INDEX

                         

Accent (Linguistics) Acoustic Phonetics Belt (Music) Histology Of Vocal Folds Intelligibility (Communication) Lombard Effect Manner Of Articulation Paralanguage: Nonverbal Voice Cues In Communication Phonation Phonetics Voice Change In Boys Speaker Recognition Speech Synthesis Vocal Loading Vocal Rest Vocal Range Vocal Warm Up Vocology Voice Analysis Voice Disorders Voice Frequency Voice Organ Voice Pedagogy Voice Projection Voice Synthesis Voice Types (Singing Voices) Use Of The Web By People With Disabilities

Human Voice
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying,screaming, etc. Human voice is specifically that part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. Generally speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds within the larynx, and the articulators. The lung (the pump) must produce adequate airflow and air pressure to vibrate vocal folds (this air pressure is the fuel of the voice). The vocal folds (vocal cords) are a vibrating valve that chops up the airflow from the lungs into audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source. The muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to µfine tune¶ pitch and tone. The articulators (the parts of the vocal tract above the larynx consisting of tongue, palate, cheek, lips, etc.) articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen it or weaken it as a sound source. The vocal folds, in combination with the articulators, are capable of producing highly intricate arrays of sound. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, surprise, or happiness. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. Voice types and the folds (cords) themselves Adult men and women have different vocal folds sizes; reflecting the male-female differences in larynx size. Adult male voices are usually lower-pitched and have larger folds. The male vocal folds (which would be measured vertically in the opposite diagram), are between 17 mm and 25 mm in length. the female vocal folds are between 12.5 mm and 17.5 mm in length.

A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords.

swallowing.

As seen in the illustration, the folds are located just above the vertebrate trachea (the windpipe, which travels from the lungs). Food and drink do not pass through the cords but instead pass through the esophagus, an unlinked tube. Both tubes are separated by the epiglottis, a "flap" that covers the opening of the trachea while

The folds in both sexes are within the larynx. They are attached at the back (side nearest the spinal cord) to the arytenoids cartilages, and at the front (side under the chin) to the thyroid cartilage. They have no outer edge as they blend into the side of the breathing tube (the illustration is out of date and does not show this well) while their inner edges or "margins" are free to vibrate (the hole). They have a three layer construction of anepithelium, vocal ligament, then muscle (vocalis muscle), which can shorten and bulge the folds. They are flat triangular bands and are pearly white in color. Above both sides of the vocal cord is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds (not illustrated). The difference in vocal folds size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices. Additionally, genetics also causes variances amongst the same sex, with men and women's singing voices being categorized into types. For example, among men, there are bass, baritone, tenor and countertenor(ranging from E2 to even F6), and among women, contralto, mezzo-soprano and soprano (ranging from F3 to C6). There are additional categories for operatic voices, see voice type. This is not the only source of difference between male and female voice. Men, generally speaking, have a larger vocal tract, which essentially gives the resultant voice a lower-sounding timbre. This is mostly independent of the vocal folds themselves. Voice modulation in spoken language Human spoken language makes use of the ability of almost all persons in a given society to dynamically modulate certain parameters of the laryngeal voice source in a consistent manner. The most important communicative, or phonetic, parameters are the voice pitch (determined by the vibratory frequency of the vocal folds) and the degree of separation of the vocal folds, referred to as vocal fold abduction (coming together) or adduction (separating). The ability to vary the ab/adduction of the vocal folds quickly has a strong genetic component, since vocal fold adduction has a life-preserving function in keeping food from passing into the lungs, in addition to the covering action of the epiglottis. Consequently, the muscles that control this action are among the fastest in the body. Children can learn to use this action consistently during speech at an early age, as they learn to speak the difference between utterances such as "apa" (having an abductory-adductory gesture for the p) as "aba" (having no abductory-adductory gesture). Surprisingly enough, they can learn to do this well before the age of two by listening only to the voices of adults around them who have voices much different from their own, and even though the laryngeal movements causing these phonetic differentiations are deep in the throat and not visible to them. If an abductory movement or adductory movement is strong enough, the vibrations of the vocal folds will stop (or not start). If the gesture is abductory and is part of a speech sound, the sound will be called Voiceless. However, voiceless speech sounds are sometimes better identified as containing an abductory gesture, even if the gesture was not strong enough to stop the vocal folds from vibrating. This anomalous feature of voiceless speech sounds is better understood if it is realized that it is the change in the spectral qualities of the voice as abduction proceeds that is the primary acoustic attribute that the listener attends to when identifying a voiceless speech sound, and not simply the presence or absence of voice (periodic energy). An adductory gesture is also identified by the change in voice spectral energy it produces. Thus, a speech sound having an adductory gesture may be referred to as a "glottal stop" even if the vocal fold vibrations do not entirely stop. for an example illustrating this, obtained by using the inverse filtering of oral airflow.] Other aspects of the voice, such as variations in the regularity of vibration, are also used for communication, and are important for the trained voice user to master, but are more rarely used in the formal phonetic code of a spoken language. Physiology and vocal timbre

enrichment. This view is also adopted by many vocal pedagogists. these areas are the chest. These different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The main point to be drawn from these terms by a singer or speaker is that the end result of resonation is. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch. and the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. The term register can be used to refer to any of the following:  A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper. Singers can also learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx. or should be. enlargement. although in strictly scientific usage acoustic authorities would question most of them. There are seven areas that maybe listed as possible vocal resonators. and possessing the same quality. produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. the position of the tongue. and a certain type of sound.) Humans have vocal folds that can loosen. Vocal resonation Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air. They occur because the vocal folds are capable of producing several different vibratory patterns. improvement.  A subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.  A phonatory process  A certain vocal timbre  A region of the voice that is defined or delimited by vocal breaks. the pharynx. to make a better sound. In sequence from the lowest within the body to the highest. A register in the human voice is a particular series of tones. or tone of the sound produced. the oral cavity. which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. the tracheal tree. especially the vocal tract. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register. volume. which has been shown to be a resonance added to the normal resonances of the vocal tract above the frequency range of most instruments and so enables the singer's voice to carry better over musical accompaniment. a certain series of pitches. the modal register. and prolongation. Vocal registration Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the human voice. and an individual's size and bone structure can affect somewhat the sound produced by an individual. the larynx itself. middle. and the sinuses. This is known as vocal resonation. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular Vocal range range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds.The sound of each individual's voice is entirely unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but also due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body. Influences of the human voice . timbre. Within speech pathology the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. and the manner in which the speech sounds are habitually formed and articulated. Various terms related to the resonation process include amplification. tighten. or change their thickness. a register language is a language that combines tone and In linguistics. and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. intensification. and the whistle register. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant. or lower registers. the nasal cavity. and the falsetto register.  A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. vowel phonation into a single phonological system. the term register can be somewhat confusing as it encompasses several aspects of the human voice. The shape of chest and neck. Registers originate in laryngeal functioning. Sound also resonates within different parts of the body. (It is this latter aspect of the sound of the voice that can be mimicked by skilled performers.

developed from the .Stenography uses characters to representwords by their spelling. the interaction of people from many ethnic backgrounds contributed to the formation of the different varieties of North American accents. the socio-economic status of its speakers. and these. and morphology. instead of their sound. an accent is a manner of pronunciation of a language. thus 14 direct muscles. upon which some of the music in the world is based.044. . often an ENT specialist may be able to help. their ethnicity. The female voice ranges from contral o to soprano. which is stress inflicted on the speech organs. or between a tenor and a treble. Phonography includes every. produce 16.The twelve-tone musical scale. Human (Range Of The). their caste or social class.515 different sounds. stresses and peculiarities develop. hence phonography is much the shortest and simplest mode of short-hand writing. Voice disorders There are many disorders that affect the human voice. and so on. independently of different degrees of intensity. Accents can be confused with dialects which are varieties of language differing in vocabulary. 173. Voice therapy is generally delivered by a Speechlanguage pathologist. 30 indirect muscles. according to a study published by the New Scientist.592. Over time these can develop into identifiable accents. In linguistics. the medium being tinned a mezzo-soprano. Analysis of recorded speech samples found peaks in acoustic energy that mirrored the distances between notes in the twelve-tone scale. ditto. An accent may be associated with the region in which its speakers reside (ageographical or regional accent). When vocal injury is done. Accents in the USA. but 17. but the best treatment is the prevention of injuries through good vocal production. Talking for improperly long periods of time causesvocal loading.there being about 9 perfect tones. these include speech impediments. It differs from stenography in this respect: . Canada and Australia. A man's voice ranges from bass to tenor. Hoarseness or breathiness that lasts for more than two weeks is a common symptom of an underlying voice disorder and should be investigated medically Range Of The Human Voice Voice. as well as pronunciation.186. and growths and lesions on the vocal folds. may have its roots in the sound of the human voice during the course of evolution. syntax. a boy's Voice is alto.741.whereas.method of writing by signs that represent the sounds of the language. and all in co-operation produce the number we have named .823. the medium being whs called a barytone. alone. for example.383 . The range of the human voice is quite astounding. Phonography Phonography. their first language (when the language in which the accent is heard is not their native language). It is difficult to measure or predict how long it takes an accent to formulate. History As human beings spread out into isolated communities. In North America. Accent (linguistics) . Dialects are usually spoken by a group united by geography or social status. . or together.

aesthetics. This is often due to their association with the elite part of society. Children of immigrant families. However. children as young as 6 at the time of moving to another country often speak with a noticeable non-native accent as adults. In many cases. such as the Italian accent. Although many subscribe to some form of the critical period. generally have a more native-like pronunciation than their parents. Accents such as BBC English or General American or Standard American may sometimes be erroneously designated in their countries of origin as "accentless" to indicate that they offer no obvious clue to the speaker's regional or social background. speakers who deviate from it are often said to "speak with an accent". This theory. and the frequency with which both languages are used.However. similarity of the non-native language to the native language. Received Pronunciation of the English language is associated with the traditional upper class. either as a result of time or of external or "foreign" linguistic interaction. However. there is no differentiation among accents in regards to their prestige. The most important factor in predicting the degree to which the accent will be noticeable (or strong) is the age at which the non-native language was learned. People from theUnited States would "speak with an accent" from the point of view of an Australian. Nevertheless. for example. Non-native accents Pronunciation is the most difficult part of a non-native language to learn. or correctness. Most individuals who speak a non-native language fluently speak it with an accent of their native tongue. accents are not fixed even in adulthood. in linguistics. they either place it earlier than puberty or consider it more of a critical ³window. Accents seem to remain relatively malleable until a person's early twenties. acquiring a native-like accent in a non-native language is near impossible. Social factors When a group defines a standard pronunciation. though both children and parents may have a noticeable non-native accent. Most researchers agree that for adults. All languages and accents are linguistically equal. Development Children are able to take on accents relatively quickly. everyone speaks with an accent. the accents of non-English settlers from Great Britain and Ireland affected the accents of the different colonies quite differently. An acoustic analysis by Jonathan Harrington of Queen Elizabeth II's Royal Christmas Messages revealed that the speech patterns of even so conservative a figure as a monarch can continue to change over her lifetime. yet North American accents remain more distant. neurological constrains associated with brain development appear to limit most non-native speakers¶ ability to sound native-like. and the effect of this on the various pronunciations of the British settlers. is quite controversial among researchers. The critical period theory states that if learning takes place after the critical period (usually considered around puberty) for acquiring native-like pronunciation.combinations of different accents and languages in various societies.´ which may vary from one individual to another and depend on factors other than age. Accent Stereotyping and Prejudice . All the same. an individual is unlikely to acquire a nativelike accent. after which a person's accent seems to become more entrenched. Scottish and Welsh immigrants had accents which greatly affected the vowel pronunciation of certain areas of Australia and Canada. however. Prestige Certain accents are perceived to carry more prestige in a society than other accents. and vice versa. There are also rare instances of individuals who are able to pass for native speakers even if they learned their non-native language in early adulthood. Irish. For example in the United Kingdom. such as length of residence.

from using race.Stereotypes refer to specific characteristics. Thus. Acting and accents Actors are often called upon to speak varieties of language other than their own. Gary Oldman has become known for playing eccentrics and for his mastery of accents. In business settings. and excuse to turn away. there are no strong norms against accent discrimination in the general society. lecturers.[21] Unlike other forms of discrimination. Similarly. Speakers with accents often experience discrimination in housing and employment. The perception or sensitivity of others to accents means that generalizations are passed off as acceptable. and professors. landlords are less likely to call back speakers who have foreign or ethnic accents and are more likely to be assigned by employers to lower status positions than are those with standard accents. and roles that a group and its members are believed to possess. but individuals with accent also often stereotype against their own or others' accents. often results in negative evaluations of speakers. traits. across college campuses in the US have been target for being unintelligible because of accent. not the accent by itself. On average. and perhaps by a prevailing sense of what is morally and ethically right. homeland or economics more directly. Individuals with non-standard accents often have to deal with both negative stereotypes and prejudice because of an accent. and unpleasant to listen to. however. In a study conducted by Rubin (1992). individuals with nonstandard accents are more likely to evaluated negatively. Accent serves as the first point of gate keeping because we are forbidden. However. less competent. one's way of speaking is used as a basis for arbitrary evaluations and judgments. however. they were shown a picture of the lecturer who was either a Caucasian or Asian. Researchers consistently show that people with accents are judged as less intelligent. an actor may portray a character of some nationality other than his or her own by adopting into the native language the phonological profile typical of the nationality to be portrayed ± what is commonly called "speaking with an accent". Rosina Lippi-Green writes. Accent Discrimination Discrimination refers to specific behaviors or actions directed at a group or its individual members based solely on the group membership. Negative evaluations may reflect the prejudices rather than real issues with understanding accents. having poor English/language skills. to recognize the other. accent becomes a litmus test for exclusion. For example. We have no such compunctions about language. Participants in the study who saw the Asian picture believed that they had heard an accented lecturer and performed worse on a task measuring lecture comprehension. [19][20] Not only people with standard accents subscribe to these believes and attitudes. less educated. ethnicity. In accent discrimination. For example. Studies have shown the perception of the accent. students listened to a taped lecture recorded by the same native English speaker with a standard accent. Accent discrimination is also present in educational institutions.[22][23] For example. Angelina Jolie attempted a Greek accent in the film Alexander that was said by critics to be distracting. non-native speaking graduate students. by law and social custom. One example would be Viggo Mortensen's use of a Russian accent in his portrayal of Nikolai in the movie Eastern Promises. Stereotypes may result in prejudice. which is defined as having negative attitudes toward a group and its members. although negative are more common. Missouri-born actor Dick van Dyke attempted to imitate a cockney accent in the film Mary Poppins. students taught by non-native English speaker do not underperform when compared to those taught by native speakers of English. Stereotypes can be both positive and negative. . such as Brad Pitt's Jamaican accent in Meet Joe Black.

Accents may have associations and implications for an audience. For example, in Disney films from the 1990s onward, English accents are generally employed to serve one of two purposes: slapstick comedy or evil genius. Examples include Aladdin (the Sultan and Jafar, respectively), The Lion King (Zazu and Scar, respectively), The Hunchback of Notre Dame(Victor the Gargoyle and Frollo, respectively), and Pocahontas (Wiggins and Ratcliffe, respectively - both of whom happen to be played by the same actor, American David Ogden Stiers). Legal implications In the United States, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on national origin, implying accents. However, employers can insist that a person¶s accent impairs his or her communication skills that are necessary to the effective business operation and be off the hook. The courts often rely on the employer¶s claims or use judges¶ subjective opinions when deciding whether the (potential) employee¶s accent would interfere with communication or performance, without any objective proof that accent was or might be a hindrance. Kentucky's highest court in the case of Clifford vs. Commonwealth held that a white police officer, who had not seen the black defendant allegedly involved in a drug transaction, could, nevertheless, identify him as a participant by saying that a voice on an audiotape "sounded black." The police officer based this "identification" on the fact that the defendant was the only African American man in the room at the time of the transaction and that an audio-tape contained the voice of a man the officer said ³sounded black´ selling crack cocaine to a white informant planted by the police.

Acoustic phonetics Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics which deals with acoustic aspects Acoustic phonetics investigates properties like the mean of speech sounds. squared amplitude of awaveform, its duration, its fundamental frequency, or other properties of its frequency spectrum, and the relationship of these properties to other branches of phonetics (e.g. articulatory orauditory phonetics), and to abstract linguistic concepts like phones, phrases, or utterances. The study of acoustic phonetics was greatly enhanced in the late 19th century by the invention of the Edison phonograph. The phonograph allowed the speech signal to be recorded and then later processed and analyzed. By replaying the same speech signal from the phonograph several times, filtering it each time with a different band-pass filter, a spectrogram of the speech utterance could be built up. A series of papers by Ludimar Hermann published in Pflüger's Archiv in the last two decades of the 19th century investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants using the Edison phonograph, and it was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. Hermann also played back vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds to distinguish between Willis' and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production. Further advances in acoustic phonetics were made possible by the development of the telephone industry. (Incidentally, Alexander Graham Bell's father, Alexander Melville Bell, was a phonetician.) During World War II, work at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (which invented the spectrograph) greatly facilitated the systematic study of the spectral properties of periodicand aperiodic speech sounds, vocal tract resonances and vowel formants, voice quality, prosody, etc. On a theoretical level, acoustic phonetics really took off when it became clear that speech acoustic could be modeled in a way analogous to electrical circuits. Lord Rayleigh was among the first to recognize that the new electric theory could be used in acoustics, but it was not until 1941 that the circuit model was effectively used, in a book by Chiba and Kajiyama called "The Vowel: Its Nature and Structure". (Interestingly, this book by Japanese authors working in Japan was published in English at the height of World War II.)

In 1952, Roman Jakobson,Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle wrote "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis", a seminal work tying acoustic phonetics and phonological theory together. This little book was followed in 1960 by Fant "Acoustic Theory of Speech Production", which has remained the major theoretical foundation for speech acoustic research in both the academy and industry. (Fant was himself very involved in the telephone industry.) Other important framers of the field include Kenneth N. Stevens, Osamu Fujimura, and Peter Ladefoged. Belt (music) Belting (or vocal belting) refers to a specific technique of singing by which a singer produces a loud sound in the upper middle of the pitch range. It is often described as a vocal registeralthough some dispute this since technically the larynx is not oscillating in a unique way . Singers can use belting to convey heightened emotional states . Technique The term "belt" is sometimes mistakenly described as the use of chest voice in the higher part of the voice. (The chest voice is a very general term for the sound and muscular functions of the speaking voice, singing in the lower range and the voice used to shout. Still, all those possibilities require help from the muscles in the vocal folds and a thicker closure of the vocal folds. The term "chest voice" is therefore often a misunderstanding, as it describes muscular work in the chest-area of the body, but the "sound" described as "chestvoice" is also produced by work of the vocal folds.) However, the proper production of the belt voice according to some vocal methods involves minimizing tension in the throat and change of typical placement of the voice sound in the mouth, bringing it forward into the hard palate. It is possible to learn classical vocal methods like bel canto and to also be able to belt; in fact, many musical roles now require it. The belt sound is easier for some than others, but the sound is possible for classical singers, too. It requires muscle coordinations not readily used in classically trained singers, which may be why some opera singers find learning to belt challenging. In order to increase the number of high notes one can belt, one must practice. This can be by repeatedly attempting to hit the note in a melody line, or by using vocalise programs utilizing scales. Many commercial learn-to-sing packageshave a set of scales to sing along to as their main offering, which the purchaser must practice with often to see improvement. 'Belters' are not exempt from developing a strong head voice, as the more resonant their higher register in head voice, the better the belted notes in this range will be. Some belters find that after a period of time focusing on the belt, the head voice will have improved and, likewise, after a period of time focusing on the head voice, the belt may be found to have improved. Physiology There are many explanations as to how the belting voice quality is produced. When approaching the matter from the Bel Canto point of view, it is said that the chest voice is applied to the higher register However, through studying singers who use a "mixed" sound practitioners have defined mixed sound as belting. One researcher,Jo Estill, has conducted research on the belting voice, and describes the belting voice as an extremely muscular and physical way of singing. When observing the vocal tract and torso of singers, while belting, Estill observed:  Minimal airflow (longer closed phase (70% or greater) than in any other type of phonation)  Maximum muscular engagement of the torso (In Estill terms: Torso anchoring).  Engagement of muscles in the head and neck in order to stabilize the larynx) (in Estill terms: Head and neck anchoring)  A downwards tilt of the cricoid cartilage (An alternative option would be the thyroid tilting backwards. Observations show a larger CT space).  High positioning of the larynx

Maximum muscular effort of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles, minimum effort at the level of the true vocal folds.  Narrowing of the aryepiglottic sphincter (the "twanger") Possible dangers of belting Use of belting without proper coordination can lead to forcing. Forcing can lead consequently to vocal deterioration. Moderate use of the technique and, most importantly, retraction of the ventricular folds while singing is vital to safe belting. Without proper training in retraction, belting can indeed cause trauma to the vocal folds that requires the immediate attention of a doctor. Most tutors and some students of the method known as Speech Level Singing, created and supported by Seth Riggs, regard belting as damaging to long term vocal health. They may teach an alternative using a "mixed" or middle voice which can sound almost as strong, as demonstrated by Aretha Franklin, Patti LaBelle, Celine Dion, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey,Lara Fabian, Ziana Zain, and Regine Velasquez. The subject of belting is a matter of heated controversy among singers, singing teachers and methodologies. Proponents of belting say that it is a "soft yell," and if produced properly it can be healthy. It does not require straining and they say it is not damaging to the voice. Though the larynx is higher than in classical technique,and many experts on the singing voice believe that a high larynx position is both dangerous to vocal health and produces what many find to be an unpleasant sound. According to master teacher David Jones, "Some of the dangers are general swelling of the vocal cords, pre-polyp swelling, ballooning of capillaries on the surface of the vocal cords, or vocal nodules. A high-larynxed approach to the high voice taught by a speech level singing instructor who does not listen appropriately can lead to one or ALL of these vocal disorders". However, it is thought by some that belting will produce vocal nodules. This may be true if belting is produced incorrectly. If the sound is produced is a mixed head and chest sound that safely approximates a belt, produced well, there may be no damage to the vocal folds. As for the physiological and acoustical features of the metallic voices, a master thesis has drawn the following conclusions:  No significant changes in frequency and amplitude of F1 were observed  Significant increases in amplitudes of F2, F3 and F4 were found  In frequencies for F2, metallic voice perceived as louder was correlated to increase in amplitude of F3 and F4  Vocal tract adjustments like velar lowering, pharyngeal wall narrowing, laryngeal raising, aryepiglottic and lateral laryngeal constriction were frequently found. 

Histology of the vocal folds
Histology is the study of the minute structure, composition, and function of tissues. The histology of the vocal folds is the reason for vocal fold vibration. Histoanaomy of the Glottis The glottis is defined as the true vocal folds and the space between them. It is composed of an intermembranous portion or anterior glottis, and an intercartilaginous portion or posterior glottis. The border between the anterior and posterior glottises is defined by an imaginary line drawn across the vocal fold at the tip of the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage. The anterior glottis is the primary structure of vocal fold vibration for phonation and the posterior glottis is the widest opening between the vocal folds for respiration. Thus, voice disorders often involve lesions of the anterior glottis. There are gradual changes in stiffness between the pliable vocal fold and hard, hyaline cartilage of the arytenoid. The vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages form a firm framework for the glottis but are made of elastic cartilage at the tip. Therefore, the vocal process of the arytenoid bends at the elastic cartilage portion during adduction and abduction of the vocal folds. Attachments of the Vocal Fold

the purpose of which is to maintain the shape of the vocal fold. The Transition:Intermediate and Deep Layers of the Lamina Propria The intermediate layer of the lamina propria is primarily made up of elastic fibers while the deep layer of the lamina propria is primarily made up of collagenous fibers. If there really is a space. Age-related changes in the macula flava influence the fibrous components of the vocal folds and are partially responsible for the differences in the acoustics of the adult and aged voice. Layered Structure of the Adult Vocal Fold The histological structure of the vocal fold can be separated into 5 or 6 tissues. and the superficial layer of the lamina propria. which can result in the inability of the epithelium to retain an adequate mucous coat. On the surfaces of the epithelial cells are microridges and microvilli. The macula flava in newborn vocal folds is important for the growth and development of the vocal ligament and layered structure of the vocal folds. which can then be grouped into three sections as the cover. the anterior glottis. is covered with stratified squamous epithelium. These fibers serve as scaffolds for structural maintenance. there is a problem. This layer is also known as Reinke¶s space but it is not a space at all. the lamina lucida and lamina densa. The basal lamina or BMZ mainly provides physical support to the epithelim through anchoring fibers and is essential for repair of the epithelium. or Broyle's ligament. Like the pleural cavity. the macula flavae are probably required for metabolism of the extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. Lubrication of the vocal folds through adequate hydration is essential for normal phonation to avoid excessive abrasion. providing tensile strength and resilience so that the vocal folds may vibrate freely but still retain their shape. Superficial Layer of the Lamina Propria This layer consists of loose fibrous components and extracellular matrices that can be compared to soft gelatin. Basal Lamina or Basement Membrane Zone (BMZ) This is transitional tissue composed of two zones. replacing damaged fibers in order to maintain the integrity and elasticity of the vocal fold tissues. depending on the source. The lamina densa has a greater density of filaments and is adjacent to the lamina propria. The Cover Epithelium The free edge of the vibratory portion of the vocal fold. The lamina lucida appears as a low density clear zone medial to the epithelial basal cells. The superficial layer of the lamina propria is a structure that vibrates a great deal during phonation. as well as glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan. The cover is composed of the epithelium (mucosa). which will in turn impact lubrication of the vocal folds. this vibratory portion is connected to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage by the posterior macula flava. The primary extracellular matrices of the vocal fold cover are reticular.The vibratory portion of the vocal fold in the anterior glottis is connected to the thyroid cartilage anteriorly by the macula flava and anterior commissure tendon. The epithelium has been described as a thin shell. This layered structure of tissues is very important for vibration of the true vocal folds. This epithelium is five to twenty-five cells thick with the most superficial layer consisting of one to three cells that are lost to abrasion of the vocal folds during the closed phase of vibration. The posterior glottis is covered with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. The transition is composed of the intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria. the transition. Surgery of the vocal folds can disturb this layer with scar tissue. it is a potential space. and the microridges and microvilli help to spread and retain a mucous coat on the epithelium. collagenous and elastic fibers. These fibers run . and the body. In the adult. and the viscoelasticity needed to support this vibratory function depends mostly on extracellular matrices. The body is composed of the thyroarytenoid muscle. Posteriorly. basal lamina (or basement membrane zone).

