yet is the only word in which the letter "f" is pronounced [v]. Similarly." uses the same abbreviation for both "Saint" and "Street". but the complexity of the rules grows substantially as the system takes into account irregular spellings or pronunciations. the rule-based approach works on any input. . a process which is often called text-to-phoneme or grapheme-tophoneme conversion (phoneme is the term used by linguists to describe distinctive sounds in a language). The other approach is rule-based. approach to learning reading. Evaluation challenges The consistent evaluation of speech synthesis systems may be difficult because of a lack of universally agreed objective evaluation criteria. Speech synthesis systems for such languages often use the rule-based method extensively. The quality of speech synthesis systems also depends to a large degree on the quality of the production technique (which may involve analogue or digital recording) and on the facilities used to replay the speech. although access to required training corpora is frequently difficult in these languages. and the prediction of the pronunciation of words based on their spellings is quite successful. are more likely to rely on dictionaries. Languages with a phonemic orthography have a very regular writing system. so too does the memory space requirements of the synthesis system. Different organizations often use different speech data. Determining the correct pronunciation of each word is a matter of looking up each word in the dictionary and replacing the spelling with the pronunciation specified in the dictionary. or synthetic phonics." However. while others provide the same result in all cases. abbreviations can be ambiguous. speech synthesis systems for languages like English. in which pronunciation rules are applied to words to determine their pronunciations based on their spellings.[26] Roman numerals can also be read differently depending on context. the abbreviation "in" for "inches" must be differentiated from the word "in". like "1325" becoming "one thousand three hundred twenty-five. resulting in nonsensical (and sometimes comical) outputs. or as "reed" implying present tense. For example. while "Chapter VIII" reads as "Chapter Eight".[citation needed]As dictionary size grows. (Consider that the word "of" is very common in English. and the address "12 St John St. and sometimes the system provides a way to specify the context if it is ambiguous. numbers. "1325" may also be read as "one three two five". Deciding how to convert numbers is another problem that TTS systems have to address. "thirteen twentyfive" or "thirteen hundred and twenty five". Typical error rates when using HMMs in this fashion are usually below five percent. and punctuation. where a large dictionary containing all the words of a language and their correct pronunciations is stored by the program. or words that aren't in their dictionaries. resorting to dictionaries only for those few words. On the other hand. A TTS system can often infer how to expand a number based on surrounding words.

a command-line based application that converts text to audible speech. reported that listeners to voice recordings could determine. some researchers have started to evaluate speech synthesis systems using a common speech dataset.tos" on floppy disk. Apple has added sample-based voices. Since the 1980s Macintosh Computers offered text to speech capabilities through The MacinTalk software. speaking rate and modulation of the spoken text. During 10.5 (Leopard) there was only one standard voice shipping with Mac OS X. MEA8000)  Magnevation SpeakJet (www. the user can choose out of a wide range list of multiple voices.4). the 1400XL/1450XL personal computers never shipped in quantity. using the Votrax SC01 chip in 1983.6 (Snow Leopard). Dedicated hardware  Votrax  SC-01A (analog formant)  SC-02 / SSI-263 / "Arctic 263"  General Instruments SP0256-AL2 (CTS256A-AL2. TheAppleScript Standard Additions includes a say verb that allows a script to use any of the installed voices and to control the pitch.Recently. UK.[27] Prosodics and emotional content A recent study reported in the journal "Speech Communication" by Amy Drahota and colleagues at the University of Portsmouth. VoiceOver voices feature the taking of realistic-sounding breaths between sentences. as well as improved clarity at high read rates over PlainTalk. Inc. More recently.speechchips. The Atari ST computers were sold with "stspeech. the first speech system integrated into an operating system was the 1400XL/1450XL personal computers designed by Atari. Apple The first speech system integrated into an operating system that shipped in quantity was Apple Computer's MacInTalk in 1984. at better than chance levels. In the early 1990s Apple expanded its capabilities offering system wide text-to-speech support.4 (Tiger) & first releases of TTS256)  Savage Innovations SoundGin  National Semiconductor DT1050 Digitalker (Mozer)  Silicon Systems SSI 263 (analog formant)  Texas Instruments LPC Speech Chips  TMS5110A  TMS5200  Oki Semiconductor  ML22825 (ADPCM)  ML22573 (HQADPCM)  Toshiba T6721A  Philips PCF8200  TextSpeak Embedded TTS Modules Computer operating systems or outlets with speech synthesis Atari Arguably. Apple also introduced speech recognition into its systems which provided a fluid command set. the speech system of Apple Macintosh has evolved into a fully-supported program. PlainTalk. With the introduction of faster PowerPC-based computers they included higher quality voice sampling. The 1400XL/1450XL computers used a Finite State Machine to enable World English Spelling text-to-speech synthesis[29]. VoiceOver was for the first time featured in Mac OS X Tiger (10. however. whether or not the speaker was smiling. Starting as a curiosity.[28] It was suggested that identification of the vocal features which signal emotional content may be used to help make synthesized speech sound more natural. Starting with 10. Mac OS X also includes say. for people with vision problems. AmigaOS . Unfortunately.

'Browsealoud' from a UK company and Readspeaker. so the user could even redirect console output to it. and includes smart delivery technology to ensure only what is seen is spoken and the content is logically pathed. made possible by advanced features of the Amiga hardware audio chipset. Some Amiga programs. such as word processors. However. A growing field in internet based TTS is web-based assistive technology. there are a number of applications.0 was available on Microsoft-based operating systems as a third-party add-on for systems like Windows 95 and Windows 98. Additional engines (often use a certain jargon or vocabulary) are also available through third-party manufacturers. Users can download generated audio files to portable devices. Windows 2000 added a speech synthesis program called Narrator. with a help of podcast receiver. directly available to users. Amiga Speak Handler featured a text-to-speech translator. Microsoft Windows Modern Windows systems use SAPI4.ME from Oxford Information Laboratories is capable of delivering text to speech through any browser without the need to download any special applications.6 of Android added support for speech synthesis (TTS).[31] Android Version 1. plugins and gadgets that can read messages directly from an e-mail client and web pages from a web browser or Google Toolbar such asText-to-voice which is an add-on to Firefox . made extensive use of the speech system. much work is being done in the context of the W3C to move this technology into the mainstream browser market through the W3C Audio Incubator Group with the involvement of The BBC and Google Inc. Others  Some models of Texas Instruments home computers produced in 1979 and 1981 (Texas Instruments TI-99/4 and TI-99/4A) were capable of text-to-phoneme synthesis or . Additionally SPEAK. Text-to-Speech (TTS) capabilities for a computer refers to the ability to play back text in a spoken voice. AmigaOS considered speech synthesis a virtual hardware device. Some specialized software can narrate RSSfeeds. The voice synthesis was licensed by Commodore International from a third-party software house (Don't Ask Software.The second operating system with advanced speech synthesis capabilities was AmigaOS. is the JavaScript Text to Speech work of Yury Delendik. online RSS-narrators simplify information delivery by allowing users to listen to their favourite news sources and to convert them to podcasts. e. entertainment or information) with access to a web browser. This allows web pages to convert text to audio using HTML5 technology. Currently. TTS is the ability of the operating system to play back printed text as spoken words. e. available through menus once installed on the system. with both male and female voices and "stress" indicator markers.TO. convenience. The ability to use Yury's TTS port currently requires a custom browser build that uses Mozilla's Audio-Data-API. introduced in 1985.[30] It was divided into a narrator device and a translator library. SAPI 4. Microsoft Speech Server is a complete package for voice synthesis and recognition.g. and listen to them while walking. On the other hand.g.and SAPI5-based speech systems that include a speech recognition engine (SRE). jogging or commuting to work. which ports the Flite C engine to pure JavaScript. Inc. now Softvoice. for commercial applications such as call centers.[32] Internet The most recent TTS development in the web browser. It can deliver TTS functionality to anyone (for reasons of accessibility.) and it featured a complete system of voice emulation.[31] An internal (installed with the operating system) driver (called a TTS engine): recognizes the text and using a synthesized voice (chosen from several pre-generated voices) speaks the written text. All Windows-compatible programs could make use of speech synthesis features. On one hand. on-line RSS-readers are available on almost any PC connected to the Internet.

which can be used for mobile applications. for example. actors and singers. as in Barney Bunch videos. includes tags related to speech recognition. a precursor to IBM ViaVoice. explicitly geared towards customers in the entertainment industries. Applications Speech synthesis has long been a vital assistive technology tool and its application in this area is significant and widespread. It allows environmental barriers to be removed for people with a wide range of disabilities. Older speech synthesis markup languages include Java Speech Markup Language (JSML) and SABLE. about 15% have professions where their voice is their primary tool. SpeechWorks (bought by Nuance). Speech synthesis techniques are used as well in the entertainment productions such as games. VoiceXML. but text-to-speech systems are now commonly used by people with dyslexia and other reading difficulties as well as by preliterate children. Software such as Vocaloid can generate singing voices via lyrics and melody. and include open-source programs such as the Festival Speech Synthesis Systemwhich uses diphone-based synthesis (and can use a limited number of MBROLA voices). none of them has been widely adopted. This is also the aim of the Singing Computer project (which uses GNU LilyPond and Festival) to help blind people check their lyric input. RSS feeds and web pages for news stories. Animo Limited announced the development of a software application package based on its speech synthesis software FineSpeech. That includes professions such as teachers. and educational texts for enhanced learning. and gnuspeech which uses articulatory synthesis[34] from the Free Software Foundation. which became a W3C recommendation in 2004. In 2007. Sites such as Ananova and YAKiToMe! have used speech synthesis to convert written news to audio content. Speech synthesis markup languages A number of markup languages have been established for the rendition of text as speech in an XML-compliant format.  Systems that operate on free and open source software systems including Linux are various. YAKiToMe! is also used to convert entire books for personal podcasting purposes. in addition to text-to-speech markup. Background Of the working population. Although each of these was proposed as a standard. able to generate narration and lines of dialogue according to user specifications. Rhetorical Systems (bought by Nuance). Speech synthesis markup languages are distinguished from dialogue markup languages. Lernout & Hauspie (bought by Nuance). and TV .[35] The application reached maturity in 2008. using a very popular Speech Synthesizer peripheral. primarily video games.[33]  IBM's OS/2 Warp 4 included VoiceType.[37] Vocal loading Vocal loading is the stress inflicted on the speech organs when speaking for long periods. dialogue management and touchtone dialing.reciting complete words and phrases (text-to-dictionary). They are also frequently employed to aid those with severe speech impairment usually through a dedicated voice output communication aid.  Companies which developed speech synthesis systems but which are no longer in this business include BeST Speech (bought by L&H). when NEC Biglobe announced a web service that allows users to create phrases from the voices of Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 characters. The most recent is Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML). anime and similar. The longest application has been in the use of screen readers for people with visual impairment. sales personnel. TI used a proprietary codec to embed complete spoken phrases into applications.[36] TTS applications such as YAKiToMe! and Speakonia are often used to add synthetic voices to YouTube videos for comedic effect. Eloquent Technology (bought by SpeechWorks).

