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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

generator for harmonic transient analysis

⁎

Uriel Vargasa, , George Cristian Lazaroiub, Abner Ramireza

a

Electrical Engineering Department, CINVESTAV Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico

b

University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, University MARITIMA of Constanta, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania

A R T I C LE I N FO A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Harmonic transient analysis of wind turbine generators (WTGs) requires reliable models to reproduce harmonic

Harmonics dynamics accurately and to ensure that such models perform closely to actual components.

Reduced-order model A recent harmonic modeling technique, named ﬂexible extended harmonic domain (FEHD), is adopted in this

Synchronous generator paper as part of the proposed approach. FEHD provides reduced-order extended harmonic domain (EHD) models

Transmission and distribution

that include an arbitrary number of harmonics (not necessarily sequentially-numbered) in each state/part of the

Wind turbine

system; thus, leading to computational burden improvement while keeping accuracy and high-frequency ripple

information.

The adopted FEHD together with time-domain (TD) are interfaced in this paper to produce a hybrid TD/

FEHD, which is used to model a synchronous-based WTG. In the proposed WTG model, the whole system is

divided into TD-based and FEHD-based subsystems. These two subsystems can use distinct integration time-

steps; thus, leading to improvement in CPU-time compared to pure EHD models, without losing accuracy. The

criterion to select both subsystems consists on simulation requirements, i.e., using TD for the zone where

averaged dynamics are suﬃcient whilst FEHD is used where high-order harmonic dynamics are important for

harmonic transient analysis.

The obtained results are veriﬁed with experimental data and validated with PSCAD/EMTDC, revealing a very

good agreement.

of type-3 wind power plants model, aimed at reproducing dynamic

With the increased installation of wind turbine generators (WTGs) behavior when an electromagnetic transient occurs in the host power

as alternative energy sources, harmonic dynamic performance of power system, is presented in Ref. [7]. The proposal of Ref. [7] is composed of

systems has become an important topic [1], particularly due to the two parts: i) a frequency-dependent network of all passive elements in a

involved use of power electronic converters. wideband frequency range and ii) a low-frequency equivalent model

Harmonic dynamics in WTGs play a major role to understand power that represents the aggregated WTG and its corresponding supervisory

quality problems, e.g., total harmonic distortion, mechanical vibration control. Stability assessment of wind farms, evaluation of robustness of

in transformers, among others [1,2]; although, it can become a complex controls schemes for large disturbances, and multivariable control

computational issue due to large sizes in the corresponding modeling methods are investigated in [8–10], respectively. A type-3 WTG model,

[3]. based on phasor domain, is presented in Ref. [11], aimed at system

Nowadays, variable-speed WTGs based on wound-rotor synchro- protection studies and evaluation of short circuit contributions.

nous generator (WRSG) are increasingly attractive as they can be con- In Ref. [12], a mechanical structural modeling of a wind turbine is

nected using a direct-drive system, i.e., without a mechanical gearbox, carried out for the inclusion of edgewise vibration dynamics of the

using full-range power electronic converters to feed the grid [4]. blades and the tower, whereas in Refs. [13] and [14], mechanical dy-

There are multiple publications on the analysis of WTGs with full- namic simulations are performed by using specialized software tools as

range power electronic converters. In Ref. [5], a dynamic state esti- ADAMS, FAST, and Matlab/Simulink. However, in most cases, power

mation of a variable-speed WTG is proposed. An experimental appli- electronic converters are simpliﬁed by using simple controlled voltage

cation of a synchronous generator, which provides enhanced control by sources. Thus, neglecting harmonics that represent a key point to

⁎

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: uvargas@gdl.cinvestav.mx (U. Vargas), cristian.lazaroiu@upb.ro (G.C. Lazaroiu), abner.ramirez@cinvestav.mx (A. Ramirez).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2018.05.025

Received 25 February 2018; Received in revised form 20 April 2018; Accepted 23 May 2018

0378-7796/ © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

understand and analyze harmonic interaction phenomena. Generally, an nth order linear time-periodic system can be re-

In Ref. [15], a methodology for analyzing transient behavior of presented in TD as [21]:

harmonics associated with the interfacing of a synchronous generator

x˙ (t ) = a (t ) x (t ) + b (t ) u (t ),

and a transmission line is described. A WTG model based on doubly-fed

y (t ) = c (t ) x (t ) + d (t ) u (t ), (1)

induction generator, aimed at harmonic transient simulation, is pro-

posed in Ref. [16]. A major advantage of the proposal in Ref. [16], where a, b, c, and d represent the state, input, output, and feedthrough

compared to traditional implementation of extended harmonic domain matrices, respectively; x, y, and u denote state-variable, output, and

(EHD), is computational savings achieved via grouping of harmonics. input column vectors, respectively.