The squamous cell epithelium of the anterior glottis are also a frequent site of layrngeal cancer caused by smoking. the thyroarytenoid muscle. as opposed to the pediatric voice with three to six. usually seen as nodules or polyps. The adult fold is approximately three-fifths membranous and two-fifths cartilaginous. and the mature lamina propria. During puberty. Puberty Puberty usually lasts from 2±5 years. It causes a menstrual-like cycle in the vocal fold epithelium and a drying out . Since the basal lamina secures the epithelium to the superficial layer of the lamina propria with anchoring fibers. In females. the actions of estrogens and progesterone produce changes in the extravascular spaces by increasing capillary permeability which allows the passage of intracapillary fluids to the interstitial space as well as modification of glandular secretions. The length of the vocal fold at birth is approximately six to eight millimeters and grows to its adult length of eight to sixteen millimeters by adolescence. Histological Changes From Birth to Old Age The histologic structure of the vocal fold differs from the pediatric to the adult and old-age populations. The transition layer is primarily structural. Reinke¶s Edema A voice pathology called Reinke¶s edema. and typically occurs between the ages of 12 to 17. The infant vocal fold is half membranous or anterior glottis. The thyroid hormones also affect dynamic function of the vocal folds (Hashimoto¶s Thyroiditis affects the fluid balance in the vocal folds). For women. intermediate and deep layers. is only present by the conclusion of adolescence. Progesterone has an anti-proliferative effect on mucosa and accelerates desquamation. Estrogens have a hypertrophic and proliferative effect on mucosa by reducing the desquamating effect on the superficial layers. this presence or absence of tissue layers influences a difference in the number of formants between the adult and pediatric populations. which increase the mass and thickness of the cover. The Body: The Thyroarytenoid Muscle This muscle is variously described as being divided into the thyroarytenoid and vocalis muscles or the thyrovocalis and the thyromuscularis . This causes the vocal fold mucosa to appear floppy with excessive movement of the cover that has been described as looking like a loose sock. the voice is three tones lower than the child¶s and has five to twelve formants. The vocal ligament begins to be present in children at about four years of age. this is a common site for injury. The sub. Pediatrics The infant lamina propria is composed of only one layer. or cover.and supraglottic glandular mucosa becomes hormone-dependent to estrogens and progesterone. and the body. occurs in the superficial lamina propria or Reinke¶s space. In females during puberty. depending on the source. causing vocal fold injury. As vocal fold vibration is a foundation for vocal formants. giving the vocal fold support as well as providing adhesion between the mucosa. If a person has a phonotrauma or habitual vocal hyperfunction. but remains very supple and narrow. and half cartilaginous or posterior glottis. as compared to three in the adult. The squamous mucosa also differentiates into three distinct layers (the lamina propria) on the free edge of the vocal folds. Vocal Fold Lesions The majority of vocal fold lesions primarily arise in the cover of the folds. the vocal muscle thickens slightly.roughly parallel to the vocal fold edge and these two layers of the lamina propria comprise the vocal ligament. and there is no vocal ligament. the proteins in the basal lamina can shear. voice change is controlled by sex hormones. also known as pressed phonation. with the superficial. The greater mass of the vocal folds due to increased fluid lowers thefundamental frequency (F°) during phonation. swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fluid. Two layers appear in the lamina propria between the ages of six and twelve.

and precision. The thyroid prominence appears. In aging. Androgens are the most important hormones responsible for the passage of the boy-child voice to man voice. Progesterone has a diuretic effect and decreases capillary permeability. In muscles. lower sound:noise ratios are rarely acceptable (Moore. androgens are secreted principally by the adrenal cortex and the ovaries and can have irreversible masculinizing effects if present in high enough concentration. an androgen secreted by the testes. Testosterone. perspicuity. lucidity. Intelligibility is affected by spoken clarity. Adulthood There is a steady increase in the elastin content of the lamina propria as we age (elastin is a yellow scleroprotein. they are essential to male sexuality. the essential constituent of the elastic connective tissue) resulting in a decrease in the ability of the lamina propria to expand caused by cross-branching of the elastin fibers. explicitness. Noise levels For satisfactory communication. Manifesting in a wide frequency range.of the mucosa with a reduction in secretions of the glandular epithelium. It is not only louder but the frequencies of its phonetic fundamental are increased and the . In women. the majority of elderly patients with voice disorders have disease processes associated with aging rather than physiologic aging alone. that a band of frequencies from 1000Hz to 2000Hz is sufficient (sentence articulation score of about 90%). the average speech level should exceed that of an interfering noise by 6dB. the vocal folds lengthen and become rounded. this leads to the mature voice being better suited to the rigors of opera. 1997). Among other things. speech is quite resistant to many types of masking frequency cut-off²Moore reports. the vocal fold undergoes considerable sex-specific changes. and the change is irreversible. Intelligibility (communication) In phonetics. In the female larynx. for example. Word articulation remains high even when only 1±2% of the wave is unaffected by distortion: Quantity to be measured Unit of measurement %ALcons C50 STI (RASTI) Articulation loss (popular in USA) Intelligibility (international known) Good values < 10 % > 0. and the epithelium thickens with the formation of three distinct layers in the lamina propria. they cause a hypertrophy of striated muscles with a reduction in the fat cells in skeletal muscles. In men. Old Age There is a thinning in the superficial layer of the lamina propria in old age. thus trapping the extracellular fluid out of the capillaries and causing tissue congestion. The deep layer of the lamina propria of the male vocal fold thickens because of increased collagen deposits. However. will cause changes in the cartilages and musculature of the larynx for males during puberty. Intelligibility is a measure of how comprehendible speech is. comprehensibility. The intermediate layer of the lamina propria tends to atrophy only in men. and a reduction in the whole body fatty mass. the vocal fold cover thickens with aging.6 Clarity index (widespread in Germany) > 3 dB Intelligibility with different types of speech Lombard speech The human brain automatically changes speech made in noise through a process called the Lombard effect. The superficial layer of the lamina propria loses density as it becomes more edematous. The vocalis muscle atrophies in both men and women. Such speech has increased intelligibility compared to normal speech. or the degree to which speech can be understood.

Citation speech Citation speech occurs when people engage self-consciously in spoken language research. it has a higher fundamental frequency. In humans. Hyperspace speech Hyperspace speech. It is characterized by a slower speaking rate. The Lombard effect or Lombard reflex is the involuntary tendency of speakers to increase the intensity of their voice when speaking inloud noise to enhance its audibility. listeners hear speech recorded in noise better compared to that speech which has been recorded in quiet and then played given with the same level of masking noise. People also tend to make more noticeable facial movements.durations of its vowels are prolonged. Great tits sing at a higher frequency in noise polluted urban surroundings than quieter ones to help overcome the auditory masking that would otherwise impair other birds hearing their song. The effect links to the needs of effective communication as there is a reduced effect when words are repeated or lists are read wherecommunication intelligibility is not important. exaggerated pitch range. more and longer pauses. increased word duration. and slower rate. shortening of nuclear vowels. Clear speech Clear speech is used when talking to a person with a hearing impairment. the Lombard effect results in speakers adjusting not only frequency but also the intensity and rate of pronouncing word syllables. Due to the Lombard effect. increased consonant intensity compared to adjacent vowels. and a number of phonological changes (including fewer reduced vowels and more released stop bursts). elevated speech intensity. Since the effect is also involuntary it is used as a means to detect malingering in those simulating hearing loss.g. Screaming Shouted speech is less intelligible than Lombard speech because increased vocal energy produces decreased phonetic information. "targeted" vowel formants. occurs when people are misled about the presence of environment noise. It has a slower tempo and fewer connected speech processes (e. Infant-directed speech Infant-directed speech²or Baby talk²uses a simplified syntax and a small and easier-tounderstand vocabulary than speech directed to adults Compared to adult directed speech.. It involves modifying the F1 and F2 of phonetic vowel targets to ease perceived difficulties on the part of the listener in recovering information from the acoustic signal. a French otolaryngologist. devoicing of word-final consonants) than normal speech. Research upon Great tits and Beluga whales that live in environments with noise pollution finds that the effect also occurs in the vocalizations of nonhuman animals. This change includes not only loudness but also other acoustic features such as pitch and rate and duration of sound syllables. also known as the hyperspace effect. Changes between normal and Lombard speech include: Lombard effect . Lombard speech When heard with noise. This compensation effect results in an increase in the auditory signal-tonoise ratio of the speaker¶sspoken words. The effect was discovered in 1909 by Étienne Lombard.

Mechanisms The intelligibility of an individual¶s own vocalization can be adjusted with audio-vocal reflexes using their own hearing (private loop). In this auditory self-monitoring adjusts vocalizations in terms of learnt associations of what features of their vocalization. shift in formant center frequencies for F1 (mainly) and F2. It has been suggested that the Lombard effect might also involve the higher cortical areas that control these lower brainstem areas. The Lombard effect also occurs to those playing instruments such as the guitar Animal vocalization Noise has been found to effect the vocalizations of animals that vocalize against a background of human noise pollution.  great lung volumes are used.increase in phonetic fundamental frequencies shift in energy from low frequency bands to middle or high bands. There is a development shift however from the Lombard effect being linked to acoustic self-monitoring in young children to the adjustment of vocalizations to aid its intelligibility for others in adults. Great tits in Leiden sing with a higher frequency than        . Private loop A speaker can regulate their vocalizations particularly its amplitude relative to background noise with reflexive auditory feedback. This results in a tendency for people in choruses to sing at a louder level if it is not controlled by a conductor. or it can be adjusted indirectly in terms of how well listeners can hear the vocalization (public loop). though people can learn control with feedback. Neural circuits have been found in the brainstem that enable such reflex adjustment. increase in sound intensity. The Lombard effect has been found to be greatest upon those words that are important to the listener to understand a speaker suggesting such cognitive effects are important. Choral singing Choral singers experience reduced feedback due to the sound of other singers upon their own voice. spectral tilting. Both processes are involved in the Lombard effect. Development Both private and public loop processes exist in children. Neurology The Lombard effect depends upon audio-vocal neurons in the periolivary region of the superior olivary complex and the adjacent pontine reticular formation.  it is accompanied by larger facial movements but these do not aid as much as its sound changes. These changes cannot be controlled by instructing a person to speak as they would in silence. the duration of content words are prolonged to a greater degree in noise than function words. Such auditory feedback is known to maintain the production of vocalization since deafness affects the vocal acoustics of both humans and songbirds Changing the auditory feedback also changes vocalization in human speechor bird song. The Lombard effect also occurs following laryngectomy when people following speech therapy talk with esophageal speech. create effective and efficient communication. Trained soloists can control this effect but it has been suggested that after a concert they might speak more loudly in noisy surrounding as in after-concert parties. increase in vowel duration. Public loop A speaker can regulate their vocalizations at higher cognitive level in terms of observing its consequences on their audience¶s ability to hear it. when made in noise.

Often nasality and laterality are included in manner. and therefore severalhomorganic consonants. Other parameters Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth. fricative consonants (with partially blocked and therefore strongly turbulent airflow). Historically. Beluga whales in the St. approximants (with only slight turbulence). Lawrence River estuary adjust their whale song so it can be heard against shipping noise Experimentally. The reverse process is fortition. . or blocked airflow). jaw. and vowels (with full unimpeded airflow). sounds may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives. the Lombard effect has also been found in the vocalization of:  Budgerigars  Cats  Chickens  Common marmosets  Cottontop tamarins  Japanese quail  Nightingales  Rhesus Macaques  Squirrel monkey. For any place of articulation. sibilants being the more common. speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants (with occlusion. but phoneticians such as Peter Ladefoged consider them to be independent. how closely the speech organs approach one another. lips.do those in quieter area to overcome the masking effect of the low frequency background noise pollution of cities. that is. Stricture From greatest to least stricture. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. manner of articulation describes how the tongue. there may be several manners.  Zebra finches Manner of articulation Human vocal tract In linguistics (articulatory phonetics). and the sibilancy of fricatives. Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant. and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Parameters other than stricture are those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills). One parameter of manner is stricture. but phonetically they are sequences of stop plus fricative.

Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. lateral flaps. there are sounds which seem to fall between fricativeand approximant. it is called oral. However. When a sound is not nasal. etc. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. resulting in lateral approximants (the most common). where there is complete occlusion of the oral cavity. where there are one or more brief occlusions. and the airstream causes it to vibrate. usually shortened to nasal. the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. the Indigenous Australian languages are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind. the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion. as well as therelease burst and its effect on the following vowel. or oral stop. The shape and position of the tongue (the place of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different plosives their characteristic sounds. No language relies on such a difference. Examples include English /f. which begins like a plosive. This can also be combined with other manners. The "ll" of Welsh and the "hl" of Zulu are lateral fricatives. creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. where there is very little obstruction. taps.Taps and flaps are similar to very brief stops.  Nasal stop. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasal stops their characteristic sounds. where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation.while a nasal stop is generally just called a nasal. if it is voiceless. Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the  tongue toward the teeth. Trills and flaps.  Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative. Examples include English /w/ and /r/. s/ (voiceless). constitute a class of consonant called rhotics. is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel. The double "r" of Spanish "perro" is a trill. in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture. and therefore no air flow. though many have only an /s/. All languages have plosives. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d g/ (voiced). An oral stop is often called a plosive. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually. where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue.  Trill. but nasal fricatives. Individual manners  Plosive. though less common than fricatives. It is most commonly found in nasal stops and nasal vowels. but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. their articulation and behavior is distinct enough to be considered a separate manner.  Fricative. If the consonant is voiced. However. Most languages have fricatives. n/. These are by far the most common fricatives. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. Examples include English /m. In some languages. and approximants are also found. /v. and lateral fricatives and affricates. though not always. rather than just length. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/. Nearly all languages have nasals.  Approximant. Trilled affricates are also known. There are also lateral flaps. often called a tap. z/ (voiced). The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap in North American English. where there is complete occlusion (blockage) of both the oral and nasal cavities of the vocal tract. sometimes called spirant. the two may be combined. Affricates are quite common around the world. sibilants. . such as Spanish.  Flap.  Affricate. a plosive is completely silent. Many linguists distinguish taps from flaps. and the air passes instead through the nose.

The term 'paralanguage' is sometimes used as a cover term for body language. but not vowels or semi-vowels). and also vowels) are called sonorants because they are nearly always voiced. Implosive oral stops are not uncommon.  Lateral approximants. but voiced obstruents are extremely common as well. Other airstream mechanisms are possible. liquids. Paralanguage Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. but implosive affricates and fricatives are rare. English /l/ is a lateral. That is. fricatives. pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth. which are glottalic egressive. stop or affricate. central or lateral. Here the back of the tongue is used to create a vacuum in the mouth. Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds. Clicks may be oral or nasal. In English. affricates. so that there is slight turbulence. and the "wh" in those dialects of English which distinguish "which" from "witch". . sometimes called a glide. English has a click in its "tsk tsk" (or "tut tut") sound. these form a class of consonant called liquids. Broader classifications Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow (plosives. and /j/ (spelled "y") is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /i/ in this usage. Another common distinction is between stops (plosives and nasals) and continuants (all else). and it includes the pitch. and is powered by the lungs (actually the ribs and diaphragm). affricates are considered to be both. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously. Together with the rhotics. and paralinguistic phenomena in speech. but are found in Welsh and Classical Greek (the spelling "rh"). Other descriptions usesemivowel for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic. in some cases. Here the glottis moves downward. The latter are phenomena that can be observed in speech (Saussure's parole) but that do not belong to the arbitrary conventional code of language (Saussure's langue). which are glottalic ingressive. All ejectives are voiceless. /w/ is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /u/. but the lungs may be used simultaneously (to provide voicing). The study of paralanguage is known asparalinguistics. Manners without such obstruction (nasals. is a type of approximant. Clicks. are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. voiced or voiceless. These are prototypically voiceless. and occasionally fricatives may occur as ejectives. and in some languages no air may actually flow into the mouth. because they are sequences of stop plus fricative. which are velaric ingressive. which is not necessarily tied to speech. and. Sounds that rely on some of these include: Ejectives. intonation of speech. These are found as elements in diphthongs. Other airstream initiations All of these manners of articulation are pronounced with an airstream mechanism called pulmonic egressive. However. in Tibetan (the "lh" of Lhasa). Sonorants may also be called resonants. They are extremely rare in normal words outside Southern Africa. restricting the word 'sonorant' to non-vocoid resonants (that is. and another is often used to say "giddy up" to a horse. nasals and liquids. Voiceless sonorants are uncommon. volume. and some linguists prefer that term.    One use of the word semivowel. approximants. affricates) are called obstruents. the airstream is powered by an upward movement of the glottis rather than by the lungs or diaphragm. meaning that the air flows outward. Plosives. The word may also be used to cover both concepts. Voiceless implosives are also rare. usually shortened to lateral. causing air to rush in when the forward occlusion (tongue or lips) is released. but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. Implosives. which have similar behavior in many languages.

Expressive aspects The properties of the voice and the way of speaking are affected by emotions and attitudes. attitudes are expressed intentionally and emotions without intention. by the Tadoma method. chatrooms and instant messaging. and all the properties of a voice as such are paralinguistic. in particular of its prosody. 'dominant'. capitalization and the use of non-alphabetic or abstract characters. which are naturally associated with smallness. It will be expressed independently of the speaker¶s intention. pitch range and. Ordinary phonetic transcriptions of utterances reflect only the linguistically informative quality. i. 'unassertive'. There are no utterances or speech signals that lack paralinguistic properties. It has its origin in the fact that the acoustic frequencies in the voice of small vocalizers are high while they are low in the voice of large vocalizers. paralanguage in written communication is limited in comparison with face-to-face conversation. paralinguistic applies not only to speech but to writing and sign language as well. and it is reasonable to assume that it has phylogenetically given rise to the sexual dimorphism that lies behind the large difference in pitch between average female and male adults. The organic quality of speech has a communicative function in a restricted sense. Linguistic aspects These aspects are the main concern of linguists. This gives rise to secondary meanings such as 'harmless'. Expressive variation is central to paralanguage.. are paralinguistic or pre-linguistic in origin. It affects loudness. language is not . They affect the pitch of the voice and to a substantial extent also the formant frequencies. but attempts to fake or to hide emotions are not unusual. sometimes leading to misunderstandings. Typically.e. The perspectival aspects of lip reading are more obvious and have more drastic effects when head turning is involved. while meanings such as 'dangerous'. Even vocal language has some paralinguistic as well as linguistic properties that can be seen (lip reading. the frequency code also serves the purpose of distinguishing questions from statements. This code works even in communication across species. Organic aspects The speech organs of different speakers differ in size. A most fundamental and widespread phenomenon of this kind is known as the "frequency code" (Ohala. since speech requires the presence of a voice that can be modulated. and 'assertive' are associated with largeness. speaking rate.g. but also proportions. and it is not bound to any sensory modality.The paralinguistic properties of speech play an important role in human speech communication. which characterize the differentspeech sounds. and even felt. 'submissive'. the distinction linguistic vs. Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. paralinguistic elements can be displayed by emoticons. font and color choices. to some extent. In text-only communication such as email. 1984). The problem of how listeners factor out the linguistically informative quality from speech signals is a topic of current research. One can distinguish the following aspects of speech signals and perceived utterances: Perspectival aspects Speech signals that arrive at a listener¶s ears have acoustic properties that may allow listeners to localize the speaker (distance. However. Some of the linguistic features of speech. since it is merely informative about the speaker. Nonetheless. e. their organs of speech become larger and there are differences between male and female adults. As children grow up. The differences concern not only size. In most languages. McGurk effect). It is universally reflected in expressive variation. direction). Sound localization functions in a similar way also for non-speech sounds. pitch. This voice must have some properties. also the formant frequencies.

Dance is also regarded as a nonverbal communication. and do not use "verbal communication" as a synonym for oral or spoken communication. the situation and the message will determine the appraisal. and behaviors of communicators during interaction. meaning "of or concerned with words". as well as prosodic features such as rhythm. there are other means also. Nonverbal communication can occur through any sensory channel ² sight. intonation and stress.the only source of communication. by body language or posture. He argued that all mammals show emotion reliably in their faces. including . by facial expression and eye contact. However. semiotics and social psychology. Body movements are not usually positive or negative in and of themselves. where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place. much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction. But our judgment includes both. oral communication Scholars in this field usually use a strict sense of the term "verbal". Likewise. are nonverbal. joy. the physical characteristics of the communicators. as both make use of words ² although like speech. our attention is focused on words rather than body language. symbols and infographics. which differ from culture to culture. fear. Clothing and bodily characteristics . touch or taste. disgust. An audience is simultaneously processing both verbal and nonverbal cues." (Givens. NVC can be communicated through object communication such as clothing. written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style. NVC can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication). Thus. 4) History The first scientific study of nonverbal communication was Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). emotion and speaking style. p. Studies now range across a number of fields. or singing a wordless note. Sign languages and writing are generally understood as forms of verbal communication. both may contain paralinguistic elements and often occur alongside nonverbal messages. linguistics. rather. NVC is important as: "When we speak (or listen). smell. such as a grunt. sound. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. sadness and surprise are universal. Paul Ekman's influential 1960s studies of facial expression determined that expressions of anger. a large proportion is also to some extent iconic and may be universally understood. 2000. vocal sounds that are not considered to be words. including voice quality. spatial arrangement of words. or the use of emoticons. Verbal vs. hairstyles or even architecture. Arbitrariness While much nonverbal communication is based on arbitrary symbols.

structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool. noise. they often exceed that claim. height. architectural style. Gudykunst & TingToomey (1988) identified 2 dominant time patterns: . Physical environment Environmental factors such as furniture. the speed of speech and how long people are willing to listen. were correlated with aspects of the clothing. and clothing send nonverbal messages during interaction. and levels of sexual hormones. Primary territory: this refers to an area that is associated with someone who has exclusive use of it. Chronemics: time in communication Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. gender. e. lighting conditions. social. temperature. The way we perceive time. of the clothing worn by women attending discothèques showed that in certain groups of women (especially women who were in town without their partners) motivation for sex. and public space. Austria. but only for a set period. someone may sit in the same seat on train every day and feel aggrieved if someone else sits there. Often people try to make themselves taller. standing on a platform.Uniforms have both a functional and a communicative purpose. Public territory: this refers to an area that is available to all. Melamed & Bozionelos (1992) studied a sample of managers in the UK and found that height was a key factor affecting who was promoted. Elements such as physique. Time perceptions include punctuality and willingness to wait. The timing and frequency of an action as well as the tempo and rhythm of communications within an interaction contributes to the interpretation of nonverbal messages. for example. Thus. and helps set the stage for communication. such as a parking space or a seat in a library. others will walk around the group rather than disturb it. 3. when a group is talking to each other on a footpath. especially the amount of skin displayed. For example. Secondary territory: unlike the previous type. This man's clothes identify him as male and a police officer. when they want to make more of an impact with their speaking. hisbadges and shoulder sleeve insignia give information about his job and rank. at the arms. skin color. The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different settings within cultures. Research into height has generally found that taller people are perceived as being more impressive. clothing sent signals about interest in courtship. but people may still feel some degree of ownership of a particular space. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into four main categories: intimate. The space between the sender and the receiver of a message influences the way the message is interpreted. to some degree. For example. and the presence of sheer clothing. The furniture itself can be seen as a nonverbal message Proxemics: physical space in communication Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them. weight. personal. The term territoriality is still used in the study of proxemics to explain human behavior regarding personal space. there is no ³right´ to occupancy. it was found that people take longer to leave a parking space when someone is waiting to take that space. 69) identify 4 such territories: 1. and music affect the behavior of communicators during interaction. p. hair. odors. interior decorating. Interaction territory: this is space created by others when they are interacting. a house that others cannot enter without the owner¶s permission.g. 2. a study. For example. 4. For example. Although people have only a limited claim over that space. carried out in Vienna. Hargie & Dickson (2004. colors. For example.

tasks and ³getting the job done. Movement and body position Kinesics .´ The result of this perspective is that Americans and other monochronic cultures. place a paramount value on schedules. days. These cultures are much less focused on the preciseness of accounting for each and every moment. Canada. and Scandinavia. India. Our time can be broken down into years. For Americans. This perception of time is learned and rooted in the Industrial Revolution. p.´ Hall says that for monochronic cultures. and the calendar of religious festivities" (Cohen. ³time is tangible´ and viewed as a commodity where ³time is money´ or ³time is wasted.´ Polychronic cultures include Saudi Arabia. minutes. They have no problem being ³late´ for an event if they are with family or friends. 1997. We use time to structure both our daily lives and events that we are planning for the future. Philippines. 34). Monochronic cultures include Germany. Latin American and Arabic cultures use the polychronic system of time. Mexico. Hall wrote regarding the American¶s viewpoint of time in the business world. Cohen notes that "Traditional societies have all the time in the world. arranged and managed. The United States is considered a monochronic society. 238). DeVito & Hecht. "We buy time. As Raymond Cohen notes. the invariant pattern of rural life.´ As communication scholar Edward T. seconds and even milliseconds. p. Under this system time is scheduled. As a result. We have schedules that we must follow: appointments that we must go to at a certain time. polychronic cultures are deeply steeped in tradition rather than in tasks²a clear difference from their monochronic counterparts. save time. Unlike Americans and most northern and western European cultures. because the relationship is what really matters. such as the American culture. They are not ruled by precise calendars and schedules. The arbitrary divisions of the clock face have little saliency in cultures grounded in the cycle of the seasons. work schedules that start and end at certain times. hours. months. such as the German and Swiss. time is a precious resource not to be wasted or taken lightly. polychronic cultures have a much less formal perception of time. Polychronic Time A polychronic time system is a system where several things can be done at once. ³the schedule is sacred.Monochronic Time A monochronic time system means that things are done one at a time and time is segmented into precise. classes that start and end at certain times. and even our favorite TV shows. and a more fluid approach is taken to scheduling time. United States. Switzerland. that start and end at a certain time. Instead. 1999. small units.´ These cultures are committed to regimented schedules and may view those who do not subscribe to the same perception of time as disrespectful. Rather. rather than watching the clock. their culture is more focused on relationships. ³cultures that use the polychronic time system often schedule multiple appointments simultaneously so keeping on schedule is an impossibility. Egypt. where "factory life required the labor force to be on hand and in place at an appointed hour" (Guerrero. and many in Africa. spend time and make time.

including Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson. stance. and body openness. and also include movements of the head. body orientation. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures. gesture. Gesture A wink is a type of gesture. . leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech. an anthropologist who wished to study how people communicate through posture. eye gaze andphysical contact. The boundary between language and gesture. where one person¶s left side is parallel to the other person¶s right side. arm position. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean. Posture Posture can be used to determine a participant¶s degree of attention or involvement. and movement. and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator. Part of Birdwhistell's work involved making film of people in social situations and analyzing them to show different levels of communication not clearly seen otherwise. a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication. such as winking. A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. or rolling ones' eyes. the difference in status between communicators. or verbal and nonverbal communication. The study was joined by several other anthropologists. They may be articulated with the hands.Information about the relationship andaffect of these two skaters is communicated by their body posture. nodding. arms or body. The term was first used (in 1952) by Ray Birdwhistell. face and eyes. can be hard to identify.

such as the hand-wave used in the US for "hello" and "goodbye". and the manner of touch. These gestures are closely coordinated with speech. Speechindependent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent upon the context of the situation. kissing (cheek. some broad categories of gestures have been identified by researchers. For a list of emblematic gestures. Touching of oneself may include licking. Humans communicate interpersonal closeness through a series of non-verbal actions known as immediacy behaviors. holding. this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. picking." Gestural languages such as American Sign Language and its regional siblings operate as complete natural languages that are gestural in modality. These behaviors are referred to as "adapter" or "tells" and may send messages that reveal the intentions or feelings of a communicator. These types of gestures are integrally connected to speech and thought processes. culture-specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words.For example. and scratching. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures. Haptics: touching in communication A high five is an example of communicative touch. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. touching. Gestures can also be categorized as either speech-independent or speech-related.Although the study of gesture is still in its infancy. A single emblematic gesture can have a very different significance in different cultural contexts. back slapping. Examples of immediacy behaviors are: smiling. see list of gestures. These are conventional. "He threw the ball right into the window. Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech. Speech related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion. and brushing an arm. high fives. the relationship between communicators. holding hands. Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. in which a set of emblematic gestures are used to represent a written alphabet. a pat on the shoulder. Touches that can be defined as communication include handshakes. Other spontaneous gestures used when we speak are more contentful and may echo or elaborate the meaning of the co-occurring speech.open . hand). lips. ranging from complimentary to highly offensive. The so-called beat gestures are used in conjunction with speech and keep time with the rhythm of speech to emphasize certain words or phrases. a gesture that depicts the act of throwing may be synchronous with the utterance. Another broad category of gestures comprises those gestures used spontaneously when we speak. Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition. They should not be confused with finger spelling.