Voice care Regularly. These include all kinds of muscular strain in the speech organs. Many of them. the volume range will decrease. relaxed way of speech is the optimal method for voice production. Similarly. Still. respectively. That means that for voiced sounds the vocal folds will hit together 110 or 220 times a second.people tend to speak louder when background noise is present. the exact details are debated. Pitch range indicates the possible pitches that can be spoken. the vocal folds are closed for a short period of time. No background noise should be present or. Using a higher or lower pitch than normal will also increase stress in the speech organs.the "normal" speaking style has close to optimal pitch. research in vocal loading has often been treated as a minor subject. In addition.dehydration increases effects of stress inflicted on the vocal folds  background noise . the voice should be amplified. It is intuitively clear that the vocal fold tissue will experience some tiring due to this large number of hits. researchers' largest interest lies in stress exerted on the vocal folds. Effect of speaking environment Several studies in vocal loading show that the speaking environment does have a significant impact on vocal loading. . Most scientists agree on the effect of the following environmental properties:  air humidity . Smoking is discouraged. the upper pitch limit will decrease and the lower pitch limit will rise.and radio reporters. Firstly. setting them into an oscillating movement. suffer from voice-related medical problems. The folds will then hit together more than 30 thousand times an hour. These changes in pressure form the waves called (voiced) speech. even when it isn't necessary. When the folds reopen the pressure under the folds is released. for example. the pitch range of the voice will decrease. Increasing speaking volume increases stress inflicted on the vocal folds  pitch . this involves millions of sick-leave days every year. in both speech and singing. The speaker should drink enough water and the air humidity level should be normal or higher. Loading on tissue in vocal folds The fundamental frequency of speech for an average male is around 110Hz and for an average female around 220Hz. both properties are difficult to measure objectively. if not possible. smoking and other types of air pollution might have a negative effect on voice production organs. Basically. a normal. In a larger scope. When a voice is loaded.dry air increases stress experienced in the vocal folds  hydration . there are some typical symptoms that can be objectively measured. Voice organ Voiced speech is produced by air streaming from the lungs through the vocal cords. However. the science and practice of voice habilitation. both in the US and the European Union. Of this time perhaps five minutes is voiced speech. This is encompassed in the study of vocology. and only perceptual evaluations can be performed. an increase in the hoarseness and strain of a voice can often be heard. Secondly. Any excess force used when speaking will increase tiring. similarly as usage of any other muscles will experience strain if used for an extended period of time. Vocal loading also includes other kinds of strain on the speech organs. Still. However. In every oscillation. especially teachers. Suppose then that a female is speaking continuously for an hour. the question arises of how one should use one's voice to minimise tiring in the vocal organs. Symptoms Objective evaluation or measurement of vocal loading is very difficult due to the tight coupling of the experienced psychological and physiological stress. Unfortunately.

a pop artist could include notes that could be heard with the aid of a microphone. the modal register. These voice types would therefore include the notes from these other registers within their vocal range. In contrast. and the vocal fry register. Another factor to consider is the use of different forms of vocal production. scientific testing. Although the study of vocal range has little practical application in terms of speech. phonetics. the sciences identify only four registers: the whistle register. However. only the usable range of the modal register. within opera. Typically. For example. and speech and language pathology. The purpose of vocal rest is to hasten recovery time. vocal transition points. It is believed that vocal rest. that if one needs to communicate one should speak and not whisper. physical characteristics. Another example would be a male doo-wop singer who might quite regularly deploy his falsetto pitches in performance and thus include them in determining his range. some believe that whispering merely does not allow the voice to rest and may have a dehydrating effect. Singing and the definition of vocal range While the broadest definition of vocal range is simply the span from the lowest to the highest note a particular voice can produce. However. Vocal pedagogists tend to define the vocal range as the total span of "musically useful" pitches that a singer can produce. the falsetto register.Vocal rest Vocal rest is the process of resting the vocal folds by not speaking or singing. However. is used when determining vocal range. A voice type is a particular kind of human singing voice perceived as having certain identifying qualities or characteristics. it is a topic of study within linguistics. An opera singer would therefore only be able to include the notes that they are able to adequately project over an orchestra within their vocal range. For example. This is because some of the notes a voice can produce may not be considered usable by the singer within performance for various reasons. speech level. vocal tessitura. vocal timbre. While the exact number and definition of vocal registers is a controversial topic within the field of singing. while others hold that whispering can cause additional stress to the larynx. in most cases only the usable pitches within the modal register are included when determining a singer's vocal range. . These different forms of voice production are known as vocal registers. The human voice is capable of producing sounds using different physiological processes within the larynx. The reasons for this differ. vocal range being only one of those characteristics. will significantly decrease recovery time after a cold. All of these factors combined are used to categorize a singer's voice into a particular kind of singing voice or voice type. the register used in normal speech and most singing. and vocal registration. along with rehydration. which typically follows vocal disorders or viral infections which cause hoarseness in the voice. Other factors are vocal weight. It is generally believed. there are some instances where other vocal registers are included. countertenors utilize falsetto often and coloratura sopranos utilize the whistle register frequently. the most common application of the term "vocal range" is within the context of singing. within opera all singers must project over an orchestra without the aid of a microphone. Vocal range Vocal range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate. this broad definition is often not what is meant when "vocal range" is discussed in the context of singing. however. particularly in relation to the study of tonal languages and certain types of vocal disorders. such as thecommon cold or influenza. where it is used as one of the major defining characteristics for classifying singing voices into groups known as voice types. Vocal range and voice classification Vocal range plays such an important role in classifying singing voices into voice types that sometimes the two terms are confused with one another.

Though pitch standards were not fixed in the eighteenth century. Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. who was known for her exceptionally high voice. this rare note is also heard in the opera Esclarmonde by Jules Massenet. Therefore. a female singer may have a vocal range that encompasses the high notes of a mezzo-soprano and the low notes of a soprano. Several little-known works call for pitches higher than G6. human voices are roughly in the range of 80 Hz to 1100 Hz (that is.' a concert aria by W. The teacher would also listen to the sound of the voice. the soprano Mado Robin. are sub-types that fall under seven different major voice categories that are for the most part acknowledged across all of the major voice classification systems. For example. voice teachers only use vocal range as one factor in classifying a singer's voice. World records and extremes of vocal range The following facts about female and male ranges are known:  Guinness lists the highest demanded note in the classical repertoire as G6 in 'Popoli di Tessaglia. Sopranos tend to have a lighter and less rich vocal sound than a mezzosoprano. When considering the pre-pubescent voices of children an eighth term. A voice teacher would therefore look to see whether or not the singer were more comfortable singing up higher or singing lower. mein lieber Sohn" in Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte. tenor. and it is traditional for basses to interpolate a low C in the duet "Ich gehe doch rathe ich dir" in the same opera. composed for Aloysia Weber. baritone. Although Osmin's note is the lowest 'demanded' in the operatic repertoire.  Lowest note in a solo: Guinness lists the lowest demanded note in the classical repertoire as D2 (almost two octaves below Middle C) in Osmin's second aria in Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail.For example. famously heard in the Queen of the Night's two arias "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" and "O zittre nicht.treble. E2 to C6) for normal male and female voices together. More important than range in voice classification is tessitura. sang a number of compositions created especially to exploit her highest notes. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor.[citation needed] The highest note commonly called for is F6. Leonard Bernstein composed an optional B1 (a minor third below . Most of these types. Some singers within these voice types may be able to sing somewhat higher or lower:  Soprano: C4 ± C6  Mezzo-soprano: A3 ± A5  Contralto: F3 ± F5  Tenor: C3 ± C5  Baritone: F2 ± F4  Bass: E2 ± E4 In terms of frequency.mezzo-soprano. The following are the general vocal ranges associated with each voice type using scientific pitch notation where middle C=C4. however. and contralto. or the characteristic sound of the singing voice.There are a plethora of different voice types used by vocal pedagogists today in a variety of voice classification systems. Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano. and bass. If the singer were more comfortable singing higher than the teacher would probably classify her as a soprano and if the singer were more comfortable singing lower than they would probably classify her as a mezzo-soprano. A voice teacher. and vocal timbre. regardless of the size of their vocal range. or where the voice is most comfortable singing. both written and unwritten. can be applied. A. reaching C7. Mozart. lower notes are frequently heard. human singing voices may possess vocal ranges that encompass more than one voice type or are in between the typical ranges of two voice types. Vocal range itself can not determine a singer's voice type. would never classify a singer in more than one voice type. however. While each voice type does have a general vocal range associated with it.

starting with a consonant like B. depending on the arrangement. Range and Tone Start easy. In Russian choirs the oktavists traditionally sing an octave below the bass part. Pavel Chesnokov directs the bass soloist in "Do not deny me in my old age" to descend even lower. ay. Next. (That is a common sign of an untrained breather). sing a slightly more difficult phrase. Use open vowels. & Gramming emphasized that changing pitch undoubtedly stretches the muscles. Jump first an octave. then another third. sing down a five note scale.D2) in a bass aria[not specific enough to verify] in the opera house version of Candide. acting.  Lowest note for a choir: Mahler's Eighth Symphony (bar 1457 in the "Chorus mysticus") and Rachmaninoff's Vespers require B 1. starting in the middle of your range. down to G1. then making a "fire engine sound" go up and down. my. then down a third. but don't push too high. and balance. Stretches of the abdomen. Do several of these. Finally. Move between notes. Its concerns include the nature of speech and language pathology. these activities teach breath control. sing an arpeggio of three thirds to an octave (1 3 5 1 5 3 1). Others choose to sing a few words over and over to warm up. it is important to start breathing properly and from the diaphragm. Next. use lip trills and tongue trills to help control your breathing as well. Muscles all over the body are used when singing (the diaphragm being one of the most obvious).back. Start just using a steady note. again starting from middle C. In a Russian piece combining solo and choral singing. This time. Repeat several times and be sure when you're breathing in to breath using your diaphragm. diction." Vocology Vocology is the science of enabling or endowing the human voice with greater ability or fitness. such as Middle C. repeat the exercise a half-step lower. Eventually move to real notes. Take a deep breath in then make a hissing sound. Vocal warm up A vocal warm-up is a series of exercises which prepare the voice for singing. not moving your shoulders up and down. Sometimes called vocalises. with an open vowel and a sibilant like Z. sigh from the top of your range to the bottom. and shoulders are important to avoid stress. letting the voice fall in a glissando without much control. ih. mo. but stay in the middle range. or other use. neck. After. then down a fourth. Sundberg. again starting an octave lower than middle C. Repeat the exercise a half-step higher. Some warm ups also train your voice. mull. How To Warm Up Breathing Before you start to actually sing. The phrase "I lo-ove to sing" fits with this exercise. D. blending. or P. To start warming up your range. Pick a note in the middle of your range (Middle C is reasonable) and begin humming. working on getting really to the highest and lowest parts of your range. to the bottom of your comfortablerange. (1 8 5 3 1). like o. Start with simple exercises such as hissing. and ah. "Za a a a a" is reasonable. and any singer will tell you that vocal warm-ups make them feel more prepared. the defects of . which influences the sound of the voice. to G1. Why Warm Up A study by Elliott. and continue up to the top of your range. with light humming. breathing outwards until you've expelled as much air as possible from your lungs. such as "Me. Physical whole-body warm-ups also help prepare a singer.

The study of vocology is recognized academically in taught courses and institutes such as the National Center for Voice and Speech. Less invasive imaging methods such as xrays or ultrasounds do not work because the vocal cords are surrounded by cartilage which distort image quality. . The location of the vocal folds effectively prohibits direct. the process of speaking exerts a load on the vocal cords where the tissue will suffer from tiring. teachers. stroboscopic imaging is only useful when the vocal fold vibratory pattern is closely periodic. dynamic analysis of the vocal folds and their movement is physically difficult. some believe that the truthfulness or emotional state of speakers can be determined using Voice Stress Analysis orLayered Voice Analysis. invasive measurement of movement. Stroboscopic. but this requires extensive training and is still always subjective. Titze. that is. sales people) this tiring can cause voice failures and sick leaves. and the laryngeal musclature is intensely active during speech or singing and is subject to tiring. Among professional voice users (i. but also speaker identification. to assist in performing whatever function that needs to be performed". thus preventing usage of ordinary video. He goes on that this "is more than repairing a voice or bringing it back to a former state . since the folds are subject to collision forces with each vibratory cycle and to drying from the air being forced through the small gap between them. In addition. a fiberoptic probe leading to the camera has to be positioned in the throat. it is the process of strengthening and equipping the voice to meet very specific and special demands". Typical voice problems A medical study of the voice can be.. Meaning and Origin of term Vocology was invented (simultaneously. Prof. In addition.phoniatrics. in other words. which makes speaking difficult. Movements in the vocal cords are rapid. to ³equip for´. However. To evaluate these problems vocal loading needs to be objectively measured. with a strong emphasis on habilitation". More controversially.e. Such studies include mostly medical analysis of the voice i. Phoniatrics. but independently) by lngo R. to ³capacitate´. Another active research topic in medical voice analysis is vocal loading evaluation. fundamental frequencies are usually between 80 and 300 Hz. and high-speed videos provide an option but in order to see the vocal folds. In order to objectively evaluate the improvement in voice quality there has to be some measure of voice quality. The vocal cords of a person speaking for an extended period of time will suffer from tiring. The Grabscheid Voice Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center. such as in speech recognition.the vocal tract (laryngology). An experienced voice therapist can quite reliably evaluate the voice. To habilitate means to ³enable´. for instance. George Gates. Voice analysis Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content. the Vox Humana Laboratory at St. Westminster Choir College at Rider University. at Milan's Azienda Ospedaliera Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico.e. analysis of the voice of patients who have had a polyp removed from his or her vocal cords through an operation. Also reflecting this increased recognition is that when the Scandinavian journal of logopedics & phoniatrics and Voice merged in 1996 the new name selected was Logopedics. and an otolaryngologist at Washington University. the remediation of speech therapy and the voice training and voice pedagogy of song and speech for actors and public speakers. rather. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and the Regional Center for Voice and Swallowing.. Analysis methods Voice problems that require voice analysis most commonly originate from the vocal folds or the laryngeal musculature that controls them. Vocology. Titze defines Vocology as "the science and practice of voice habilitation. placing objects in the pharynx usually triggers a gag reflex that stops voicing and closes the larynx.

