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Arba Minch University

College Of Business and Economics

Program of MBA

COURSE: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)

ASSIGNMENT: - ARTICLE REVIEW

Prepared by: -Wubete Umbo Submitted to: - Dr. GEMECHU N.


Id No: -PRBE/099/11

January 2019

Arba Minch, Ethiopia


ROBOTS IN INDUSTRY AND HOW
REPLACE HUMAN POWER

R
obots are expanding in magnitude around the developed world. Figure 1
shows the numbers of industrial robots in operation globally and there has
been a substantial increase in the past few years. In 2013, for example, there
were an estimated 1.2 million robots in use. This total rose to around 1.5
million in 2014 and is projected to increase to about 1.9 million in 2017.5
Japan has the largest
number with 306,700, followed by North
America (237,400), China (182,300), South
Korea (175,600), and Germany (175,200).
Overall, robotics is expected to rise from a $15
billion sector now to $67 billion by 2025.

According to an RBC Global Asset


Management study, the costs of robots and
automation have fallen substantially. It used to
be that the “high costs of industrial robots
restricted their use to few high-wage industries like the auto industry. However, in recent years,
the average costs of robots have fallen, and in a number of key industries in Asia, the cost of
robots and the unit costs of low-wage labor are converging … Robots now represent a viable
alternative to labor.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency held a competition for a robot that could
perform in hazardous environments. Robots were given eight tasks such as “driving a vehicle,
opening a door, operating a portable drill, turning a vale and climbing stairs.”8 The goal was to
have equipment that could operate in damaged nuclear reactors or disaster scenes too dangerous
for humans to operate. A Korean team won the competition (with a $2 million first prize) for
completing these tasks.

In the contemporary world, there are many robots that perform complex functions. According to
a presentation on robots, “the early 21st century saw the first wave of companionable social
robots. They were small cute pets like AIBO, Pleo, and Paro. As robotics become more
sophisticated, thanks largely to the smart phone, a new wave of social robots has started, with
humanoids Pepper and Jimmy and the mirror-like Jibo, as well as Geppetto Avatars’ software
robot, Sophie. A key factor in a robot’s ability to be social is their ability to correctly understand
and respond to people’s speech and the underlying context or emotion.

These machines are capable of creative actions. Anthropologist Eitan Wilf of Hebrew University
of Jerusalem says that sociable robots represent “a cultural resource for negotiating problems of
intentionality.”10 He describes a “jazzimprovising humanoid robot marimba player” that can
interpret music context and respond creatively to improvisations on the part of other performers.
Designers can put it with a jazz band, and the robot will ad lib seamlessly with the rest of the
group. If someone were listening to the music, that person could not discern the human from the
robot performer.

In Japan, there is a new hotel called Henn-na that uses robots to check people in and escort
guests to their rooms. The robotic receptionist speaks Japanese or English, depending on the
preferences of the guest. It can set up the reservations for people, take them to their rooms, and
adjust the accommodation’s temperature. Within the room, guests can use voice commands to
alter the lighting and ask questions regarding the time or weather.

Amazon has organized a “picking challenge” designed to see if robots can “autonomously grab
items from a shelf and place them in a tub.” The firm has around 50,000 people working in its
warehouses and it wants to see if robots can perform the tasks of selecting items and moving
them around the warehouse. During the competition, a Berlin robot successfully completed ten
of the twelve tasks. To move goods around the facility, the company already uses 15,000 robots
and it expects to purchase additional ones in the future.
INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS HAVE THOUSANDS OF USES, from basic pick and place
applications through to painting, welding,
palletising, CNC milling, assembly and
much more. There are a wide range of
different types of industrial robots
available.

Probably the most common type of


industrial robot is the robotic arm type
which typically come as 5 axis robots for
standard pick and place application in plane, or 6 axis robots for more complex applications where
the products needs twisting from the horizontal (similar to the image above).

The cartesian robot is also a very common type of industrial robot, that used to be cheaper, but is
now not so commonly installed apart from for injection moulding machines.

Delta robots are mounted above conveyors and are typically used for high speed pick and place
applications.

Fast pick robots are also another option for fast pick and place applications; with cycle times as
fast as 150 cycles per minute.

In recent years a wide range of different types of collaborative robots have hit the market and these
are becoming increasingly used in industrial applications, but they are mostly smaller, slower
robots with less of the complex functionality available. This limits their usefulness for some
applications.