In the Thai culture. amount of gaze. Touch Research Institutes. even if they retain sight and hearing. The linguist George L. touching someone's head may be thought rude. American children were said to be more aggressive than their French counterparts while playing at a playground. and frequency of glances. and eye contact. Harry Harlow conducted a controversial study involving rhesus monkeys and observed that monkeys reared with a "terry cloth mother". Gaze comprises the actions of looking while talking. a wire feeding apparatus wrapped in softer terry cloth which provided a level of tactile stimulation and comfort. strangling and hand-to-hand fighting are forms of touch in the context of physical abuse.[citation needed] Striking. even without sight and hearing. Cultures that display these immediacy behaviors are known to be high contact cultures. As newborns they see and hear poorly but cling strongly to their mothers. One can be emotionally touched. and vocalization. Haptic communication is the means by which people and other animals communicate via touching. attention. To say "I was touched by your letter" implies the reader felt a strong emotion when reading it. During a study conduced by University of Miami School of Medicine. kicking. Stoeltje (2003) wrote about how Americans are µlosing touch¶ with this important communication skill. pitch and accent. Touch is an extremely important sense for humans. pulling. and blink rate. disgust or other forms of emotional rejection unless used in a sarcastic manner. and vital in conveying physical intimacy. voice qualities. In a sentence like "I never touched him/her" or "Don't you dare to touch him/her" the term touch may be meant as euphemism for either physical abuse or sexual touching.5%) sample. The word touch has many other metaphorical uses. Paralanguage: nonverbal cues of the voice Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. To 'touch oneself' is a euphemism for masturbation. Remland and Jones (1995) studied groups of people communicating and found that in England (8%). patterns of fixation. Usually does not include anger. Babies who can perceive through touch. Socially acceptable levels of touching varies from one culture to another. The development of an infant's haptic senses and how it relates to the development of the other senses such as vision has been the target of much research.[citation needed] In chimpanzees the sense of touch is highly developed. Paralanguage may change the meaning of words. tend to fare much better.body positions. It can be both sexual (such as kissing) and platonic (such as hugging or tickling).(Harlow. Trager developed a classification system which consists of the voice set. pupil dilation. Human babies have been observed to have enormous difficulty surviving if they do not possess a sense of touch.1958) Touching is treated differently from one country to another. France (5%) and the Netherlands (4%) touching was rare compared to their Italian (14%) and Greek (12. as well as providing information about surfaces and textures it is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone. Touch is the earliest sense to develop in the fetus. collectively known asprosody. and involvement. can all give off nonverbal cues. Touch can be thought of as a basic sense in that most life forms have a response to being touched. pinching. pushing. were considerably more emotionally stable as adults than those with a mere wire mother. while only a subset have sight and hearing. referring to an action or object that evokes an emotional response. It was noted that French women touched their children more Eye gaze The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication is sometimes referred to as "oculesics". looking while listening. Eye contact can indicate interest. .

The most important effect was that body posture communicated superior status in a very efficient way. and yawning. it is based on the judgment of the meaning of single taperecorded words. pitch.3 times the effect of verbal cues.. It is presented on all types of popular courses with statements like "scientists have found out that . a study  . They give each individual a unique "voice print". rhythm. . yelling "Hey stop that!". and how much is communicated non-verbally? This was investigated by Albert Mehrabian and reported in two papers . it relates only to women. Characterizer's are emotions expressed while speaking. it relates only to the communication of positive versus negative emotions. respectively. Third. articulation. . Fourth. 38 %.55. using video tapes shown to the subjects. and . analysed the communication of submissive/dominant attitude and found that non-verbal cues had 4. resonance. A voice qualifier is the style of delivering a message . This can include the situation. Argyle (1988) concluded there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication:  Express emotions  Express interpersonal attitudes  To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners  Self-presentation of one¶s personality  Rituals (greetings) Concealing deception Nonverbal communication makes it easier to lie without being revealed. Vocal segregates such as "uhhuh" notify the speaker that the listener is listening.07.for example. age and a person's culture. as men did not participate in the study. and accent. for instance in order to avoid embarrassing situations . i. People had access to either written transcripts of the interviews.  Vocalization consists of three subsections: characterizers. That is. is widely cited. First.  The voice qualities are volume. The interviewees lied in about 50 % of the cases.with coefficients of . such as laughing. gender. non-verbal codes are used to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships. the larger was the trend that interviewees who actually lied were judged to be truthful. other studies have analysed the relative contribution of verbal and nonverbal signals under more naturalistic situations. or video recordings. and 55 % respectively to the total meaning. the figures are obtained by combining results from two different studies which potentially cannot be combined. people that are clever at lying can use voice tone and face expression to give the impression that they are truthful The relation between verbal and nonverbal communication The relative importance of verbal and nonverbal communication An interesting question is: When two people are communicating face-to-face. it is extremely weakly founded.)) Functions of nonverbal communication Argyle (1970) put forward the hypothesis that whereas spoken language is normally used for communicating information about events external to the speakers. vocal. as opposed to whispering "Hey stop that". Argyle . In reality. The more clues that were available to those watching. however. from the voice tone. how much of the meaning is communicated verbally.38. tempo. a very artificial context. nasality. The latter paper concluded: "It is suggested that the combined effect of simultaneous verbal. qualifiers and segregates. ". mood. . crying. and facial attitude communications is a weighted sum of their independent effects ." This "rule" that clues from spoken words. and from the facial expression. or audio tape recordings.e. This is the conclusion of a study where people watched made-up interviews of persons accused of having stolen a wallet. Second.The voice set is the context in which the speaker is speaking. On the other hand. Since then. contribute 7 %. It is considered more polite or nicer to communicate attitudes towards others non-verbally rather than verbally.

Repeating "Repeating" consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message. messages have been shown to be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal exchange.[19] When mixed messages occur. however. For example. Clinical studies of nonverbal communication From 1977 to 2004. Nonverbal signals can be used without verbal communication to convey messages. or frustration. Thus. A person verbally expressing a statement of truth while simultaneously fidgeting or avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed message to the receiver in the interaction.[21] Accenting/Moderating Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of verbal messages. Complementing Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement each other. Yale University and Ohio State University had subjects observe gamblers at a slot machine awaiting payoffs. such as pointing to the object of discussion.[22] For example. body movements. touching someone's arm can signal that you want to talk next or interrupt. Means of self-expression. verbal methods are used to enhance understanding. had subjects judge a person on the dimension happy/sad and found that words spoken with minimal variation in intonation had an impact about 4 times larger than face expressions seen in a film without sound. nonverbal communication becomes the primary tool people use to attain additional information to clarify the situation. both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance). assembles (choreographs) these elements in a manner that more often resembles poetry.Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh.[21] Regulating Nonverbal behavior also regulates our conversations. symbolic and elusive meanings.[20] Substituting Nonverbal behavior is sometimes used as the sole channel for communication of a message. Conflicting messages may occur for a variety of reasons often stemming from feelings of uncertainty. great attention is placed on bodily movements and positioning when people perceive mixed messages during interactions. Dance and nonverbal communication Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires the same underlying faculty in the brain for conceptualization. nonverbal behavior can also be used to moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages as well. grammar (rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning. regulating and accenting/moderating. substituting. a person who is verbally expressing anger may accent the verbal message by shaking a fist. Interaction of verbal and nonverbal communication When communicating. and gestures are some of the tools people use to accent or amplify the message that is sent. People learn to identify facial expressions. complementing. Conflicting Verbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing or conflicting messages. with its ambiguity and multiple.[23]. the influence of disease and drugs on receptivity of nonverbal communication was studied by teams at three separate medical schools using a similar paradigm. when nonverbal behavior does not effectively communicate a message. The amount of . Dance.by Hsee et al. voice pitch. and body positioning as corresponding with specific feelings and intentions. conflicting. creativity and memory as does verbal language in speaking and writing. Touch. ambivalence. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when trying to achieve communicative goals. the relative importance of spoken words and facial expressions may be very different in studies using different set-ups. nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways: repeating.

the neurotransmitters dopamine and endorphin were considered to be likely etiological candidate. Thus. the primary cause and primary effect could not be sorted out on the basis of the paradigm employed[32]. especially in interpersonal relationships. Students indicating a preference for the specialties of family practice. The authors did note that whatever the nature of these preliminary findings the responsibility of the rapist was in no manner or level.[27] Obese women[28] and women with premenstrual syndrome[29] were found to also possess diminished abilities to read these cues. It was reported that women who had been raped on at least two occasions by different perpetrators had a highly significant impairment in their abilities to read these cues in either male or female senders. however. A byproduct of the work of the Pittsburgh/Yale/ Ohio State team was an investigation of the role of nonverbal facial cues in heterosexual nondate rape. In contradistinction. Their scores were the highest of any subgroup. Medical students at Ohio State University.[34] These results were troubling. Measurements of the ability to communicate nonverbally and the capacity to feel empathy have shown that the two abilities are independent of each other [40]. The final target of study for this group was the medical students they taught. or pathologists. radiologists. Men with major depression[26] manifested significantly decreased ability to read nonverbal cues when compared with euthymic men. Miller and psychiatrist. A specific group of persons that face these challenges are those with autism spectrum disorders. Because certain drugs enhanced ability while others diminished it. psychiatry. women are better at nonverbal communication than are men[36][37][38][39]. men with bipolar disorder possessed increased abilities. There exist resources that are tailored specifically to these people. This technique was developed by and the studies directed by psychologist. Internal medicine and plastic surgery candidates scored at levels near the mean[35]. Difficulties with nonverbal communication People vary in their ability to send and receive nonverbal communication. which attempt to assist those in understanding information which comes more easily to others. the members of the research team hypothesized a biochemical site in the brain which was operative for reception of nonverbal cues. Dr. to a moderate degree. James Giannini. Dr. Phonation Phonation Glottal states From open to closed: Voiceless (full . These groups reported diminished receptive ability in heroin addicts [24] and phencyclidine abusers[25] was contrasted with increased receptivity in cocaine addicts.diminished. this can pose significant challenges. Because of the changes in levels of accuracy on the levels of nonverbal receptivity.[30].[33] Rape victims were next tested. including Asperger syndrome. A woman with total paralysis of the nerves of facial expression was found unable to transmit any nonverbal facial cues whatsoever. pediatrics and obstetrics-gynecology achieved significantly higher levels of accuracy than those students who planned to train as surgeons. A. Males who were serial rapists of adult women were studied for nonverbal receptive abilities. For people who have relatively large difficulties with nonverbal communication. on average. Ohio University and Northest Ohio Medical College were invited to serve as subjects. Robert E.[31]. Based on the available data. indicating a predator-prey model.this payoff was read by nonverbal transmission prior to reinforcement. Freitas-Magalhaes studied the effect of smile in the treatment of depression and concluded that depressive states decrease when you smile more often.

voiceless phones are associated with vocal folds that are elongated. Fundamental frequency. creating a pressure drop across the larynx. The motion of the vocal folds during voice ("hollow") oscillation is mostly in the lateral direction. call Modal voice (maximum this process quasi-periodic vibration voicing. and this modulated airflow is the main Non-phonemic phonation component of the sound of most voiced phones. voiceless and supra-glottal phonation are included under this definition. it consists of a fundamental tone (called the fundamental frequency. and placed laterally (abducted) when compared to vocal folds during phonation. In addition to tension changes. In linguistics. and for humans with normal vocal folds. When this drop becomes sufficiently large. The vocal folds will not oscillate if they are not sufficiently close to one another. the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch. can be varied through a variety of means. . The sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series. In speech. of which voicing is just Stiff voice one example. the Supravocal folds start to oscillate. As such. Smaller changes in tension can be effected by contraction of the thyroarytenoid muscle or changes in the relative position of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. either volitionally or through movement of the tongue to which the larynx is attached via the hyoid bone. which is common in the field of Creaky voice (restricted airstream) linguistic phonetics. highly tensed. Among some phoneticians. though there is also Harsh voice ("pressed") some superior component as well. though. which are multiples of the fundamental frequency . or if the pressure drop across the larynx is not sufficiently large. However. the main acoustic cue for the Falsetto percept pitch) accompanied by harmonic overtones. and they use the vibration) termphonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream. These two theories are not in contention with one another and it is quite possible that both theories are true and operating simultaneously to initiate and maintain vibration. Large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone. In Whisper other words. and will also vary with the distance between the vocal folds. The minimum pressure drop glottal phonation required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure. Other phoneticians. are not under sufficient tension or under too much tension. or voicing. According to the Source-Filter Theory. There are currently two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated: the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory. the resulting sound excites the resonance chamber that is the vocal tract to produce the individual speech sounds. fundamental frequency is also affected by the pressure drop across the larynx.Phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the airstream) subfield of phonetics. it is Faucalized approximately 2±3 cm H2O. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and Slack voice speech production in general. The oscillation of the Strident (harsh trilled) vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx. phonation is the process by which thevocal folds produce certain sounds Breathy voice (murmur) through quasi-periodic vibration. a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. which is mostly affected by the pressure in the lungs. A third theory. occurs when air is expelled airstream) from the lungs through the glottis. as may occur when the larynx is lowered or raised. there is almost no motion along the length of the vocal folds. Voicing Glottalized (blocked The phonatory process.

the cords do not vibrate. The theory states that when a stream of breath is flowing through the glottis while the arytenoid cartilages are held together by the action of the interarytenoid muscles. More intricate mechanisms were occasionally described. was in considerable vogue in the 1950s. the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and the flow starts up again. allowing air to escape and reducing the pressure enough for the muscle tension recoil to pull the folds back together again. whereas the pull occurs during glottal closing. The rate at which the cords open and close²the number of cycles per second²determines the pitch of the phonation. producing stop sounds such as the glottal stop. with the arytenoid cartilages apart for maximum airflow. and there are several intermediate situations utilized by various languages to make contrasting sounds. is one of degree between the end points of open and closed. ed. The aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids. a push-pull effect is created on the vocal fold tissues that maintains self-sustained oscillation. such as those of Peter Ladefoged. causing the cycles to repeat.R. and therefore the tension in the vocal cords. 2006 Neurochronaxic theory This theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxy of the recurrent nerve. If the arytenoids are pressed together for glottal closure. Pressure builds up once again until the cords are pushed apart. and not by breath pressure or muscular tension.. This is modal voice. During glottal closure. the aperture of the arytenoid cartilages. In addition. In linguistic phonetic treatments of phonation. and the whole cycle keeps repeating itself. In between there is a sweet spot of maximum vibration. which would not be possible according to this theory. For example. when the glottis is divergent. and until recently the state of the glottis and phonation were considered to be nearly synonymous.the neurochronaxic theory. persons with paralyzed vocal folds can produce phonation.I. This is voicelessphonation. when the glottis is convergent. phonation was considered to be a matter of points on a continuum of tension and closure of the vocal cords. Speech and voice scientists have long since left this theory as the muscles have been shown to not be able to contract fast enough to accomplish the vibration. Advocates of this theory thought that every single vibration of the vocal folds was due to an impulse from the recurrent laryngeal nerves and that the acoustic center in the brain regulated the speed of vocal fold vibration. Gujarati has vowels with a partially lax phonation called breathy voice or murmured. the vocal cords block the airstream. Both of these phonations have dedicated IPA . and is extremely common with obstruents. The push occurs during glottal opening. s Janwillem van den Berg as the originator of the theory and provides detailed mathematical development of the theory. but they were difficult to investigate. but has since been largely discr . However. Myoelastic and aerodynamic theory The myoelastic theory states that when the vocal cords are brought together and breath pressure is applied to them. The black triangles represent the arytenoid cartilages. Phonation occurring in excised larynges would also not be possible according to this theory. and is the normal state for vowels and sonorants in all the world's languages. As the state of the glottis A continuum from closed glottis to open. If the vocal cords are completely relaxed. and the dotted circle the windpipe.Template:Titze. the sail shapes the vocal cords. the cords remain closed until the pressure beneath them²the subglottic pressure²is sufficient to push them apart. while Burmese has vowels with a partially tense phonation called creaky voice orlaryngealized. The textbook entitled Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation by Ingo Titze cr .

k/ in French borrowings. and open airstream for [h]. in Semitic languages they do appear to be true glottal consonants. However. commonly called "voiceless" and "voiced". adding the 'voicing' diacritic to the symbol for a voiced consonant indicates less modal voicing. the glottal consonants [ . t. / and modally voiceless /p. Some phoneticians have described these sounds as neither glottal nor consonantal. and any further tension in the vocal cords dampens their vibration. / / (ambiguously called "lenis") are partially voiced: The vocal cords are positioned as for voicing. respectively. not more. they are technically voiceless. Javanese does not have modal voice in its plosives. That is. h] do not behave like other consonants. but instead as instances of pure phonation. with phonations ranging from an open/lax to a closed/tense glottis. The "muddy" consonants in Shanghainese are slack voice. ing error in the source of this information. at its sweet spot. they have nomanner or place of articulation other than the state of the glottis: glottal closure for [ ]. Supra-glottal phonation . They contrast with both modally voiced /b. are sometimes added to the symbol for a voiced sound to indicate more lax/open (slack) and tense/closed (stiff) states of the glottis. /d/. (Ironically. an under-umlaut and under-tilde. like several Germanic languages. breathy voice for [ ]. Glottal consonants It has long been noted that in many languages. Although each language may be somewhat different. it is convenient to classify these degrees of phonation into discrete categories.) Alsatian. but do not actually vibrate. The consonants transcribed /b/. they contrast with tenuis and aspirated consonants. A series of seven alveolar plosives. both phonologically and historically.) Mazatec breathy voice [ja] he wears modal voice creaky voice [já] tree [ja] he carries Note: There was an . but without the open glottis usually associated with voiceless stops. so the glottis is making several tonal distinctions simultaneously with the phonation distinctions. as well as aspirated /k / word initially. called slack voice and stiff voice. at least in many European languages. The Jalapa dialect of Mazatec is unusual in contrasting both with modal voice in a three-way distinction. has a typologically unusual phonation in its stops. Phonetically. d. because a modally voiced sound is already fully voiced. but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale. with more moderate departures from modal voice. (Note that Mazatec is a tonal language. are: Open glottis [t] voiceless (full airstream) [d] breathy voice [d] slack voice Sweet spot [d] modal voice (maximum vibration) [d] stiff voice [d] creaky voice Closed glottis [ t] glottal closure (blocked airstream) The IPA diacritics under-ring and subscript wedge. The latter two translations may have been mixed up.diacritics. .

as well as three tones.In the last few decades it has become apparent that phonation may involve the entire larynx. however. and arytenoid activity (for something other than epiglottal consonants) has been observed in Tibetan. Korean. a lack of voicing distinctions is not uncommon. From the glottis upward. Voice modal breathy harsh t ìt t ìt faucalized t ìt Bor Dinka t ìt diarrhea go ahead scorpions to swallow Other languages with these contrasts are Bai (modal. Ca ntonese. at least two supra-glottal phonations appear to be widespread in the world's languages. the distinction is better specified as voice onset time rather than simply voice: In initial position /b d g/ are only partially voiced (voicing begins during the hold of the consonant). Thai. and underlining for harsh voice. which involves overall constriction of the larynx. and voiceless elsewhere. have no phonemically voiced obstruents but pairs of long and short consonants instead.   . For example. faucalized. breathy. glottal (the vocal cords). and harsh voice). and possessive endings spelled -s (voiced in kids /k dz/ but voiceless in kits /k ts/) and the past-tense ending spelled -ed (voiced in buzzed /b zd/ but voiceless in fished /f t/. Pame. breathy.[citation needed] Certain English morphemes have voiced and voiceless allomorphs. previously seen as ATR). Elements of laryngeal articulation or phonation may occur widely in the world's languages as phonetic detail even when not phonemically contrastive. in Australian languages it is nearly universal. these articulations are: 1. such as the plural. ventricular (the 'false vocal cords'. Kabiye (faucalized and harsh voice. with as many as six valves and muscles working either independently or together. while /p t k/ are aspirated (voicing doesn't begin until well after its release). narrowing of the pharynx Until the development of fiber-optic laryngoscopy. Outside of Europe. and the interactions among the six laryngeal articulators is still poorly understood. These are harsh voice ('ventricular' or 'pressed' voice). potentially closing onto the pharyngeal wall) 5. simultaneous glottal. indeed. Nlaka'pamux. arytenoid (sphincteric compression forwards and upwards) 4. The ad hoc diacritics employed in the literature are a subscript double quotation mark for faucalized voice. ventricular. Familiar language examples In languages such as French. which involves overall expansion of the larynx. and faucalized voice ('hollow' or 'yawny' voice). [a]. For the pairs of English plosives. producing the distinctions described above 2. Sui. it is often found that they are realized as voiced in voiced environments such as between vowels. the full involvement of the larynx during speech production was not observable. and Yi. Arabic. all obstruents occur in pairs. Somali (breathy and harsh voice). Examples are. Amis.[citation needed] A few European languages. epiglotto-pharyngeal (retraction of the tongue and epiglottis. partially covering and damping the glottis) 3. [a]. every voiced fricative corresponds to a voiceless one. Nuuchahnulth. verbal. However.[citation needed] In English. such as Finnish.Tigrinya. and harsh voice in its vowels. In languages without the distinction between voiceless and voiced obstruents. one modally voiced and one voiceless. raising or lowering of the entire larynx 6. The Bor dialect of Dinka has contrastive modal.

Modern phonetics began with Alexander Melville Bell. ed as the first to base a writing system on a phonetic alphabet. breathy voice with falling tone. a vocal register also refers to a particular phonation limited to a particular range of pitch. creak. A series of papers by Ludimar Hermann published in Pflüger's Archiv in the last two decades of the 19th century investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants using the Edison phonograph. and glottal closure with high tone. among its vowels. that allowed the speech signal to be recorded and then later processed and analyzed. . The studies about phonetic was strongly enhanced in the late 19th century. Phonology. For example. breath. and vocal folds. and it was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. By replaying the same speech signal from the phonograph several times. auditory perception. which possesses a characteristic sound quality. tongue. low. whose Visible Speech (1867) introduced a system of precise notation for writing down speech sounds. The term "register" may be used for several distinct aspects of the human voice::  A particular part of the vocal range. falling) is found. or lower registers. also for invention of phonograph. "sound. such as the lips. shape. middle. These four registers contrast with each other. and the whistle register. Hermann also played back vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds to distinguish between Willis' and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to P ini's classification. filtering it each time with a different band-pass filter. Burmese combines modal voice with low tone. with P ini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. grammatical characterization of systems of sounds. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones): their physiological production. a register is a combination of tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological parameter. on the other hand.Vocal registers In phonology In phonology. voice") is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. which may be bounded by vocal breaks  A particular phonation  A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice  A certain vocal timbre Four combinations of these elements are identified in speech pathology: the vocal fry register. acoustic properties. ph n . History Phonetics was studied as early as 2500 years ago in ancient India. In pedagogy and speech pathology Among vocal pedagogues and speech pathologists. but no other combination of phonation (modal. a spectrogram of the speech utterance could be built up. Subfields Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:  articulatory phonetics is concerned with the articulation of speech: The position. creaky voice with high tone. The Ancient Greeks are cr . and neurophysiological status. the modal register. is concerned with abstract. such as the upper. closed) and tone (high. the falsetto register. and movement of articulators or speech organs. Phonetics Phonetics (from the Greek: .

Puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. bones. Adolescence is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood... phoneticians may concern themselves with the physical properties of meaningful sound contrasts or the social meaning encoded in the speech signal (e. Puberty is initiated by hormone signals from the brain to the gonads(the ovaries and testes). Before puberty. and recognition of speech sounds and the role of the auditory system and the brain in the same. function. The most widely known system of phonetic transcription. acoustic signals. concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e. or transformation of brain. the gonads produce a variety of hormones that stimulate the growth. major differences of size. hair. categorization. but its boundaries are less precisely defined and it refers as  . etc. amplitude. blood. uses a one-to-one mapping between phones and written symbols. manhood)) refers to the bodily changes of sexual maturation rather than the psychosocial and cultural aspects of adolescent development. constraints. shape. The standardized nature of the IPA enables its users to transcribe accurately and consistently the phones of different languages. In a strict sense. a substantial portion of research in phonetics is not concerned with the meaningful elements in the speech signal. and harmonic structure. and/or perceptual representations. Relation to phonology In contrast to phonetics. muscle. However. such as theirfrequency. and reproductive organs. The most obvious of these are referred to as secondary sex characteristics. dialects. or derivational rules).  auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: the perception. how they are produced. syllables.g. Growth accelerates in the first half of puberty and stops at the completion of puberty. e.  Speech Recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system.) and their conditioned variation (via. Phonology relates to phonetics via the set of distinctive features. allophonic rules. and how they are perceived.acoustic phonetics is concerned with acoustics of speech: The spectro-temporal properties of the sound waves produced by speech. relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. The IPA is a useful tool not only for the study of phonetics. and function develop in many body structures and systems.phonemes. Adolescence largely overlaps the period of puberty. the term puberty (derived from the Latin word puberatum (age of maturity. phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics.g. breasts. composition. Transcription Main article: Phonetic transcription Phonetic transcription is a system for transcribing sounds that occur in spoken language or signed language. gender.). professional acting. the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics. During puberty. features. As part of this investigation. Applications Application of phonetics include:  forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes. skin. but also for language teaching. which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures. and speech pathology. In response. body differences between boys and girls are almost entirely restricted to the genitalia. Phonetics deals with the articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds. ethnicity. mora. etc. sexuality. and idiolects. phonology is the study of how sounds and gestures pattern in and across languages.g.