Evaluation of the eﬀects of harmonics, inter-harmonics, and supra-

harmonics caused by switching the back-to-back (BTB) converter of a 2.2. Flexible extended harmonic domain

type-3 WTG on AC distribution network, is presented in Ref. [17]. The

proposal in Ref. [17] aims at analyzing ﬂuctuations in network fre- The FEHD technique can be seen as a reduced-order re-structured

quency, developing DC voltage in AC side, and voltage noise emission EHD [3] modeling that involves non-sequentially numbered harmonics

using Matlab in a real-time manner. In Ref. [18], assessment of har- in each state/part of the switched network. The practical FEHD im-

monic stability and resonance eﬀects in large permanent magnet syn- plementation involves two basic steps: i) harmonic selection in each

chronous generators-based wind power plants with full power elec- part of the network based on its topology and ii) re-structuration of

tronic converters is described. The main characteristics of the Toeplitz-type matrices to perform convolution between two vectors that

methodology proposed in Ref. [18] are resonance frequency identiﬁ- contain distinct harmonic spectrum.

cation and harmonic stability via representation of the wind power Any particular element (denoted by superscript i) of matrix a(t)

plant as a multi-input multi-output control system. (similarly for b(t), c(t) and d(t)) in (1) can be expressed as the Fourier

As for harmonic transient analysis, existent WTG models require: i) series expansion given by:

very small time-steps to account for the high-frequencies, inherent of

h

switching converters, resulting in lengthy simulations, ii) a post-pro- ai (t ) = ∑ ak (t ) e jkωo t ,

cessing algorithm to obtain harmonic dynamics, commonly using the k =−h (2)

fast Fourier transform as basis, and iii) detail models of power elec-

tronic converters. where h represents the highest harmonic under analysis with ωo being

This paper proposes an alternative approach to model WTG systems the fundamental power frequency.

based on interfacing time-domain (TD) and ﬂexible extended harmonic Basically, the FEHD technique permits to transform, via Eq. (2), the

domain (FEHD) techniques. The contributions of this paper are sum- linear time-periodic system Eq. (1) into a reduced-order EHD model as

marized as: i) the proposed modeling divides the whole system into in Eq. (3).

slow and fast-dynamics subsystems to facilitate harmonic dynamics X˙ (t ) + NX (t ) = AX (t ) + BU ,

monitoring in the appropriate zones, ii) it is able to utilize distinct in- Y (t ) = CX (t ) + DU , (3)

tegration time-steps; thus, providing a computationally eﬃcient WTG

model compared to existent software tools, and iii) it provides accurate where the diﬀerentiation matrix, arranged as a block-diagonal matrix

reduced-size WTG model as result of the adopted FEHD methodology. N, is given by diag{− jkhωo, …, − jk1ωo, 0, jk1ωo, …, jkhωo} repeated n

In addition, FEHD subsystem can be extended to include inter-harmo- times (with kj being the selected dominant harmonics under study).

nics if required [19]. Moreover, the new set of matrix elements, A, B, C and D in Eq. (3),

A case study is presented and the obtained results are veriﬁed with become re-structured Toeplitz-type matrices given by the harmonic

experimental data of a synchronous generator based wind turbine lo- content of outputs, inputs, and switching functions [19].

cated in an onshore wind farm, in Romania. Experimental data has been Finally, the solution vector X(t) in Eq. (3) represents an FEHD

taken from a power quality analyzer connected at the interface of the column vector involving the selected dominant harmonics/inter-har-

ﬁlter and step-up transformer and from a supervisory control and data monics in each state/part of the system. For example, for a generic state

acquisition remote software. we have:

TD variables are compared with those measurements that involve X i (t ) = [ x −kh (t ) ⋯ x −k1 (t ) x o (t ) xk1 (t ) ⋯ xkh (t )]T , (4)

averaged dynamics, e.g., machine speed. FEHD variables are compared

with measured data taken from the power quality analyzer, e.g., total where xkj represents a harmonic/inter-harmonic complex coeﬃcient

harmonic distortion. The results provided by the proposed TD/FEHD and T indicates transpose. Due to space limitations, please refer to Ref.

model are also compared and veriﬁed with those given by the PSCAD/ [19] for further details of the FEHD technique.