The most important indirect methods are currently inverse filtering of either microphone or oral airflow recordings and electroglottography (EGG). This method produces an estimate of the waveform of the glottal airflow pulses. in which electrodes placed on either side of the subject's throat at the level of the vocal folds record the changes in the conductivity of the throat according to how large a portion of the vocal folds are touching each other. List of voice disorders From Wikipedia. enough of the harmonic series will be present for the missing fundamental to create the impression of hearing the fundamental tone. Fundamental frequency The voiced speech of a typical adult male will have a fundamental frequency from 85 to 180 Hz. It is for this reason that the ultra low frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrumbetween 300 and 3000 Hz is also referred to as voice frequency (despite the fact that this is electromagnetic energy. and that of a typical adult female from 165 to 255 Hz. the speech sound (the radiated acoustic pressure waveform. within part of the audio range. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Voice disorders) Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. The bandwidth allocated for a single voice-frequency transmission channel is usually 4 kHz. In inverse filtering. Thus. as obtained from a microphone) or the oral airflow waveform from a circumferentially vented (CV) mask is recorded outside the mouth and then filtered by a mathematical method to remove the effects of the vocal tract. the usable voice frequency band ranges from approximately 300 Hz to 3400 Hz. but can provide useful indirect evidence of that movement. including guard bands. However. allowing a sampling rate of 8 kHz to be used as the basis of the pulse code modulation system used for the digital PSTN. These include:  Chorditis  Vocal fold nodules  Vocal fold cysts  Vocal cord paresis  Reinke's Edema  Spasmodic dysphonia  Foreign accent syndrome  Bogart-Bacall Syndrome  Laryngeal papillomatosis  Puberphonia Voice frequency From Wikipedia. the fundamental frequency of most speech falls below the bottom of the "voice frequency" band as defined above. which in turn reflect the movements of the vocal folds. . The other kind of noninvasive indirect indication of vocal fold motion is the electroglottography. not acoustic energy). that is used for the transmission of speech. Neither inverse filtering nor EGG are sufficient to completely describe the complex 3-dimensional pattern of vocal fold movement. In telephony. the free encyclopedia A voice frequency (VF) or voice band is one of the frequencies. It thus yields one-dimensional information of the contact area.

The vocal folds in the larynx vibrate. The lips of the mouth can be used in a similar way to create a similar sound. by definition. uvula. Air pressure from the lungs creates a steady flow of air through the trachea (windpipe). the airflow from the lungs is impeded until the vocal folds are forced apart again by the increasing air pressure from the lungs. usually in the form of speech or singing. Voiced phonemes such as the pure vowels are. larynx. It comprises the larynx and the vocal tract. soft palate. as any toddler or trumpeter can demonstrate. lungs. etc. depending on the tension across the neck and the level of pressure inside the balloon. 3. In singing. inflated but not tied off and stretched tightly across the neck produces a squeak or buzz. creating formant regions and thus different qualities of sonorant (voiced) sound. This includes the lips. hard and soft palates. A rubber balloon. with similar results. When the muscles of the vocal folds contract. Mouth and nose openings radiate the sound waves into the environment. larynx (voice box) and pharynx(back of the throat). tongue. Vocal apparatus or vocal organs is a term used in phonetics to designate all parts of human anatomy that can be used to produce speech. distinguished by the buzzing sound of this periodic oscillation of the vocal cords. This process continues in a periodic cycle that is felt as a vibration (buzzing). teeth. 4. creating fluctuations in air pressure that are known as sound waves. Similar actions. and other speech organs. The vocal tract . Resonances in the vocal tract modify these waves according to the position and shape of the lips.Vocal apparatus The human head and neck (internal). 2. The voice organ is the part of the human body responsible for the generation of sound. Overview The human voice produces sounds in the following manner: 1. The larynx The larynx or voice box is a cylindrical framework of cartilage that serves to anchor the vocal folds. jaw. the vibration frequency of the vocal folds determines the pitch of the sound produced. occur when the vocal cords are contracted or relaxed across the larynx. tongue.

The sound source from the larynx is not sufficiently loud to be heard as speech. or turbulent non-periodic energy (i. noise) near the formant frequency in the case of whispered speech. nor can the various timbres of different vowel sounds be produced: without the vocal tract. Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Voice pedagogy) Vocal pedagogy is the study of the art and science of voice instruction. not a necessity. Formants Formants are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract that emphasize particular voice harmonics near in frequency to the resonance. and even nasal cavities. since a strictly unvoiced whisper is still quite intelligible. The anatomy of the Vocal folds is an important topic the field of Vocal Pedagogy. however. how singing works. determined by the variable dimensions of oral. Abduction and adduction Latin Gray's plica vocalis subject #236 1079 . The formants tell a listener what vowel is being spoken. Our interest is therefore most focused on further modulations of and additions to the fundamental tone by other parts of the vocal apparatus. It is utilized in the teaching of singing and assists in defining what singing is. The well-defined fundamental frequency provided by the vocal cords in voiced phonemes is only a convenience. Production of vowels A vowel is any phoneme in which airflow is impeded only or mostly by the voicing action of the vocal cords. Vocal pedagogy From Wikipedia. and how proper singing technique is accomplished. pharyngeal.e. only a buzzing sound would be heard.

vowels and articulation  Vocal registration  Sostenuto and legato for singing  Other singing elements. and capitis). throat voice . however. It is unclear. such as learning to sing opera. History Pythagoras. belt. in The School of Athens by Raphael Within Western culture. guttoris. Their concept of head voice. As with other fields of study. The first surviving record of a systematized approach to teaching singing was developed in the medieval monasteries of the Roman Catholic Church sometime near the beginning of the 13th century. the monasteries were the center of musical intellectual life during the medieval period and many men within the monasteries devoted their time to the study of music and the art of singing. tone quality. teaching music.MeSH Vocal+Cords Vocal pedagogy covers a broad range of aspects of singing. Highly influential in the development of a vocal pedagogical system were monks Johannes de Garlandia and Jerome of Moravia who were the first to develop a concept of vocal registers. vibrato. or Art song  Phonetics  Voice classification All of these different concepts are a part of developing proper vocal technique. coloratura  Vocal health and voice disorders related to singing  Vocal styles. the man in the center with the book. however. ranging from the physiological process of vocal production to the artistic aspects of interpretation of songs from different genres or historical eras.  Breathing and air support for singing  Posture for singing  Phonation  Vocal resonation or voice projection  Diction. is much more similar to the modern pedagogists . Typical areas of study include:  Human anatomy and physiology as it relates to the physical process of singing. and head voice (pectoris . whether the Greeks ever developed a systematic approach to teaching singing as little writing on the subject survives today. Scholars such as Alypius and Pythagoras studied and made observations on the art of singing. Not all vocal teachers have the same opinions within every topic of study which causes variations in pedagogical approaches and vocal technique. the study of vocal pedagogy began in Ancient Greece. These men identified three registers: chest voice. such as range extension.

and tone quality to name a few. It was also during this time. diction. Examining the vocal mechanism with a laryngoscope. The vocal pedagogical methods taught in these schools. It was not until the development of opera in the 17th century that vocal pedagogy began to break away from some of the established thinking of the monastic writers and develop deeper understandings of the physical process of singing and its relation to key concepts like vocal registration and vocal resonation. Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García is often considered one of the most important voice teachers of the 19th century. became secular centers of study for singing and all other areas of musical study. Many of the teachers within these schools had their initial musical training from singing in church choirs as children. however. The ideas developed within the monastic system highly influenced the development of vocal pedagogy over the next several centuries including the Bel Canto style of singing. Other concepts discussed in the monastic system included vocal resonance. Giulio Caccini is an example of an important early Italian voice teacher. the study of singing began to move outside of the church. ed with the development of the laryngoscope and the beginning of modern voice pedagogy. It was during this time. it wasn't until the 19th century that more clearly defined voice classification systems like the German Fach system emerged. voice classification. With the onset of the Renaissance in the 15th century. were based on the concepts developed within the monastic system. The church also remained at the forefront of musical composition at this time and remained highly influential in shaping musical tastes and practices both in and outside the church. . more descriptive terms were used in classifying voices such as coloratura soprano and lyric soprano. However. In the late 17th century. This style of singing had a huge impact on the development of opera and the development of vocal pedagogy during the Classical and Romantic periods. the bel canto method of singing began to develop in Italy. that teachers and composers first began to identify singers by and write roles for more specific voice types.understanding of the falsetto register. breath support. which ultimately led to the popularity of castrato voices in Baroque and Classical operas. late 19th century Voice teachers in the 19th century continued to train singers for careers in opera. and is cr . such as the Dukes of Burgundy who supported the Burgundian School and the Franco-Flemish School. The courts of rich partons. Within these systems. that noted voice teachers began to emerge. It was the Catholic Church that first popularized the use of castrato singers in the 16th century.

anatomy.Mathilde Marchesi was both an important singer and teacher of singing at the turn of the 20th century. A few American voice teachers began to study the science. More recent works by authors such as Richard Miller and Johan Sundberg have increased the general knowledge of voice teachers. those who maintain the historical positions of the bel canto method and those who choose to embrace more contemporary understandings based in current knowledge of human anatomy and physiology. and scientific and practical aspects of voice pedagogy continue to be studied and discussed by professionals. especially Ralph Appelman at Indiana University. The field of voice pedagogy became more fully developed in the middle of the 20th century. There are also those teachers who borrow ideas from both perspectives. the creation of organisations such as theNational Association of Teachers of Singing (now an international organization of Vocal Instructors) has enabled voice teachers to establish more of a consensus about their work. This shift in approach to the study of singing led to the rejection of many of the assertions of the bel canto singing method. all related to how the mechanistic and psychological controls are employed within the act of singing. Topics of study Pedagogical philosophy There are basically three major approaches to vocal pedagogy. there are currently two predominating schools of thought among voice teachers today. most particularly in the areas of vocal registration and vocal resonation. Some voice instructors advocate an extreme mechanistic approach that believes that singing is largely a . In addition. Appelman and Vennard were also part of a group of voice instructors who developed courses of study for beginning voice teachers. adding these scientific ideas to the standard exercises and empirical ways to improve vocal technique. As a result. creating a hybrid of the two. Oren Brown at the Washington University School of Medicine and later the Juilliard School. and William Vennard at the University of Southern California. and by 1980 the subject of voice pedagogy was beginning to be included in many college music degree programs for singers and vocal music educators. and physiology of singing. and has expanded the understanding of what singing teachers do.

