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UMI
A NEW DESIGN APPROACH AND FEA MODELING FOR IMPERFECT

END-CLOSURES OF DOT SPECIFICATION CYLINDERS

DISSERTATION

Presented in Partial Fulfillment o f the Requirements


For the Degree Doctor o f Philosophy in the
Graduate School o f The Ohio State University

By
Vasin Kisiogiu, M.Sc. M E.

* * * * *

The Ohio State University


2000

Approved by

Dissertation Committee;

Prof. Jerald R. Brevick, Advisor Jerald R. Brevick


Industrial & Systems Engineering
Prof. Gary L. Kinzel, Co-advisor

Prof. Joseph M. Castro

Gary L. Kinzel
Mechanical Engineering
UMI Number; 9994889

Copyright 2 0 0 0 by
Kisiogiu, Yasin

All rights re se rv e d .

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Bell & Howell Inform ation a n d te a m in g C o m p a n y


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P .O . Box 1346
Ann A rbor, Ml 48106-1346
Copyright © by

Yasin Kisiogiu

2000
ABSTRACT

DOT specification cylinders approved by the Department o f Transportation

(DOT) usually contain hazardous materials in storage and transport as well as in service,

and they are manufactured in compliance with the requirements o f the DOT regulations.

The DOT rules prescribe the manufacturing and testing specifications along with size,

type, service pressure (SP). test pressure (TP), name, and definitions o f the materials for

the cylinders used for the transportation o f hazardous materials in commerce. The DOT

specification cylinders—low-pressure cylinders, SP<500-psi (3.45-Mpa)—can be

commercially filled and used in industrial, commercial, consumer markets, and medical

applications in two general types, refillable and non-refillable.

To date, very little research regarding the physical and mechanical design aspects

o f DOT specification cylinders has been conducted. The goal o f this research was the

improvement of design o f the DOT specification cylinders utilizing experimental and

numerical methods. Inefficient design o f these cylinders leads to in-service failures.

Specifically, the objective o f this study was to develop a new design approach to

improve the first design success rate o f the imperfect end-closure for the DOT

specification cylinders utilizing both experimental and numerical (computer-aided

engineering) approaches. This will lead to improved design methods for the imperfect

11
end-closure component o f these cylinders. Problems with the imperfect end-closures

include buckling- and ballooning-related refillable and non-refillable cylinders,

respectively, cause the failures as far as the TP is concerned.

The first objective o f the research was to identify the material properties including

weld zone properties and shell thickness variations including weld zone thickness. Also,

the burst pressures (BP) and burst failure locations (BFL) o f the non-refillable cylinders

have been determined utilizing both experimental and computer-aided modeling

approaches. The computer-aided modeling processes were performed in the finite

element analysis (FEA) simulations using the measured physical and mechanical

properties of the materials. The BP and BFL obtained in this research have complied with

the requirements o f the DOT regulations.

The second goal of this research was to predict and eliminate the physical

phenomena, such as ballooning and buckling (flip-flop), which occur at the bottom end-

closiu-e and cause the cylinder to lose the stable bottom platform o f the DOT specification

cylinders. In order to predict the ballooning and buckling phenomena, both experimental

and FEA modeling approaches are employed within material non-linearity and

geometrical non-imiformity conditions. A new design o f the end-closures for the DOT

specification cylinders have been developed to eliminate these problems, and the

computer-aided nonlinear FEA modeling processes are employed in both 2D and 3D

axisymmetric quasi-static conditions utilizing the optimization techniques in the ANSYS

computer code.

Ill
Dedicated to;
My parents, my parents in-law, my wife Ayse Serap and my children, Betul and Merve
for all their love and support

IV
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thanks Allah IGod) Almighty. 1 express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to my
advisors Prof. Jerald R. Brevick and Prof. Gary L. Kinzel for their support, guidance, and
encouragement throughout this research and for their enthusiasm for improvement and
their thrust and patience in working with me. I also wish to thanks my committee
members Prof. Jose M. Castro and former committee member Prof. Mohammad
Pamianpour their valuable assistance, helpful suggestions and corrections.