EMTDC software tool [20].

3. Wind turbine generator modeling

2. Switched system modeling

This section only presents the TD models of the individual WTG

This section aims at presenting the basics of the two modeling mechanical and electrical parts. In Section 5, TD and FEHD subsystems,

techniques adopted in this paper for transient analysis of WTGs. corresponding to speciﬁc parts of the WTG system, are deﬁned. The

main modeling expressions are listed, whilst parameter deﬁnitions are

2.1. Time-domain included in Appendix A.

TD modeling is a mature technique for representing a linear time- 3.1. General description

periodic system since the behavior of each part of the system can be

readily deﬁned and interpreted. Furthermore, TD methods can deal The wind turbine under analysis is installed in an onshore wind

with nonlinear elements and switched devices in a straightforward farm, in Romania. The schematic representation of the WTG system

manner. Numerical methods, such as the trapezoidal rule of integration, adopted in this paper, aimed at reproducing dynamics of the real

are used to solve the resultant ordinary diﬀerential equations re- system, is depicted in Fig. 1. As generator’s output voltage and fre-

presenting the linear time-periodic system. A potential drawback of TD quency vary according to the wind speed, they are converted via a

models is the small time-step that has to be used in the numerical so- rectiﬁer/inverter arrangement to be fed into the grid. The turbine is

lution when high-frequency dynamics are present. connected to a direct-drive synchronous generator through a shaft

50

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

system. Stator windings are fed by the BTB stator-side converter (SSC), Jt Ω˙ t = −(Btm + Bt ) Ωt + Btm Ωm − Ktm Θt + Ktm Θm + Tt ,

whereas grid-side converter (GSC) terminals are connected to the net- Jm Ω˙ m = Btm Ωt − (Btm + Bm) Ωm + Ktm Θt − Ktm Θm + Te,

work through an LC low-pass ﬁlter bank in series with a step-up Ωt = ωt / P , Ωm = ωm / P , Θt = θt / P , Θm = θm / P , (6)

transformer to the appropriate medium voltage level. The rectiﬁer al-

lows rotational speed control to be optimized. By adjusting the blades, where Ω/ω and Θ/θ variables denote mechanical/electrical speed and

rotational speed and power machine are constantly monitored to avoid mechanical/electrical angular displacement, respectively; subscripts t

overloading. The inverter system ensures that the power output corre- and m indicate turbine and machine side.

sponds to grid speciﬁcations. Parameters in Fig. 1 are explained

throughout this paper. Please note that, due to disclosure agreement, 3.4. Low-speed synchronous generator

further details cannot be declared in the paper.

It is mentioned at this point that, aimed at harmonic transient This paper assumes a three-phase, wye-connected, and salient-pole

analysis, only aerodynamics and the multi-inertia drivetrain are con- synchronous generator. The stator windings are identically distributed

sidered for the mechanical part. On the other hand, fatigue, structure, windings and the rotor is equipped with a ﬁeld winding and three

and turbulence analysis are relegated for future research. damper windings. One damper winding has the same magnetic axis as

the ﬁeld winding, whilst the second and the third are displaced 90°

ahead of the magnetic axis. Under this idealized model, using generator

3.2. Aerodynamic model convention, the voltage equations in machine variables are expressed in

matrix form as [24]:

Aerodynamics is a very important topic in simulation of WTGs. The

d d

aerodynamic part represents power extraction from the wind, i.e., Vabcs = −rs iabcs + λ abc s, Vdq r = rr idq r + λ dqr ,

dt dt (7)

provides a mechanical torque as function of the air ﬂow on the blades.

The wind speed can be considered as the averaged incident wind speed where s and r subscripts denote variables associated with the stator and

over the area swept by the blades [22]. rotor, considering all variables referred to the stator.