Puberty is marked in green at right. while boys usually complete puberty by ages 16±18. Although boys are on average 2 cm shorter than girls before puberty begins. though levels rise later and more slowly than in girls. boys accelerate more slowly but continue to grow for about 6 years after the first visible pubertal changes. boys at age 12. Approximate outline of development periods in child and teenager development. Although there is a wide range of normal ages. an androgen called testosterone is the principal sex hormone. accelerates more slowly.2 inches) taller than women. In contrast. and the major sex steroids involved. Girls attain reproductive maturity about 4 years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. Differences between male and female puberty Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins. While testosterone produces all boys' changes characterized as virilization.much to the psychosocial and cultural characteristics of development during the teen years as to the physical changes of puberty. and lasts longer before theepiphyses fuse. Any increase in height beyond these ages is uncommon. The male "growth spurt" also begins later. 1 Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH 2 Luteinizing hormone LH 3 Progesterone 4 Estrogen 5 Hypothalamus 6 Pituitary gland 7 Ovary 8 Pregnancy hCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin) 9 Testosterone 10 Testicle 11 Incentives 12 Prolactin . adult men are on average about 13 cm (5. Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15±17. Most of this sex difference in adult heights is attributable to a later onset of the growth . a substantial product of testosterone metabolism in males is estradiol.PRL For boys. girls typically begin the process of puberty at age 10.

a male's scrotum will become larger and begin to dangle or hang below the body as opposed to being up tight. Individuals who are deficient in leptin fail to initiate puberty. The testes have two primary functions: to produce hormones and to produce sperm. function.spurt and a slower progression to completion. reaching maximal adult size about 6 years after the onset of puberty. Stage 3 is usually reached within another 6±12 months. when the hairs are too many to count. The pubic hairs are usually first visible at the dorsal (abdominal) base of the penis. Puberty onset The onset of puberty is associated with high GnRH pulsing. Brain tumors which increase GnRH output may also lead to premature puberty The cause of the GnRH rise is unknown. After the boy's testicles have enlarged and developed for about one year. Testicular size continues to increase throughout puberty. Estradiol levels rise earlier and reach higher levels in women than in men. averaging about 2±3 cm in length and about 1. While 18±20 cc is an average adult size." Stage 5 refers to the spread of pubic hair to the thighs and upward towards the navel as part of the developing abdominal hair. On average.5±2 cm in width. During puberty. but full fertility will not be gained until 14±16 years of age[citation needed]. The hormone that dominates female development is an estrogen called estradiol. and fertility In boys. The Leydig cells produce testosterone. a compound responsible for triggering direct release of GnRH as well as indirect release of LH and FSH. The researchers hypothesized that Neurokinin B might play a role in regulating the secretion ofKisspeptin. The first few hairs are described as stage 2. it is also the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure. to accommodate the production of sperm whereby the testicles need a certain temperature to be fertile. and then decline to adult levels when puberty is completed. While estradiol promotes growth of breasts anduterus. By stage 4. Physical changes in boys Testicular size.Exogenous GnRH pulses cause the onset of puberty. Body and facial hair . The rise in GnRH might also be caused by genetics. testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty (and is termed gonadarche). a direct result of the later rise and lower adult male levels of estradiol. LH and FSH. Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. there is wide variation in testicular size in the normal population. Most of the increasing bulk of testicular tissue is spermatogenic tissue (primarily Sertoli and Leydig cells). which in turn produces most of the male pubertal changes. which precedes the rise in sex hormones. Testes in prepubertal boys change little in size from about 1 year of age to the onset of puberty. Pubic hair Pubic hair often appears on a boy shortly after the genitalia begin to grow. the pubic hairs densely fill the "pubic triangle. and occasionally earlier[citation needed]. Leptin might be the cause of the GnRH rise. A study discovered that a mutation in genes encoding both Neurokinin B as well as the Neurokinin B receptor can alter the timing of puberty. Sperm can be detected in the morning urine of most boys after the first year of pubertal changes. potential fertility in boys is reached at 13 years old. the length and then the breadth of the shaft of the penis will increase and the glans penis and corpora cavernosa will also start to enlarge to adult proportions. The levels of leptin increase with the onset of puberty.

and significant differences in timing and quantity of hair growth among different racial groups.Facial hair of a male that has been shaved In the months and years following the appearance of pubic hair. Not all men have chest hair. but it typically fully diminishes at the end of puberty. However. sometimes. and the beard area. Some of the bone growth (e. especially in one breast. this becomes more apparent and is termedgynecomastia." about one octave. perianal hair. Male musculature and body shape By the end of puberty. sometimes abruptly but rarely "over night.[19] Facial hair will continue to get coarser. upper lip hair. the larynx of boys and girls is about equally small. and muscle growth can continue even after boys are biologically adult. or even oral medication. abdominal. There is a large range in amount of body hair among adult men. Chest hair may appear during puberty or years after.g. Acne can not be prevented or diminished easily. the fat pads of the male breast tissue and the male nipples will develop during puberty. causing the male voice to drop and deepen.[20] Occasionally. It is usually not a permanent phenomenon. other areas of skin that respond to androgens may develop androgenic hair. voice change is accompanied by unsteadiness of vocalization in the early stages of untrained voices. As with most human biological processes. Body odor and acne Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration. adult men have heavier bones and nearly twice as much skeletal muscle. resulting in a more "adult" body odor. though it is normally less severe than in adolescents. It usually precedes the development of significant facial hair by several months to years. another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin and the resultant variable amounts of acne. As in girls. leg. this specific order may vary among some individuals. Some may desire using prescription topical creams or ointments to keep acne from getting worse. Facial hair is often present in late adolescence. the voice box. but may not appear until significantly later. darker and thicker for another 2±4 years after puberty. Most of the voice change happens during stage 3-4 of male puberty around the time of peak growth. The peak of the so-called "strength spurt". Physical changes in girls Breast Development . the rate of muscle growth. Arm. Some men do not develop full facial hair for up to 10 years after the completion of puberty. shoulder width and jaw) is disproportionately greater. This growth is far more prominent in boys. resulting in noticeably different male and female skeletal shapes. This muscle develops mainly during the later stages of puberty. chest. it is not unusual for a fully grown adult to suffer the occasional bout of acne. because the longer and thicker vocal folds have a lower fundamental frequency. is attained about one year after a male experiences his peak growth rate. The usual sequence is: underarm (axillary) hair. Full adult pitch is attained at an average age of 15 years. sideburn (preauricular) hair. grows in both sexes. or larynx. and back hair become heavier more gradually. Often. Voice change Under the influence of androgens. The average adult male has about 150% of the lean body mass of an average female. periareolar hair. Before puberty. and about 50% of the body fat. due to the fact that acne is emotionally difficult and can cause scarring.

In most young women.[24] Whitish secretions (physiologic leukorrhea) are a normal effect of estrogen as well. and typically occurs about two years after thelarche. the pubic hairs densely fill the "pubic triangle. In about 15% of girls. upper arms. uterus.5 years of age. The pubic hairs are usually visible first along thelabia.[28] Ovulation is necessary for fertility. A high proportion of girls with continued irregularity in the menstrual cycle several years from menarche will continue to have prolonged irregularity and anovulation. also in response to rising levels of estrogen.[32] Body odor and acne Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration. 50% in the third year and 10% in the sixth year. buttocks.[21] This is referred to as thelarche. about 80% of the cycles were anovulatory in the first year after menarche. the lower half of the pelvis and thus hips widen (providing a larger birth canal). resulting in a more "adult" body odor. this is stage 2 of breast development (stage 1 is a flat. This is stage 3 of breast development.75 years. the swelling has clearly begun in both sides. especially in the typical female distribution of breasts.[22] Stage 3 is usually reached within another 6±12 months. and can be felt and seen extending beyond the edges of the areolae.[29] In postmenarchal girls. fat distribution.[30] Nubility is used to designate achievement of fertility. Progressive differences in fat distribution as well as sex differences in local skeletal growth contribute to the typical female body shape by the end of puberty. but may or may not accompany the earliest menses. becoming thicker and duller pink in color (in contrast to the brighter red of the prepubertal vaginal mucosa). softened. usually within a few months of thelarche. girls have 6% more body fat than boys. when the hairs are too numerous to count and appear on the pubic mound as well. Pubic hair Pubic hair is often the second noticeable change in puberty. a skin condition that is characteristic of puberty. tender lump under the center of the areola of one or both breasts.[28] Initiation of ovulation after menarche is not inevitable. Within six to 12 months." Stage 5 refers to spread of pubic hair to the thighs and sometimes as abdominal hair upward towards thenavel. This change increases the susceptibility to acne. and pubis. ovaries. ovaries The mucosal surface of the vagina also changes in response to increasing levels of estrogen.The first physical sign of puberty in girls is usually a firm.[33] Acne varies greatly in its severity. this mound disappears into the contour of the mature breast (stage 5). the breasts are approaching mature size and shape. with areolae and papillae forming a secondary mound. By another 12 months (stage 4). Menstruation and fertility The first menstrual bleeding is referred to as menarche. the earliest pubic hair appears before breast development begins. This often precedes thelarche and pubarche by one or more years. occurring on average at about 10.[23] It is referred to as pubarche. On average.[33] Timing of the onset of puberty .[23] The average age of menarche in girls is 11. By the widely used Tanner staging of puberty. Body shape. the uterus. and the follicles in the ovaries increase in size. prepubertal breast).[22][31] Fat tissue increases to a greater percentage of the body composition than in males. Another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin. hips. By stage 4. at 10 years. although there is so much variation in sizes and shapes of adult breasts that stages 4 and 5 are not always separately identifiable.[23] Vagina. and body composition During this period. thighs. and are at higher risk for reduced fertility.[25] The ovaries usually contain small follicular cysts visible by ultrasound.[21] In the two years following thelarche. The first few hairs are described as Tanner stage 2.[23] The time between menstrual periods (menses) is not always regular in the first two years after menarche.

For example. from Britain). much of the higher age averages reflect nutritional limitations more than genetic differences and can change within a few generations with a substantial change in diet. puberty begins between 10-13.[41][42][43][44] The genetic association of timing is strongest between mothers and daughters. and is putting girls at greater long-term risk of breast cancer. However. In every decade from 1840 to 1950 there was a drop of four months in the average age of menarche among Western European females. and 12% of white girls by that age. toys.5 years. hormonal versus physical) and purpose (establishing population normal standards. One of the first observed environmental effects is that puberty occurs later in children raised at higher altitudes.The definition of the onset of puberty depends on perspective (e. as evidenced by breast development.[37][38][39] Researchers[who?] refer to this drop as the 'secular trend'.3 years. If genetic factors account for half of the variation of pubertal timing. and gonadal function changes. environment factors are clearly important as well. The earliest average onset of puberty is for African-American girls and the latest average onset for high altitude subsistence populations in Asia. all which affect timing of female puberty and menarche more clearly than male puberty. The age at which puberty begins varies between individuals usually. . These physical changes are the first visible signs of neural. In France the average in 1840 was 15. However. etc.[41] Among the candidates is an androgen receptor gene. In the earlier example.. the average age of menarche in various populations surveyed has ranged from 12 to 18 years. started at an average age of 9 years and 10 months. a year earlier than when a similar study was done in 1991. and the width of the spread may reflect unevenness of wealth and food distribution in a population. and plastic food containers.[45] Researchers[46] have hypothesized that early puberty onset may be caused by certain hair care products containing estrogen or placenta. and by certain chemicals. hormonal.[40] Genetic influence and environmental factors Various studies have found direct genetic effects to account for at least 46% of the variation of timing of puberty in well-nourished populations.) The most commonly used definition of the onset of puberty is physical changes to a person's body[citation needed]. Researchers have identified an earlier age of the onset of puberty. they have based their conclusions on a comparison of data from 1999 with data from 1969. A 2006 study in Denmark found that puberty. which are used in many cosmetics. namely phthalates. girls born in 1840 had their menarche at an average age of 17 years. the sample population was based on a small sample of white girls (200. clinical care of early or late pubescent individuals.[36] Historical shift The average age at which the onset of puberty occurs has dropped significantly since the 1840s. Scientists believe the phenomenon could be linked to obesity or exposure to chemicals in the food chain. The later study identified as puberty as occurring in 48% of African-American girls by age nine. The median age of menarche for a population may be an index of the proportion of undernourished girls in the population. The specific genes affecting timing are not yet known. In Japan the decline happened later and was then more rapid: from 1945 to 1975 in Japan there was a drop of 11 months per decade. In England the average in 1840 was 16. The age at which puberty begins is affected by both genetic factors and by environmental factors such as nutritional state and social circumstances.[34] An example of social circumstances is the Vandenbergh effect.g. but a number of others have been identified.[35] The average age at which puberty begins may be affected by race as well. a juvenile female who has significant interaction with adult males will enter puberty earlier than juvenile females who are not socially overexposed to adult males. In Norway. The most important of the environmental influences is clearly nutrition.

as when one warms a baby bottle or warms up food in the microwave. and are sometimes detectable in the environment.[49] Early puberty in girls can be a harbinger of later health problems. They have cited obesity as a cause of breast development before nine years and menarche before twelve years. and children at current exposure levels because it can affect the prostate gland. and increases in childhood obesity have resulted in falling ages of puberty. Recent worldwide increased consumption of animal protein. More obvious degrees of partial puberty from direct exposure of young children to small but significant amounts of pharmaceutical sex steroids from exposure at home may be detected during medical evaluation for precocious puberty. the rules are largely self-enforced in the United States. but mild effects and the other potential exposures outlined above would not. The highest estimated daily intakes of BPA occur in infants and children. Although available dietary energy (simple calories) is the most important dietary influence on timing of puberty. Harder to detect as an influence on puberty are the more diffusely distributed environmental chemicals like PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl).Hormones and steroids There is theoretical concern. are associated with later onset and slower progression of female puberty.[47] Large amounts of incompletely metabolized estrogens and progestagens from pharmaceutical products are excreted into the sewage systems of large cities. which signals to the brain the availability of resources for initiation of puberty and fertility. whether for athletic or body image purposes. mainly in those populations with the higher previous ages. quality of the diet plays a role as well. BPA mimics and interferes with the action of estrogen-an important reproduction and development regulator. Much evidence suggests that for most of the last few centuries. especially in females. Lower protein intakes and higherdietary fiber intakes. that environmental hormones and chemicals may affect aspects of prenatal or postnatal sexual development in humans.S. Although agricultural laws regulate use to minimize accidental human consumption.[48] Nutritional influence Nutritional factors are the strongest and most obvious environmental factors affecting timing of puberty. mammary gland. It leaches out of plastic into liquids and foods. In many populations the amount of variation attributable to nutrition is shrinking. Significant exposure of a child to hormones or other substances that activate estrogen or androgen receptors could produce some or all of the changes of puberty. Scientists are concerned about BPA's behavioral effects on fetuses. population studied. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used to make plastics. nutritional differences accounted for majority of variation of pubertal timing in different populations. and BPA is more likely to leach out of plastic when its temperature is increased. and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found measurable amounts of BPA in the bodies of more than 90 percent of the U. infants. as occur with typical vegetarian diets. and even among social classes in the same population. and is frequently used to make baby bottles. Sex steroids are sometimes used in cattle farming but have been banned in chicken meat production for 40 years. Surplus calories (beyond growth and activity requirements) are reflected in the amount of body fat. which can bind and trigger estrogen receptors. other changes in nutrition.[50] The average level of daily physical activity has also been shown to affect timing of puberty. water bottles.[41] Girls are especially sensitive to nutritional regulation because they must contribute all of the nutritional support to a growing fetus. and lead to early puberty in girls. and as a coating in food and beverage cans. . sports equipment. Obesity influence and exercise Scientific researchers have linked early obesity with an earlier onset of puberty in girls. A high level of exercise. and animal evidence. Many plastic baby bottles contain BPA. medical devices.

or for daily subsistence, reduces energy calories available for reproduction and slows puberty. The exercise effect is often amplified by a lower body fat mass and cholesterol. Physical and mental illness Chronic diseases can delay puberty in both boys and girls. Those that involve chronic inflammation or interfere with nutrition have the strongest effect. In the western world, inflammatory bowel disease and tuberculosis have been notorious for such an effect in the last century, while in areas of the underdeveloped world, chronic parasite infections are widespread. Mental illnesses occur in puberty. The brain undergoes significant development by hormones which can contribute to mood disorders such as Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder,dysthymia and schizophrenia. Girls aged between 15 and 19 make up 40% of anorexia nervosa cases.[51] Stress and social factors Some of the least understood environmental influences on timing of puberty are social and psychological. In comparison with the effects of genetics, nutrition, and general health, social influences are small, shifting timing by a few months rather than years. Mechanisms of these social effects are unknown, though a variety of physiological processes, includingpheromones, have been suggested based on animal research. The most important part of a child's psychosocial environment is the family, and most of the social influence research has investigated features of family structure and function in relation to earlier or later female puberty. Most of the studies have reported that menarche may occur a few months earlier in girls in high-stress households, whose fathers are absent during their early childhood, who have a stepfather in the home, who are subjected to prolonged sexual abuse in childhood, or who are adopted from a developing country at a young age. Conversely, menarche may be slightly later when a girl grows up in a large family with a biological father present. More extreme degrees of environmental stress, such as wartime refugee status with threat to physical survival, have been found to be associated with delay of maturation, an effect that may be compounded by dietary inadequacy. Most of these reported social effects are small and our understanding is incomplete. Most of these "effects" are statistical associations revealed by epidemiologic surveys. Statistical associations are not necessarily causal, and a variety of covariables and alternative explanations can be imagined. Effects of such small size can never be confirmed or refuted for any individual child. Furthermore, interpretations of the data are politically controversial because of the ease with which this type of research can be used for political advocacy. Accusations of bias based on political agenda sometimes accompany scientific criticism. Another limitation of the social research is that nearly all of it has concerned girls, partly because female puberty requires greater physiologic resources and partly because it involves a unique event (menarche) that makes survey research into female puberty much simpler than male. More detail is provided in the menarche article. Variations of sequence The sequence of events of pubertal development can occasionally vary. For example, in about 15% of boys and girls, pubarche (the first pubic hairs) can precede, respectively,gonadarche and thelarche by a few months. Rarely, menarche can occur before other signs of puberty in a few girls. These variations deserve medical evaluation because they can occasionally signal a disease. Conclusion In a general sense, the conclusion of puberty is reproductive maturity. Criteria for defining the conclusion may differ for different purposes: attainment of the ability to reproduce, achievement of maximal adult height, maximal gonadal size, or adult sex hormone levels. Maximal adult height is achieved at an average age of 15 years for an average girl and 18 years for an average boy. Potential fertility (sometimes termed nubility) usually precedes

completion of growth by 1±2 years in girls and 3±4 years in boys. Stage 5 typically represents maximal gonadal growth and adult hormone levels. Neurohormonal process The endocrine reproductive system consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, the gonads, and the adrenal glands, with input and regulation from many other body systems. True puberty is often termed "central puberty" because it begins as a process of the central nervous system. A simple description of hormonal puberty is as follows: 1. The brain's hypothalamus begins to release pulses of GnRH. 2. Cells in the anterior pituitary respond by secreting LH and FSH into the circulation. 3. The ovaries or testes respond to the rising amounts of LH and FSH by growing and beginning to produce estradiol and testosterone. 4. Rising levels of estradiol and testosterone produce the body changes of female and male puberty. The onset of this neurohormonal process may precede the first visible body changes by 1±2 years. Components of the endocrine reproductive system The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. It has neurons which generate and release pulses of GnRH into the portal venous system of thepituitary gland. The arcuate nucleus is affected and controlled by neuronal input from other areas of the brain and hormonal input from the gonads, adipose tissue and a variety of other systems. The pituitary gland responds to the pulsed GnRH signals by releasing LH and FSH into the blood of the general circulation, also in a pulsatile pattern. The gonads (testes and ovaries) respond to rising levels of LH and FSH by producing the steroid sex hormones, testosterone and estrogen. The adrenal glands are a second source for steroid hormones. Adrenal maturation, termed adrenarche, typically precedes gonadarche in mid-childhood. Major hormones  Neurokinin B (a tachykinin peptide) and kisspeptin (a neuropeptide), both present in the same hypothalamic neurons, are critical parts of the control system that switches on the release of GnRH at the start of puberty.[52]  GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus which stimulates gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary.  LH (luteinizing hormone) is a larger protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The main target cells of LH are the Leydig cells of testes and the theca cells of the ovaries. LH secretion changes more dramatically with the initiation of puberty than FSH, as LH levels increase about 25-fold with the onset of puberty, compared with the 2.5-fold increase of FSH.  FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is another protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. The main target cells of FSH are the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells and spermatogenic tissue of the testes.  Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced primarily by the Leydig cells of the testes, and in lesser amounts by the theca cells of the ovaries and the adrenal cortex. Testosterone is the primary mammalian androgen and the "original" anabolic steroid. It acts on androgen receptors in responsive tissue throughout the body.  Estradiol is a steroid hormone produced by aromatization of testosterone. Estradiol is the principal human estrogen and acts on estrogen receptors throughout the body. The largest amounts of estradiol are produced by the granulosa cells of the ovaries, but lesser amounts are derived from testicular and adrenal testosterone.  Adrenal androgens are steroids produced by the zona reticulosa of the adrenal cortex in both sexes. The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione(which are precursors of testosterone),

and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate which is present in large amounts in the blood. Adrenal androgens contribute to the androgenic events of early puberty in girls.  IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) rises substantially during puberty in response to rising levels of growth hormone and may be the principal mediator of the pubertal growth spurt.  Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Its primary target organ is the hypothalamus. The leptin level seems to provide the brain a rough indicator of adipose mass for purposes of regulation of appetite and energy metabolism. It also plays a permissive role in female puberty, which usually will not proceed until an adequate body mass has been achieved. Endocrine perspective The endocrine reproductive system becomes functional by the end of the first trimester of fetal life. The testes and ovaries become briefly inactive around the time of birth but resume hormonal activity until several months after birth, when incompletely understood mechanisms in the brain begin to suppress the activity of the arcuate nucleus. This has been referred to as maturation of the prepubertal "gonadostat," which becomes sensitive to negative feedback by sex steroids. The period of hormonal activity until several months after birth, followed by suppression of activity, may correspond to the period of infant sexuality, followed by a latency stage, which Sigmund Freud described.[53] Gonadotropin and sex steroid levels fall to low levels (nearly undetectable by current clinical assays) for approximately another 8 to 10 years of childhood. Evidence is accumulating that the reproductive system is not totally inactive during the childhood years. Subtle increases in gonadotropin pulses occur, and ovarian follicles surrounding germ cells (future eggs) double in number. Normal puberty is initiated in the hypothalamus, with de-inhibition of the pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus. This inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is an ongoing active suppression by other areas of the brain. The signal and mechanism releasing the arcuate nucleus from inhibition have been the subject of investigation for decades and remain incompletely understood.Leptin levels rise throughout childhood and play a part in allowing the arcuate nucleus to resume operation. If the childhood inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is interrupted prematurely by injury to the brain, it may resume pulsatile gonadotropin release and puberty will begin at an early age. Neurons of the arcuate nucleus secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the blood of the pituitary portal system. An American physiologist, Ernst Knobil, found that the GnRH signals from the hypothalamus induce pulsed secretion of LH (and to a lesser degree, FSH) at roughly 1-2 hour intervals. The LH pulses are the consequence of pulsatile GnRH secretion by the arcuate nucleus that, in turn, is the result of an oscillator or signal generator in the central nervous system ("GnRH pulse generator").[54] In the years preceding physical puberty, Robert M. Boyar discovered that the gonadotropin pulses occur only during sleep, but as puberty progresses they can be detected during the day.[55] By the end of puberty, there is little day-night difference in the amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin pulses. Some investigators have attributed the onset of puberty to a resonance of oscillators in the brain.[56][57][58][59] By this mechanism, the gonadotropin pulses that occur primarily at night just before puberty represent beats.[60][61][62] An array of "autoamplification processes" increases the production of all of the pubertal hormones of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads[citation needed]. Regulation of adrenarche and its relationship to maturation of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis is not fully understood, and some evidence suggests it is a parallel but largely independent process coincident with or even preceding central puberty. Rising levels of adrenal androgens (termed adrenarche) can usually be detected between 6 and 11 years of age, even before the increasing gonadotropin pulses of hypothalamic puberty. Adrenal androgens contribute to the development of pubic hair (pubarche), adult body odor, and

Growth finishes and adult height is attained as the estradiol levels complete closure of the epiphyses. body odor. As the estradiol levels gradually rise and the other autoamplification processes occur. and epiphyseal closure in boys just as in girls. Smaller increases of FSH induce an increase in the aromatase activity of these granulosa cells. Rising levels of estradiol produce the characteristic estrogenic body changes of female puberty: growth spurt. LH stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes to make testosterone and blood levels begin to rise. Another hormonal change in males takes place during the teenage years for most young men. producing the typical androgenic changes of female puberty: pubic hair. increased thickness of the endometrium and the vaginal mucosa. Estradiol mediates the growth spurt. Regularity of frequency and amplitude of gonadotropin pulses seems to be less necessary for progression of male than female puberty. However.5 in females)  spermarche (in males) Speaker recognition . a significant portion of testosterone in adolescent boys is converted to estradiol. nighttime levels of testosterone are higher than daytime. At this point in a males life the testosterone levels slowly rise. Hormonal changes in boys Early stages of male hypothalamic maturation seem to be very similar to the early stages of female puberty.other androgenic changes in both sexes. as it allows the mid cycle LH surge necessary for ovulation. Boys who develop mild gynecomastia or even developing swellingsunder nipples during puberty are told the effects are temporary in some male teenagers due to high levels of estradiol. the theca cells of the ovaries begin to produce testosterone and smaller amounts of progesterone. and widening of the lower pelvis. growth of the uterus. IGF1 levels rise and then decline as puberty ends. a point of maturation is reached when the feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamic "gonadostat" becomes positive. Growth hormone levels rise steadily throughout puberty. Hormonal changes in girls As the amplitude of LH pulses increases. Much of the testosterone moves into nearby cells called granulosa cells. Levels of adrenal androgens and testosterone also increase during puberty. increased fat composition. . This attainment of positive feedback is the hallmark of female sexual maturity. and most of the effects are mediated through the androgen receptors by way of conversion dihydrotestosterone in target organs (especially that of the bowels). other androgenic hair as outlined above. For much of puberty. The primary clinical significance of the distinction between adrenarche and gonadarche is that pubic hair and body odor changes by themselves do not prove that central puberty is underway for an individual child. bone maturation. Stages  adrenarche (approximately age 7)  gonadarche (approximately age 8)  thelarche (approximately age 11 in females)  pubarche (approximately age 12)  menarche (approximately age 12. Estradiol also induces at least modest development of breast tissue (gynecomastia) in a large proportion of boys. breast growth. acceleration of bone maturation and closure. acne. which converts most of the testosterone to estradiol for secretion into the circulation. though occurring about 1±2 years later. Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices.