I wish to thank my sponsors. Turkish Government and Kocaeli University for their
financial supports. I also would like to thank to the cylinder manufacturing company, and
especially engineering director, who have provided valuable information necessary to
complete this work.

I would like to thank to my parents, Ayse and Saban, parent-in-law, Birsel and Ilhan, my
wife Ayse Serap, my children. Betul and Merve, and all my brothers and sisters for their
love, encouragement and continues support. God bless them, I love them.

I also would like to thank all people who, in my life, taught me something and helped my
personal and academic growth.
VITA

January 06. 1967.............................................. Bom - K..Maras - Turkey

1987....................................................................B.S. Mechanical Engineering


Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

1989-1993......................................................... Graduate Assistant


College o f Engineering
Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

1991....................................................................M.S. Mechanical Engineering


Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

1996................................................................... M.S. Mechanical Engineering


The Ohio State University,
Columbus, Ohio USA

PUBLICATIONS

1. Yasin K isiogiu, J.R. Brevick, and G. L. Kinzel, “Determination o f Burst Pressures


and Location o f DOT Specification Cylinders,” Transaction o f ASM E Journal of
Pressure Vessels Technology, USA, Accepted in 2000.

VI
2. Yasin Kisiogiu, F. Mendi, and J. R. Brevick, “Deformation Analysis o f Boring Bars
using both Analytical and FEA Approaches,” ANSYS 2000 Conference, Pittsburgh,
August 2000.

3. H. Mao, V. Chandrasekar, Yasin Kisiogiu, A. Deshpnde, and J. R. Brevick, “Fatigue


Properties of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys,” SAE 2000 World Congress. Detroit,
Michigan, March 2000.

4. F. Mendi, A. Taskesen, and Yasin Kisiogiu, “Computer Aided Shaft Design and
Selection of Rolling-Contact Bearings Using an Expert System,” The Society for
Computer Simulation, accepted in September 2000.

5. Yasin Kisiogiu. and K. Dundar, “Computer Aided Design and Optimization o f


Critical Machine Elements,” Journal of Gazi University Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, Nr: 2. Ankara, Turkey, 1991.

FIELDS OF STUDY

M ajor Field: Industrial and Systems Engineering


Mechanical Design and Stress Analysis
Design for Manufacturing
Manufacturing Systems and Processes

VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................... i
DEDICATION..................................................................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS............................................................................................... v
VITA....................................................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................... xii
LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................... xiii
NOMENCLATURE............................................................................................................. xvii

CHAPTERS:

1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... l

1.1 Introduction.................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Motivation for the Research.......................................................................... 4
1.3 Scope and Objectives o f Research................................................................ 8
1.4 Outline of the Dissertation............................................................................. 11

2. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................ 13

2.1 Design for Pressure Cylinders...................................................................... 13


2.2 Design Codes for Pressure Cylinder Technology....................................... 17
2.2.1 The ASME Code.............................................................................. 18
2.2.1.1 Hydrostatic Test Requirements........................................ 20
2.2.1.2 Cylindrical Shell Calculations........................................... 21
2.2.2 The European Codes.......................................................................... 23
2.2.3 The DOT Code.................................................................................. 23
2.3 Design by Rule and Design by Analysis................................................... 25