Installing and commissioning robotic systems requires a wide range of skilled automation
engineers; from robot programmers and PLC programmers through to mechanical engineers and
CAD design engineers. We can simulate your production process with robots in it so you can see
how robots would look and work in your process. Looking at a simulation of your production
process with robots enables you to make design changes prior to implementation.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Industrial Robots


Advantages of Industrial Robots
Increased efficiency

Industrial robots are able to complete certain tasks faster and better than people, as they are
designed to perform these tasks with a higher accuracy level. This and the fact that they are used
to automate processes which previously might have taken significantly more time and resources,
means that you can often use industrial robots to increase the efficiency of your production line.

Higher quality

Due to their high accuracy levels, robots can also be used to produce higher quality products
which adhere to certain standards of quality, whilst also reducing the time needed for quality
control.

Improved working environment

Industrial robots are often used for performing tasks which are deemed as dangerous for humans,
as well as being able to perform highly laborious and repetitive tasks. Overall, by using industrial
robots you can improve the working conditions and safety in your factory or production plant.
Robots don’t get tired and make dangerous mistakes, neither do they suffer from repetitive strain
injury.

Increased profitability

By increasing the efficiency of your production process, reducing the resource and time needed
to complete it, and also achieving higher quality products, industrial robots can thus be used to
achieve higher profitability levels overall, with lower cost per product.

Longer working hours

Typically people have to have breaks, get distracted and after time attention drops and pace
slows. With a robot it can work 24/7, and keeps running at 100%. Typically if you replace one
person on a key process in a production line with a robot the output increases by 40% in the
same working hours just because a robot has more stamina and never stops. Robots also don’t
take holidays or have unexpected days off sick.

Prestige
You set yourself at the cutting edge of your industry and wow your customers when they come
to see you. As a marketing tool robots are fantastic, boost your brand image, and have often been
used simply for the PR even if they don’t offer many benefits over a bespoke non-robotic
system.

Disadvantages of Industrial Robots

Capital cost

Whilst industrial robots can prove highly effective and bring you a positive ROI, implementing
them might require a fairly high capital cost. That’s why, before making a decision we
recommend considering both the investment needed and also the ROI you expect to achieve.
Often the easiest way to get round this issue is to take out asset finance and the ROI of the robot
more than pays for the interest on the asset finance.

Expertise

Whilst industrial robots are excellent for performing many tasks, as with any other type of
technology, they require more training and expertise to initially set up. The expertise of a good
automation company with a support package will be very important. To minimise your reliance
on automation companies you can train some of your engineers on how to program robots, but
you will still need the assistance of experienced automation companies for the original
integration of the robot.

Limitations

In recent years the number of industrial robots and the applications they can be used for has
increased significantly. However, there still are some limitations in terms of the type of tasks
they can perform, which is why we suggest that an automation company looks at your
requirement to assess the options first. Sometimes a bespoke automated system may give a better
or faster result than a robot. Also, a robot does not have everything built into it, often the success
or failure of an industrial robotic system depends on how well the surrounding systems are
integrated e.g. grippers, vision systems, conveyor systems etc. Only use good trusted robot
integrators to be sure of the optimum results if you do choose to use industrial robots.

ersatile lupins on the rise


V
A high-speed, flexible
robotic packing solution
helps an Australian food
manufacturer meet rising
global demand.

Around the world, lupins


– part of the legume
family that includes the likes of soybeans,
peas and lentils – are experiencing
incredible growth in consumer demand.
They are a rich natural source of protein
and fiber, are easily digestible,
cholesterol-free and provide a convenient and healthy option for consumers who have celiac
disease or simply want to follow a gluten-free diet. In Australia, lupins play a vital role in the
ecological balance of agriculture. West Australian manufacturer, Lupin Foods Australia,
specializes in a range of foods based on Australian sweet lupin, which has been developed to
meet the growing demand. Lupin Foods Australia, a wholly-owned subsidiary of global farmer
cooperative

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXAMPLES


The name behind the idea of AI is John McCarthy, who began research on the subject in 1955 and
assumed that each aspect of learning and other domains of intelligence can be described so precisely that
they can be simulated by a machine.

Even the terms ‘artificial intelligence’ and ‘intelligent human behaviour’ are not clearly defined, however.