: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. as isvoice recognition. this is called verification or authentication. Because of the process involved. or model.There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said).g. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print. If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity. etc. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices it has been trained with. speaking style). For example. During enrollment. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. In a text-dependent system. In addition.such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately. As text-independent technologies do not compare what .. it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print. identification is different from verification. On the other hand.: telephone banking). In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates.g. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process . These two terms are frequently confused. template. If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. Conversely.g. In the verification phase. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e.: a common pass phrase) or unique. as in the case for many forensic applications. In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. In fact. From a security perspective.g.[citation needed] Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. check if a user is already enrolled in a system. verification is faster than identification. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification.the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print. the use of shared-secrets (e.. In addition. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. voice pitch. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said . alert automated systems of speaker changes. In forensic applications. Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e.g. For identification systems. These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation. Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent.

identification is different from verification. Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. voice pitch. Gaussian mixture models. such as cohort models." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation. Conversely. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process . These two terms are frequently confused. speaking style). neural networks.Vector Quantization and decision trees. identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. but incorrect application can have the opposite effect.. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices it has been trained with. . In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates.the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation.was said at enrollment and verification. Speaker recognition Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices.g. For example. matrix representation. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless).such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately. On the other hand. pattern matching algorithms. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy. as isvoice recognition. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said . Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. In addition. There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said). Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. hidden Markov models. and world models. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. this is called verification or authentication. If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim.. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel").g. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. From a security perspective. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time. Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate.

and world models.[citation needed] Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. In a text-dependent system.: telephone banking). Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation. etc. such as cohort models.Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. In fact. During enrollment. pattern matching algorithms. though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation. template. .g. verification is faster than identification.: a common pass phrase) or unique. Because of the process involved.Vector Quantization and decision trees.g. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase. hidden Markov models. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print. alert automated systems of speaker changes. In forensic applications. but incorrect application can have the opposite effect. the use of shared-secrets (e. or model. As text-independent technologies do not compare what was said at enrollment and verification. In the verification phase.g. neural networks. it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition.Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. matrix representation. In addition. Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. check if a user is already enrolled in a system. In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless). as in the case for many forensic applications. the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. Gaussian mixture models. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. For identification systems. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel"). These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation.

the Danish scientist Christian Kratzenstein. transcriptions and prosody information together make up the symbolic linguistic representation that is output by the front-end. Bell Labs developed the VOCODER. and in 1857. the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output. described in a 1791 paper. clauses. Austria. Charles Wheatstone produced a "speaking machine" based on von Kempelen's design. . Albertus Magnus (1198±1280). and can be implemented in software orhardware. The front-end then assigns phonetic transcriptions to each word. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech. like phrases. Wheatstone's design was resurrected in 1923 by Paget. The process of assigning phonetic transcriptions Phonetic to words is called text-to-phonemeor grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. and Roger Bacon (1214±1294). a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a completely "synthetic" voice output. M. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its similarity to the human voice and by its ability to be understood. but may lack clarity. a keyboard-operated electronic speech analyzer and synthesizer that was said to be clearly intelligible. Overview of text processing Overview of a typical TTS system A text-to-speech system (or "engine") is composed of two parts: a front-end and a backend. and divides and marks the text into prosodic units. The front-end has two major tasks. For specific usage domains. there were those who tried to build machines to create human speech. Homer Dudley refined this device into the VODER. [i ]. Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units. [e ]. which is then imposed on the output speech. This machine added models of the tongue and lips. First. Some early legends of the existence of "speaking heads" involved Gerbert of Aurillac (d. Many computer operating systems have included speech synthesizers since the early 1980s. they are [a ]. a system that stores phones or diphones provides the largest output range. built models of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds (inInternational Phonetic Alphabet notation. and sentences. Faber built the "Euphonia".Speech synthesis Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. 1003 AD). In certain systems. [o ] and [u ]). which he exhibited at the 1939 New York World's Fair. or tokenization. phoneme durations). This process is often called text normalization. In 1837. Alternatively. Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer. working at the Russian Academy of Sciences. This was followed by the bellows-operated "acousticmechanical speech machine" by Wolfgang von Kempelen of Vienna. The back-end²often referred to as the synthesizer²then converts the symbolic linguistic representation into sound. enabling it to produce consonants as well as vowels. other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech. pre-processing. it converts raw text containing symbols like numbers and abbreviations into the equivalent of written-out words. In 1779. An intelligible text-to-speech program allows people with visual impairments or reading disabilities to listen to written works on a home computer. History Long before electronic signal processing was invented. this part includes the computation of the target prosody (pitch contour. In the 1930s.

physicist John Larry Kelly. Dominant systems in the 1980s and 1990s were the MITalk system. position in the syllable. differences between natural variations in speech and the nature of the automated techniques for segmenting the waveforms sometimes result in audible glitches in the output. Jr and colleague Louis Gerstman used an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech. Speech synthesis systems usually try to maximize both characteristics. Electronic devices The first computer-based speech synthesis systems were created in the late 1950s. duration. . concatenative synthesis produces the most natural-sounding synthesized speech. morphemes. with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. Using this device. words. research is still being conducted into mechanical speech synthesizers. syllables. Alvin Liberman and colleagues were able to discover acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments (consonants and vowels). This process is typically achieved using a specially weighted decision tree. Typically. The ideal speech synthesizer is both natural and intelligible. Unit selection synthesis Unit selection synthesis uses large databases of recorded speech. At runtime. an event among the most prominent in the history of Bell Labs. However. and the intended uses of a synthesis system will typically determine which approach is used. Early electronic speech synthesizers sounded robotic and were often barely intelligible. Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey. An index of the units in the speech database is then created based on the segmentation and acoustic parameters like the fundamental frequency (pitch). Each technology has strengths and weaknesses. the division into segments is done using a specially modified speech recognizer set to a "forced alignment" mode with some manual correction afterward. making extensive use of Natural Language Processing methods. each recorded utterance is segmented into some or all of the following: individual phones. more people will benefit from the use of text-to-speech programs. Despite the success of purely electronic speech synthesis.The Pattern playback was built by Dr. based largely on the work of Dennis Klatt at MIT. the desired target utterance is created by determining the best chain of candidate units from the database (unit selection). and sentences. Clarke was visiting his friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility. while intelligibility is the ease with which the output is understood. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer (vocoder) recreated the song "Daisy Bell". In 1961.where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song as it is being put to sleep by astronaut Dave Bowman. There are three main sub-types of concatenative synthesis. There were several different versions of this hardware device but only one currently survives.diphones. Generally. Arthur C. Concatenative synthesis Concatenative synthesis is based on the concatenation (or stringing together) of segments of recorded speech. and the Bell Labs system. Naturalness describes how closely the output sounds like human speech. and the first complete text-to-speech system was completed in 1968. the latter was one of the first multilingual language-independent systems. The quality of synthesized speech has steadily improved. Coincidentally. As the cost-performance ratio causes speech synthesizers to become cheaper and more accessible to the people. and neighboring phones. The machine converts pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech in the form of a spectrogram back into sound. Synthesizer technologies The most important qualities of a speech synthesis system are naturalness and intelligibility. phrases. but output from contemporary speech synthesis systems is still clearly distinguishable from actual human speech. Cooper and his colleagues at Haskins Laboratories in the late 1940s and completed in 1950. The two primary technologies for generating synthetic speech waveforms are concatenative synthesis and formant synthesis. Franklin S. using visual representations such as the waveform and spectrogram. half-phones. During database creation.

many final consonants become no longer silent if followed by a word that begins with a vowel. As such. and German about 2500. and formant synthesis systems have advantages over concatenative systems. Spanish has about 800 diphones. because it applies only a small amount of digital signal processing (DSP) to the recorded speech. in some systems ranging into the gigabytes of recorded data. For example. Many systems based on formant synthesis technology generate artificial. in devices like talking clocks and calculators. although it continues to be used in research because there are a number of freely available software implementations. This method is sometimes called rules-based synthesis.g. The level of naturalness of these systems can be very high because the variety of sentence types is limited. Diphone synthesis Diphone synthesis uses a minimal speech database containing all the diphones (sound-tosound transitions) occurring in a language. The output from the best unit-selection systems is often indistinguishable from real human voices. However. and has few of the advantages of either approach other than small size. The quality of the resulting speech is generally worse than that of unit-selection systems. and they closely match the prosody and intonation of the original recordings. maximum naturalness is not always the goal of a speech synthesis system. in non-rhotic dialects of English the "r" in words like "clear" / kli / is usually only pronounced when the following word has a vowel as its first letter (e. Domain-specific synthesis Domain-specific synthesis concatenates prerecorded words and phrases to create complete utterances. which would require additional complexity to be context-sensitive. maximum naturalness typically require unitselection speech databases to be very large. DSP often makes recorded speech sound less natural.[19] The technology is very simple to implement. representing dozens of hours of speech. an effect called liaison. minor words become unclear) even when a better choice exists in the database. The number of diphones depends on thephonotactics of the language: for example. its use in commercial applications is declining. "clear out" is realized as / kli t/). many concatenative systems also have rules-based components. and noise levels are varied over time to create a waveform of artificial speech. unit selection algorithms have been known to select segments from a place that results in less than ideal synthesis (e. however. like transit schedule announcements or weather reports. Formant synthesis Formant synthesis does not use human speech samples at runtime. It is used in applications where the variety of texts the system will output is limited to a particular domain. Likewise in French.[citation needed] Because these systems are limited by the words and phrases in their databases. However. but more natural-sounding than the output of formant synthesizers. Instead. especially in contexts for which the TTS system has been tuned. Formant- . the synthesized speech output is created using additive synthesis and an acoustic model (physical modelling synthesis)[20].PSOLA or MBROLA.g. although some systems use a small amount of signal processing at the point of concatenation to smooth the waveform. and has been in commercial use for a long time. robotic-sounding speech that would never be mistaken for human speech. only one example of each diphone is contained in the speech database. The blending of words within naturally spoken language however can still cause problems unless the many variations are taken into account. In diphone synthesis. Diphone synthesis suffers from the sonic glitches of concatenative synthesis and the robotic-sounding nature of formant synthesis.Unit selection provides the greatest naturalness. Parameters such as fundamental frequency. voicing. they are not general-purpose and can only synthesize the combinations of words and phrases with which they have been preprogrammed. At runtime. the target prosody of a sentence is superimposed on these minimal units by means of digital signal processing techniques such as linear predictive coding. This alternation cannot be reproduced by a simple word-concatenation system. Also.

Recently TTS systems have begun to use HMMs (discussed above) to generate "parts of speech" to aid in disambiguating homographs. where much of the original research was conducted. provides full articulatory-based text-to-speech conversion using a waveguide or transmission-line analog of the human oral and nasal tracts controlled by Carré's "distinctive region model". Until recently. well understood. This synthesizer. For example. They can therefore be used in embedded systems. first marketed in 1994.[25] Challenges Text normalization challenges The process of normalizing text is rarely straightforward. articulatory synthesis models have not been incorporated into commercial speech synthesis systems. Speech waveforms are generated from HMMs themselves based on themaximum likelihood criterion.fundamental frequency (vocal source). Because formant-based systems have complete control of all aspects of the output speech. High-speed synthesized speech is used by the visually impaired to quickly navigate computers using a screen reader. various heuristic techniques are used to guess the proper way to disambiguate homographs. known as ASY. Examples of non-real-time but highly accurate intonation control in formant synthesis include the work done in the late 1970s for the Texas Instruments toy Speak & Spell. A notable exception is the NeXT-based system originally developed and marketed by Trillium Sound Research. was based on vocal tract models developed at Bell Laboratories in the 1960s and 1970s by Paul Mermelstein. the frequency spectrum (vocal tract). conveying not just questions and statements. and abbreviations that all require expansion into a phonetic representation. "My latest project is to learn how to better project my voice" contains two pronunciations of "project". This technique is quite successful for many . arcade games[22] using the TMS5220 LPC Chips. HMM-based synthesis HMM-based synthesis is a synthesis method based on hidden Markov models. with work continuing as gnuspeech. numbers. Cecil Coker. as processes for doing so are not reliable. and in the early 1980s Sega arcade machines. and the results have yet to be matched by real-time text-to-speech interfaces. Most text-to-speech (TTS) systems do not generate semantic representations of their input texts. Formant synthesizers are usually smaller programs than concatenative systems because they do not have a database of speech samples. the Trillium software was published under the GNU General Public License. Texts are full of heteronyms. Creating proper intonation for these projects was painstaking. even at very high speeds. The first articulatory synthesizer regularly used for laboratory experiments was developed at Haskins Laboratories in the mid-1970s by Philip Rubin. and colleagues. a wide variety of prosodies and intonations can be output.synthesized speech can be reliably intelligible. The system. but a variety of emotions and tones of voice. As a result. also called Statistical Parametric Synthesis. Tom Baer. Following the demise of the various incarnations of NeXT (started by Steve Jobs in the late 1980s and merged with Apple Computer in 1997).[23] Articulatory synthesis Articulatory synthesis refers to computational techniques for synthesizing speech based on models of the human vocal tract and the articulation processes occurring there. Inc. and Paul Mermelstein. There are many spellings in English which are pronounced differently based on context. where memory andmicroprocessor power are especially limited. and duration (prosody) of speech are modeled simultaneously by HMMs. In this system. avoiding the acoustic glitches that commonly plague concatenative systems. a spin-off company of the University of Calgary.[24] Sinewave synthesis Sinewave synthesis is a technique for synthesizing speech by replacing the formants (main bands of energy) with pure tone whistles. or computationally effective. like examining neighboring words and using statistics about frequency of occurrence.[21] and in many Atari.

On the other hand. (Consider that the word "of" is very common in English. Text-to-phoneme challenges Speech synthesis systems use two basic approaches to determine the pronunciation of a word based on its spelling. while others provide the same result in all cases. nearly all speech synthesis systems use a combination of these approaches. like foreign names and borrowings. like "1325" becoming "one thousand three hundred twenty-five. yet is the only word in which the letter "f" is pronounced [v]. These techniques also work well for most European languages. abbreviations can be ambiguous. which have extremely irregular spelling systems. Similarly. The simplest approach to text-to-phoneme conversion is the dictionarybased approach. or words that aren't in their dictionaries. speech synthesis systems for languages like English. a process which is often called text-to-phoneme or grapheme-tophoneme conversion (phoneme is the term used by linguists to describe distinctive sounds in a language). "thirteen twentyfive" or "thirteen hundred and twenty five". A TTS system can often infer how to expand a number based on surrounding words. while "Chapter VIII" reads as "Chapter Eight"." uses the same abbreviation for both "Saint" and "Street". approach to learning reading. resulting in nonsensical (and sometimes comical) outputs. "1325" may also be read as "one three two five". the rule-based approach works on any input. . and sometimes the system provides a way to specify the context if it is ambiguous. whose pronunciations are not obvious from their spellings. the abbreviation "in" for "inches" must be differentiated from the word "in".) As a result. This is similar to the "sounding out". Evaluation challenges The consistent evaluation of speech synthesis systems may be difficult because of a lack of universally agreed objective evaluation criteria. and the prediction of the pronunciation of words based on their spellings is quite successful. where a large dictionary containing all the words of a language and their correct pronunciations is stored by the program. are more likely to rely on dictionaries. so too does the memory space requirements of the synthesis system. On the other hand. Languages with a phonemic orthography have a very regular writing system. Evaluating speech synthesis systems has therefore often been compromised by differences between production techniques and replay facilities. or synthetic phonics. and the address "12 St John St. The dictionary-based approach is quick and accurate. It is a simple programming challenge to convert a number into words (at least in English). numbers occur in many different contexts. Different organizations often use different speech data. The other approach is rule-based. Each approach has advantages and drawbacks. although access to required training corpora is frequently difficult in these languages. Typical error rates when using HMMs in this fashion are usually below five percent. but the complexity of the rules grows substantially as the system takes into account irregular spellings or pronunciations. in which pronunciation rules are applied to words to determine their pronunciations based on their spellings. and to use rule-based methods only for unusual words. but completely fails if it is given a word which is not in its dictionary. resorting to dictionaries only for those few words. Speech synthesis systems for such languages often use the rule-based method extensively. The quality of speech synthesis systems also depends to a large degree on the quality of the production technique (which may involve analogue or digital recording) and on the facilities used to replay the speech. Deciding how to convert numbers is another problem that TTS systems have to address." However. Determining the correct pronunciation of each word is a matter of looking up each word in the dictionary and replacing the spelling with the pronunciation specified in the dictionary.[citation needed]As dictionary size grows. and punctuation. For example "Henry VIII" reads as "Henry the Eighth". or as "reed" implying present tense.[26] Roman numerals can also be read differently depending on context. For example. TTS systems with intelligent front ends can make educated guesses about ambiguous abbreviations.cases such as whether "read" should be pronounced as "red" implying past tense. numbers.

as well as improved clarity at high read rates over PlainTalk. Dedicated hardware  Votrax  SC-01A (analog formant)  SC-02 / SSI-263 / "Arctic 263"  General Instruments SP0256-AL2 (CTS256A-AL2. a command-line based application that converts text to audible speech. reported that listeners to voice recordings could determine. the first speech system integrated into an operating system was the 1400XL/1450XL personal computers designed by Atari. Starting as a curiosity.6 (Snow Leopard).[28] It was suggested that identification of the vocal features which signal emotional content may be used to help make synthesized speech sound more natural. The 1400XL/1450XL computers used a Finite State Machine to enable World English Spelling text-to-speech synthesis[29].Recently. Starting with 10. Since the 1980s Macintosh Computers offered text to speech capabilities through The MacinTalk software. In the early 1990s Apple expanded its capabilities offering system wide text-to-speech support.speechchips. VoiceOver voices feature the taking of realistic-sounding breaths between sentences. Mac OS X also includes say. With the introduction of faster PowerPC-based computers they included higher quality voice sampling. whether or not the speaker was smiling.[27] Prosodics and emotional content A recent study reported in the journal "Speech Communication" by Amy Drahota and colleagues at the University of Portsmouth. VoiceOver was for the first time featured in Mac OS X Tiger (10. some researchers have started to evaluate speech synthesis systems using a common speech dataset. the 1400XL/1450XL personal computers never shipped in quantity. During 10. the user can choose out of a wide range list of multiple voices. using the Votrax SC01 chip in 1983. speaking rate and modulation of the spoken text. UK. Inc. Apple also introduced speech recognition into its systems which provided a fluid command set. More recently.tos" on floppy disk.4 (Tiger) & first releases of 10. Apple The first speech system integrated into an operating system that shipped in quantity was Apple Computer's MacInTalk in 1984. Apple has added sample-based voices. at better than chance levels. for people with vision problems. TheAppleScript Standard Additions includes a say verb that allows a script to use any of the installed voices and to control the pitch. The Atari ST computers were sold with "stspeech. PlainTalk. the speech system of Apple Macintosh has evolved into a fully-supported program. AmigaOS . Unfortunately. however. MEA8000)  Magnevation SpeakJet (www.5 (Leopard) there was only one standard voice shipping with Mac OS X.com TTS256)  Savage Innovations SoundGin  National Semiconductor DT1050 Digitalker (Mozer)  Silicon Systems SSI 263 (analog formant)  Texas Instruments LPC Speech Chips  TMS5110A  TMS5200  Oki Semiconductor  ML22825 (ADPCM)  ML22573 (HQADPCM)  Toshiba T6721A  Philips PCF8200  TextSpeak Embedded TTS Modules Computer operating systems or outlets with speech synthesis Atari Arguably.4).

with a help of podcast receiver. On the other hand. Microsoft Speech Server is a complete package for voice synthesis and recognition. SAPI 4. The ability to use Yury's TTS port currently requires a custom browser build that uses Mozilla's Audio-Data-API. 'Browsealoud' from a UK company and Readspeaker. Additional engines (often use a certain jargon or vocabulary) are also available through third-party manufacturers.) and it featured a complete system of voice emulation. directly available to users.TO. TTS is the ability of the operating system to play back printed text as spoken words. Currently. introduced in 1985. Microsoft Windows Modern Windows systems use SAPI4.ME from Oxford Information Laboratories is capable of delivering text to speech through any browser without the need to download any special applications.[30] It was divided into a narrator device and a translator library. Windows 2000 added a speech synthesis program called Narrator. Some specialized software can narrate RSSfeeds.g. It can deliver TTS functionality to anyone (for reasons of accessibility.The second operating system with advanced speech synthesis capabilities was AmigaOS. jogging or commuting to work. This allows web pages to convert text to audio using HTML5 technology.[31] An internal (installed with the operating system) driver (called a TTS engine): recognizes the text and using a synthesized voice (chosen from several pre-generated voices) speaks the written text. On one hand. Additionally SPEAK. plugins and gadgets that can read messages directly from an e-mail client and web pages from a web browser or Google Toolbar such asText-to-voice which is an add-on to Firefox . Users can download generated audio files to portable devices. convenience. However. such as word processors.[31] Android Version 1. there are a number of applications. so the user could even redirect console output to it. which ports the Flite C engine to pure JavaScript. made extensive use of the speech system. e. The voice synthesis was licensed by Commodore International from a third-party software house (Don't Ask Software. now Softvoice. Some Amiga programs.6 of Android added support for speech synthesis (TTS). online RSS-narrators simplify information delivery by allowing users to listen to their favourite news sources and to convert them to podcasts. and listen to them while walking. and includes smart delivery technology to ensure only what is seen is spoken and the content is logically pathed. Others  Some models of Texas Instruments home computers produced in 1979 and 1981 (Texas Instruments TI-99/4 and TI-99/4A) were capable of text-to-phoneme synthesis or . available through menus once installed on the system. Inc. much work is being done in the context of the W3C to move this technology into the mainstream browser market through the W3C Audio Incubator Group with the involvement of The BBC and Google Inc. Text-to-Speech (TTS) capabilities for a computer refers to the ability to play back text in a spoken voice.and SAPI5-based speech systems that include a speech recognition engine (SRE).0 was available on Microsoft-based operating systems as a third-party add-on for systems like Windows 95 and Windows 98. All Windows-compatible programs could make use of speech synthesis features. Amiga Speak Handler featured a text-to-speech translator. with both male and female voices and "stress" indicator markers. A growing field in internet based TTS is web-based assistive technology. made possible by advanced features of the Amiga hardware audio chipset. for commercial applications such as call centers. e.g. AmigaOS considered speech synthesis a virtual hardware device. on-line RSS-readers are available on almost any PC connected to the Internet.[32] Internet The most recent TTS development in the web browser. is the JavaScript Text to Speech work of Yury Delendik. entertainment or information) with access to a web browser.

That includes professions such as teachers. Software such as Vocaloid can generate singing voices via lyrics and melody. Background Of the working population. when NEC Biglobe announced a web service that allows users to create phrases from the voices of Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 characters.reciting complete words and phrases (text-to-dictionary). which became a W3C recommendation in 2004. Applications Speech synthesis has long been a vital assistive technology tool and its application in this area is significant and widespread. but text-to-speech systems are now commonly used by people with dyslexia and other reading difficulties as well as by preliterate children. VoiceXML. SpeechWorks (bought by Nuance). Speech synthesis techniques are used as well in the entertainment productions such as games. explicitly geared towards customers in the entertainment industries. Although each of these was proposed as a standard. YAKiToMe! is also used to convert entire books for personal podcasting purposes. for example. They are also frequently employed to aid those with severe speech impairment usually through a dedicated voice output communication aid. as in Barney Bunch videos.[35] The application reached maturity in 2008. and gnuspeech which uses articulatory synthesis[34] from the Free Software Foundation. and educational texts for enhanced learning. Eloquent Technology (bought by SpeechWorks). Lernout & Hauspie (bought by Nuance). a precursor to IBM ViaVoice.  Systems that operate on free and open source software systems including Linux are various. Rhetorical Systems (bought by Nuance). The most recent is Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML). The longest application has been in the use of screen readers for people with visual impairment.[36] TTS applications such as YAKiToMe! and Speakonia are often used to add synthetic voices to YouTube videos for comedic effect. dialogue management and touchtone dialing. anime and similar. and TV .  Companies which developed speech synthesis systems but which are no longer in this business include BeST Speech (bought by L&H). able to generate narration and lines of dialogue according to user specifications. Older speech synthesis markup languages include Java Speech Markup Language (JSML) and SABLE. Sites such as Ananova and YAKiToMe! have used speech synthesis to convert written news to audio content. In 2007. none of them has been widely adopted. about 15% have professions where their voice is their primary tool. TI used a proprietary codec to embed complete spoken phrases into applications.[37] Vocal loading Vocal loading is the stress inflicted on the speech organs when speaking for long periods. which can be used for mobile applications. actors and singers. RSS feeds and web pages for news stories. Animo Limited announced the development of a software application package based on its speech synthesis software FineSpeech. It allows environmental barriers to be removed for people with a wide range of disabilities.[33]  IBM's OS/2 Warp 4 included VoiceType. using a very popular Speech Synthesizer peripheral. sales personnel. includes tags related to speech recognition. primarily video games. This is also the aim of the Singing Computer project (which uses GNU LilyPond and Festival) to help blind people check their lyric input. and include open-source programs such as the Festival Speech Synthesis Systemwhich uses diphone-based synthesis (and can use a limited number of MBROLA voices). in addition to text-to-speech markup. Speech synthesis markup languages A number of markup languages have been established for the rendition of text as speech in an XML-compliant format. Speech synthesis markup languages are distinguished from dialogue markup languages.

especially teachers. Suppose then that a female is speaking continuously for an hour. That means that for voiced sounds the vocal folds will hit together 110 or 220 times a second. These include all kinds of muscular strain in the speech organs. the question arises of how one should use one's voice to minimise tiring in the vocal organs.the "normal" speaking style has close to optimal pitch. Unfortunately.dehydration increases effects of stress inflicted on the vocal folds  background noise . Voice care Regularly. In addition. Secondly. a normal. This is encompassed in the study of vocology. . for example. When the folds reopen the pressure under the folds is released. Symptoms Objective evaluation or measurement of vocal loading is very difficult due to the tight coupling of the experienced psychological and physiological stress. Increasing speaking volume increases stress inflicted on the vocal folds  pitch . In every oscillation. When a voice is loaded. The folds will then hit together more than 30 thousand times an hour. These changes in pressure form the waves called (voiced) speech. No background noise should be present or.and radio reporters. However. Basically. the voice should be amplified. Still. relaxed way of speech is the optimal method for voice production. there are some typical symptoms that can be objectively measured. both properties are difficult to measure objectively. Loading on tissue in vocal folds The fundamental frequency of speech for an average male is around 110Hz and for an average female around 220Hz. the vocal folds are closed for a short period of time. Many of them. and only perceptual evaluations can be performed. Still.people tend to speak louder when background noise is present. smoking and other types of air pollution might have a negative effect on voice production organs. in both speech and singing. researchers' largest interest lies in stress exerted on the vocal folds. Most scientists agree on the effect of the following environmental properties:  air humidity . Using a higher or lower pitch than normal will also increase stress in the speech organs. respectively. Of this time perhaps five minutes is voiced speech. if not possible. research in vocal loading has often been treated as a minor subject. Voice organ Voiced speech is produced by air streaming from the lungs through the vocal cords. even when it isn't necessary. Vocal loading also includes other kinds of strain on the speech organs. the upper pitch limit will decrease and the lower pitch limit will rise. In a larger scope. an increase in the hoarseness and strain of a voice can often be heard. Firstly. this involves millions of sick-leave days every year. the science and practice of voice habilitation. the exact details are debated. It is intuitively clear that the vocal fold tissue will experience some tiring due to this large number of hits. both in the US and the European Union. Any excess force used when speaking will increase tiring. suffer from voice-related medical problems. setting them into an oscillating movement. Smoking is discouraged. the volume range will decrease.dry air increases stress experienced in the vocal folds  hydration . Similarly. Effect of speaking environment Several studies in vocal loading show that the speaking environment does have a significant impact on vocal loading. similarly as usage of any other muscles will experience strain if used for an extended period of time. The speaker should drink enough water and the air humidity level should be normal or higher. the pitch range of the voice will decrease. However. Pitch range indicates the possible pitches that can be spoken.