In this paper, the relationships for mechanical torque, Tt, and gen- In Eq. (7), the ﬂux linkages are written as [24]:

erated power, Pt, by the turbine, are taken from Refs. [20] and [23],

λ − Ls Lsr ⎤ iabcs

and slightly modiﬁed to ﬁt the measured data. The main expressions ⎡ λabcs ⎤ = ⎡⎢− 2 L T ⎡ ⎤.

are: Lr ⎥ idqr

⎣ dqr ⎦ ⎣ 3 sr ⎦⎣ ⎦ (8)

v RΩt

γ = 1.73 Ωw , λ = vw

,

t

3.5. Back-to-back converter

CP = 0.57(γ − 0.022β 2 − 5.6) e−0.17γ ,

2C

ρπR3v w

Tt =

p

, Pt = 0.5ρπR2vw3 Cp. (5) For controlling power ﬂow from the machine to the grid and to

2λ

ensure grid compliance, a BTB converter is coupled to the generator.

The detailed BTB system, shown in Fig. 2, consists of two three-level,

three-phase, and neutral-point clamped voltage source converters.

3.3. Torsional shaft system Based on reference directions in Fig. 2, the TD state-space model of the

BTB converter is given by:

The mechanical power transmission is constituted by the blades d

linked to the hub that is directly connected to the generator. A two- CDC vDCj = Sa1 − j isa + Sb1 − j isb + Sc1 − j isc + Ta1 − j iga + Tb1 − j igb + Tc1 − j igc,

dt

mass model, as shown in Fig. 1, which represents the two most im- (9)

portant inertias, i.e., machine and turbine inertias, is adopted in this

paper [22]. Under this assumption, mechanical dynamics are described where Sx and Tx (x stands for a, b, or c phase) represent switching

by: functions by the adopted PWM scheme for three-level half-bridge

neutral-point clamped [25]; subscript j indicates capacitor number in

51

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

Fig. 2.

To limit harmonic injection from the inverter to the rest of the Fig. 4. MPPT algorithm.

network, an LC low-pass ﬁlter bank is connected immediately after the

inverter [25]; then, via a transformer, inverter voltage is stepped up to operating point is on the positive slope region, within a power-speed

appropriate medium voltage level, Fig. 3. Based on reference directions curve, the controller will move to the right towards the optimum speed.

in Fig. 3, the set of ordinary diﬀerential equations corresponding to the This action is achieved by increasing the frequency of the SSC. Con-

ﬁlter and transformer arrangement is given by: versely, if the operating point lies on the negative slope region, fre-

d x quency of the SSC has to be decreased, as shown in Fig. 4.

Lf i

dt g

= vfx − Tx1 − 1 vDC1 − Tx1 − 2 vDC2,

d x d x 4.1.2. Pitch control

Cf v

dt f

= −igx + itx , Lf i

dt t

= −vfx − Rf itx + vtx ,

vn = Kt vt , Kt in = it . Pitch control limits generated power to its rated power. Pitch ac-

(10)

tuator consists in a nonlinear servomotor that is modeled in closed-loop

as a ﬁrst-order dynamic system with saturation in the pitch angle [26],

4. Control scheme as illustrated in Fig. 5. Typically, β ranges from 0° to 30°, and varies at

maximum rate of 10°/s [26]. At wind speed lower than the rated, the

Controls become an indispensable topic due to the applicable AC- pitch angle remains at β = 0°.

grid codes at the point of common coupling and because of the eco- In Fig. 5, ΔΩ is deﬁned by:

nomical optimization of the WTG. To meet these requirements, WTG

ΔΩ = KΩ (1 − Pˆm), (11)

operation is divided into two regions. In region 1, which corresponds to

wind speed lower than the rated, control maximizes the energy cap- where corresponds to the mechanical power in pu.

tured from the wind, whilst with higher wind speed than the rated, i.e.,

region 2, control removes excess of power extracted from the wind to 4.2. Low-level control

avoid overloading [26].

To achieve the aforementioned objectives, control scheme is divided Low-level control is separated into SSC and GSC controllers, which

into two levels: high-level and low-level control, as shown in Fig. 1. set the control signals corresponding to the adopted PWM scheme. This

For simplicity of exposition and due to the necessity for grid in- control scheme provides the magnitudes, phases, or frequencies, i.e.,

tegration of the adopted WTG system, PI controls are used in this paper; |Vssc|, |Vgsc|, fssc, and φgsc, corresponding to sinusoidal-type references

nevertheless, other types of control can be readily adopted. for the SSC and GSC, respectively. These parameters are achieved by

means of control actions that are described next.