viii
2.4 Design Rules for Perfect End-closures......................................................... 26
2.5 Design of the DOT Specification Cylinders................................................ 28
2.5.1 The DOT-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant Cylinders..................... 30
2.5.2 Design of DOT-4B A Propane Cylinders...................................... 37
2.6 Design for Pressure......................................................................................... 40
2.7 Technical Background o f Thin-walled Pressure Cylinders...................... 40
2.7.1 Specifications o f the Thin-walled Cylindrical Shells................... 44
2.7.2 Stresses in Thin-walled Cylinders................................................. 45
2.7.2.1 Longitudinal Stress......................................................... 49
2.7.2.2 Circumferential (Hoop) Stress........................................ 49
1.1.23 Principal Stresses.............................................................. 50
2.7.2.4 The Maximum Shearing Stresses.................................... 50
2.7.3 Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis o f Cylindrical Sells....................... 53
2.7.3.1 Elastic Stress-Strain Analysis............................................. 54
1.1.1.1 Plastic Stress-Strain Analysis............................................. 55
1.1.3.3 Elastic-Plastic Failure Analysis........................................ 58
2.7.3.4 Failure Modes for Pressure Cylinders............................. 59
2.7.3.5 Instability o f Thin-walled Pressure Cylinders............... 62
2.7.3.6 Instability o f Pressure Cylinders in Recent Studies 66
2.7.4 Membrane Stress Analysis for Cylindrical Shells......................... 68
2.7.4.1 The Relationships o f the Stresses, Strains, and
Displacements..................................................................... 69
2.7.4.2 The Equilibrium Equations for Thin Walled
Cylindrical Shells.............................................................. 72
2.7.4.3. Axi-symmetric Loaded Cylindrical Shells....................... 74
2.7.5 Discontinuity Stresses...................................................................... 76
2.8 Dilation of Pressure Cylinders....................................................................... 81
2.9 Design of the End-closures............................................................................. 81
2.9.1 Stress Analysis for the End-closures................................................ 83
2.9.1.1 Ellipsoidal Heads............................................................... 83
2.9.1.2 Torispherical Heads........................................................ 87
2.9.2 Instability Pressures for the End-closures........................................ 89
2.9.2.1 Toripsherical End-closures................................................. 99
2.9.2.2 Ellipsoidal End-closure.................................................... 100
2.9.3 Design Equations for Elimination o f Instabilities........................... 101

3. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND


INVESTIGATIONS OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES...................................... 104

3.1 Material Selection for DOT Specification Cylinders................................. 104


3.2 Features o f the Selected Materials.................................................................. 105
3.3 Engineering and True Stress-Strain Curves................................................ 107
3.4 Material Properties o f the SAE-1008 and SAE-1018 Steels....................... 108

IX
3.5 Effects of Carbon Content on the Mechanical Properties............................ 110
3.6 Design for Manufacturing................................................................................. 116
3.7 Manufacturing Processes o f the DOT Specification Cylinders.................. 120
3.7.1 The Blanking Process.................................................................... 120
3.7.2 The Deep Drawing Processes........................................................ 121
3.7.3 The Welding Process...................................................................... 125
3.8 Investigation o f Material Properties.............................................................. 127
3.8.1 Cylindrical Drawn Shell Properties.............................................. 127
4.8.2 Weld Zone Properties..................................................................... 129
3.8.3 Actual Drawn Shell thickness Variation....................................... 138
4. INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BP AND BFL.......................................................... 140
4.1 Modeling o f Bursting Test for the DOT-39 Refrigerant Cylinders 140
4.2 Experimental Modeling of the Bursting Test................................................ 141
4.3 Computer-Aided Modeling o f the Bursting Test.......................................... 140
4.4 Material Nonlinearity..................................................................................... 147
4.5 Selection o f Axisymmetric Finite Shell Element..................................... 148
4.6 Axisymmetric Boundary Conditions.......................................................... 149
4.7 Development o f Non-linear FEA M odeling.............................................. 152
4.7.1 Development o f Uniform Axisymmetric FEA Modeling 153
4.7.1.1 Nonlinear Homogenous Axisymmetric FEA M odeling... 154
4.7.1.2 Nonlinear Non-homogenous Axisymmetric
FEA Modeling......................................................................... 156
4.7.2 Development of Nonlinear Non-uniform
Axisymmetric FEA Modeling....................................................... 156
4.7.2.1 The Step Function.............................................................. 157
4.7.2.2 Wedge Function..................................................................... 162
4.8 Selection of Loading Conditions.................................................................. 162
4.8 Determinations of BP o f the DOT-39 Non-refillable Cylinders................ 170
4.10 Determination o f the BFL o f the DOT-39 Refngerant Cylinders 179
4.11 The BP Guidelines of the DOT-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant Cylinder... 185