Breath is taken  2. however. one should rarely be reminded of the process involved as their mind and body are so coordinated that one only perceives the resulting unified function. Most voice teachers. and that correcting vocal faults is accomplished by calling direct attention to the parts which are not working well. On the other extreme. believe that the truth lies somewhere in between the two extremes and adopt a composite of those two approaches. These processes occur in the following sequence:  1. is the school of thought that believes that attention should never be directed to any part of the vocal mechanism--that singing is a matter of producing the right mental images of the desired tone. phonation. The vocal resonators receive the sound and influence it  4. and articulation. Many vocal problems result from a lack of coordination within this process. Respiration A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords. in actual practice they merge into one coordinated function. and that correcting vocal faults is achieved by learning to think the right thoughts and by releasing the emotions through interpretation of the music. Sound is initiated in the larynx  3. resonation. With an effective singer or speaker.matter of getting the right physical parts in the right places at the right time. The articulators shape the sound into recognizable units Although these four processes are to be considered separately. The nature of vocal sounds Physiology of vocal sound production There are four physical processes involved in producing vocal sound: respiration. .

In its most basic sense. and the sinuses. Articulation . these areas are the chest. It takes place in the larynx when the vocal folds are brought together and breath pressure is applied to them in such a way that vibration ensues causing an audible source of acoustic energy. and prolongation. In sequence from the lowest within the body to the highest. respiration is the process of moving air in and out of the body-inhalation and exhalation. Breathing for singing and speaking is a more controlled process than is the ordinary breathing used for sustaining life. the larynx itself. to make a better sound. There are seven areas that may be listed as possible vocal resonators. or should be. The main point to be drawn from these terms by a singer or speaker is that the end result of resonation is. sound. although in strictly scientific usage acoustic authorities would question most of them. enrichment. the oral cavity. Various terms related to the resonation process include amplification. The vocal folds are brought together primarily by the action of the interarytenoid muscles. intensification. i.. improvement. the tracheal tree.e. enlargement. The controls applied to exhalation are particularly important in good vocal technique. Resonation Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air. the nasal cavity. Phonation Phonation is the process of producing vocal sound by the vibration of the vocal folds that is in turn modified by the resonance of the vocal tract. the pharynx. which can then be modified by the articulatory actions of the rest of the vocal apparatus. which pull the arytenoid cartilages together.

12. Glottal. The places linguolabial and interdental. velar and uvular merge into one another. 14. Post-alveolar. 4. and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places. Classification of vocal sounds Vocal sounds are divided into two basic categories-vowels and consonants-with a wide variety of sub-classifications. Laminal. vocal instructors tend to focus more on active articulation as opposed to passive articulation. Vibratory sensations resulting from the closely-related processes of phonation and resonation. Palatal. 7. sometimes from other artistic disciplines. 11. and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants"). and kinesthetic ones arising from muscle tension. most voice teachers agree that interpretation can not be taught. interdental and dental. when the front of the tongue is used. Unlike active articulation. Alveolar. alveolar and palatal. Velar. Pre-palatal. The reason for this is that interpretation does influence the kind of sound a singer makes which is ultimately achieved through a physical action the singer is doing. Problems in describing vocal sounds Describing vocal sound is an inexact science largely because the human voice is a selfcontained instrument. 6. The International Phonetic Alphabet is used frequently by voice teachers and their students. Failure to interpret well is not a vocal fault even though it may affect vocal sound significantly. Interpretation Interpretation is sometimes listed by voice teachers as a fifth physical process even though strictly speaking it is not a physical process. In relation to the physical process of singing. movement. These adjustments and movements of the articulators result in verbal communication and thus form the essential difference between the human voice and other musical instruments. the tip of the tongue ("apical consonants"). passive articulation is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. Endo-labial. the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants"). 3. This has led to the use of a plethora of descriptive terms applied to the voice which are not always understood to mean the same . Sub-apical Articulation is the process by which the joint product of the vibrator and the resonators is shaped into recognizable speech sounds through the muscular adjustments and movements of the speech organs. 5. There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"). Epiglottal. Singing without understandable words limits the voice to nonverbal communication. Students who lack a natural creative imagination and aesthetic sensibility can not learn it from someone else. Uvular. 2. body position.Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. dental and alveolar. Postero-dorsal. 10. 9. In other words. 17. Voice Teachers and serious voice students spend a great deal of time studying how the voice forms vowels and consonants. and weight serve as a guide to the singer on correct vocal production. Another problem in describing vocal sound lies in the vocal vocabulary itself. These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries. most singers hear something different in their ears/head than what a person listening to them hears. it may be the upper surface or blade of the tongue that makes contact ("laminal consonants"). These articulators can act independently of each other. and two or more may work together in what is calledcoarticulation. Since the vocal instrument is internal. the singer's ability to monitor the sound produced is complicated by the vibrations carried to the ear through the Eustachean (auditory) tube and the bony structures of the head and neck. voice teachers often focus less on how it "sounds" and more on how it "feels". Although teachers may acquaint their students with musical styles and performance practices and suggest certain interpretive effects. There are many schools of thought within vocal pedagogy and different schools have adopted different terms. or the under surface ("sub-apical consonants"). Apical. 18. Radical. Pharyngeal. In addition. Dental. the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"). palatal and velar. 8. 16. Antero-dorsal. and studying the problems that certain consonants or vowels may cause while singing. 15. the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"). 13. Exo-labial. As a result.

white. Voice classification is the process by which human Soprano singing voices are evaluated and are thereby designated into voice Mezzo-soprano types. and vocal registration. (White 1988. and without Breath was not any Singing made that was made. Voice Instructors have also noted that when singers assume good posture it often provides them with a greater sense of self assurance and poise while performing. a setting up controls period (suspension)  3.thing. ringing. . forward. and so forth. and vocal properties Female voices of singers. Composers who write vocal music must have an understanding of the skills. Good posture allows the breathing mechanism to fulfill its basic function efficiently without any undue expenditure of energy. All vocal sounds are created by vibrations in the larynx caused by air from the lungs. White. A sunken chest position will limit the capacity of the lungs. Audiences also tend to respond better to singers with good posture. Natural breathing has three stages: a breathing-in period. and a tense abdominal wall will inhibit the downward travel of the diaphragm. who paraphrased a "Credo" for singing (no blasphemy intended): In the Beginning there was Breath. and Singing was Breath. The ability to move air in and out of the body freely and to obtain the needed quantity of air can be seriously affected by the posture of the various parts of the breathing mechanism. No system is universally applied or accepted. focused. Many singers abandon conscious controls before their reflexes are fully conditioned which ultimately leads to chronic vocal problems. and Singing was with Breath. The science behind voice Baritone classification developed within European classical music and has Bass been slow in adapting to more modern forms of singing. a breathing-in period (inhalation)  2. bleaty. vocal tessitura. reedy. vocal timbre. and a resting or recovery period. pear-shaped. Voice classification In European classical music and opera. light. Voice classification is often used withinopera to associate possible roles with potential voices. swallowed. scientific Tenor testing. Breathing and breath support In the words of Robert C. voices are treated Voice type like musical instruments. covered. a controlled exhalation period (phonation)  4. Good posture also makes it easier to initiate phonation and to tune the resonators as proper alignment prevents unnecessary tension in the body. Breathing in everyday life is a subconscious bodily function which occurs naturally. and vocal Male voices transition points such as breaks and lifts within the voice. Habitual good posture also ultimately improves the overall health of the body by enabling better blood circulation and preventing fatigue and stress on the body. These qualities include but are not limited to: vocal Contralto range. round. however the singer must have control of the intake and exhalation of breath to achieve maximum results from their voice. Other Countertenor considerations are physical characteristics. vocal weight. Some terms sometimes used to describe a quality of a voice's sound are: warm. spread. a recovery period These stages must be under conscious control by the singer until they becomed conditioned reflexes. Posture The singing process functions best when certain physical conditions of the body exist. these stages are not usually consciously controlled. dark. speech level. a breathing out period. hooty. and Singing was Breath. 26) All singing begins with breath. talents. And all singing was made by the Breath. mellow. plummy. p. There are currently several different systems in use within classical music including: the German Fachsystem and the choral music system among many others. Within singing there are four stages of breathing:  1.

When techniques of posture. applying such terms as soprano. A register in the human voice is a particular series of tones. phonation. and articulation have become established in this comfortable area. Vennard says: "I never feel any urgency about classifying a beginning student. breathing. There is currently no authoritative voice classification system within non-classical music. and possessing the same quality. So many premature diagnoses have been proved wrong. the true quality of the voice will emerge and the upper and lower limits of the range can be explored safely. It should be noted that within choral music. mezzo-soprano. Many acclaimed voice instructors suggest that teachers begin by assuming that a voice is of a medium classification until it proves otherwise. Attempts have been made to adopt classical voice type terms to other forms of singing but such attempts have been met with controversy. Premature concern with classification can result in misclassification. the mezzo-soprano must sing soprano or alto and the baritone must sing tenor or bass. singers voices are divided solely on the basis of vocal range. soul. and it may be adjusted as the voice continues to develop. and it can be harmful to the student and embarrassing to the teacher to keep striving for an ill-chosen goal. When considering children's voices. they must be assigned to a part that is either too high or too low for them. Either option can present problems for the singer. country. blues.However. Vocal registration Vocal registers Highest Whistle Falsetto Modal Vocal Lowest fry Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the human voice. can be applied. microphones. Only then can a tentative classification be arrived at. Choral music most commonly divides vocal parts into high and low voices within each sex (SATB). Dangers of quick identification Many voice teachers warn of the dangers of quick identification. and bass. most classical music systems acknowledge seven different major voice categories." Most voice teachers believe that it is essential to establish good vocal habits within a limited and comfortable range before attempting to classify the voice. Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. with all its attendant dangers.treble. can be misleading or even inaccurate. but for most singers there are fewer dangers in singing too low than in singing too high. and are not forced to fit into a specific vocal role. tenor. and contralto. such as jazz. and rock styles. Registers originate . Since most people have medium voices. It is best to begin in the middle part of the voice and work upward and downward until the voice classifies itself. folk. etc. The reason for this is that the majority of individuals possess medium voices and therefore this approach is less likely to misclassify or damage the voice. pop. The development of voice categorizations were made with the understanding that the singer would be using classical vocal technique within a specified range using unamplified (no microphones) vocal production. baritone. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor. produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. tenor. Since contemporary musicians use different vocal techniques. the typical choral situation affords many opportunities for misclassification to occur. an eighth term. Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano. resonation. singers are classified by the style of music they sing. As a result. baritone. Within contemporary forms of music (sometimes referred to as Contemporary Commercial Music).