4.1. High-level control

4.2.1. Stator-side converter control

High-level control is divided into two sub-controls, i.e., maximum The objective of the SSC control is to regulate both mechanical

power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and pitch control. speed and reactive power by the generator. These actions are performed

by means of variation of frequency and magnitude corresponding to the

4.1.1. Maximum power point tracking SSC control signal, respectively, Fig. 6.

Maximum energy conversion in a WTG system is achieved at the

optimum rotational speed via an MPPT algorithm [27]. In this paper, a 4.2.2. Grid-side converter control

perturb and observe algorithm is adopted due to its simplicity and good GSC control allows to maintain a constant DC voltage at DC-link and

performance, Fig. 4. A PI control is implemented in the proposed to regulate reactive power entering to the grid to ensure grid com-

model, which consists in setting the optimal mechanical speed. The pliance. These two control actions are carried out by modifying mag-

perturb and observe method relies on the following principle. If an nitude and phase angle corresponding to the GSC control signal, as il-

lustrated in Fig. 7.

52

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

5. Assembling the TD/FEHD model Fig. 9. Controlled voltage source (CVS) and voltage source converter (VSC)

comparison.

The TD subsystem models, outlined in Section 3, are now assembled

to obtain a hybrid TD/FEHD WTG model. As observed in Fig. 1, elec- DC-link, vDC, is used as input for the TD representation; on the other

trical measurements are taken only close to the transformer; thus, hand, stator current, is, is used as input for the FEHD representation. It

capability of dividing the whole system into subsystems involving dif- is worth mentioning that TD and FEHD subsystems can handle diﬀerent

ferent harmonics, given by the FEHD [19], is exploited in this paper. As integration time-steps as they model distinct (slow or fast) dynamics;

result, the whole system is divided into two subsystems: i) state-space thus, FEHD is able to use a larger time-step [19].

representation in TD and ii) state-space representation in FEHD, as It is mentioned that TD expressions corresponding to the right-hand-

depicted in Fig. 8. side electrical elements of Fig. 8, i.e., Eqs. (9) and (10), are transformed

into the FEHD [19], resulting in an expression similar to Eq. (3). Also,

5.1. TD subsystem the associated control scheme for the FEHD part is the GSC control.

the WTG, GSC is modeled as a simple controlled voltage source, i.e., 6. Experimental validation

neglecting harmonics. This assumption permits to use larger integration

time-steps leading to a faster simulation, at the cost of inability of Measurements from the real system (3.05 MW WTG) are used to

showing ripple information. For illustration purposes, Fig. 9 presents a validate the proposed hybrid TD/FEHD WTG model, which is im-

comparison between a voltage waveform provided by a controlled plemented in Matlab using a computer i5-6200U CPU, 2.3 GHz, and

voltage source and by a voltage source converter. 8GB RAM. A power quality analyzer is connected at the interface of the

Therefore, the TD modeling expressions correspond to Eqs. (5)–(8). ﬁlter and step-up transformer for recording main variables, e.g., cur-

The associated control schemes for the TD part are the MPPT algorithm, rent, active power, among others, aimed at harmonic distortion ana-

pitch and SSC controls. lysis. Also, wind speed and mechanical speed are obtained via a su-

pervisory control and data acquisition remote software, as depicted in

5.2. FEHD subsystem Fig. 1.

The comparison between simulation and experimental results uses

Flexibility of the FEHD to adopt distinct harmonics for the involved the measured wind speed as input signal. Experimental results are taken

elements permits to select only dominant harmonics [19]. For example, as reference for those given by i) proposed TD/FEHD model (labeled as

for the power electronic converter part, a threshold line can be deﬁned TD/FEHD) and ii) a detailed PSCAD model (labeled as PSCAD).

based on the switching function spectrum corresponding to the adopted For illustration purposes, Fig. 11 shows a comparison between the

PWM control scheme, as illustrated in Fig. 10, where harmonics above WTG power curve corresponding to the mathematical approximation,

that threshold line are selected as dominant. It is veriﬁed in this paper, given by Eq. (5), and the datasheet corresponding to the real system,

via measurements and PSCAD simulation results, that this criterion revealing a very good agreement.

provides accurate results. Table 1 reports the adopted dominant harmonics involved in each

part of the FEHD subsystem, as shown in Fig. 8. The selected harmonics

5.3. Interfacing TD and FEHD models are chosen based on the harmonic spectrum of the adopted PWM

control scheme. It is noted that the use of traditional EHD technique

Interfacing TD and FEHD models is based on their corresponding results in an impractical implementation as, due to the maximum har-

state-space representations. The numerical solution of one subsystem monic considered, model dimensions explode.