5. DESIGN OF IMPERFECT END-CLOSURES...................................................... 188

5.1 Brief Review o f the Problems......................................................................... 188


5.1.2 Definition of the Ballooning Problem......................................... 189
5.1.2 Definition of the Buckling (Flip-Flop) Problem............................ 192
5.2 Experimental T est for Prediction o f Buckling and Ballooning.................. 195
5.3 Computer-aided modeling for Ballooning..................................................... 198
5.3.1 Selection o f Finite Shell Element.................................................... 199
5.3.2 Selection o f Axisymmetric Boundary Conditions...................... 202
5.3.3 Development of Nonlinear Axisymmetric FEA modeling..............202
5.3.4 Predictions of Ballooning using FEA M odeling........................... 205
5.4 Optimization o f the Dimple Location (DL)................................................. 213
5.5 Computer-Aided Modeling for the Flip-Flop (Buckling) Analysis 218
5.5.1 Selection o f Finite Structural Solid Element................................. 219
5.5.2 Selection of the Axisymmetric Boundary Conditions (BCs) 219
5.5.3 Development of Nonlinear Axisymmetric FEA modeling 220
5.6 Prediction o f the Flip-flop (Buckling) Phenomenon..................................... 221
5.7 Elimination o f the Buckling Phenomenon................................................... 229
5.7.1 Design Optimization M ethod......................................................... 229
5.7.2 The Procedure o f the Design Optimization Technique.............. 232
5.8 Sensitivity Analysis of the Convex-end Closure......................................... 246

6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE W ORK........................................................... 255


6.1 Conclusions
6.2 Investigations o f Material Properties............................................................. 256
6.3 Determination o f VP and BFL o f the DOT-39 Non-refillable Cylinders.. 258
6.4 The Ballooning Phenomenon.......................................................................... 261
6.5 The Flip-Flop of the Convex End Closure.................................................... 262
6.6 Future W ork...................................................................................................... 263

REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................265

APPENDICES

A. DESIGN RULES FOR PRESSURE CYLINDERS................................................. 275

B. DOT RULES FOR DOT SPECIFICATION CYLINDERS....................................286

C. APDL PROGRAMS FOR FEA MODELING.......................................................... 299

XI
LIST OF TABLES

Table

2.1 Comparison of the design stresses (%) among the


well-known design codes............................................................................. 20
2.2 The limitations of the end-closures based on the design rules................... 28
2.3 Pressure specifications o f the DOT39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders... 32
2.4 Nominal dimensions o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.............................. 33
2.5 Examples of pressure cylinder components and associated considerations... 42
2.6 Pressure vessels design......................................................................................... 43
3.1 Physical properties of the low-carbon steel, SA E-1008 and SAE-1018..........106
3.2 Mechanical properties o f the SEA-1008, SEA-1018 steels, and weld zone...110
3.3 Required circular blank diameters for each group of the cylinders 123
3.4 Mechanical material properties of the drawn cylindrical shells.................. 139
4.1 Definitions of the labels used for the botmdary condition.......................... 151
4.2 The Maximum stresses at the burst locations and
corresponding material properties (UTS)..................................................... 174
4.3 Non-convergent processes (flow) o f the nonlinear
non-homogeneous FEA simulation................................................................ 180
5.1 The experimental results o f the ballooning test o f the NRV cylinders 197
5.2 Experimental test results o f the ballooning o f the
NRV cylinder t/ID = 0.0034......................................................................... 198
5.3 Comparison o f the ballooning results obtained from both
experimental and FEA modeling approaches.................................................... 213
5.4 The optimization results o f the new dimple location {DL)
using the design o f the experimental method within the
FEA modeling processes................................................................................ 217
5.5 The initial optimization status......................................................................... 236
5.6 List o f the optimization results from all loops with the set numbers 238
5.7 The best set of design variables for feasible solution of optimization 239
5.8 The numerical results o f the optimization variables....................................... 244

Xll
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1.1 The DOT-39 non-refillable refngerant cylinder (NRC or NRV Cylinder).. 6