The various processes may progress at different rates. many voice instructors disagree with this distinction of boundaries blaming such breaks on vocal problems which have been created by a static laryngeal adjustment that does not permit the necessary changes to take place. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register. or respiration. the resonators affect the vocal folds. They occur because the vocal folds are capable of producing several different vibratory patterns. students and teachers. The confusion which exists concerning what a register is. Coordination Singing is an integrated and coordinated act and it is difficult to discuss any of the individual technical areas and processes without relating them to the others. all three of these factors are in a state of flux in the transition from the lowest to the highest tones. organize registers differently. There are over a dozen different constructs of vocal registers in use within the field. These breaks are often identified as register boundaries or as transition areas between registers. and a certain type of sound. and how many registers there laryngeal function. and so forth. and mass. This view is also adopted by many teachers of singing. Teachers who like to use this theory of "blending registers" usually help students through the "passage" from one register to another by hiding their "lift" (where the voice changes). and the whistle register. however. This difference of opinion has effected the different views on vocal registration. Registers can even overlap while singing. However. a certain series of pitches. Once the voice student has become aware of the physical processes that make up the act of singing and of how those processes function. tension. middle. The term register can be somewhat confusing as it encompasses several aspects of the human voice. The term register can be used to refer to any of the following:  A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper. the student begins the task of trying to coordinate them. and their thickness decreases. The frequency of vibration of the vocal folds is determined by their length. the vocal folds affect breath control. tension increases. or lower registers. vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. is due in part to what takes place in the modal register when a person sings from the lowest pitches of that register to the highest pitches. will become more concerned with one area of the technique than another. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds. the vocal folds are lengthened. Some voice teachers. a register language is a language which combines tone and In linguistics. the falsetto register. some areas of the art of singing are so much the result of coordinated functions that it is hard to discuss them under a traditional heading like phonation. Inevitably. phonation only comes into perspective when it is connected with respiration.  A subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. The distinct change or break between registers is called apassaggio or a ponticello. articulation.  A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. Vocal instructors teach that with study a singer can move effortlessly from one register to the other with ease and consistent tone. resonation. For example. . If a singer holds any of these factors constant and interferes with their progressive state of change. Vocal problems are often a result of a breakdown in one part of this coordinated process which causes voice teachers to frequently focus in intensively on one area of the process with their student until that issue is resolved. However.  A phonatory process  A certain vocal timbre  A region of the voice which is defined or delimited by vocal breaks. the articulators affect resonance. the modal register. As pitch rises. In other words. his laryngeal function tends to become static and eventually breaks occur with obvious changes of tone quality.

rapid figurations. you must use more energy. Acquiring vocal techniques such as legato. and musical styles and practices as it relates to the vocal literature being studied. Extending the vocal range  3. resonance adjustment. Individuals can develop their voices further through the careful and systematic practice of both songs and vocal exercises.with a resulting imbalance or lack of coordination. staccato. and it refers to the dynamic level of the sound. It refers to the actual physical sensations of depth in the body and vocal mechanism and it refers to mental concepts of depth as related to tone quality. as you sing lower. as you sing lower. including:  1." General music studies Some voice teachers will spend time working with their students on general music knowledge and skills. (2) As you sing higher. breath support. If required they may also spend time helping their students become better sight readers. Singers should be thinking constantly about the kind of sound they are making and the kind of sensations they are feeling while they are singing. "Lining up" the voice horizontally and vertically  4. learning to comfortably sing wide intervals. . often adopting Solfege which assigns certain syllables to the notes of the scale. (3) As you sing higher. and articulatory movement) are effectively working together. you must use more space. Extending the vocal range An important goal of vocal development is to learn to sing to the natural limits of one's vocal range without any obvious or distracting changes of quality or technique. Voice instructors teach that a singer can only achieve this goal when all of the physical processes involved in singing (such as laryngeal action. The internal space or position of the soft palate and larynx can be widened by the relaxing of the throat. a singer's mouth should be opened wider the higher they sing.Space refers to the amount of space created by the moving of the mouth and the position of the palate and larynx. you must use less. Most voice teachers believe that the first step in coordinating these processes is by establishing good vocal habits in the most comfortable tessitura of the voice first before slowly expanding the range beyond that. Extending the vocal range to its maximum potential  2. It refers to the total response of the body to the making of sound. The areas of vocal technique which seem to depend most strongly on the student's ability to coordinate various functions are. There are three factors which significantly affect the ability to sing higher or lower: 1. It also refers to the amount of breath pressure delivered to the vocal folds and their resistance that pressure. Warming up the voice  2. The Space Factor. Achieving a balanced vibrato Developing the singing voice Singing is not a natural process but is a skill that requires highly developed muscle reflexes. control of dynamics. you must use less. particularly music theory. Developing consistent vocal production with a consistent tone quality  3.  1. Developing flexibility and agility  4. McKinney says. and correcting vocal faults. Exercising the singing voice There are several purposes for vocal exercises. 3. 2. The Energy Factor. "These three factors can be expressed in three basic rules: (1) As you sing higher. Voice teachers often describe this as feeling like the "beginning of a yawn". Generally speaking. you must use more depth. music history. Voice Teachers instruct their students to exercise their voices in an intelligent manner.In this usage the word energy has several connotations. It refers to a dynamic relationship between the breathing-in muscles and the breathing-out muscles known as the breath support mechanism. The Depth Factor. you must use less.In this usage the word depth has two connotations. Singing does not require much muscle strength but it does require a high degree of muscle coordination. as you sing lower.

and vocal transition Male voices points such as breaks and lifts within the voice. so that they are unimpaired by tension. composers. For other contemporary styles of singing see: Voice classification in non-classical music. Students of opera also spend a great deal of time with their voice teachers learning foreign language pronunciations. There are currently several different systems in use including: the German Fach system and the choral music system among many others. The size. well-balanced respiration is especially important to maintaining vocal projection. voice teachers spend some of their time preparing their students for performance. as an actor in a theatre. It is a technique which can be employed to demand respect and attention. True resonance will produce the greatest amount of projection available to a voice by utilizing all the key resonators found in the vocal cavity. Voice projection Voice projection is the strength of speaking or singing whereby the voice is used loudly and clearly. This includes teaching their students etiquette of behavior on stage such as bowing. These Mezzo-soprano qualities include but are not limited to: vocal range. a properly projected voice uses air properly flowing from the expansion of the diaphragm. the concentrated pressure through which one produces a focused sound. the sound will begin to spin as it reaches the ideal singer's formant at about 2800 Hz. and the use of equipment such as microphones. Other Countertenor considerations are physical characteristics. The science behind voice Baritone classification developed within European classical music and is not Bass generally applicable to other forms of singing. and vocal registration. Breath technique is essential for proper voice projection. As the sound being produced and these resonators find the same overtones. or simply to be heard clearly. There have been times when voice classification systems have been used too rigidly. and it is recommended to stand up straight with your feet shoulder width apart and your upstage foot (right foot if right-handed etc) slightly forward. and listeners to categorize vocal properties. scientific Tenor testing. vocal timbre. Many voice instructors will spend time on acting techniques and audience communication with students in these fields of interest. No system is universally applied or accepted. The goal is to isolate and relax the muscles controlling the vocal folds. Stance is also important. This article focuses on voice classification within classical music. and hardness of the resonators all factor into the production of these overtones and ultimately determine the projective capacities of the voice. a house assigning a singer . This improves your balance and your breathing. speech level. Some students may also be preparing for careers in the fields ofopera or musical theater where acting skills are required.e. i. whilst the counterplay between the diaphragm and abdominal muscles is trained to control airflow. In good vocal technique. The external intercostal muscles are used only to enlarge the chest cavity. Voice classification is often used within opera to associate possible roles with potential voices. addressing problems like stage fright or nervous tics. vocal Contralto weight. Voice Female voices classification is the process by which human voices are Soprano evaluated and are thereby designated into voice types. venues.Performance skills and practices Since singing is a performing art. vocal tessitura. Whereas in normal talking one may use air from the top of the lungs. Voice type Voice type A voice type is a particular kind of human singing voice perceived as having certain identifying qualities or characteristics. and to associate possible roles with potential voices. Voice classification is a tool for singers. In singing voice projection is often equated with resonance. such as when a teacher is talking to the class. shape.

The typical range of this voice is between A3 (the A below middle C) to A5 (the A two octaves above A3). Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano. and dexterity of the a specific type.) Number of voice types There are a plethora of different voice types used by vocal pedagogists today in a variety of voice classification systems. and some singers such as Leonie Rysanek have voices which lower with age. The typical soprano voice lies between middle C (C4) and "high C"(C6). sopranos are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. which are intermediate voice types between the soprano and the mezzo soprano: a Dugazon is a darker-colored soubrette. having very unusual vocal requirements. some mezzo-sopranos may extend down to the G below middle C (G3) and as high as "high C" (C6). Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. (For more information and roles and singers. Most of these types. In particular. vocal color or timbre. baritone. Ewa Podles. Mezzo-soprano range: The mezzo-soprano voice lies between the soprano voice and contralto voice. tenor. some singers such as Shirley Verrett or Grace Bumbrychange type. At the highest extreme. over-lapping both of them. the coloratura soprano has the highest tessitura of all the soprano subtypes. and some of Verdi¶s early works make extreme demands on his singers. Lyric soprano. Soprano Soprano range: The soprano is the highest female voice. Maria Callas. Some roles as well are hard to classify. see the individual voice type pages. are sub-types that fall under seven different major voice categories that are for the most part acknowledged across all of the major voice classification systems. or Plácido Domingo have voices which allow them to sing roles from a wide variety of types. These sub-categories include: Coloratura soprano. Soprano sub-types: As with all voice categories. . Rosa Ponselle. and bass. however. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor. A singer will ultimately choose a repertoire that suits their instrument. Spinto. Soubrette. some coloratura soprano roles may reach from F6 to A6 (the F to A above "high C"). Soprano tessitura: The tessitura of the soprano voice lies higher than all the other female voices. causing them to cycle through types over their careers. The low extreme for sopranos is roughly B3 or A3 (just below middle C). and contralto. Joan Sutherland. When considering the pre-pubescent male voice an eighth term. Most soprano roles do not extend above "high C" although there are several standard soprano roles that call for D6 or D-flat6. A note on vocal range vs. Mozart wrote many of his roles for specific singers who often had remarkable voices. the weight of voice. solo singers are classified into voice types based in part on tessitura ± where the voice feels most comfortable for the majority of the time. and only casting him or her in roles they consider belonging to this category. and even voice part over their careers. Intermediate voice types Two types of soprano especially dear to the French are the Dugazon and the Falcon. and Dramatic soprano. Female voices The range specifications given below are based on the American scientific pitch notation. a Falcon a darker-colored soprano drammatico. tessitura: Choral singers are classified into voice parts based on range. treble. Some singers such as Enrico Caruso.mezzo-soprano. In the lower and upper extremes. can be applied. Mezzo-soprano The mezzo-soprano is the middle-range voice type for females and is the most common female voice.

Tenor tessitura: The tessitura of the tenor voice lies above the baritone voice and below the countertenor voice. The typical contralto range lies between the F below middle C (F3) to the second F (F5) above middle C. Coloratura mezzo-soprano and Dramatic mezzosoprano. so much so that often roles intended for contraltos are performed by mezzo-sopranos as this voice type is difficult to find. Alto 2. all male voices used some falsetto-type voice production in their upper range. some contralto voices can sing from the E below middle C (E3) to the second b-flat above (b-flat5). Contralto sub-types: Contraltos are often broken down into two categories: Lyric contralto and Dramatic contralto. the weight of the voice. also designated a very high tenor voice. and something similar to the "leggiero tenor" or tenor altino.Mezzo-soprano tessitura: Although this voice overlaps both the contralto and soprano voices. Historically. A true operatic contralto is extremely rare. Tenor Tenor range: The tenor is the highest male voice within the modal register. "alto" is not a voice type but a designated vocal line in choral music based on vocal range. singers called countertenors generally sing in the falsetto register. in many compositions the alto line is split into two parts. In the lower and upper extremes. which is only one whole step short of the "Soprano C". in England at least. and Heldentenor. Tenor sub-types: Tenors are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. or singers with a disorder such as Kallmann syndrome). Dramatic tenor. female singers with very low vocal tessituras are often included amongmezzo-sopranos.. Contralto Contralto range: The contralto voice is the lowest female voice. until about 1830. Male voices Countertenor The term countertenor refers to the highest male voice. It should be remembered that. sometimes using their modal register for the lowest notes. Technically. there is much evidence that "countertenor". The Leggiero tenor has the highest tessitura of all the tenor sub-types. . some tenors can sing up to the second F above "Middle C" (F5). The range of the alto part in choral music is usually more similar to that of a mezzo-soprano than a contralto. and dexterity of the voice. The low extreme for tenors is roughly B-flat 2 (the second b-flat below middle C). These subcategories include: Leggiero tenor. Alto Contralto and alto are not the same term. vocal color or timbre. Spinto tenor. needed] : Countertenor ranges (approximate)[citation Countertenor: from about G3 to E5 or F5 Sopranist: extend the upper range to usually only C6. and modern castrato. the tessitura of the mezzo-soprano is lower than that of the soprano and higher than that of the contralto. Except for a few very rare voices (such as the American male soprano Michael Maniaci. However. but some as high as E6 or F6 Haute-contre: from about D3 or E3 to about D5 Countertenor sub-types: There are several sub-types of countertenors including Sopranist or male soprano. the equivalent of the French haute-contre. The lower part. At the highest extreme. is usually more suitable to a contralto voice than a mezzo-soprano voice. The typical tenor voice lies between the C one octave below middle C (C3) to the C one octave above "Middle C" (C5). Lyric tenor. In current operatic practice. Contralto tessitura: The contralto voice has the lowest tessitura of the female voices. Haute-contre. Many countertenor singers perform roles originally written for castrati in baroque operas. Mezzo-soprano sub-types: Mezzo-sopranos are often broken down into three categories: Lyric mezzo-soprano.