involves a voltage/current history source as input for the other sub- Fig. 12 shows the comparison of the waveforms obtained by both

system and vice-versa. In this paper, voltage at capacitor terminals at aforementioned simulation models and the experimental results. Minor

53

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

known parameters related to the real WTG system, e.g., control para- Dominant harmonics.

meters, or wind speed variation over the area swept by the blades, Selected harmonics Harmonic index

among others. (fo = 50 Hz)

Fig. 12(a) includes the adopted measured wind speed provided by

the anemometer installed in the turbine. As shown in Fig. 12(b), gen- Voltage at DC link terminals DC DC

Current from the BTB to the DC, fo, finv − fo, finv + fo, DC, 1, 39, 41, 79, and

eratoŕs mechanical speed follows the trend of the wind speed. ﬁlter terminals 2finv − fo, 2finv + fo 81.

As shown in Fig. 12(c), MPPT algorithm and SSC controller manage Voltage at capacitor ﬁlter

to set the frequency reference for the SSC control signal that permits to terminals

obtain maximum power entering to the grid, Fig. 12(d). Additionally, Current from the ﬁlter to the

transformer

voltage at capacitor terminals at DC-link remains around a pre-speciﬁed

constant value due to the GSC controller, Fig. 12(e).

Fig. 12(f) presents the stator current entering to the BTB converter,

Additionally, TD subsystem provides an averaged behavior of transient

noting that the TD part is unable to reproduce high-frequency dynamics

waveforms as SSC is modeled as a controlled voltage source, i.e., ne-

as power electronic converters have been modeled as controlled voltage

glecting harmonics.

sources; on the contrary, the FEHD part, which has been modeled using

Table 2 reports the simulation data used for this case study, in-

voltage source converters, is able to show ripple information, as shown

cluding CPU-times by the aforementioned two methods. The 1 μs time-

in the current entering to the low-voltage-side transformer terminals,

step used in PSCAD/EMTDC is required to faithfully reproduce high-

Fig. 12(g).

frequency of back-to-back device. On the other hand, the proposed

In addition, Fig. 12(h) displays the rms current entering to low-

hybrid approach permits to use distinct integration time-steps and can

voltage-side transformer terminals. As expected, the harmonic content

potentially be implemented in parallel simulation. Table 2 and Fig. 12

in the current entering to the low-voltage-side transformer terminals is

show that the TD/FEHD approach provides computational savings,

given by the switching functions in the BTB, Fig. 12(i). These harmonic

more than six times faster than PSCAD, while keeping accuracy. As

dynamics, provided by the FEHD model, can be used to compute in-

expected, the PSCAD model requires a small time-step (1 μs) to achieve

stantaneous power quality indices, e.g., total harmonic distortion,

a better agreement, impacting directly the CPU-time. A further im-

Fig. 12(j).

provement is given by the proposed TD/FEHD model, which eﬀectively

On the other hand, TD and PSCAD/EMTDC models require a post-

provides ripple information in a desired part of the whole system, re-

processing routine to obtain harmonic dynamics, where signals are ﬁrst

sulting in reduced CPU-times compared to the PSCAD model.

sampled and then decomposed into harmonic components [20], in-

It is mentioned that, for this case study, pitch angle β remains at 0°

curring in well-known errors [28].

along the time since both wind speed and active power do not exceed

It is worth mentioning that modern electrical networks, e.g., dis-

the rated values, Fig. 12(a) and (d). To demonstrate the eﬀectiveness of

tributed generation systems, exhibit high-frequency dynamics, inherent

the adopted pitch control to limit the generated power to its rated

of electronic devices; however, these high-frequency harmonics are

value, an artiﬁcial case study that includes a wind speed proﬁle in-

rarely addressed in the specialized literature [1]. The proposed TD/

volving ramp and step variations, below and above rated wind speed, is

FEHD permits to include dominant harmonics focused on a desired part

simulated and the results are presented in Fig. 13.

of a system, aimed at harmonic transient analysis.

Fig. 13(a) shows the artiﬁcial wind speed proﬁle. As shown in

Based on the harmonics in Table 1, Fig. 12 shows that the proposed

Fig. 13(b), generator’s speed follows the trend of the wind speed by

FEHD subsystem model eﬀectively provides ripple information.