This is because some of the notes a voice can produce may not be considered usable by the singer within performance for various reasons. the modal register. These voice types would therefore include the notes from these other registers within their vocal range. vocal timbre. there are some instances where other vocal registers are included. this broad definition is often not what is meant when "vocal range" is discussed in the context of singing. the sciences identify only four registers: the whistle register. In contrast. Another factor to consider is the use of different forms of vocal production. it is a topic of study within linguistics. While the exact number and definition of vocal registers is a controversial topic within the field of singing.Vocal rest Vocal rest is the process of resting the vocal folds by not speaking or singing. particularly in relation to the study of tonal languages and certain types of vocal disorders. will significantly decrease recovery time after a cold. in most cases only the usable pitches within the modal register are included when determining a singer's vocal range. It is believed that vocal rest. An opera singer would therefore only be able to include the notes that they are able to adequately project over an orchestra within their vocal range. . a pop artist could include notes that could be heard with the aid of a microphone. while others hold that whispering can cause additional stress to the larynx. only the usable range of the modal register. and the vocal fry register. some believe that whispering merely does not allow the voice to rest and may have a dehydrating effect. However. Vocal range and voice classification Vocal range plays such an important role in classifying singing voices into voice types that sometimes the two terms are confused with one another. Other factors are vocal weight. Typically. within opera all singers must project over an orchestra without the aid of a microphone. For example. and vocal registration. The reasons for this differ. which typically follows vocal disorders or viral infections which cause hoarseness in the voice. physical characteristics. For example. All of these factors combined are used to categorize a singer's voice into a particular kind of singing voice or voice type. Vocal pedagogists tend to define the vocal range as the total span of "musically useful" pitches that a singer can produce. where it is used as one of the major defining characteristics for classifying singing voices into groups known as voice types. A voice type is a particular kind of human singing voice perceived as having certain identifying qualities or characteristics. within opera. Vocal range Vocal range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate. scientific testing. phonetics. along with rehydration. Another example would be a male doo-wop singer who might quite regularly deploy his falsetto pitches in performance and thus include them in determining his range. Singing and the definition of vocal range While the broadest definition of vocal range is simply the span from the lowest to the highest note a particular voice can produce. and speech and language pathology. vocal range being only one of those characteristics. the most common application of the term "vocal range" is within the context of singing. It is generally believed. that if one needs to communicate one should speak and not whisper. Although the study of vocal range has little practical application in terms of speech. The human voice is capable of producing sounds using different physiological processes within the larynx. vocal transition points. is used when determining vocal range. However. such as thecommon cold or influenza. speech level. vocal tessitura. These different forms of voice production are known as vocal registers. however. countertenors utilize falsetto often and coloratura sopranos utilize the whistle register frequently. the falsetto register. However. The purpose of vocal rest is to hasten recovery time. the register used in normal speech and most singing.

When considering the pre-pubescent voices of children an eighth term. are sub-types that fall under seven different major voice categories that are for the most part acknowledged across all of the major voice classification systems. and vocal timbre.[citation needed] The highest note commonly called for is F6. however. however. human voices are roughly in the range of 80 Hz to 1100 Hz (that is. More important than range in voice classification is tessitura.' a concert aria by W. Vocal range itself can not determine a singer's voice type. The following are the general vocal ranges associated with each voice type using scientific pitch notation where middle C=C4. tenor. lower notes are frequently heard. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor. the soprano Mado Robin. While each voice type does have a general vocal range associated with it. Mozart. Most of these types. Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano. mein lieber Sohn" in Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte. A voice teacher would therefore look to see whether or not the singer were more comfortable singing up higher or singing lower. sang a number of compositions created especially to exploit her highest notes. E2 to C6) for normal male and female voices together. would never classify a singer in more than one voice type. Several little-known works call for pitches higher than G6. Some singers within these voice types may be able to sing somewhat higher or lower:  Soprano: C4 ± C6  Mezzo-soprano: A3 ± A5  Contralto: F3 ± F5  Tenor: C3 ± C5  Baritone: F2 ± F4  Bass: E2 ± E4 In terms of frequency. reaching C7. baritone. For example. this rare note is also heard in the opera Esclarmonde by Jules Massenet. who was known for her exceptionally high voice. A voice teacher.treble. Therefore. Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. Although Osmin's note is the lowest 'demanded' in the operatic repertoire. Sopranos tend to have a lighter and less rich vocal sound than a mezzosoprano. voice teachers only use vocal range as one factor in classifying a singer's voice. If the singer were more comfortable singing higher than the teacher would probably classify her as a soprano and if the singer were more comfortable singing lower than they would probably classify her as a mezzo-soprano. A. Leonard Bernstein composed an optional B1 (a minor third below . World records and extremes of vocal range The following facts about female and male ranges are known:  Guinness lists the highest demanded note in the classical repertoire as G6 in 'Popoli di Tessaglia. and contralto.For example. or where the voice is most comfortable singing. regardless of the size of their vocal range. and it is traditional for basses to interpolate a low C in the duet "Ich gehe doch rathe ich dir" in the same opera. a female singer may have a vocal range that encompasses the high notes of a mezzo-soprano and the low notes of a soprano. or the characteristic sound of the singing voice.  Lowest note in a solo: Guinness lists the lowest demanded note in the classical repertoire as D2 (almost two octaves below Middle C) in Osmin's second aria in Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail.There are a plethora of different voice types used by vocal pedagogists today in a variety of voice classification systems. can be applied.mezzo-soprano. The teacher would also listen to the sound of the voice. human singing voices may possess vocal ranges that encompass more than one voice type or are in between the typical ranges of two voice types. both written and unwritten. Though pitch standards were not fixed in the eighteenth century. composed for Aloysia Weber. famously heard in the Queen of the Night's two arias "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" and "O zittre nicht. and bass.

Start with simple exercises such as hissing. Start just using a steady note. To start warming up your range. to G1. Jump first an octave. use lip trills and tongue trills to help control your breathing as well. sigh from the top of your range to the bottom. Finally.back. This time. again starting an octave lower than middle C. Repeat several times and be sure when you're breathing in to breath using your diaphragm. then down a third. Muscles all over the body are used when singing (the diaphragm being one of the most obvious). working on getting really to the highest and lowest parts of your range. and continue up to the top of your range. blending. Do several of these. Range and Tone Start easy. Next. Its concerns include the nature of speech and language pathology. starting in the middle of your range. Next. Stretches of the abdomen. or other use. with an open vowel and a sibilant like Z. to the bottom of your comfortablerange. Use open vowels. mull. with light humming. Physical whole-body warm-ups also help prepare a singer. like o. Some warm ups also train your voice. & Gramming emphasized that changing pitch undoubtedly stretches the muscles. or P. In a Russian piece combining solo and choral singing. and ah. again starting from middle C. and any singer will tell you that vocal warm-ups make them feel more prepared. repeat the exercise a half-step lower.  Lowest note for a choir: Mahler's Eighth Symphony (bar 1457 in the "Chorus mysticus") and Rachmaninoff's Vespers require B 1. D. not moving your shoulders up and down. which influences the sound of the voice. then down a fourth. breathing outwards until you've expelled as much air as possible from your lungs. sing down a five note scale. After. Vocal warm up A vocal warm-up is a series of exercises which prepare the voice for singing. acting. Sundberg. then another third. "Za a a a a" is reasonable. The phrase "I lo-ove to sing" fits with this exercise. Eventually move to real notes. such as Middle C. Repeat the exercise a half-step higher. Others choose to sing a few words over and over to warm up. Sometimes called vocalises. my. it is important to start breathing properly and from the diaphragm. the defects of . these activities teach breath control. How To Warm Up Breathing Before you start to actually sing. such as "Me. neck. Move between notes." Vocology Vocology is the science of enabling or endowing the human voice with greater ability or fitness. and balance. Why Warm Up A study by Elliott. diction. and shoulders are important to avoid stress.D2) in a bass aria[not specific enough to verify] in the opera house version of Candide. down to G1. (1 8 5 3 1). ay. sing an arpeggio of three thirds to an octave (1 3 5 1 5 3 1). Take a deep breath in then make a hissing sound. but stay in the middle range. In Russian choirs the oktavists traditionally sing an octave below the bass part. then making a "fire engine sound" go up and down. depending on the arrangement. starting with a consonant like B. letting the voice fall in a glissando without much control. Pick a note in the middle of your range (Middle C is reasonable) and begin humming. sing a slightly more difficult phrase. ih. mo. but don't push too high. Pavel Chesnokov directs the bass soloist in "Do not deny me in my old age" to descend even lower. (That is a common sign of an untrained breather).

but also speaker identification. it is the process of strengthening and equipping the voice to meet very specific and special demands". To evaluate these problems vocal loading needs to be objectively measured. dynamic analysis of the vocal folds and their movement is physically difficult. Voice analysis Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content. Another active research topic in medical voice analysis is vocal loading evaluation. for instance. the process of speaking exerts a load on the vocal cords where the tissue will suffer from tiring. Vocology. George Gates. rather. to ³equip for´. Such studies include mostly medical analysis of the voice i. In order to objectively evaluate the improvement in voice quality there has to be some measure of voice quality. some believe that the truthfulness or emotional state of speakers can be determined using Voice Stress Analysis orLayered Voice Analysis. thus preventing usage of ordinary video. sales people) this tiring can cause voice failures and sick leaves. analysis of the voice of patients who have had a polyp removed from his or her vocal cords through an operation. Prof. such as in speech recognition. The location of the vocal folds effectively prohibits direct. To habilitate means to ³enable´.phoniatrics. The vocal cords of a person speaking for an extended period of time will suffer from tiring. In addition. An experienced voice therapist can quite reliably evaluate the voice. the remediation of speech therapy and the voice training and voice pedagogy of song and speech for actors and public speakers. Among professional voice users (i. He goes on that this "is more than repairing a voice or bringing it back to a former state . Typical voice problems A medical study of the voice can be. Analysis methods Voice problems that require voice analysis most commonly originate from the vocal folds or the laryngeal musculature that controls them. placing objects in the pharynx usually triggers a gag reflex that stops voicing and closes the larynx. and high-speed videos provide an option but in order to see the vocal folds. and the laryngeal musclature is intensely active during speech or singing and is subject to tiring. teachers.the vocal tract (laryngology). at Milan's Azienda Ospedaliera Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico. that is. which makes speaking difficult.e. a fiberoptic probe leading to the camera has to be positioned in the throat.e.. Meaning and Origin of term Vocology was invented (simultaneously. Movements in the vocal cords are rapid. stroboscopic imaging is only useful when the vocal fold vibratory pattern is closely periodic. with a strong emphasis on habilitation". but independently) by lngo R.. The study of vocology is recognized academically in taught courses and institutes such as the National Center for Voice and Speech. invasive measurement of movement. the Vox Humana Laboratory at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and the Regional Center for Voice and Swallowing. In addition. Phoniatrics. The Grabscheid Voice Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center. to ³capacitate´. in other words. Less invasive imaging methods such as xrays or ultrasounds do not work because the vocal cords are surrounded by cartilage which distort image quality. since the folds are subject to collision forces with each vibratory cycle and to drying from the air being forced through the small gap between them. and an otolaryngologist at Washington University. but this requires extensive training and is still always subjective. Westminster Choir College at Rider University. fundamental frequencies are usually between 80 and 300 Hz. Titze. to assist in performing whatever function that needs to be performed". However. Stroboscopic. More controversially. Also reflecting this increased recognition is that when the Scandinavian journal of logopedics & phoniatrics and Voice merged in 1996 the new name selected was Logopedics. Titze defines Vocology as "the science and practice of voice habilitation. .

the usable voice frequency band ranges from approximately 300 Hz to 3400 Hz. as obtained from a microphone) or the oral airflow waveform from a circumferentially vented (CV) mask is recorded outside the mouth and then filtered by a mathematical method to remove the effects of the vocal tract. Neither inverse filtering nor EGG are sufficient to completely describe the complex 3-dimensional pattern of vocal fold movement. The other kind of noninvasive indirect indication of vocal fold motion is the electroglottography. and that of a typical adult female from 165 to 255 Hz. Thus. within part of the audio range. List of voice disorders From Wikipedia. in which electrodes placed on either side of the subject's throat at the level of the vocal folds record the changes in the conductivity of the throat according to how large a portion of the vocal folds are touching each other. which in turn reflect the movements of the vocal folds. The bandwidth allocated for a single voice-frequency transmission channel is usually 4 kHz. This method produces an estimate of the waveform of the glottal airflow pulses. not acoustic energy). enough of the harmonic series will be present for the missing fundamental to create the impression of hearing the fundamental tone. allowing a sampling rate of 8 kHz to be used as the basis of the pulse code modulation system used for the digital PSTN. In telephony. It is for this reason that the ultra low frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrumbetween 300 and 3000 Hz is also referred to as voice frequency (despite the fact that this is electromagnetic energy. It thus yields one-dimensional information of the contact area. In inverse filtering. the fundamental frequency of most speech falls below the bottom of the "voice frequency" band as defined above. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Voice disorders) Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. that is used for the transmission of speech.The most important indirect methods are currently inverse filtering of either microphone or oral airflow recordings and electroglottography (EGG). However. the free encyclopedia A voice frequency (VF) or voice band is one of the frequencies. the speech sound (the radiated acoustic pressure waveform. including guard bands. Fundamental frequency The voiced speech of a typical adult male will have a fundamental frequency from 85 to 180 Hz. These include:  Chorditis  Vocal fold nodules  Vocal fold cysts  Vocal cord paresis  Reinke's Edema  Spasmodic dysphonia  Foreign accent syndrome  Bogart-Bacall Syndrome  Laryngeal papillomatosis  Puberphonia Voice frequency From Wikipedia. . but can provide useful indirect evidence of that movement.

distinguished by the buzzing sound of this periodic oscillation of the vocal cords. and other speech organs. depending on the tension across the neck and the level of pressure inside the balloon. It comprises the larynx and the vocal tract. The lips of the mouth can be used in a similar way to create a similar sound. with similar results. as any toddler or trumpeter can demonstrate. Resonances in the vocal tract modify these waves according to the position and shape of the lips. lungs. Overview The human voice produces sounds in the following manner: 1. tongue.Vocal apparatus The human head and neck (internal). larynx. A rubber balloon. 4. 3. This includes the lips. The voice organ is the part of the human body responsible for the generation of sound. Similar actions. tongue. Mouth and nose openings radiate the sound waves into the environment. When the muscles of the vocal folds contract. creating fluctuations in air pressure that are known as sound waves. In singing. The vocal folds in the larynx vibrate. teeth. The vocal tract . soft palate. the vibration frequency of the vocal folds determines the pitch of the sound produced. by definition. 2. usually in the form of speech or singing. jaw. inflated but not tied off and stretched tightly across the neck produces a squeak or buzz. This process continues in a periodic cycle that is felt as a vibration (buzzing). Air pressure from the lungs creates a steady flow of air through the trachea (windpipe). The larynx The larynx or voice box is a cylindrical framework of cartilage that serves to anchor the vocal folds. occur when the vocal cords are contracted or relaxed across the larynx. hard and soft palates. the airflow from the lungs is impeded until the vocal folds are forced apart again by the increasing air pressure from the lungs. creating formant regions and thus different qualities of sonorant (voiced) sound. larynx (voice box) and pharynx(back of the throat). etc. Vocal apparatus or vocal organs is a term used in phonetics to designate all parts of human anatomy that can be used to produce speech. uvula. Voiced phonemes such as the pure vowels are.

and even nasal cavities. It is utilized in the teaching of singing and assists in defining what singing is.e. only a buzzing sound would be heard. Vocal pedagogy From Wikipedia. Production of vowels A vowel is any phoneme in which airflow is impeded only or mostly by the voicing action of the vocal cords. how singing works. Our interest is therefore most focused on further modulations of and additions to the fundamental tone by other parts of the vocal apparatus. Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. pharyngeal.The sound source from the larynx is not sufficiently loud to be heard as speech. Abduction and adduction Latin Gray's plica vocalis subject #236 1079 . and how proper singing technique is accomplished. determined by the variable dimensions of oral. The anatomy of the Vocal folds is an important topic the field of Vocal Pedagogy. not a necessity. since a strictly unvoiced whisper is still quite intelligible. noise) near the formant frequency in the case of whispered speech. The well-defined fundamental frequency provided by the vocal cords in voiced phonemes is only a convenience. nor can the various timbres of different vowel sounds be produced: without the vocal tract. Formants Formants are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract that emphasize particular voice harmonics near in frequency to the resonance. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Voice pedagogy) Vocal pedagogy is the study of the art and science of voice instruction. or turbulent non-periodic energy (i. however. The formants tell a listener what vowel is being spoken.

Not all vocal teachers have the same opinions within every topic of study which causes variations in pedagogical approaches and vocal technique. such as range extension. and capitis). Highly influential in the development of a vocal pedagogical system were monks Johannes de Garlandia and Jerome of Moravia who were the first to develop a concept of vocal registers. History Pythagoras. As with other fields of study. The first surviving record of a systematized approach to teaching singing was developed in the medieval monasteries of the Roman Catholic Church sometime near the beginning of the 13th century. vowels and articulation  Vocal registration  Sostenuto and legato for singing  Other singing elements. such as learning to sing opera. whether the Greeks ever developed a systematic approach to teaching singing as little writing on the subject survives today. throat voice . tone quality. These men identified three registers: chest voice. is much more similar to the modern pedagogists . Scholars such as Alypius and Pythagoras studied and made observations on the art of singing.MeSH Vocal+Cords Vocal pedagogy covers a broad range of aspects of singing. vibrato. teaching music. or Art song  Phonetics  Voice classification All of these different concepts are a part of developing proper vocal technique. Typical areas of study include:  Human anatomy and physiology as it relates to the physical process of singing. however. guttoris. belt. in The School of Athens by Raphael Within Western culture. coloratura  Vocal health and voice disorders related to singing  Vocal styles. the study of vocal pedagogy began in Ancient Greece. and head voice (pectoris . the monasteries were the center of musical intellectual life during the medieval period and many men within the monasteries devoted their time to the study of music and the art of singing.  Breathing and air support for singing  Posture for singing  Phonation  Vocal resonation or voice projection  Diction. ranging from the physiological process of vocal production to the artistic aspects of interpretation of songs from different genres or historical eras. the man in the center with the book. Their concept of head voice. It is unclear. however.

It was also during this time. Other concepts discussed in the monastic system included vocal resonance. The ideas developed within the monastic system highly influenced the development of vocal pedagogy over the next several centuries including the Bel Canto style of singing. Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García is often considered one of the most important voice teachers of the 19th century. which ultimately led to the popularity of castrato voices in Baroque and Classical operas. In the late 17th century. that teachers and composers first began to identify singers by and write roles for more specific voice types. Many of the teachers within these schools had their initial musical training from singing in church choirs as children. breath support. The vocal pedagogical methods taught in these schools. Giulio Caccini is an example of an important early Italian voice teacher. The church also remained at the forefront of musical composition at this time and remained highly influential in shaping musical tastes and practices both in and outside the church. and is cr . This style of singing had a huge impact on the development of opera and the development of vocal pedagogy during the Classical and Romantic periods. voice classification. However. it wasn't until the 19th century that more clearly defined voice classification systems like the German Fach system emerged. It was during this time. the study of singing began to move outside of the church.understanding of the falsetto register. The courts of rich partons. It was not until the development of opera in the 17th century that vocal pedagogy began to break away from some of the established thinking of the monastic writers and develop deeper understandings of the physical process of singing and its relation to key concepts like vocal registration and vocal resonation. With the onset of the Renaissance in the 15th century. however. It was the Catholic Church that first popularized the use of castrato singers in the 16th century. the bel canto method of singing began to develop in Italy. Examining the vocal mechanism with a laryngoscope. and tone quality to name a few. Within these systems. that noted voice teachers began to emerge. such as the Dukes of Burgundy who supported the Burgundian School and the Franco-Flemish School. . diction. ed with the development of the laryngoscope and the beginning of modern voice pedagogy. late 19th century Voice teachers in the 19th century continued to train singers for careers in opera. were based on the concepts developed within the monastic system. more descriptive terms were used in classifying voices such as coloratura soprano and lyric soprano. became secular centers of study for singing and all other areas of musical study.

and by 1980 the subject of voice pedagogy was beginning to be included in many college music degree programs for singers and vocal music educators. creating a hybrid of the two. those who maintain the historical positions of the bel canto method and those who choose to embrace more contemporary understandings based in current knowledge of human anatomy and physiology. and physiology of singing. As a result. and scientific and practical aspects of voice pedagogy continue to be studied and discussed by professionals. There are also those teachers who borrow ideas from both perspectives. This shift in approach to the study of singing led to the rejection of many of the assertions of the bel canto singing method. More recent works by authors such as Richard Miller and Johan Sundberg have increased the general knowledge of voice teachers. especially Ralph Appelman at Indiana University. and has expanded the understanding of what singing teachers do. all related to how the mechanistic and psychological controls are employed within the act of singing. anatomy. most particularly in the areas of vocal registration and vocal resonation. adding these scientific ideas to the standard exercises and empirical ways to improve vocal technique. the creation of organisations such as theNational Association of Teachers of Singing (now an international organization of Vocal Instructors) has enabled voice teachers to establish more of a consensus about their work. there are currently two predominating schools of thought among voice teachers today. The field of voice pedagogy became more fully developed in the middle of the 20th century. Some voice instructors advocate an extreme mechanistic approach that believes that singing is largely a . In addition. and William Vennard at the University of Southern California. Topics of study Pedagogical philosophy There are basically three major approaches to vocal pedagogy. Oren Brown at the Washington University School of Medicine and later the Juilliard School. Appelman and Vennard were also part of a group of voice instructors who developed courses of study for beginning voice teachers.Mathilde Marchesi was both an important singer and teacher of singing at the turn of the 20th century. A few American voice teachers began to study the science.

The nature of vocal sounds Physiology of vocal sound production There are four physical processes involved in producing vocal sound: respiration. With an effective singer or speaker. The articulators shape the sound into recognizable units Although these four processes are to be considered separately. and that correcting vocal faults is achieved by learning to think the right thoughts and by releasing the emotions through interpretation of the music. Sound is initiated in the larynx  3. Respiration A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords. is the school of thought that believes that attention should never be directed to any part of the vocal mechanism--that singing is a matter of producing the right mental images of the desired tone. These processes occur in the following sequence:  1. Most voice teachers. phonation. . resonation. however. in actual practice they merge into one coordinated function. believe that the truth lies somewhere in between the two extremes and adopt a composite of those two approaches. and articulation. Many vocal problems result from a lack of coordination within this process. On the other extreme. Breath is taken  2. and that correcting vocal faults is accomplished by calling direct attention to the parts which are not working well.matter of getting the right physical parts in the right places at the right time. The vocal resonators receive the sound and influence it  4. one should rarely be reminded of the process involved as their mind and body are so coordinated that one only perceives the resulting unified function.

In its most basic sense. Various terms related to the resonation process include amplification. In sequence from the lowest within the body to the highest. the oral cavity. The main point to be drawn from these terms by a singer or speaker is that the end result of resonation is. Resonation Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air. It takes place in the larynx when the vocal folds are brought together and breath pressure is applied to them in such a way that vibration ensues causing an audible source of acoustic energy. enrichment. Breathing for singing and speaking is a more controlled process than is the ordinary breathing used for sustaining life. intensification. enlargement. the larynx itself.e. these areas are the chest. although in strictly scientific usage acoustic authorities would question most of them. respiration is the process of moving air in and out of the body-inhalation and exhalation. and the sinuses. which pull the arytenoid cartilages together. to make a better sound. There are seven areas that may be listed as possible vocal resonators. sound.. The vocal folds are brought together primarily by the action of the interarytenoid muscles. i. Articulation . which can then be modified by the articulatory actions of the rest of the vocal apparatus. the nasal cavity. Phonation Phonation is the process of producing vocal sound by the vibration of the vocal folds that is in turn modified by the resonance of the vocal tract. and prolongation. The controls applied to exhalation are particularly important in good vocal technique. the pharynx. improvement. the tracheal tree. or should be.

Classification of vocal sounds Vocal sounds are divided into two basic categories-vowels and consonants-with a wide variety of sub-classifications. Voice Teachers and serious voice students spend a great deal of time studying how the voice forms vowels and consonants. These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries. These articulators can act independently of each other. 8. Velar. 15. 11. As a result. when the front of the tongue is used. movement. Apical. 2. Epiglottal. 17. and weight serve as a guide to the singer on correct vocal production. There are many schools of thought within vocal pedagogy and different schools have adopted different terms. vocal instructors tend to focus more on active articulation as opposed to passive articulation. Laminal. velar and uvular merge into one another. Singing without understandable words limits the voice to nonverbal communication. palatal and velar. In relation to the physical process of singing. 3. 13. the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"). In other words. interdental and dental. most singers hear something different in their ears/head than what a person listening to them hears. Antero-dorsal. Although teachers may acquaint their students with musical styles and performance practices and suggest certain interpretive effects. and kinesthetic ones arising from muscle tension. Since the vocal instrument is internal. Glottal. The reason for this is that interpretation does influence the kind of sound a singer makes which is ultimately achieved through a physical action the singer is doing. Uvular. voice teachers often focus less on how it "sounds" and more on how it "feels". 10. Another problem in describing vocal sound lies in the vocal vocabulary itself. the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants"). the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"). and studying the problems that certain consonants or vowels may cause while singing. Endo-labial. Post-alveolar. 12. Pharyngeal. 6. Radical. In addition. sometimes from other artistic disciplines. The places linguolabial and interdental. 9. Pre-palatal. and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places. Failure to interpret well is not a vocal fault even though it may affect vocal sound significantly. 4. passive articulation is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. Problems in describing vocal sounds Describing vocal sound is an inexact science largely because the human voice is a selfcontained instrument. dental and alveolar. 7. 18. Unlike active articulation. or the under surface ("sub-apical consonants"). This has led to the use of a plethora of descriptive terms applied to the voice which are not always understood to mean the same . alveolar and palatal. Sub-apical Articulation is the process by which the joint product of the vibrator and the resonators is shaped into recognizable speech sounds through the muscular adjustments and movements of the speech organs. the singer's ability to monitor the sound produced is complicated by the vibrations carried to the ear through the Eustachean (auditory) tube and the bony structures of the head and neck. 16. body position. and two or more may work together in what is calledcoarticulation. Students who lack a natural creative imagination and aesthetic sensibility can not learn it from someone else. There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"). it may be the upper surface or blade of the tongue that makes contact ("laminal consonants"). 14. Interpretation Interpretation is sometimes listed by voice teachers as a fifth physical process even though strictly speaking it is not a physical process. Palatal. and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants"). Dental.Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. Vibratory sensations resulting from the closely-related processes of phonation and resonation. Postero-dorsal. 5. Alveolar. most voice teachers agree that interpretation can not be taught. The International Phonetic Alphabet is used frequently by voice teachers and their students. Exo-labial. the tip of the tongue ("apical consonants"). These adjustments and movements of the articulators result in verbal communication and thus form the essential difference between the human voice and other musical instruments.