Baritone range: The vocal range of the baritone lies between the bass and tenor ranges. The typical baritone range is from the second F below middle C (F2) to the F above middle C (F4). These subcategories include: Lyric baritone. Bass Bass range: The bass is the lowest male voice. The reason for this is that both groups have a similar laryngeal size and height and a similarvocal cord structure. the human voice is in an in-between phase where it is not quite a child's voice nor an adult one yet. the weight of the voice. In the lower and upper extremes of the bass voice. Both boys and girls prior to puberty have an equivalent vocal range and timbre. both men and women's voices alter as the vocal ligaments become more defined and the laryngeal cartilages harden. the tessitura of the baritone is lower than that of the tenor and higher than that of the bass. Baritone sub-types: Baritones are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. which many trained trebles sing. The vocal range and timbre of children's voices does not have the variety that adults' voices have. This is not to suggest that the voice stops changing at that age. Initially. Dramatic Bass. Basso Cantante. a baritone's range can be extended at either end. but the Anglican church repertory. and Bass-baritone. the term was associated with boy sopranos but as the inclusion of girls into children's choirs became acceptable in the twentieth century the term has expanded to refer to all pre-pubescent voices. Basso Buffo / Bel Canto Bass. Children's voices The voice from childhood to adulthood The human voice is in a constant state of change and development just as the whole body is in a state of constant change. frequently demands G5 and even A5. Bass tessitura: The bass voice has the lowest tessitura of all the voices. From the onset of puberty to approximately age 22. however.Baritone The Baritone is the most common type of male voice. overlapping both of them. Treble range: Most trebles have an approximate range from the A below "middle C" (A3) to the F one and a half octaves above "middle C" (F5). With the onset of puberty. Bel Canto (coloratura) baritone. Some trebles. The height of the male larynx becomes much longer than in women. and dexterity of the voice. baryton-noble. and Bariton/Baryton-Martin. which is exactly two octaves. The laryngealstructure of both voices change but more so in men. kavalierbariton. the weight of the voice. . Many trebles are also able to reach higher notes by use of the whistle register but this practice is rarely called for in performance. and as stated above there are continual changes throughout adulthood as well. and dexterity of the voice. Baritone tessitura: Although this voice overlaps both the tenor and bass voices. Treble The term treble can refer to either a young female or young male singer with an unchanged voice in the soprano range. A human voice will alter as a person gets older moving from immaturity to maturity to a peak period of prime singing and then ultimately into a declining period. These sub-categories include: Basso Profondo. vocal color or timbre. can extend their voices higher in the modal register to "high C" (C6). Verdi baritone. This ability may be comparatively rare. In the lower and upper extremes. vocal color or timbre. some basses can sing from the C two octaves below middle C (C2) to the G above middle C (G4). The size and development of adult lungs also changes what the voice is physically capable of doing. Dramatic baritone. Bass sub-types: Basses are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. The lumping of children's voices into one category is also practical as both boys and girls share a similar range and timbre. The typical bass range lies between the second E below "middle C" (E2) to the E above middle C (E4). Different singers will reach adult development earlier or later than others.

Misclassification can damage the vocal cords. they must be assigned to a part that is either too high or too low for them. and the damage may not make its appearance for months or even years. Many vocal pedagogists suggest that teachers begin by assuming that a voice is of a medium classification until it proves otherwise. However. scientific testing and other factors. Dangers of quick identification Many vocal pedagogists warn of the dangers of quick identification. the typical choral situation affords many opportunities for misclassification to occur. resonation. timbre. and it can be harmful to the student and embarrassing to the teacher to keep striving for an ill-chosen goal. Either option can present problems for the singer. especially in early adulthood. Choral music most commonly divides vocal parts into high and low voices within each sex (SATB). the mezzo-soprano must sing soprano or alto and the baritone must sing tenor or bass. William Vennardsays: "I never feel any urgency about classifying a beginning student. Only then can a tentative classification be arrived at. It is best to begin in the middle part of the voice and work upward and downward until the voice classifies itself. the true quality of the voice will emerge and the upper and lower limits of the range can be explored safely. Singing above an individual's best tessitura keeps the vocal cords under a great deal of unnecessary tension for long periods of time. When techniques of posture. Singing at too low a pitch level is not as likely to be damaging unless a singer tries to force the voice down. Unfortunately. and articulation have become established in this comfortable area.Classifying singers Voice classification is important for vocal pedagogists and singers as a guiding tool for the development of the voice. speech level. So many premature diagnoses have been proved wrong. Medical evidence indicates that singing at too high of a pitch level may lead to the development of vocal nodules. Choral music classification Unlike other classification systems. teachers may also consider physical characteristics. breathing. and vocal transition points. choral music divides voices solely on the basis of vocal range. this lack of apparent immediate harm can cause singers to develop bad habits that will over time cause irreparable damage to the voice. In general vocal pedagogists consider four main qualities of a human voice when attempting to classify it: vocal range. . As a result. Some of these dangers are not immediate ones. and the possibility of vocal abuse is greatly increased." Most vocal pedagogists believe that it is essential to establish good vocal habits within a limited and comfortable range before attempting to classify the voice. Clinical evidence indicates that singing at a pitch level that is either too high or too low creates vocal pathology. even in trained voices. Singing outside the natural vocal range imposes a serious strain upon the voice. Noted vocal pedagogist Margaret Greene says. tessitura. but for most singers there are fewer dangers in singing too low than in singing too high. shorten a singing career and lead to the loss of both vocal beauty and free vocal production. A number of medical authorities have indicated that singing at too high a pitch level may contribute to certain vocal disorders. "The need for choosing the correct natural range of the voice is of great importance in singing since the outer ends of the singing range need very careful production and should not be overworked. Premature concern with classification can result in misclassification. with all its attendant dangers. Increasing tension on the vocal cords is one of the means of raising pitch. The reason for this is that the majority of individuals possess medium voices and therefore this approach is less likely to misclassify or damage the voice. and it may be adjusted as the voice continues to develop. the human voice is quite resilient. but the possibility of damage seems to be much more prevalent in too high a classification." Singing at either extreme of the range may be damaging. Since most people have medium voices. phonation.

Speech synthesis . concatenative synthesis gives the most natural sounding synthesized speech. in order to make it easier for people with disabilities to use the Web. and authoring tools. nor of the assistive technologies used by people with disabilities. detracting from the naturalness Use Of The Web By People With Disabilities Abstract This document provides an introduction to use of the Web by people with disabilities. This document provides a general introduction to how people with different kinds of disabilities use the Web.0.Speech synthesis .Synthesizer technologies There are two main technologies used for the generating synthetic speech waveforms: concatenative synthesis and formant synthesis. and User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1. 4. Many of the accessibility solutions described in WAI materials also benefit Web users who do not have disabilities. 5. 2. access to the Web is vital for people with disabilities. It is not a comprehensive or in-depth discussion of disabilities. . Speech synthesis .Synthesizer technologies: Encyclopedia II . It illustrates some of their requirements when using Web sites and Web-based applications. 3. It provides background to help understand how people with disabilities benefit from provisions described in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1. Specifically. 8. Given the Web's increasingly important role in society. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1. natural variation in speech and automated techniques for segmenting the waveforms sometimes result in audible glitches in the output. and provides supporting information for the guidelines and technical work of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). Introduction The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) develops guidelines for accessibility of Web sites. 7.0. Introduction Scenarios of People with Disabilities Using the Web Different Disabilities That Can Affect Web Accessibility Assistive Technologies and Adaptive Strategies Further Reading Scenario References General References Acknowledgements 1. Generally. browsers. Table of Contents 1. However.Concatenative synthesis. 6.0. Concatenative synthesis is based on the concatenation (or stringing together) of segments of recorded speech. this document describes: y scenarios of people with disabilities using accessibility features of Web sites and Web-based applications.

seeking entertainment (user control of style sheets. multiple search options) retiree with aging-related conditions. He has one of the most common visual disabilities for . As he frequently does. and to detailed curriculum examples or guideline checkpoints in the Scenarios References in Section 6. appliances. assistive technologies. synchronization of visual. he is spending an evening shopping online. abbreviations. Following is a list of scenarios and accessibility solutions: y y y y y y y y online shopper with color blindness (user control of style sheets) reporter with repetitive stress injury (keyboard equivalents for mouse-driven commands. alternative text. avoiding pop-up windows) supermarket assistant with cognitive disability (clear and simple language. Lee wants to buy some new clothes. In some cases. media players. Disability terminology varies from one country to another. and cognitive or neurological disabilities. Each scenario contains links to additional information on the specific disability or disabilities described in more detail in Section 3. and music. access-key) online student who is deaf (captioned audio portions of multimedia files) accountant with blindness (appropriate markup of tables. This document contains many internal hypertext links between the sections on scenarios. The reader should not assume that everyone with a similar disability to those portrayed will use the same assistive technologies or have the same level of expertise in using those technologies. or assistive technologies with specific features supporting accessibility may not yet be available in an individual's primary language. and acronyms. freezing animated graphics. In some cases the scenarios show how the Web can make some tasks easier for people with disabilities. visual. but rather individuals engaging in activities that are possible using today's Web technologies and assistive technologies. speech.y y general requirements for Web access by people with physical. multiple search options) teenager with deaf-blindness. consistent design. Please note that the scenarios do not represent actual individuals. and braille display) classroom student with dyslexia (use of supplemental graphics. 2. managing personal finances (magnification. browsers. hearing. stopping scrolling text. as do educational and employment opportunities. The scenario references and general references sections also include links to external documents. some types of assistive technologies and adaptive strategies used by some people with disabilities when accessing the Web. accessible multimedia. consistent navigation options. appropriate table markup) Online shopper with color blindness Mr. device-independent access. labelled frames. disability requirements. and scenario references. to the assistive technology or adaptive strategy described in Section 4. Scenarios of People with Disabilities Using the Web The following scenarios show people with different kinds of disabilities using assistive technologies and adaptive strategies to access the Web.

which in his case means an inability to distinguish between green and red. But on sites that did not use style sheets he couldn't override the colors. He has not been able to use the same Web authoring software as his colleagues. Jones likes the access key feature that is implemented on some Web pages. He realized that many sites were using colors that were indistinguishable to him because of his red/green color blindness. After additional experimentation. Mr. Within a month. because the application that his office chose for a standard is missing many of the keyboard equivalents that he needs in place of mouse-driven commands. Lee bookmarked a series of online shopping sites where he could get reliable information on product colors. but all of the text looked brown to him. Mr. it seemed to him the text and images on a lot of sites used poor color contrast. Lee found that he prefered sites that used sufficient color contrast. after they found that the full keyboard support was easier on their own hands. When browsing other Web sites to research some of his articles. and this would re-damage his hands at this time. In other cases. and instead go straight to the link he wants. but he doesn't use a mouse. but again he could not tell which fields had red text. Mr. It took him several months to become sufficiently accustomed to using speech recognition to be comfortable working for many hours at a time. In some cases the site instructions explained that discounted prices were indicated by red text. Online student who is deaf . When he first starting using the Web. He has difficulty reading the text on many Web sites. Eventually Mr. The sites did this by including names of the colors of clothing as well as showing a sample of the color. Jones is a reporter who must submit his articles in HTML for publishing in an on-line journal. and not have to guess at which items were discounted. since they appeared to use similar shades of brown. the required fields on forms were indicated by red text. He researched some of the newer versions of authoring tools and selected one with full keyboard support. such as a sound card conflict that arises whenever he tries to use speech recognition on Web sites that have streaming audio. and redundant information for color. he has developed repetitive stress injury (RSI) in his hands and arms. Over his twenty-year career. To activate commands that do not have keyboard equivalents. Lee discovered that on most newer sites the colors were controlled by style sheets and that he could turn these style sheets off with his browser or override them with his own style sheets. he would have to use a mouse instead of speech recognition or typing. he discovered that several of his colleagues have switched to the new product as color blindness. and it has become painful for him to type. There are some things he has not worked out yet. and by placing an asterix (*) in front of the required fields in addition to indicated them by color. It enables him to shortcut a long list of links that he would ordinarily have to tab through by voice. Reporter with repetitive stress injury Mr. He uses a combination of speech recognition and an alternative keyboard to prepare his articles.