54

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

Table 2 eﬀectively generated power to its rated value when wind speed exceeds

Simulation data. its rated value, Fig. 13(d).

TD/FEHD PSCAD

Δt TD: 100 μs/FEHD: 500 μs 1 μs

CPU time 4413.2 s 29442.7 s Dynamic model validation of WTGs requires reliable models able to

reproduce harmonic dynamics accurately and able to closely reproduce

real components’ behavior.

means of the adopted MPPT algorithm.

This paper proposes an eﬃcient and accurate hybrid TD/FEHD

Additionally, Fig. 13(c) presents the pitch angle, which limits

model of a WTG based on synchronous generator, which is successfully

55

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

Table 3

System data.

Synchronous generator

Is 1.473 (kA) Rms line current

rs 0.001 (pu) Armature resistance

Xp 0.0521 (pu) Potier reactance

Xd 1.3125 (pu) Unsaturated reactance

Xd′ 0.1813 (pu) Unsaturated transient reactance

Td0′ 5.89 s Unsaturated transient time

Xd″ 0.08 (pu) Unsaturated sub-transient reactance

Td0″ 0.4 s Unsaturated sub-transient time

Xq 1.2587 (pu) Unsaturated reactance

Xq′ 0.25 (pu) Unsaturated transient reactance

Tq0′ 0.6 s Unsaturated transient time

Xq″ 0.08 (pu) Unsaturated sub-transient reactance

Tq0″ 0.4 s Unsaturated sub-transient time

CDC 0.5 F DC-link capacitors

Rthyr 0.001 Ω Thyristor resistance

Rf 0.001 Ω Filter resistance

Lf 0.1 mH Filter inductance

Cf 330 μF Filter capacitance

Kt 400 V/30 kV Rated voltage ratio

Aerodynamic model

ρ 1.225 kg/m3 Air density

vw – Wind speed

γ – Gamma coeﬃcient

λ – Tip speed ratio

Β, Cp – Pitch angle and power coeﬃcient

Ωt – Mechanical speed of the turbine

Bt, Bm 0 Nms/rad Turbine and machine self-damping

Ktm 12,500 Nm/rad Shaft spring constant

Jt, Jm 500, 60 kgm2 Turbine and machine inertia

validated via measured data of a real system and further veriﬁed with results with those measured variables, e.g., machine speed, active

the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software tool. The presented case study power, total harmonic distortion, among others.

is aimed at transient validation and harmonic transient analysis. Three major features of the proposed hybrid TD/FEHD model are:

Measured wind speed is utilized as input signal to compare simulation

56

U. Vargas et al. Electric Power Systems Research 163 (2018) 49–58

Table 4

Control parameters.

Pitch control

KΩ 250 Constant

Kp 0.75 Proportional gain

Ki 2 Integral gain

τ 0.2 s Time constant

d/dt 10 Rate limiter

SSC controller

Ki 40 Integral gain (freq. control)

Kp 0 Proportional gain (reactive power control)

Ki 100 Integral gain (reactive power control)

GSC controller

Ki 10 Integral gain (DC voltage control)

Kp 0 Proportional gain (reactive power control)

Ki 20 Integral gain (reactive power control)

PF* 0.975 Power factor reference

MPPT algorithm

Kp 0 Proportional gain

Ki 1.33 Integral gain

d/dt 0.005 Rate limiter

i) It provides an accurate reduced-size EHD model, of a selected part implementation as the whole system is divided in subsystems in-

of the system, which reproduces dynamics of dominant harmonics volving distinct integration time-steps.

aimed at harmonic transient analysis; on the contrary, PSCAD or

TD–based simulations require a post-processing routine to obtain

harmonics frequencies, i.e., using a windowed fast Fourier trans- Acknowledgments

form.

ii) It permits to include a subsystem exhibiting slow-dynamics, e.g., a This work was supported in part by CONACYT scholarship 300785,

mechanical subsystem, via a TD state-space representation, for re- by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientiﬁc Research

ducing CPU-time simulations purposes. and Innovation, CCCDI—UEFISCDI, project number 37BMPNIII-P3-

iii) The proposed approach is attractive for parallel computing 199/02.09.2016, and by SENER-CONACYT under project 246949.

Appendix A

Table 3 presents the system data corresponding to the WTG subsystems. In addition, Table 4 presents the control parameters for the WTG system.

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