Voice Instructors have also noted that when singers assume good posture it often provides them with a greater sense of self assurance and poise while performing. The science behind voice Baritone classification developed within European classical music and has Bass been slow in adapting to more modern forms of singing. Habitual good posture also ultimately improves the overall health of the body by enabling better blood circulation and preventing fatigue and stress on the body. vocal weight. and vocal properties Female voices of singers. Good posture also makes it easier to initiate phonation and to tune the resonators as proper alignment prevents unnecessary tension in the body. vocal tessitura. and Singing was with Breath. There are currently several different systems in use within classical music including: the German Fachsystem and the choral music system among many others. and Singing was Breath. Audiences also tend to respond better to singers with good posture. a recovery period These stages must be under conscious control by the singer until they becomed conditioned reflexes. a breathing out period. speech level. Natural breathing has three stages: a breathing-in period. and so forth. And all singing was made by the Breath. voices are treated Voice type like musical instruments. a breathing-in period (inhalation)  2. Breathing in everyday life is a subconscious bodily function which occurs naturally. White. white. These qualities include but are not limited to: vocal Contralto range. Many singers abandon conscious controls before their reflexes are fully conditioned which ultimately leads to chronic vocal problems. Composers who write vocal music must have an understanding of the skills. spread. forward. and a resting or recovery period. round. Breathing and breath support In the words of Robert C. reedy. scientific Tenor testing. and a tense abdominal wall will inhibit the downward travel of the diaphragm. The ability to move air in and out of the body freely and to obtain the needed quantity of air can be seriously affected by the posture of the various parts of the breathing mechanism. who paraphrased a "Credo" for singing (no blasphemy intended): In the Beginning there was Breath. Voice classification is the process by which human Soprano singing voices are evaluated and are thereby designated into voice Mezzo-soprano types. A sunken chest position will limit the capacity of the lungs. All vocal sounds are created by vibrations in the larynx caused by air from the lungs. covered.thing. Within singing there are four stages of breathing:  1. No system is universally applied or accepted. Voice classification is often used withinopera to associate possible roles with potential voices. and without Breath was not any Singing made that was made. a setting up controls period (suspension)  3. Some terms sometimes used to describe a quality of a voice's sound are: warm. mellow. (White 1988. vocal timbre. focused. ringing. Good posture allows the breathing mechanism to fulfill its basic function efficiently without any undue expenditure of energy. dark. Other Countertenor considerations are physical characteristics. p. 26) All singing begins with breath. and vocal registration. swallowed. hooty. talents. a controlled exhalation period (phonation)  4. and vocal Male voices transition points such as breaks and lifts within the voice. light. bleaty. these stages are not usually consciously controlled. Posture The singing process functions best when certain physical conditions of the body exist. and Singing was Breath. plummy. . however the singer must have control of the intake and exhalation of breath to achieve maximum results from their voice. pear-shaped. Voice classification In European classical music and opera.

can be applied. and possessing the same quality. As a result. resonation. Since most people have medium voices. Dangers of quick identification Many voice teachers warn of the dangers of quick identification. Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. and are not forced to fit into a specific vocal role. etc. Choral music most commonly divides vocal parts into high and low voices within each sex (SATB). an eighth term. pop. blues. can be misleading or even inaccurate. and contralto. tenor. singers are classified by the style of music they sing. Registers originate . and rock styles. applying such terms as soprano. soul. A register in the human voice is a particular series of tones. When considering children's voices. with all its attendant dangers. the mezzo-soprano must sing soprano or alto and the baritone must sing tenor or bass. Only then can a tentative classification be arrived at. and it can be harmful to the student and embarrassing to the teacher to keep striving for an ill-chosen goal. Either option can present problems for the singer. breathing.However. Premature concern with classification can result in misclassification. The reason for this is that the majority of individuals possess medium voices and therefore this approach is less likely to misclassify or damage the voice." Most voice teachers believe that it is essential to establish good vocal habits within a limited and comfortable range before attempting to classify the voice. most classical music systems acknowledge seven different major voice categories. and it may be adjusted as the voice continues to develop. such as jazz. Since contemporary musicians use different vocal techniques. Within contemporary forms of music (sometimes referred to as Contemporary Commercial Music). baritone. produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. folk. There is currently no authoritative voice classification system within non-classical music. phonation.treble. Many acclaimed voice instructors suggest that teachers begin by assuming that a voice is of a medium classification until it proves otherwise. and articulation have become established in this comfortable area. The development of voice categorizations were made with the understanding that the singer would be using classical vocal technique within a specified range using unamplified (no microphones) vocal production. mezzo-soprano. microphones. tenor. Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano. but for most singers there are fewer dangers in singing too low than in singing too high. When techniques of posture. It should be noted that within choral music. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor. baritone. singers voices are divided solely on the basis of vocal range. Attempts have been made to adopt classical voice type terms to other forms of singing but such attempts have been met with controversy. the true quality of the voice will emerge and the upper and lower limits of the range can be explored safely. Vocal registration Vocal registers Highest Whistle Falsetto Modal Vocal Lowest fry Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the human voice. they must be assigned to a part that is either too high or too low for them. Vennard says: "I never feel any urgency about classifying a beginning student. country. and bass. It is best to begin in the middle part of the voice and work upward and downward until the voice classifies itself. the typical choral situation affords many opportunities for misclassification to occur. So many premature diagnoses have been proved wrong.

This view is also adopted by many teachers of singing. all three of these factors are in a state of flux in the transition from the lowest to the highest tones. however. If a singer holds any of these factors constant and interferes with their progressive state of change. and mass. and how many registers there are. In other words. Within speech pathology the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. the resonators affect the vocal folds. This difference of opinion has effected the different views on vocal registration. . Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds. and a certain type of sound. Inevitably. Teachers who like to use this theory of "blending registers" usually help students through the "passage" from one register to another by hiding their "lift" (where the voice changes). is due in part to what takes place in the modal register when a person sings from the lowest pitches of that register to the highest pitches. Vocal problems are often a result of a breakdown in one part of this coordinated process which causes voice teachers to frequently focus in intensively on one area of the process with their student until that issue is resolved.  A phonatory process  A certain vocal timbre  A region of the voice which is defined or delimited by vocal breaks. many voice instructors disagree with this distinction of boundaries blaming such breaks on vocal problems which have been created by a static laryngeal adjustment that does not permit the necessary changes to take place. his laryngeal function tends to become static and eventually breaks occur with obvious changes of tone quality.  A subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. tension. However. or respiration. organize registers differently. The distinct change or break between registers is called apassaggio or a ponticello. The term register can be used to refer to any of the following:  A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper. the vocal folds are lengthened. and so forth. Coordination Singing is an integrated and coordinated act and it is difficult to discuss any of the individual technical areas and processes without relating them to the others. The confusion which exists concerning what a register is. and the whistle register. As pitch rises. a register language is a language which combines tone and In linguistics. tension increases. Some voice teachers. and their thickness decreases. vowel phonation into a single phonological system. These breaks are often identified as register boundaries or as transition areas between registers. phonation only comes into perspective when it is connected with respiration. For example. Once the voice student has become aware of the physical processes that make up the act of singing and of how those processes function.  A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. will become more concerned with one area of the technique than another. There are over a dozen different constructs of vocal registers in use within the field. or lower registers.in laryngeal function. The various processes may progress at different rates. some areas of the art of singing are so much the result of coordinated functions that it is hard to discuss them under a traditional heading like phonation. resonation. the falsetto register. The term register can be somewhat confusing as it encompasses several aspects of the human voice. They occur because the vocal folds are capable of producing several different vibratory patterns. The frequency of vibration of the vocal folds is determined by their length. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register. However. a certain series of pitches. the student begins the task of trying to coordinate them. students and teachers. the vocal folds affect breath control. the modal register. Registers can even overlap while singing. Vocal instructors teach that with study a singer can move effortlessly from one register to the other with ease and consistent tone. the articulators affect resonance. articulation. middle.

"Lining up" the voice horizontally and vertically  4. Voice instructors teach that a singer can only achieve this goal when all of the physical processes involved in singing (such as laryngeal action. Developing flexibility and agility  4. and musical styles and practices as it relates to the vocal literature being studied. The Space Factor. a singer's mouth should be opened wider the higher they sing. The Depth Factor. particularly music theory. and correcting vocal faults. It refers to a dynamic relationship between the breathing-in muscles and the breathing-out muscles known as the breath support mechanism. you must use less. you must use more energy. you must use more depth. "These three factors can be expressed in three basic rules: (1) As you sing higher. 2. you must use less. Voice Teachers instruct their students to exercise their voices in an intelligent manner. Voice teachers often describe this as feeling like the "beginning of a yawn". The areas of vocal technique which seem to depend most strongly on the student's ability to coordinate various functions are. McKinney says.with a resulting imbalance or lack of coordination. It refers to the total response of the body to the making of sound. The Energy Factor. music history. Extending the vocal range An important goal of vocal development is to learn to sing to the natural limits of one's vocal range without any obvious or distracting changes of quality or technique. as you sing lower. It also refers to the amount of breath pressure delivered to the vocal folds and their resistance that pressure. including:  1.In this usage the word energy has several connotations. and it refers to the dynamic level of the sound. as you sing lower. Individuals can develop their voices further through the careful and systematic practice of both songs and vocal exercises. Singing does not require much muscle strength but it does require a high degree of muscle coordination. (2) As you sing higher. and articulatory movement) are effectively working together. often adopting Solfege which assigns certain syllables to the notes of the scale. Generally speaking. Exercising the singing voice There are several purposes for vocal exercises. you must use more space.In this usage the word depth has two connotations. Extending the vocal range  3. staccato. (3) As you sing higher. It refers to the actual physical sensations of depth in the body and vocal mechanism and it refers to mental concepts of depth as related to tone quality. breath support. rapid figurations.  1. Warming up the voice  2. as you sing lower. Developing consistent vocal production with a consistent tone quality  3. Singers should be thinking constantly about the kind of sound they are making and the kind of sensations they are feeling while they are singing. Extending the vocal range to its maximum potential  2. Acquiring vocal techniques such as legato. 3. If required they may also spend time helping their students become better sight readers. learning to comfortably sing wide intervals. The internal space or position of the soft palate and larynx can be widened by the relaxing of the throat.Space refers to the amount of space created by the moving of the mouth and the position of the palate and larynx. you must use less. Achieving a balanced vibrato Developing the singing voice Singing is not a natural process but is a skill that requires highly developed muscle reflexes." General music studies Some voice teachers will spend time working with their students on general music knowledge and skills. . resonance adjustment. control of dynamics. There are three factors which significantly affect the ability to sing higher or lower: 1. Most voice teachers believe that the first step in coordinating these processes is by establishing good vocal habits in the most comfortable tessitura of the voice first before slowly expanding the range beyond that.

Students of opera also spend a great deal of time with their voice teachers learning foreign language pronunciations. There are currently several different systems in use including: the German Fach system and the choral music system among many others. so that they are unimpaired by tension. whilst the counterplay between the diaphragm and abdominal muscles is trained to control airflow. and vocal registration. and hardness of the resonators all factor into the production of these overtones and ultimately determine the projective capacities of the voice. Many voice instructors will spend time on acting techniques and audience communication with students in these fields of interest. such as when a teacher is talking to the class. Voice Female voices classification is the process by which human voices are Soprano evaluated and are thereby designated into voice types. addressing problems like stage fright or nervous tics. well-balanced respiration is especially important to maintaining vocal projection. or simply to be heard clearly. True resonance will produce the greatest amount of projection available to a voice by utilizing all the key resonators found in the vocal cavity. vocal Contralto weight. The science behind voice Baritone classification developed within European classical music and is not Bass generally applicable to other forms of singing. the concentrated pressure through which one produces a focused sound. Voice classification is often used within opera to associate possible roles with potential voices. Other Countertenor considerations are physical characteristics. This includes teaching their students etiquette of behavior on stage such as bowing.Performance skills and practices Since singing is a performing art. It is a technique which can be employed to demand respect and attention. The goal is to isolate and relax the muscles controlling the vocal folds. i. Some students may also be preparing for careers in the fields ofopera or musical theater where acting skills are required. composers. The external intercostal muscles are used only to enlarge the chest cavity. and listeners to categorize vocal properties. Voice classification is a tool for singers. vocal tessitura. and the use of equipment such as microphones. Breath technique is essential for proper voice projection. and it is recommended to stand up straight with your feet shoulder width apart and your upstage foot (right foot if right-handed etc) slightly forward. as an actor in a theatre. vocal timbre.e. scientific Tenor testing. speech level. For other contemporary styles of singing see: Voice classification in non-classical music. In singing voice projection is often equated with resonance. a house assigning a singer . Whereas in normal talking one may use air from the top of the lungs. and vocal transition Male voices points such as breaks and lifts within the voice. These Mezzo-soprano qualities include but are not limited to: vocal range. shape. This article focuses on voice classification within classical music. The size. There have been times when voice classification systems have been used too rigidly. and to associate possible roles with potential voices. In good vocal technique. No system is universally applied or accepted. Voice type Voice type A voice type is a particular kind of human singing voice perceived as having certain identifying qualities or characteristics. the sound will begin to spin as it reaches the ideal singer's formant at about 2800 Hz. Stance is also important. Voice projection Voice projection is the strength of speaking or singing whereby the voice is used loudly and clearly. venues. voice teachers spend some of their time preparing their students for performance. This improves your balance and your breathing. As the sound being produced and these resonators find the same overtones. a properly projected voice uses air properly flowing from the expansion of the diaphragm.

and even voice part over their careers.to a specific type. Some singers such as Enrico Caruso. some mezzo-sopranos may extend down to the G below middle C (G3) and as high as "high C" (C6). treble. Most of these types.) Number of voice types There are a plethora of different voice types used by vocal pedagogists today in a variety of voice classification systems. Intermediate voice types Two types of soprano especially dear to the French are the Dugazon and the Falcon. Spinto. Mozart wrote many of his roles for specific singers who often had remarkable voices. sopranos are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. can be applied. Most soprano roles do not extend above "high C" although there are several standard soprano roles that call for D6 or D-flat6. Some roles as well are hard to classify. and some of Verdi¶s early works make extreme demands on his singers. Mezzo-soprano range: The mezzo-soprano voice lies between the soprano voice and contralto voice. and dexterity of the voice. Soprano tessitura: The tessitura of the soprano voice lies higher than all the other female voices. and bass. A singer will ultimately choose a repertoire that suits their instrument. Lyric soprano. The typical soprano voice lies between middle C (C4) and "high C"(C6). vocal color or timbre. Soprano Soprano range: The soprano is the highest female voice. The typical range of this voice is between A3 (the A below middle C) to A5 (the A two octaves above A3). A note on vocal range vs. Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano. a Falcon a darker-colored soprano drammatico. Female voices The range specifications given below are based on the American scientific pitch notation. Maria Callas. and some singers such as Leonie Rysanek have voices which lower with age. over-lapping both of them. tenor. and Dramatic soprano. and contralto. which are intermediate voice types between the soprano and the mezzo soprano: a Dugazon is a darker-colored soubrette.mezzo-soprano. Mezzo-soprano The mezzo-soprano is the middle-range voice type for females and is the most common female voice. tessitura: Choral singers are classified into voice parts based on range. however. some singers such as Shirley Verrett or Grace Bumbrychange type. At the highest extreme. or Plácido Domingo have voices which allow them to sing roles from a wide variety of types. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor. In the lower and upper extremes. causing them to cycle through types over their careers. When considering the pre-pubescent male voice an eighth term. Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. . solo singers are classified into voice types based in part on tessitura ± where the voice feels most comfortable for the majority of the time. These sub-categories include: Coloratura soprano. having very unusual vocal requirements. (For more information and roles and singers. and only casting him or her in roles they consider belonging to this category. the coloratura soprano has the highest tessitura of all the soprano subtypes. In particular. are sub-types that fall under seven different major voice categories that are for the most part acknowledged across all of the major voice classification systems. Joan Sutherland. the weight of voice. baritone. Soubrette. Ewa Podles. see the individual voice type pages. some coloratura soprano roles may reach from F6 to A6 (the F to A above "high C"). The low extreme for sopranos is roughly B3 or A3 (just below middle C). Rosa Ponselle. Soprano sub-types: As with all voice categories.

The range of the alto part in choral music is usually more similar to that of a mezzo-soprano than a contralto. in many compositions the alto line is split into two parts. A true operatic contralto is extremely rare. The typical contralto range lies between the F below middle C (F3) to the second F (F5) above middle C. and Heldentenor. In current operatic practice. and modern castrato. there is much evidence that "countertenor". The lower part. At the highest extreme. so much so that often roles intended for contraltos are performed by mezzo-sopranos as this voice type is difficult to find. The low extreme for tenors is roughly B-flat 2 (the second b-flat below middle C). also designated a very high tenor voice. or singers with a disorder such as Kallmann syndrome). some tenors can sing up to the second F above "Middle C" (F5).Tenor tessitura: The tessitura of the tenor voice lies above the baritone voice and below the countertenor voice. Contralto Contralto range: The contralto voice is the lowest female voice. the weight of the voice. female singers with very low vocal tessituras are often included amongmezzo-sopranos. some contralto voices can sing from the E below middle C (E3) to the second b-flat above (b-flat5). needed] : Countertenor ranges (approximate)[citation Countertenor: from about G3 to E5 or F5 Sopranist: extend the upper range to usually only C6. Alto Contralto and alto are not the same term. However. The Leggiero tenor has the highest tessitura of all the tenor sub-types. singers called countertenors generally sing in the falsetto register. all male voices used some falsetto-type voice production in their upper range. Contralto sub-types: Contraltos are often broken down into two categories: Lyric contralto and Dramatic contralto. and something similar to the "leggiero tenor" or tenor altino. Dramatic tenor. in England at least. Many countertenor singers perform roles originally written for castrati in baroque operas. "alto" is not a voice type but a designated vocal line in choral music based on vocal range. Contralto tessitura: The contralto voice has the lowest tessitura of the female voices. which is only one whole step short of the "Soprano C".Mezzo-soprano tessitura: Although this voice overlaps both the contralto and soprano voices. the tessitura of the mezzo-soprano is lower than that of the soprano and higher than that of the contralto. the equivalent of the French haute-contre. but some as high as E6 or F6 Haute-contre: from about D3 or E3 to about D5 Countertenor sub-types: There are several sub-types of countertenors including Sopranist or male soprano. and dexterity of the voice. Historically. . It should be remembered that. is usually more suitable to a contralto voice than a mezzo-soprano voice. Tenor sub-types: Tenors are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. until about 1830. Coloratura mezzo-soprano and Dramatic mezzosoprano. Except for a few very rare voices (such as the American male soprano Michael Maniaci. Tenor Tenor range: The tenor is the highest male voice within the modal register.. vocal color or timbre. Lyric tenor. Alto 2. The typical tenor voice lies between the C one octave below middle C (C3) to the C one octave above "Middle C" (C5). Male voices Countertenor The term countertenor refers to the highest male voice. Technically. Spinto tenor. Haute-contre. In the lower and upper extremes. These subcategories include: Leggiero tenor. Mezzo-soprano sub-types: Mezzo-sopranos are often broken down into three categories: Lyric mezzo-soprano. sometimes using their modal register for the lowest notes.

Basso Cantante. Dramatic Bass. and Bass-baritone. These sub-categories include: Basso Profondo. Some trebles.Baritone The Baritone is the most common type of male voice. the human voice is in an in-between phase where it is not quite a child's voice nor an adult one yet. From the onset of puberty to approximately age 22. The lumping of children's voices into one category is also practical as both boys and girls share a similar range and timbre. vocal color or timbre. kavalierbariton. Initially. Verdi baritone. This is not to suggest that the voice stops changing at that age. The height of the male larynx becomes much longer than in women. and dexterity of the voice. The reason for this is that both groups have a similar laryngeal size and height and a similarvocal cord structure. Treble range: Most trebles have an approximate range from the A below "middle C" (A3) to the F one and a half octaves above "middle C" (F5). These subcategories include: Lyric baritone. Children's voices The voice from childhood to adulthood The human voice is in a constant state of change and development just as the whole body is in a state of constant change. Both boys and girls prior to puberty have an equivalent vocal range and timbre. and as stated above there are continual changes throughout adulthood as well. the weight of the voice. both men and women's voices alter as the vocal ligaments become more defined and the laryngeal cartilages harden. Bass sub-types: Basses are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. Baritone sub-types: Baritones are often divided into different sub-categories based on range. A human voice will alter as a person gets older moving from immaturity to maturity to a peak period of prime singing and then ultimately into a declining period. which is exactly two octaves. which many trained trebles sing. Dramatic baritone. the term was associated with boy sopranos but as the inclusion of girls into children's choirs became acceptable in the twentieth century the term has expanded to refer to all pre-pubescent voices. and Bariton/Baryton-Martin. The vocal range and timbre of children's voices does not have the variety that adults' voices have. The size and development of adult lungs also changes what the voice is physically capable of doing. the tessitura of the baritone is lower than that of the tenor and higher than that of the bass. Bass tessitura: The bass voice has the lowest tessitura of all the voices. can extend their voices higher in the modal register to "high C" (C6). Different singers will reach adult development earlier or later than others. the weight of the voice. Many trebles are also able to reach higher notes by use of the whistle register but this practice is rarely called for in performance. Bass Bass range: The bass is the lowest male voice. The typical baritone range is from the second F below middle C (F2) to the F above middle C (F4). In the lower and upper extremes of the bass voice. The typical bass range lies between the second E below "middle C" (E2) to the E above middle C (E4). With the onset of puberty. Basso Buffo / Bel Canto Bass. however. Baritone tessitura: Although this voice overlaps both the tenor and bass voices. In the lower and upper extremes. Baritone range: The vocal range of the baritone lies between the bass and tenor ranges. and dexterity of the voice. some basses can sing from the C two octaves below middle C (C2) to the G above middle C (G4). The laryngealstructure of both voices change but more so in men. overlapping both of them. . but the Anglican church repertory. frequently demands G5 and even A5. This ability may be comparatively rare. a baritone's range can be extended at either end. vocal color or timbre. baryton-noble. Treble The term treble can refer to either a young female or young male singer with an unchanged voice in the soprano range. Bel Canto (coloratura) baritone.

Singing outside the natural vocal range imposes a serious strain upon the voice. and it may be adjusted as the voice continues to develop." Most vocal pedagogists believe that it is essential to establish good vocal habits within a limited and comfortable range before attempting to classify the voice. Only then can a tentative classification be arrived at. Singing at too low a pitch level is not as likely to be damaging unless a singer tries to force the voice down. "The need for choosing the correct natural range of the voice is of great importance in singing since the outer ends of the singing range need very careful production and should not be overworked. phonation. speech level. timbre. the human voice is quite resilient. Unfortunately. Some of these dangers are not immediate ones. Many vocal pedagogists suggest that teachers begin by assuming that a voice is of a medium classification until it proves otherwise. However. and the possibility of vocal abuse is greatly increased. Noted vocal pedagogist Margaret Greene says. It is best to begin in the middle part of the voice and work upward and downward until the voice classifies itself. Premature concern with classification can result in misclassification. Choral music most commonly divides vocal parts into high and low voices within each sex (SATB). Medical evidence indicates that singing at too high of a pitch level may lead to the development of vocal nodules. Either option can present problems for the singer. even in trained voices. but for most singers there are fewer dangers in singing too low than in singing too high. Since most people have medium voices. As a result. and articulation have become established in this comfortable area. the true quality of the voice will emerge and the upper and lower limits of the range can be explored safely. and vocal transition points. this lack of apparent immediate harm can cause singers to develop bad habits that will over time cause irreparable damage to the voice. Choral music classification Unlike other classification systems. Misclassification can damage the vocal cords. and the damage may not make its appearance for months or even years. tessitura. A number of medical authorities have indicated that singing at too high a pitch level may contribute to certain vocal disorders. . The reason for this is that the majority of individuals possess medium voices and therefore this approach is less likely to misclassify or damage the voice. the typical choral situation affords many opportunities for misclassification to occur. resonation. Singing above an individual's best tessitura keeps the vocal cords under a great deal of unnecessary tension for long periods of time." Singing at either extreme of the range may be damaging. teachers may also consider physical characteristics. Increasing tension on the vocal cords is one of the means of raising pitch. choral music divides voices solely on the basis of vocal range. shorten a singing career and lead to the loss of both vocal beauty and free vocal production. William Vennardsays: "I never feel any urgency about classifying a beginning student. but the possibility of damage seems to be much more prevalent in too high a classification. Dangers of quick identification Many vocal pedagogists warn of the dangers of quick identification. and it can be harmful to the student and embarrassing to the teacher to keep striving for an ill-chosen goal. especially in early adulthood.Classifying singers Voice classification is important for vocal pedagogists and singers as a guiding tool for the development of the voice. with all its attendant dangers. Clinical evidence indicates that singing at a pitch level that is either too high or too low creates vocal pathology. So many premature diagnoses have been proved wrong. When techniques of posture. they must be assigned to a part that is either too high or too low for them. scientific testing and other factors. In general vocal pedagogists consider four main qualities of a human voice when attempting to classify it: vocal range. breathing. the mezzo-soprano must sing soprano or alto and the baritone must sing tenor or bass.

this document describes: y scenarios of people with disabilities using accessibility features of Web sites and Web-based applications.0. Introduction The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) develops guidelines for accessibility of Web sites. and authoring tools. Concatenative synthesis is based on the concatenation (or stringing together) of segments of recorded speech. 6. It is not a comprehensive or in-depth discussion of disabilities. Specifically. . 8.0.Synthesizer technologies: Encyclopedia II . 7. Generally. browsers. 2. and provides supporting information for the guidelines and technical work of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).Speech synthesis . It provides background to help understand how people with disabilities benefit from provisions described in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1. However. 5. It illustrates some of their requirements when using Web sites and Web-based applications. natural variation in speech and automated techniques for segmenting the waveforms sometimes result in audible glitches in the output. access to the Web is vital for people with disabilities. and User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1. detracting from the naturalness Use Of The Web By People With Disabilities Abstract This document provides an introduction to use of the Web by people with disabilities. 4.Concatenative synthesis. Introduction Scenarios of People with Disabilities Using the Web Different Disabilities That Can Affect Web Accessibility Assistive Technologies and Adaptive Strategies Further Reading Scenario References General References Acknowledgements 1. nor of the assistive technologies used by people with disabilities. Speech synthesis . in order to make it easier for people with disabilities to use the Web.0.Speech synthesis . Given the Web's increasingly important role in society.Synthesizer technologies There are two main technologies used for the generating synthetic speech waveforms: concatenative synthesis and formant synthesis. 3. concatenative synthesis gives the most natural sounding synthesized speech. This document provides a general introduction to how people with different kinds of disabilities use the Web. Table of Contents 1. Many of the accessibility solutions described in WAI materials also benefit Web users who do not have disabilities. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1.