She uses the speech output. The professor for the course also set up a chat area on the Web site where students could exchange ideas about their coursework. combined with tabbing through the navigation links on a page. once these resources were captioned with text. she finds the expansions of abbreviations and acronyms the first time they appear on a page allows her to better catch the meaning of the short versions of these terms. since the tables on this company's documents are marked up clearly with column and row headers which her screen reader can access. Laitinen is an accountant at an insurance company that uses Web-based formats over a corporate intranet. She has recently upgraded to a browser that allows better synchronization of the screen display with audio and braille rendering of that information. since braille enables her to read the language on a page more precisely. ensured that she could keep up with class progress. which can sometimes be difficult for non-visual users to read. and the opportunity to provide Web-based text comments on classmates' work. and has become accustomed to listening to speech output at a speed that her co-workers cannot understand at all. Classroom student with dyslexia . Her screen reader reads her the alternative text for any images on the site. She was able to point out that the University was clearly covered by a policy requiring accessibility of online instructional material. for rapid scanning of a document. However. She is blind. She had little trouble with the curriculum until the university upgraded their on-line courseware to a multimedia approach. Martinez is taking several distance learning courses in physics. Ms. Although she was the only deaf student in the class and only one other student knew any sign language. accessible. then said they had no idea how to provide the material in accessible format. The school's information managers quickly found that it was much easier to comprehensively index the audio resources on the accessible area of the Web site. As one of the more senior members of the accounting staff. the university used a SMIL-based multimedia format enabling synchronized captioning of audio and description of video. Since the insurance codes she must frequently reference include a number of abbreviations and acronyms. For an introductory multimedia piece. Accountant with blindness Ms. She uses refreshable braille output to check the exact wording of text. She uses a screen reader to interpret what is displayed on the screen and generate a combination of speech output and refreshable braille output. including those with multimedia.0 as a resource providing guidance on how to make Web sites. She is deaf. she quickly found that the Web-based chat format. This enables her to better help her colleagues. For classroom-based lectures the university provided interpreters. and then to point to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1. Laitenen must frequently help newer employees with their questions. she easily orients herself to the information in the tables. Much of the information on the Web documents used at her company is in tables. The University had the lectures transcribed and made this information available through their Web site along with audio versions of the lectures. using an extensive collection of audio lectures.Ms. since the screen shows her colleagues the same part of the document that she is reading with speech or braille output. however for Web-based instruction they initially did not realize that accessibility was an issue.

reading. and has difficulty with abstract concepts. When she goes onto the Web. she finds that some sites are much easier for her to use than others. on some sites where new browser windows would pop open without notifying him. and found that she was able to read along visually with the text much more easily when she could hear certain sections of it read to her with the speech synthesis. and particularly likes her literature class. it is very hard for her to focus. When he first started using some of the financial pages. Retiree with several aging-related conditions. He has Down syndrome. grocery. Mr. managing personal finances Mr. and doing mathematical calculations. Sands has put groceries in bags for customers for the past year at a supermarket. She was initially worried about reading load. She has attention deficit disorder with dyslexia. Olsen attends middle school. since she reads slowly. Her classes recent area of focus is Hans Christian Andersen's writings. He usually buys his own groceries at this supermarket.Ms. sometimes the pages would update before he had finished reading them. though. and so it helps to be able to freeze the animated graphics. it's easier for him to select them. when the icons and links on Web pages are bigger. Her teacher has taught a number of different search strategies. and clothing sites. and that do not auto-refresh. But recently she tried text to speech software. Therefore he tends to use Web sites that do not have a lot of movement in the text. In addition. Supermarket assistant with cognitive disability Mr. and so he finds it easier to use pages with style sheets. but sometimes finds that there are so many product choices that he becomes confused. he found the scrolling stocktickers distracting. and she finds that some sites provide options for a variety of searching strategies and she can more easily select searching options that work well for her. Sometimes the search options are confusing for her. He has some central-field vision loss. Some of the pages have a lot of graphics. Yunus uses the Web to manage some of his household services and finances. and she has to do some research about the author. He also tended to "get stuck" on some pages. and developed a customized profile at some banking. and a little short-term memory loss. hand tremor. instead of struggling over every word. and they moved too fast for him to read. where the graphics are animated. In some cases. . He uses a screen magnifier to help with his vision and his hand tremor. and those help her focus in quickly on sections she wants to read. and he finds it difficult to keep track of how much he is spending. finding that he could not back up. Yunus has gradually found some sites that work well for him. Her school recently started to use more online curricula to supplement class textbooks. He has difficulty re-learning where his favorite products are each time the supermarket changes the layout of its products. However with recent accommodations to the curriculum she has become enthusiastic about this class. One of the most important things for her has been the level of accessibility of the Webbased online library catalogues and the general search functions on the Web. and the combination leads to substantial difficulty reading.

She uses a screen magnifier to enlarge the text on Web sites to a font size that she can read. A multimedia virtual tour of local entertainment options was recently added to the Web site of the city in which Ms. which she reads slowly. and the schedules. they made it possible for Mr. Sands to use the site. The interface used for the virtual tour is accessible no matter what kind of assistive technology she is using -. Kaseem browses local Web sites for new and different restaurants. which were helpful in navigating around the site. He found that he could use the Web site without much difficulty -. Kaseem forwards the Web site address to friends and asks if they are interested in going with her to some of the restaurants featured on the tour. She uses a personal style sheet with her browser. While these features made the site more usable for all of the online-grocery's customers. Mr. Sands now shops on the online grocery site a few times a month. and just buys a few fresh items each day at the supermarket where he works. The Web site for the local train schedule. and descriptions of the video -. When screen magnification is not sufficient.Recently. and tables without clear column or row headers. seeking entertainment Ms. making it easier for him to find items. or herportable braille device. she also uses a screen reader to drive a refreshable braille display. They also used the clearest and simplest language appropriate for the site's content so that their customers could quickly understand the material. . She has low vision and is deaf. The marketing department of the online grocery wanted their Web site to have a high degree of usability in order to be competitive with other online stores. Her preferences include having background patterns turned off so that there is enough contrast for her when she uses screen magnification.screen magnification. This is especially helpful when she reads on-line sample menus of appealing restaurants. Once he decides what he wants to buy. which makes all Web pages display according to her preferences. The Web site gives him an updated total each time he adds an item. Teenager with deaf-blindness. Kaseem uses the Web to find new restaurants to go to with friends and classmates. her screen reader with refreshable braille. The Web site for the bus schedule has frames without meaningful titles.which allows her to access it using a combination of screen magnification and braille. is easy to use because the frames on that Web site have meaningful had a lot of pictures. They usedconsistent design and consistent navigation options so that their customers could learn and remember their way around the Web site.including text subtitles for the audio. and in recognizing his favorite brands. but he mostly uses the option that lets him select from a list of products that he has ordered in the past. he visited an online grocery service from his computer at home. Ms. At home. helping him make sure that he does not overspend his budget. He explored the site the first few times with a friend. so she often gets lost on the site when trying to find the information she needs. The tour is captioned and described -. His friend showed him different search options that were available on the site. he selects the item and puts it into his virtual shopping basket. Ms. Kaseem lives. however. He can search by brand name or by pictures. She also checks the public transportation sites to find local train or bus stops near the restaurants.

People can have combinations of different disabilities. memory. Abilities can vary from person to person. have limitations of sensory.which are laid out as long tables with clear row and column headersthat she uses to orient herself even when she has magnified the screen display. Sometimes different disabilities require similar accommodations. Aging-related conditions can be accommodated on the Web by the same accessibility solutions used to accommodate people with disabilities. Different Disabilities that Can Affect Web Accessibility This section describes general kinds of disabilities that can affect access to the Web. with an infrared connection. while captions for audio not only benefit deaf users. For instance. . and can be temporary or chronic. and combinations of varying levels of severity. Following is a list of some disabilities and their relation to accessibility issues on the Web. to get additional information and directions at a publicly-available information kiosk in a shopping mall downtown. They may. For example. and may include changes in vision. or motor function. Many accessibility solutions described in this document contribute to "universal design" (also called "design for all") by benefiting non-disabled users as well as people with disabilities. and a few times she has downloaded sample menus into her braille device so that she has them in an accessible format once she is in the restaurant. The term "disability" is used very generally in this document. The number and severity of limitations tend to increase as people age. 3. except where otherwise noted. There are as yet no universally accepted categorizations of disability. Each description of a general type of disability includes several brief examples of the kinds of barriers someone with that disability might encounter on the Web. physical or cognitive functioning which can affect access to the Web. for different people with the same type of disability. but also Web users whose eyes are busy with other tasks. since they both have difficulty using a mouse but can use assistive technologies to activate commands supported by a standard keyboard interface. support for speech output not only benefits blind users. These lists of barriers are illustrative and not intended to be comprehensive. This document does not attempt to comprehensively address issues of terminology. There is a trend in many disability communities to use functional terminology instead of medical classifications. and over time. despite efforts towards that goal. Occasionally she also uses her portable braille device. Commonly used disability terminology varies from country to country and between different disability communities in the same country. Some people with conditions described below would not consider themselves to have disabilities. however. hearing. but also increase the efficiency of indexing and searching for audio content on Web sites. someone who is blind and someone who cannot use his or her hands both require full keyboard equivalents for mouse commands in browsers and authoring tools. These may include injury-related and aging-related conditions. Barrier examples listed here are representative of accessibility issues that are relatively easy to address with existing accessibility solutions.

software that reads text on the screen (monitor) and outputs this information to a speech synthesizer and/or refreshable braille display. instead of a graphical user interface browser plus screen reader.. or that do not have meaningful names forms that cannot be tabbed through in a logical sequence or that are poorly labelled browsers and authoring tools that lack keyboard support for all commands browsers and authoring tools that do not use standard applications programmer interfaces for the operating system they are based in non-standard document formats that may be difficult for their screen reader to interpret ."accountant") Blindness involves a substantial. uncorrectable loss of vision in both eyes. To access the Web.g. or voice browsers. graphs or charts) that are not adequately described video that is not described in text or audio tables that do not make sense when read serially (in a cell-by-cell or "linearized" mode) frames that do not have "NOFRAME" alternatives. They may use rapid navigation strategies such as tabbing through the headings or links on Web pages rather than reading every word on the page in sequence. Some people who are blind use text-based browsers such as Lynx. many individuals who are blind rely on screen readers -.y y y y y visual disabilities o blindness o low vision o color blindness hearing impairments o deafness o hard of hearing physical disabilities o motor disabilities speech disabilities o speech disabilities cognitive and neurological disabilities o dyslexia and dyscalculia o attention deficit disorder o intellectual o memory impairments o mental health disabilities o seizure disorders multiple disabilities aging-related conditions disabilities y y Visual disabilities Blindness (scenario -. Examples of barriers that people with blindness may encounter on the Web can include: y y y y y y y y y images that do not have alternative text complex images (e.