Artificial intelligence describes the work processes of machines that would require intelligence if
performed by humans. The term ‘artificial intelligence’ thus means ‘investigating intelligent problem-
solving behaviour and creating intelligent computer systems’.

There are two kinds of artificial intelligence:

• Weak artificial intelligence: The computer is merely an instrument for investigating cognitive processes
– the computer simulates intelligence.
• Strong artificial intelligence: The processes in the computer are intellectual, self-learning processes.
Computers can ‘understand’ by means of the right software/programming and are able to optimise their
own behaviour on the basis of their former behaviour and their experience. This includes automatic
networking with other machines, which leads to a dramatic scaling effect.

ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE IN ETHIOPIA

Humanoid Sophia makes real impact on young Ethiopian AI enthusiasts


ADDIS ABABA-Sophia, the famous humanoid robot, on Tuesday met with more than 200,000
young artificial intelligence
enthusiasts as part of her visit to
Ethiopia's capital.Sophia, who
arrived in Addis Ababa on last
Friday, had missed much of her
schedule as a bag containing some
of her parts went missing at
Frankfurt Airport. On Tuesday,
Sophia attended the 2nd
International Information
Communication Technology Expo
Ethiopia 2018, which is under way
in Addis Ababa on the theme "Transform Ethiopia".

I-cog Labs, an Ethiopian AI company that had been involved in the development of Sophia's
software, facilitated the meeting between the robot and young Ethiopians.

Getnet Aseffa, I-cog Labs CEO, said on Tuesday that Sophia, which has more than 2 billion
followers globally, met a huge gathering of enthusiastic fans. Developed by Hanson Robotics
and activated in 2015, Sophia was granted Saudi citizenship in 2017, making her the first robot
to receive citizenship of any country. Sophia is also regarded as the "realest" robot to date.
According to Aseffa, his company has been working in partnership with Hanson Robotics for the
past four years, during which time they were able to contribute to the development of the brain
parts of Sophia. "One of our contributions is that we built what you see as the emotional
activities, expressions and also an engine called cognitive engine," Aseffa said. "There are parts
of Sophia that perceive the environment. For example when Sophia observes a crowd, she would
perceive a gathering, a meeting, an event or expo. Such types of decisions are made by her
cognitive brain." According to Aseffa, the fact that Ethiopians have contributed to the making of
Sophia could be seen as a major factor that motivates and inspires young Ethiopians in the AI
sector. "They (the children) have started thinking that we are not locked in Ethiopia and we can
have a big impact in the world," he said. Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who met Sophia
at the Ethiopian National Palace on Monday, called on young people to embrace developments
in the AI sector, saying the country has thousands of "brilliant minds" that could help integrate
with the future of software development and AI sectors.

Notes and references


1. Robot is cognate with the German word Arbeiter (worker). In Hungary, the robot was a feudal
service, similar to corvee which was rendered to local magnates by peasants every year. "The
Dynasties recover power". http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/history/1848/reaction.html.
Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
2. Deborah Levine Gera (2003). Ancient Greek Ideas on Speech, Language, and Civilization. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0199256167.
http://books.google.com/books?id=h5tKJvApybsC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=hephaestus+han
dmaidens&source=web&ots=AmE4CYagER&sig=qoE-R-FGa3CRe9fKPjBKCdk24C4.
3. O'Connor, J.J. and E.F. Robertson. "Heron biography". The MacTutor History of Mathematics
archive. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Heron.html. Retrieved
on 2008-09-05.
4. "Earliest Clocks". A Walk Through Time. NIST Physics Laboratory.
http://physics.nist.gov/GenInt/Time/early.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
5. "Leonardo da Vinci's Robots". Leonardo3.net.
http://www.leonardo3.net/leonardo/books%20I%20robot%20di%20Leonardo%20-
%20Taddei%20Mario%20-%20english%20Leonardo%20robots%201.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-
25.
6. Wood, Gabby. "Living Dolls: A Magical History Of The Quest For Mechanical Life", The Guardian,
2002-02-16.
7. N. Hornyak, Timothy (2006). Loving the Machine: The Art and Science of Japanese Robots. New
York: Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-3012-6.
8. Cheney, Margaret (1989). Tesla, man out of time. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-419-1.
9. US patent 613809
10. "Tesla - Master of Lightning". PBS.org. http://www.pbs.org/tesla. Retrieved on 2008-09-24.