access-key) online student who is deaf (captioned audio portions of multimedia files) accountant with blindness (appropriate markup of tables. freezing animated graphics. media players. and braille display) classroom student with dyslexia (use of supplemental graphics. but rather individuals engaging in activities that are possible using today's Web technologies and assistive technologies. In some cases. appropriate table markup) Online shopper with color blindness Mr. and to detailed curriculum examples or guideline checkpoints in the Scenarios References in Section 6. consistent navigation options. or assistive technologies with specific features supporting accessibility may not yet be available in an individual's primary language. accessible multimedia. consistent design. This document contains many internal hypertext links between the sections on scenarios. disability requirements. appliances. abbreviations. as do educational and employment opportunities. The scenario references and general references sections also include links to external documents. As he frequently does. alternative text. seeking entertainment (user control of style sheets. Disability terminology varies from one country to another. Please note that the scenarios do not represent actual individuals. synchronization of visual. 2. avoiding pop-up windows) supermarket assistant with cognitive disability (clear and simple language. hearing. speech. assistive technologies. multiple search options) retiree with aging-related conditions. browsers. The reader should not assume that everyone with a similar disability to those portrayed will use the same assistive technologies or have the same level of expertise in using those technologies. multiple search options) teenager with deaf-blindness. and music. and cognitive or neurological disabilities. and scenario references. Scenarios of People with Disabilities Using the Web The following scenarios show people with different kinds of disabilities using assistive technologies and adaptive strategies to access the Web. Following is a list of scenarios and accessibility solutions: y y y y y y y y online shopper with color blindness (user control of style sheets) reporter with repetitive stress injury (keyboard equivalents for mouse-driven commands. He has one of the most common visual disabilities for . to the assistive technology or adaptive strategy described in Section 4. he is spending an evening shopping online. managing personal finances (magnification. some types of assistive technologies and adaptive strategies used by some people with disabilities when accessing the Web. In some cases the scenarios show how the Web can make some tasks easier for people with disabilities.y y general requirements for Web access by people with physical. Each scenario contains links to additional information on the specific disability or disabilities described in more detail in Section 3. and acronyms. Lee wants to buy some new clothes. labelled frames. device-independent access. stopping scrolling text. visual.

but again he could not tell which fields had red text. Online student who is deaf . and this would re-damage his hands at this time. and redundant information for color. Lee discovered that on most newer sites the colors were controlled by style sheets and that he could turn these style sheets off with his browser or override them with his own style sheets. and not have to guess at which items were discounted. he discovered that several of his colleagues have switched to the new product as well. Lee bookmarked a series of online shopping sites where he could get reliable information on product colors. Within a month.men: color blindness. because the application that his office chose for a standard is missing many of the keyboard equivalents that he needs in place of mouse-driven commands. In some cases the site instructions explained that discounted prices were indicated by red text. He has difficulty reading the text on many Web sites. There are some things he has not worked out yet. After additional experimentation. It enables him to shortcut a long list of links that he would ordinarily have to tab through by voice. When he first starting using the Web. which in his case means an inability to distinguish between green and red. Jones likes the access key feature that is implemented on some Web pages. He has not been able to use the same Web authoring software as his colleagues. Jones is a reporter who must submit his articles in HTML for publishing in an on-line journal. such as a sound card conflict that arises whenever he tries to use speech recognition on Web sites that have streaming audio. In other cases. He researched some of the newer versions of authoring tools and selected one with full keyboard support. Lee found that he prefered sites that used sufficient color contrast. When browsing other Web sites to research some of his articles. Mr. the required fields on forms were indicated by red text. and it has become painful for him to type. and instead go straight to the link he wants. Eventually Mr. he would have to use a mouse instead of speech recognition or typing. it seemed to him the text and images on a lot of sites used poor color contrast. Mr. and by placing an asterix (*) in front of the required fields in addition to indicated them by color. Mr. Over his twenty-year career. But on sites that did not use style sheets he couldn't override the colors. but he doesn't use a mouse. To activate commands that do not have keyboard equivalents. He realized that many sites were using colors that were indistinguishable to him because of his red/green color blindness. He uses a combination of speech recognition and an alternative keyboard to prepare his articles. but all of the text looked brown to him. Reporter with repetitive stress injury Mr. he has developed repetitive stress injury (RSI) in his hands and arms. after they found that the full keyboard support was easier on their own hands. It took him several months to become sufficiently accustomed to using speech recognition to be comfortable working for many hours at a time. The sites did this by including names of the colors of clothing as well as showing a sample of the color. since they appeared to use similar shades of brown.

using an extensive collection of audio lectures. she finds the expansions of abbreviations and acronyms the first time they appear on a page allows her to better catch the meaning of the short versions of these terms.Ms. For an introductory multimedia piece. which can sometimes be difficult for non-visual users to read. She uses refreshable braille output to check the exact wording of text. She had little trouble with the curriculum until the university upgraded their on-line courseware to a multimedia approach. She uses the speech output. The University had the lectures transcribed and made this information available through their Web site along with audio versions of the lectures. and then to point to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1. since the screen shows her colleagues the same part of the document that she is reading with speech or braille output. She is blind. since braille enables her to read the language on a page more precisely. including those with multimedia. Laitinen is an accountant at an insurance company that uses Web-based formats over a corporate intranet. This enables her to better help her colleagues. accessible. Since the insurance codes she must frequently reference include a number of abbreviations and acronyms. combined with tabbing through the navigation links on a page. since the tables on this company's documents are marked up clearly with column and row headers which her screen reader can access. She is deaf. Martinez is taking several distance learning courses in physics. Her screen reader reads her the alternative text for any images on the site. and the opportunity to provide Web-based text comments on classmates' work. She uses a screen reader to interpret what is displayed on the screen and generate a combination of speech output and refreshable braille output. Much of the information on the Web documents used at her company is in tables. She was able to point out that the University was clearly covered by a policy requiring accessibility of online instructional material. For classroom-based lectures the university provided interpreters. however for Web-based instruction they initially did not realize that accessibility was an issue.0 as a resource providing guidance on how to make Web sites. then said they had no idea how to provide the material in accessible format. once these resources were captioned with text. The professor for the course also set up a chat area on the Web site where students could exchange ideas about their coursework. The school's information managers quickly found that it was much easier to comprehensively index the audio resources on the accessible area of the Web site. Although she was the only deaf student in the class and only one other student knew any sign language. she easily orients herself to the information in the tables. Ms. Laitenen must frequently help newer employees with their questions. She has recently upgraded to a browser that allows better synchronization of the screen display with audio and braille rendering of that information. ensured that she could keep up with class progress. and has become accustomed to listening to speech output at a speed that her co-workers cannot understand at all. she quickly found that the Web-based chat format. However. Classroom student with dyslexia . the university used a SMIL-based multimedia format enabling synchronized captioning of audio and description of video. for rapid scanning of a document. Accountant with blindness Ms. As one of the more senior members of the accounting staff.

and he finds it difficult to keep track of how much he is spending. and doing mathematical calculations. and that do not auto-refresh. He has difficulty re-learning where his favorite products are each time the supermarket changes the layout of its products. She has attention deficit disorder with dyslexia. and so he finds it easier to use pages with style sheets. When she goes onto the Web. Her classes recent area of focus is Hans Christian Andersen's writings. He has some central-field vision loss. Yunus uses the Web to manage some of his household services and finances. Sometimes the search options are confusing for her. One of the most important things for her has been the level of accessibility of the Webbased online library catalogues and the general search functions on the Web. grocery. and so it helps to be able to freeze the animated graphics. where the graphics are animated. He uses a screen magnifier to help with his vision and his hand tremor. and she has to do some research about the author. on some sites where new browser windows would pop open without notifying him. instead of struggling over every word. Mr. Sands has put groceries in bags for customers for the past year at a supermarket. When he first started using some of the financial pages. Olsen attends middle school. However with recent accommodations to the curriculum she has become enthusiastic about this class. it's easier for him to select them. Supermarket assistant with cognitive disability Mr. and has difficulty with abstract concepts. He usually buys his own groceries at this supermarket. Her teacher has taught a number of different search strategies. when the icons and links on Web pages are bigger. She was initially worried about reading load. Therefore he tends to use Web sites that do not have a lot of movement in the text. since she reads slowly. But recently she tried text to speech software. In addition. and she finds that some sites provide options for a variety of searching strategies and she can more easily select searching options that work well for her. and particularly likes her literature class. Her school recently started to use more online curricula to supplement class textbooks. He also tended to "get stuck" on some pages. He has Down syndrome. reading.Ms. and clothing sites. it is very hard for her to focus. but sometimes finds that there are so many product choices that he becomes confused. In some cases. hand tremor. sometimes the pages would update before he had finished reading them. and those help her focus in quickly on sections she wants to read. and found that she was able to read along visually with the text much more easily when she could hear certain sections of it read to her with the speech synthesis. and they moved too fast for him to read. Retiree with several aging-related conditions. Yunus has gradually found some sites that work well for him. though. Some of the pages have a lot of graphics. . and the combination leads to substantial difficulty reading. she finds that some sites are much easier for her to use than others. he found the scrolling stocktickers distracting. and a little short-term memory loss. and developed a customized profile at some banking. managing personal finances Mr. finding that he could not back up.

which she reads slowly. . and the schedules. and in recognizing his favorite brands.screen magnification. The Web site gives him an updated total each time he adds an item. The Web site for the local train schedule. Mr. Sands now shops on the online grocery site a few times a month. but he mostly uses the option that lets him select from a list of products that he has ordered in the past. Once he decides what he wants to buy.including text subtitles for the audio. Kaseem forwards the Web site address to friends and asks if they are interested in going with her to some of the restaurants featured on the tour.which allows her to access it using a combination of screen magnification and braille. Teenager with deaf-blindness. which makes all Web pages display according to her preferences. The interface used for the virtual tour is accessible no matter what kind of assistive technology she is using -. they made it possible for Mr.it had a lot of pictures. Ms. The marketing department of the online grocery wanted their Web site to have a high degree of usability in order to be competitive with other online stores. She uses a screen magnifier to enlarge the text on Web sites to a font size that she can read. Sands to use the site. He can search by brand name or by pictures. seeking entertainment Ms. however. This is especially helpful when she reads on-line sample menus of appealing restaurants. They also used the clearest and simplest language appropriate for the site's content so that their customers could quickly understand the material. Kaseem uses the Web to find new restaurants to go to with friends and classmates. At home. and just buys a few fresh items each day at the supermarket where he works. When screen magnification is not sufficient. Kaseem browses local Web sites for new and different restaurants.Recently. so she often gets lost on the site when trying to find the information she needs. helping him make sure that he does not overspend his budget. Her preferences include having background patterns turned off so that there is enough contrast for her when she uses screen magnification. They usedconsistent design and consistent navigation options so that their customers could learn and remember their way around the Web site. She has low vision and is deaf. which were helpful in navigating around the site. he selects the item and puts it into his virtual shopping basket. Kaseem lives. she also uses a screen reader to drive a refreshable braille display. A multimedia virtual tour of local entertainment options was recently added to the Web site of the city in which Ms. She also checks the public transportation sites to find local train or bus stops near the restaurants. She uses a personal style sheet with her browser. His friend showed him different search options that were available on the site. her screen reader with refreshable braille. he visited an online grocery service from his computer at home. The Web site for the bus schedule has frames without meaningful titles. He explored the site the first few times with a friend. or herportable braille device. is easy to use because the frames on that Web site have meaningful titles. Ms. While these features made the site more usable for all of the online-grocery's customers. making it easier for him to find items. He found that he could use the Web site without much difficulty -. and descriptions of the video -. The tour is captioned and described -. and tables without clear column or row headers.

Abilities can vary from person to person. Occasionally she also uses her portable braille device. There are as yet no universally accepted categorizations of disability. physical or cognitive functioning which can affect access to the Web. Following is a list of some disabilities and their relation to accessibility issues on the Web. except where otherwise noted. despite efforts towards that goal. 3. but also increase the efficiency of indexing and searching for audio content on Web sites. to get additional information and directions at a publicly-available information kiosk in a shopping mall downtown. People can have combinations of different disabilities. memory. and can be temporary or chronic. Some people with conditions described below would not consider themselves to have disabilities. For instance. and combinations of varying levels of severity. and over time. . but also Web users whose eyes are busy with other tasks.which are laid out as long tables with clear row and column headersthat she uses to orient herself even when she has magnified the screen display. Sometimes different disabilities require similar accommodations. This document does not attempt to comprehensively address issues of terminology. have limitations of sensory. someone who is blind and someone who cannot use his or her hands both require full keyboard equivalents for mouse commands in browsers and authoring tools. and a few times she has downloaded sample menus into her braille device so that she has them in an accessible format once she is in the restaurant. or motor function. Different Disabilities that Can Affect Web Accessibility This section describes general kinds of disabilities that can affect access to the Web. They may. These may include injury-related and aging-related conditions. For example. and may include changes in vision. since they both have difficulty using a mouse but can use assistive technologies to activate commands supported by a standard keyboard interface. There is a trend in many disability communities to use functional terminology instead of medical classifications. The term "disability" is used very generally in this document. Each description of a general type of disability includes several brief examples of the kinds of barriers someone with that disability might encounter on the Web. These lists of barriers are illustrative and not intended to be comprehensive. while captions for audio not only benefit deaf users. support for speech output not only benefits blind users. Commonly used disability terminology varies from country to country and between different disability communities in the same country. however. for different people with the same type of disability. Aging-related conditions can be accommodated on the Web by the same accessibility solutions used to accommodate people with disabilities. hearing. Barrier examples listed here are representative of accessibility issues that are relatively easy to address with existing accessibility solutions. with an infrared connection. Many accessibility solutions described in this document contribute to "universal design" (also called "design for all") by benefiting non-disabled users as well as people with disabilities. The number and severity of limitations tend to increase as people age.

They may use rapid navigation strategies such as tabbing through the headings or links on Web pages rather than reading every word on the page in sequence.software that reads text on the screen (monitor) and outputs this information to a speech synthesizer and/or refreshable braille display. instead of a graphical user interface browser plus screen reader.y y y y y visual disabilities o blindness o low vision o color blindness hearing impairments o deafness o hard of hearing physical disabilities o motor disabilities speech disabilities o speech disabilities cognitive and neurological disabilities o dyslexia and dyscalculia o attention deficit disorder o intellectual o memory impairments o mental health disabilities o seizure disorders multiple disabilities aging-related conditions disabilities y y Visual disabilities Blindness (scenario -. uncorrectable loss of vision in both eyes. graphs or charts) that are not adequately described video that is not described in text or audio tables that do not make sense when read serially (in a cell-by-cell or "linearized" mode) frames that do not have "NOFRAME" alternatives. or voice browsers. or that do not have meaningful names forms that cannot be tabbed through in a logical sequence or that are poorly labelled browsers and authoring tools that lack keyboard support for all commands browsers and authoring tools that do not use standard applications programmer interfaces for the operating system they are based in non-standard document formats that may be difficult for their screen reader to interpret . many individuals who are blind rely on screen readers -.. Some people who are blind use text-based browsers such as Lynx.g. To access the Web. Examples of barriers that people with blindness may encounter on the Web can include: y y y y y y y y y images that do not have alternative text complex images (e."accountant") Blindness involves a substantial.

because of inconsistent layout. concentrate harder to read what is on a page. such as a 24-point bright yellow font on a black background. and clouded vision. that have poor contrast. To use the Web. many people who are deaf rely on captions for audio content. or choose certain typefaces that are especially legible for their particular vision requirements. Common forms of color blindness include difficulty distinguishing between red and green. and whose contrast cannot be easily changed through user override of author style sheets text presented as images."online student") Deafness involves a substantial uncorrectable impairment of hearing in both ears. and they may or may not read a written language fluently. some people with color blindness use their own style sheets to override the font and background color choices of the author. depending on the type and extent of visual limitation Color blindness (scenario -."teenager" and "retiree") There are many types of low vision (also known as "partially sighted" in parts of Europe)."shopper") Color blindness is a lack of sensitivity to certain colors. To use the Web. central field loss (seeing only the edges of the visual field). They may need to turn on the captions on an audio file as they browse a page. are difficult to navigate when enlarged. . which prevents wrapping to the next line when enlarged also many of the barriers listed for blindness. or speak clearly. Barriers that people with color blindness may encounter on the Web can include: y y y color that is used as a unique marker to emphasize text on a Web site text that inadequately contrasts with background color or patterns browsers that do not support user override of authors' style sheets Hearing Impairments Deafness (scenario -. for instance poor acuity (vision that is not sharp). Sometimes color blindness results in the inability to perceive any color. due to loss of surrounding context Web pages. Others use screen magnifiers or screen enhancement software. and increase the size of system fonts and images.Low vision (scenarios -. To use the Web. Some deaf individuals' first language is a sign language. above. tunnel vision (seeing only the middle of the visual field). Barriers that people with low vision may encounter on the Web can include: y y y y y Web pages with absolute font sizes that do not change (enlarge or reduce) easily Web pages that. Some individuals use specific combinations of text and background colors. or between yellow and blue. or rely on supplemental images to highlight context. or images on Web pages. some people with low vision use extra-large monitors.

Barriers that people with motor disabilities affecting the hands or arms may encounter include: y y y time-limited response options on Web pages browsers and authoring tools that do not support keyboard alternatives for mouse commands forms that cannot be tabbed through in a logical order Speech disabilities . including webcasts Physical disabilities Motor disabilities (scenario -. They may need more time when filling out interactive forms on Web sites if they have to concentrate or maneuver carefully to select each keystroke. These conditions can affect the hands and arms as well as other parts of the body. or other assistive technologies to access and interact with the information on Web sites. lack of coordination. voicerecognition software.Barriers that people who are deaf may encounter on the Web can include: y y lack of captions or transcripts of audio on the Web. or missing limbs. people who are hard of hearing may rely on captions for audio content and/or amplification of audio. a keyboard with a layout of keys that matches their range of hand motion. To use the Web. head-pointer or mouth-stick. or adjust the volume of an audio file. a pointing device such as a head-mouse. limitations of muscular control (such as involuntary movements. including webcasts lack of content-related images in pages full of text. They may need to toggle the captions on an audio file on or off. joint problems."reporter") Motor disabilities can include weakness. an eye-gaze system. which can slow comprehension for people whose first language may be a sign language instead of a written/spoken language lack of clear and simple language requirements for voice input on Web sites y y Hard of hearing A person with a mild to moderate hearing impairment may be considered hard of hearing. or paralysis). They may activate commands by typing single keystrokes in sequence with a head pointer rather than typing simultaneous keystrokes ("chording") to activate commands. limitations of sensation. To use the Web. Barriers encountered on the Web can include: y lack of captions or transcripts for audio on the Web. people with motor disabilities affecting the hands or arms may use a specialized mouse. Some physical disabilities can include pain that impedes movement.

someone with a speech disability needs to be able to use an alternate input mode such as text entered via a keyboard. an individual with an attention deficit disorder may need to turn off animations on a site in order to be able to focus on the site's content. They may also have difficulty with spatial orientation. Canada. including dyslexia (sometimes called "learning disabilities" in Australia.S. people with visual and auditory perceptual disabilities may rely on getting information through several modalities at the same time. and some other countries) and dyscalculia may have difficulty processing language or numbers."classroom student") Individuals with visual and auditory perceptual disabilities. They may have difficulty processing spoken language when heard ("auditory perceptual disabilities"). while someone with an auditory processing disability may use captions to help understand an audio track. Barriers that people with speech disabilities encounter on the Web can include: y Web sites that require voice-based interaction and have no alternative input mode Cognitive and neurological disabilities Visual and Auditory Perception (scenario -. Barriers that people with attention deficit disorder may encounter on the Web can include: y y distracting visual or audio elements that cannot easily be turned off lack of clear and consistent organization of Web sites . either in terms of loudness or clarity."classroom student") Individuals with attention deficit disorder may have difficulty focusing on information.Speech disabilities Speech disabilities can include difficulty producing speech that is recognizable by some voice recognition software. To use parts of the Web that rely on voice recognition. Barriers that people with visual and auditory perceptual disabilities may encounter on the Web can include: y lack of alternative modalities for information on Web sites. for instance lack of alternative text that can be converted to audio to supplement visuals.. the U. or the lack of captions for audio Attention deficit disorder (scenario -. To use the Web. For instance. To use the Web. someone who has difficulty reading may use a screen reader plus synthesized speech to facilitate comprehension.

people with intellectual disabilities may take more time on a Web site. may rely more on graphics to enhance understanding of a site. or certain frequencies of audio. people with mental health disabilities may need to turn off distracting visual or audio elements."supermarket assistant") Individuals with impairments of intelligence (sometimes called "learning disabilities" in Europe. or to use screen magnifiers. are triggered by visual flickering or audio signals at a certain frequency. people with seizure disorders may need to turn off animations. To use the Web. or difficulty with blurred vision or hand tremors due to side effects from medications. or may have some loss of ability to recall language.Intellectual disabilities (scenario -. To use the Web. and may benefit from the level of language on a site not being unnecessarily complex for the site's intended purpose. Barriers can include: y lack of clear or consistent organization of Web sites Mental health disabilities Individuals with mental health disabilities may have difficulty focusing on information on a Web site. To use the Web. . people with memory impairments may rely on a consistent navigational structure throughout the site. or "developmental disabilities" or previously "mental retardation" in the United States) may learn more slowly. including people with some types of epilepsy (including photo-sensitive epilepsy). Barriers can include: y y y use of unnecessarily complex language on Web sites lack of graphics on Web sites lack of clear or consistent organization of Web sites Memory impairments (scenario -. Avoidance of these visual or audio frequencies in Web sites helps prevent triggering of seizures."retiree") Individuals with memory impairments may have problems with short-term memory. To use the Web. Down Syndrome is one among many different causes of intellectual disabilities. Barriers can include: y y distracting visual or audio elements that cannot easily be turned off Web pages with absolute font sizes that do not enlarge easily Seizure disorders Some individuals with seizure disorders. or have difficulty understanding complex concepts. missing long-term memory. blinking text.

and someone who is deaf can benefit from seeing the captions accompanying audio."teenager") Combinations of disabilities may reduce a user's flexibility in using accessibility information. text browsers. someone with low vision may need screen magnification."retiree") Changes in people's functional ability due to aging can include changes in abilities or a combination of abilities including vision. Some accessibility solutions are built into the operating system. assistive technologies are sometimes referred to as adaptive software or hardware. these changes can become more complex to accommodate. Someone who cannot move his or her hands. Together. which adds to the difficulty which a user with short-term memory loss might experience on a Web site. 4. someone who is deaf and has low vision might benefit from the captions on audio files. or plug-ins. Barriers can include any of the issues already mentioned above. voice browsers. and also cannot see the screen well. Any one of these limitations can affect an individual's ability to access Web content. might use a combination of speech input and speech output. hearing. someone who is both deaf and blind needs access to a text transcript of the description of the audio and video. dexterity and memory. . multimedia players. however when using screen magnification the user loses surrounding contextual information. When used with computers. Aging-Related Conditions (scenario -. Adaptive strategies are techniques that people with disabilities use to assist in using computers or other devices. For example. but only if the captions could be enlarged and the color contrast adjusted. Similarly. and might therefore need to rely on precise indicators of location and navigation options in a document. Some assistive technologies are used together with graphical desktop browsers. while someone who is blind can benefit from hearing an audio description of a Web-based video. or configure the operating system so that multiple-keystroke commands can be entered with a sequence of single keystrokes. For example someone who cannot see a Web page may tab through the links on a page as one strategy for helpinjg skim the content. For instance. for instance the ability to change the system font size.Barriers can include: y use of visual or audio frequencies that can trigger seizures Multiple Disabilities (scenario -. which they could access on a refreshable braille display. Assistive Technologies and Adaptive Strategies Assistive technologies are products used by people with disabilities to help accomplish tasks that they cannot accomplish otherwise or could not do easily otherwise.

A user selects a desired item by hitting a switch when the desired item is highlighted or announced. keyguards that only allow pressing one key at a time. y y y y y y y y y y y alternative keyboards or switches braille and refreshable braille scanning software screen magnifiers screen readers speech recognition speech synthesis tabbing through structural elements text browsers visual notification voice browsers Alternative keyboards or switches (scenario -. At the same time screen magnifiers make presentations larger. Screen magnifiers (scenarios -. menu items."accountant" and "teenager") Braille is a system using six to eight raised dots in various patterns to represent letters and numbers that can be read by the fingertips.Following is a list of the assistive technologies and adaptive strategies described below. but rather explanations of examples highlighted in the scenarios above. Web-based applications that can be operated entirely from the keyboard. support a wide range of alternative modes of input. which can also be used as interfaces to devices such as information kiosks. with no mouse required."teenager" and "retiree") Screen magnification is software used primarily by individuals with low vision that magnifies a portion of the screen for easier viewing.. and sip-and-puff switches. that provide an alternate way of creating keystrokes that appear to come from the standard keyboard." "ble" in Grade II American English braille) in order to make braille more compact. Refreshable braille displays can be incorporated into portable braille devices with the capabilities of small computers.g. This is by no means a comprehensive list of all such technologies or strategies.. phrases) one at a time. links. Refreshable or dynamic braille involves the use of a mechanical display where dots (pins) can be raised and lowered dynamically to allow any braille characters to be displayed. . they also reduce the area of the document that may be viewed. Some "grades" of braille include additional codes beyond standard alpha-numeric characters to represent common letter groupings (e. Braille and refreshable braille (scenarios -."reporter") Alternate keyboards or switches are hardware or software devices used by people with physical disabilities.g. Examples include keyboard with extra-small or extralarge key spacing. Braille systems vary greatly around the world. An 8-dot version of braille has been developed to allow all ASCII characters to be represented. Scanning software Scanning software is adaptive software used by individuals with some physical or cognitive disabilities that highlights or announces selection choices (e. "th. eyegaze keyboards. on-screen keyboards.

Screen readers (scenarios -. list items. the parsed document code) as their input. People who are used to using speech output sometimes listen to it at very rapid speeds. Speech synthesis (speech output) (scenario -. Tabbing through structural elements (scenario -.. For instance. Applications that have full keyboard support can be used with speech recognition. Older screen readers make use of the rendered version of a document. People who are using screen readers -."accountant") Speech synthesis or speech output can be generated by screen readers or voice browsers. or other structural items on a Web page is to use the tab key to go through the items in sequence. They are also used by many people who have low bandwidth connections and do not want to wait for images to download. They can be used with screen readers for people who are blind.e.may tab through items on a page. as well as people using voice recognition. Text browsers Text browsers such as Lynx are an alternative to graphical user interface browsers. Visual notification Visual notification is an alternative feature of some operating systems that allows deaf or hard of hearing users to receive a visual alert of a warning or error message that might otherwise be issued by sound . for people who cannot use a mouse..whether because they are blind or dyslexic -."accountant") Some accessibility solutions are adaptive strategies rather than specific assistive technologies such as software or hardware. one strategy for rapidly scanning through links."accountant" and "teenager") Software used by individuals who are blind or who have dyslexia that interprets what is displayed on a screen and directs it either to speech synthesis for audio output. Speech recognition Speech (or voice) recognition is used by people with some physical disabilities or temporary injuries to hands and forearms as an input method in some voice browsers. or to refreshable braille for tactile output.removing surrounding context . headers.g. so that document order or structure may be lost (e. and involves production of digitized speech from text. Some screen magnifiers offer two views of the screen: one magnified and one default size for navigation. Some screen readers use the document tree (i. when tables are used for layout) and their output may be confusing.