Common forms of color blindness include difficulty distinguishing between red and green. that have poor contrast."shopper") Color blindness is a lack of sensitivity to certain colors. some people with low vision use extra-large monitors. above. or between yellow and blue. due to loss of surrounding context Web pages. To use the Web. for instance poor acuity (vision that is not sharp). and whose contrast cannot be easily changed through user override of author style sheets text presented as images. concentrate harder to read what is on a page. and clouded vision. many people who are deaf rely on captions for audio content.Low vision (scenarios -."online student") Deafness involves a substantial uncorrectable impairment of hearing in both ears. tunnel vision (seeing only the middle of the visual field). central field loss (seeing only the edges of the visual field). are difficult to navigate when enlarged. To use the Web. Barriers that people with low vision may encounter on the Web can include: y y y y y Web pages with absolute font sizes that do not change (enlarge or reduce) easily Web pages that. such as a 24-point bright yellow font on a black background. Some individuals use specific combinations of text and background colors. depending on the type and extent of visual limitation Color blindness (scenario -. Others use screen magnifiers or screen enhancement software. and increase the size of system fonts and images. Barriers that people with color blindness may encounter on the Web can include: y y y color that is used as a unique marker to emphasize text on a Web site text that inadequately contrasts with background color or patterns browsers that do not support user override of authors' style sheets Hearing Impairments Deafness (scenario -. or choose certain typefaces that are especially legible for their particular vision requirements. To use the Web. and they may or may not read a written language fluently."teenager" and "retiree") There are many types of low vision (also known as "partially sighted" in parts of Europe). which prevents wrapping to the next line when enlarged also many of the barriers listed for blindness. some people with color blindness use their own style sheets to override the font and background color choices of the author. or speak clearly. Sometimes color blindness results in the inability to perceive any color. Some deaf individuals' first language is a sign language. or images on Web pages. . They may need to turn on the captions on an audio file as they browse a page. because of inconsistent layout. or rely on supplemental images to highlight context.

or missing limbs. limitations of sensation. They may activate commands by typing single keystrokes in sequence with a head pointer rather than typing simultaneous keystrokes ("chording") to activate commands. Barriers encountered on the Web can include: y lack of captions or transcripts for audio on the Web. including webcasts lack of content-related images in pages full of text. which can slow comprehension for people whose first language may be a sign language instead of a written/spoken language lack of clear and simple language requirements for voice input on Web sites y y Hard of hearing A person with a mild to moderate hearing impairment may be considered hard of hearing. or adjust the volume of an audio file. including webcasts Physical disabilities Motor disabilities (scenario -. head-pointer or mouth-stick. or other assistive technologies to access and interact with the information on Web sites. Some physical disabilities can include pain that impedes movement."reporter") Motor disabilities can include weakness. lack of coordination. or paralysis). They may need more time when filling out interactive forms on Web sites if they have to concentrate or maneuver carefully to select each keystroke. an eye-gaze system. people who are hard of hearing may rely on captions for audio content and/or amplification of audio. people with motor disabilities affecting the hands or arms may use a specialized mouse. a pointing device such as a head-mouse. joint problems. voicerecognition software. They may need to toggle the captions on an audio file on or off. These conditions can affect the hands and arms as well as other parts of the body.Barriers that people who are deaf may encounter on the Web can include: y y lack of captions or transcripts of audio on the Web. a keyboard with a layout of keys that matches their range of hand motion. To use the Web. To use the Web. Barriers that people with motor disabilities affecting the hands or arms may encounter include: y y y time-limited response options on Web pages browsers and authoring tools that do not support keyboard alternatives for mouse commands forms that cannot be tabbed through in a logical order Speech disabilities . limitations of muscular control (such as involuntary movements.

To use the Web. either in terms of loudness or clarity. Barriers that people with visual and auditory perceptual disabilities may encounter on the Web can include: y lack of alternative modalities for information on Web sites. someone with a speech disability needs to be able to use an alternate input mode such as text entered via a keyboard. people with visual and auditory perceptual disabilities may rely on getting information through several modalities at the same time.. an individual with an attention deficit disorder may need to turn off animations on a site in order to be able to focus on the site's content. someone who has difficulty reading may use a screen reader plus synthesized speech to facilitate comprehension. For instance. the U. They may also have difficulty with spatial orientation. Canada. or the lack of captions for audio Attention deficit disorder (scenario -.S. Barriers that people with attention deficit disorder may encounter on the Web can include: y y distracting visual or audio elements that cannot easily be turned off lack of clear and consistent organization of Web sites . Barriers that people with speech disabilities encounter on the Web can include: y Web sites that require voice-based interaction and have no alternative input mode Cognitive and neurological disabilities Visual and Auditory Perception (scenario -. for instance lack of alternative text that can be converted to audio to supplement visuals.Speech disabilities Speech disabilities can include difficulty producing speech that is recognizable by some voice recognition software. To use the Web. and some other countries) and dyscalculia may have difficulty processing language or numbers. while someone with an auditory processing disability may use captions to help understand an audio track. To use parts of the Web that rely on voice recognition. They may have difficulty processing spoken language when heard ("auditory perceptual disabilities"). including dyslexia (sometimes called "learning disabilities" in Australia."classroom student") Individuals with attention deficit disorder may have difficulty focusing on information."classroom student") Individuals with visual and auditory perceptual disabilities.

may rely more on graphics to enhance understanding of a site. people with seizure disorders may need to turn off animations. Avoidance of these visual or audio frequencies in Web sites helps prevent triggering of seizures. including people with some types of epilepsy (including photo-sensitive epilepsy). and may benefit from the level of language on a site not being unnecessarily complex for the site's intended purpose. or difficulty with blurred vision or hand tremors due to side effects from medications. people with mental health disabilities may need to turn off distracting visual or audio elements. missing long-term memory. or have difficulty understanding complex concepts. are triggered by visual flickering or audio signals at a certain frequency.Intellectual disabilities (scenario -. or may have some loss of ability to recall language. people with intellectual disabilities may take more time on a Web site. To use the Web. Barriers can include: y lack of clear or consistent organization of Web sites Mental health disabilities Individuals with mental health disabilities may have difficulty focusing on information on a Web site. To use the Web. blinking text. or to use screen magnifiers. To use the Web. or "developmental disabilities" or previously "mental retardation" in the United States) may learn more slowly. Barriers can include: y y distracting visual or audio elements that cannot easily be turned off Web pages with absolute font sizes that do not enlarge easily Seizure disorders Some individuals with seizure disorders. ."retiree") Individuals with memory impairments may have problems with short-term memory. To use the Web. Barriers can include: y y y use of unnecessarily complex language on Web sites lack of graphics on Web sites lack of clear or consistent organization of Web sites Memory impairments (scenario -. or certain frequencies of audio. Down Syndrome is one among many different causes of intellectual disabilities."supermarket assistant") Individuals with impairments of intelligence (sometimes called "learning disabilities" in Europe. people with memory impairments may rely on a consistent navigational structure throughout the site.

or plug-ins. Similarly. but only if the captions could be enlarged and the color contrast adjusted. which adds to the difficulty which a user with short-term memory loss might experience on a Web site. might use a combination of speech input and speech output. which they could access on a refreshable braille display. Someone who cannot move his or her hands. Aging-Related Conditions (scenario -. dexterity and memory. Barriers can include any of the issues already mentioned above. For example. or configure the operating system so that multiple-keystroke commands can be entered with a sequence of single keystrokes. and also cannot see the screen well. hearing. and might therefore need to rely on precise indicators of location and navigation options in a document. Assistive Technologies and Adaptive Strategies Assistive technologies are products used by people with disabilities to help accomplish tasks that they cannot accomplish otherwise or could not do easily otherwise. these changes can become more complex to accommodate. Some assistive technologies are used together with graphical desktop browsers. while someone who is blind can benefit from hearing an audio description of a Web-based video. multimedia players.Barriers can include: y use of visual or audio frequencies that can trigger seizures Multiple Disabilities (scenario -. For example someone who cannot see a Web page may tab through the links on a page as one strategy for helpinjg skim the content. 4. and someone who is deaf can benefit from seeing the captions accompanying audio."retiree") Changes in people's functional ability due to aging can include changes in abilities or a combination of abilities including vision. someone who is both deaf and blind needs access to a text transcript of the description of the audio and video. Any one of these limitations can affect an individual's ability to access Web content. however when using screen magnification the user loses surrounding contextual information. Together. Some accessibility solutions are built into the operating system. someone with low vision may need screen magnification. for instance the ability to change the system font size. someone who is deaf and has low vision might benefit from the captions on audio files. text browsers. When used with computers. . voice browsers. assistive technologies are sometimes referred to as adaptive software or hardware. For instance."teenager") Combinations of disabilities may reduce a user's flexibility in using accessibility information. Adaptive strategies are techniques that people with disabilities use to assist in using computers or other devices.

on-screen keyboards.g. that provide an alternate way of creating keystrokes that appear to come from the standard keyboard. they also reduce the area of the document that may be viewed. Refreshable or dynamic braille involves the use of a mechanical display where dots (pins) can be raised and lowered dynamically to allow any braille characters to be displayed. menu items. phrases) one at a time. y y y y y y y y y y y alternative keyboards or switches braille and refreshable braille scanning software screen magnifiers screen readers speech recognition speech synthesis tabbing through structural elements text browsers visual notification voice browsers Alternative keyboards or switches (scenario -." "ble" in Grade II American English braille) in order to make braille more compact. Web-based applications that can be operated entirely from the keyboard. Some "grades" of braille include additional codes beyond standard alpha-numeric characters to represent common letter groupings (e. Braille and refreshable braille (scenarios -. Braille systems vary greatly around the world.g. At the same time screen magnifiers make presentations larger. Refreshable braille displays can be incorporated into portable braille devices with the capabilities of small computers.Following is a list of the assistive technologies and adaptive strategies described below. which can also be used as interfaces to devices such as information kiosks."reporter") Alternate keyboards or switches are hardware or software devices used by people with physical disabilities. This is by no means a comprehensive list of all such technologies or strategies."accountant" and "teenager") Braille is a system using six to eight raised dots in various patterns to represent letters and numbers that can be read by the fingertips. and sip-and-puff switches. A user selects a desired item by hitting a switch when the desired item is highlighted or announced. Examples include keyboard with extra-small or extralarge key spacing. keyguards that only allow pressing one key at a time. An 8-dot version of braille has been developed to allow all ASCII characters to be represented. links.. eyegaze keyboards. Screen magnifiers (scenarios -. . Scanning software Scanning software is adaptive software used by individuals with some physical or cognitive disabilities that highlights or announces selection choices (e.."teenager" and "retiree") Screen magnification is software used primarily by individuals with low vision that magnifies a portion of the screen for easier viewing. but rather explanations of examples highlighted in the scenarios above. "th. with no mouse required. support a wide range of alternative modes of input.

"accountant") Speech synthesis or speech output can be generated by screen readers or voice browsers.e. as well as people using voice recognition. For instance.. Speech synthesis (speech output) (scenario -. the parsed document code) as their input. Older screen readers make use of the rendered version of a document. headers.. Screen readers (scenarios -. list items. when tables are used for layout) and their output may be confusing.whether because they are blind or dyslexic -. They can be used with screen readers for people who are blind. or to refreshable braille for tactile output. so that document order or structure may be lost (e. for people who cannot use a mouse."accountant") Some accessibility solutions are adaptive strategies rather than specific assistive technologies such as software or hardware. Applications that have full keyboard support can be used with speech recognition."accountant" and "teenager") Software used by individuals who are blind or who have dyslexia that interprets what is displayed on a screen and directs it either to speech synthesis for audio output. or other structural items on a Web page is to use the tab key to go through the items in sequence. Visual notification Visual notification is an alternative feature of some operating systems that allows deaf or hard of hearing users to receive a visual alert of a warning or error message that might otherwise be issued by sound .g. They are also used by many people who have low bandwidth connections and do not want to wait for images to download. People who are used to using speech output sometimes listen to it at very rapid speeds. Some screen magnifiers offer two views of the screen: one magnified and one default size for navigation.may tab through items on a page. People who are using screen readers -. Tabbing through structural elements (scenario -. Some screen readers use the document tree (i.removing surrounding context . and involves production of digitized speech from text. Speech recognition Speech (or voice) recognition is used by people with some physical disabilities or temporary injuries to hands and forearms as an input method in some voice browsers. one strategy for rapidly scanning through links. Text browsers Text browsers such as Lynx are an alternative to graphical user interface browsers.

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