1.2 The D 0T-4B A refillable propane cylinder.................................................... 7
2.1 Step by step design procedure....................................................................... 15
2.2 The engineering design p h a se ....................................................................... 15
2.3 Three different engineering cylinders; spherical vessel for
low-temperature liquid gas storage (top), a 4000°F air heater
vessel for space flight research (middle), and steam drum
for a large b o ile r................................................................................................. 16
2.4 Internal loading and resultant forces o f the DOT specification cylinders.... 22
2.5 Geometry o f perfect torispherical and ellipsoidal end-closures.................. 27
2.6 General types o f DOT specification cylinders................................................ 29
2.7 The three groups o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders 32
2.8 Bottom and top shell components o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.... 34
2.9 Hermetic one-way valve for DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders......................... 35
2.10 Design specifications of the DOT-39 nonrefillable refrigerant cylinder... 36
2.11 (a): Geometry o f the D0T-4BA refillable propane cylinder,
and (b): Convex-end closure.......................................................................... 39
2.12 General shell with surface o f revolution...................................................... 46
2.13 Coordinate system and stresses for cylindrical shells
under internal pressure................................................................................... 47
2.14 Axisymmetric mid-surface geometry o f the DOT-39 cylinder................... 48
2.15 Cylindrical shell-ring internally pressurized and hoop forces................... 52
2.16 Principal stresses and their directions for the cylindrical shell.................... 52
2.17 Stresses acting on an element o f the wall o f a c ircular..................................... 53
2.18 Graphics o f the failure theo ries.................................................................... 61
2.19 Strain hardening, true stress-strain curve o f the SEA-1008 (A K D Q ).... 64
2.20 Stress resultants on a cylindrical shell element.....................................................70
2.21 Stress at a point, P. o f the cylindrical shell in Cartesian coordinates 71
2.22 Thickness variations on the cylindrical shell.................................................. 77
2.23 Dilation o f cylinder due to internal pressures..................................................... 82
2.24 Geometry o f an ellipsoidal head..................................................................... 86
2.25 Geometry of the torispherical heads.................................................................. 89
2.26 Predicted buckling modes for four Galletly’s specimens,
and meridional hoop stress strain, b) Predicted buckling
mode and hoop stress resultants distributions as a function o f pressure......... 91
xiii
2.27 a) Buckling mode o f torispherical head; b) buckling
mode o f ellipsoidal head.................................................................................. 92
2.28 Typical ends of cylindrical pressure vessels, variation o f
buckle-free profiles with “c”, correction values and
membrane stress resultants in buckle-free design for c=0.1...................... 93
2.29 Geometry of the torispherical end and axisymmetric buckling mode 95
2.30 Deformed shapes prior to buckling for different boundary conditions... 95
2.31 a) Meridional moment distribution and b)
plastic region at pressure p=0.15 Mpa............................................................ 97
2.32 a) Axisymmetrically deformed head, and b) Buckling
mode under internal pressure........................................................................... 98
3.1 ESS curve of the low-carbon steels................................................................. I l l
3.2 TSS curve of the low-carbon steels................................................................. 112
3.3 ESS curves of the SAE-1008 and 1018 steels and weldzone materials.... 113
3.4 TSS curves of the SAE-1008 and SAE-1018 steeland weld materials 114
3.5 Influence of carbon content on the strength o f the carbon steel................... 115
3.6 Design parameters for manufacturing and assembly
o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders................................................................ 117
3.7 The process flow of DFMA with integrated processes for
the NRV cylinder............................................................................................. 118
3.8 Assembly the DOT-3 9 refrigerant cylinder components................................... 119
3.9 Circular blanking from sheet metal strip...................................................... 123
3.10 Analysis of the blanking process................................................................... 124
3.11 Drawing of the DOT-39 cylinder in the deep drawing process.................. 124
3.12 Design of the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinder and weld joining...................... 126
3.13 The region division o f the actual drawn shell and the
orientations of the tensile test specimens cut from the divided zones 131
3.14 True stress-true strain curves {ID: 7.5)............................................................. 132
3.15 The variations of the mechanical properties (ID: 7.5)................................... 133
3.16 True stress-strain curves (ID: 9.5-in)............................................................... 134
3.17 The variations of the mechanical properties (ID: 9.5-in).............................. 135
3.18 The true stress-strain curves (ID: 12)............................................................... 136
3.19 The variations of the mechanical properties (ID: 12).................................... 137
3.20 Thickness variation o f the drawn cylindrical shell......................................... 139
4.1 The BP frequency of the experimental results................................................. 142
4.2 Burst failure location (BFL) o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders................ 143
4.3 Experimental bursting and busting location
in the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders................................................................. 144
4.4 Axisymmetric FEA model o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders 146
4.5 Axisymmetric finite shell element, SHELL51.............................................. 150
4.6 Axisymmetric botmdary conditions used on the 2D FEA m odel............... 151
4.7 Flow-chart of nonlinear axisymmetric FEA modeling
processes to determine the BP and BFL o f the DOT-39
non-refillable refrigerant cylinder.................................................................... 155
4.8 Homogenous FEA model using Case . II conditions....................................... 158
XIV
4.9 Non-homogenous axisymmetric FEA model in Case II............................... 159
4.10 Non-homogenous axisymmetric FEA model in 2D ....................................... 160
4.11 Non-uniform axisymmetric FEA model........................................................ 161
4.12 The step and wedge functions........................................................................... 163
4.13 Generation of the thickness variations in the FEA
modeling processes by using both step and wedge functions...................... 164
4.14 Case 1; Loading conditions for both homogeneous and
non-homogeneous models.....................................................................................166
4.15 Case 11, Loading conditions for both homogeneous and
non-homogeneous FEA models........................................................................... 168
4.16 Loading conditions for the uniform and non-uniform FEA Model 169
4.17 Nodal deflection o f critical points o f the DOT-39 refrigerant
cylinders for the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models................ 171
4.18 Large deflection at the selected points o f the
non-homogenous FEA model.......................................................................... 172
4.19 Equivalent (effective) stresses at the burst instant o f
the non-homogeneous FEA model in Case 1................................................... 175
4.20 Equivalent (effective) plastic strain at the instant o f
burst o f the non-homogeneous FEA model in Case 1..................................... 176
4.21 The BP values o f the NRV cylinders using the homogenous
and non-homogenous FEA models under Case 1 conditions......................... 181
4.22 The BP results o f the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders
using both homogenous and non-homogenous FEA modeling
processes under both Case 1 & 11 conditions................................................ 182
4.23 The BP values o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders using
non-homogenous (under both Case 1 and Case 11) and
non-uniform FEA models..................................................................................... 183
4.24 The Determination o f the BP o f the DOT-39 refrigerant
cylinders using both experimental and FEA modeling approaches 184
4.25 The BFL of the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders....................... 186
4.26 The BP guidelines o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders................................ 187
5.1 The DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders sit on the 4-dim ples.......................... 191
5.2 The bottom-end-closure geometry o f the current NRV cylinder................. 192
5.3 The D0T-4BA refillable cylinders.................................................................. 193
5.5 The geometry of the convex end-closure of the
D 0T -4B A refillable cylinders.......................................................................... 194
5.5 The flip-flop (buckling) shape o f the convex-end closure........................... 194
5.6 The 3D geometrical model................................................................................. 200
5.7 The finite shell element, SH ELLl81............................................................. 201
5.8 The non-uniform and non-homogenous FEA Models................................... 204
5.9 The absolute convergence norm o f the nonlinear FEA
simulation processes........................................................................................ 208
5.10 Residual deflections of the end-closure after releasing the pressure 209
5.11 Design parameters for the Optimization......................................................... 210
5.12 The nodal displacements behavior o f the crown (N32)
and dimple
XV
(N798)........................................................................................... 211
5.13 Prediction o f ballooning deformation at the end-closure
o f the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders............................................................ 212
5.14 The 2D axisymmetric BCs of the FEA model for the convex-end closure.. .223
5.15 The PLANE2 triangular structural solid element............................................. 224
5.16 Non-homogeneous material properties applied................................................ 235
5.17 The maximum critical deflection o f the convex end-closure
at the instant o f bifurcation............................................................................. 226
5.18 The deflection behaviors of the selected critical nodes o f the
convex-end-closure............................................................................................ 227
5.19 fhe geometrical and after buckling models o f the convex-end closure.... 228
5.20 The optimization data flow............................................................................ 231
5.21 Design parameters of the convex end-closure................................................ 233
5.22 The optimum values of the design variables, Rk and Rc................................ 225
5.23 The optimum values of the design variable, thickness (Th).......................... 237
5.24 Optimum values of the state variables, max. deflection and
max. non-linear plastic strain........................................................................... 241
5.25 State variables for max equivalent and principal stresses............................... 242
5.26 Objection function of the optimization, minimization
o f the total end-closure volume......................................................................... 243
5.27 The new buckling pressure value using the optimum
thickness (Th) value........................................................................................... 245
5.28 The effects o f the t/ID ratios on the BP and BT............................................. 249
5.29 The influence o f the t/ID ratio on both CBPs and M CD s.............................. 250
5.30 The effects of the Ri/ID ratios on CBPs and MCDs...........................................251
5.31 The effects o f the Rc/ID ratios on CBPs and M CDs...........................................252
5.32 The effects of b o th /?//£) and ratios on both o f CBPs and M C D s.... 253
5.33 The effects o f the R,/Rk ratios on CBPs and MCDs........................................ 254

XVI
NOMENCLATURE

4 Projected cross sectional area


T 11* Cross sectional area
c Clearance between die and punch
D. d Cylinder diameter
d f
Instantaneous flange diameter
d \v Mean cup (work-piece) diameter (=di + t o )
do initial circular blank diameter
Dj Punch diameter
E Young (Elastic) modulus
Ej Joint Efficiency (%)
s 1.2.3 Principal strains
S'l.2.3 True principal strains
£ Strain
5 Deflection
Fr..x.e Body forces
Fr Resultant force
Fu Longitudinal and tangential forces
Fdd Drawn force
Fb Blanking shear force
Fbh Blank holder force
h Height o f end-closure
L Length o f the cylinder
l Circumferential length o f blanking
LDR Limiting draw ratio
Mx.0 Bending moments
// Coefficient o f friction
Residtant stresses
P Internal pressure
Per Critical pressure
Pmax Burst pressure
R ,r Radius o f cylindrical shell
Rc.S.t Radius o f crown (sphere) region o f the end-closure
Rk Radius o f knuckle region
ro Initial cylindrical radius

xvii
Mean flo w stress in the flange
cyj Mean flo w stress over the die radius
Longitudinal and tangential stresses
0'1.2.3 Principal stresses
(^r.âx Normal stresses
^rx.rO .x0 Transverse stresses
CTyp Tensile yield strength
^uts.u Ultimate tensile strength
True principal stresses
<X Flow/significant stress
S Shear strength o f the material
t Cylinder wall thickness
to Initial wall thickness
X Shear stresses
^oct Octahedral shear stress
'/act Octahedral shear strain
V Poisson's ratio
U, V, VV Translational deflections

X V lIl
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Pressure cylinders (vessels) are primarily leakproof containers o f fluids and gases.

Generally, they can be produced in any shape ranging from common milk bottles,

shaving cream cans, pop cans, automobile tires, or gas storage tanks, to the specialized

ones encountered in engineering applications/design. The traditional method for the

design o f pressure cylinders is to use existing design codes that have been developed by a

combination o f analytical methods and experience. These methods are usually based on

the material properties. The design criterion implicit in these codes is the prevention o f

the cylinder failure (e.g. bursting, buckling) under pressure loading conditions. The word

‘design’ includes not only the calculation of the detailed dimensions o f a cylinder, but

also the mode of failure, the method o f stress analysis and resulting stress levels, and the

selection o f material type and its environmental behavior. As a result in today’s cylinder

manufacturing environment, the design o f the cylinders containing hazardous materials

has to be well defined and considered concurrently with production methods and costs.

To minimize tooling costs, the trial-and- error stage o f the production process must be

1
eliminated or minimized. In addition to this, the operational components including safe-

filling process, serviceability, testing, and safe-transporting conditions have to be well

characterized by the manufacturers.

The cylinders in this document, known as DOT specification cylinders, containing

hazardous materials, have been designed and manufactured based on the requirements o f

the Hazardous Material Regulations (HMR) to meet the specifications of the Department

o f Transportation (DOT) Codes. These cylinders, refillable/reusable for most applications

and also non-refillable/non-reusable, are specifically designed for primary applications

such as chemicals, urethane foam, adhesive, fumigants, fire extinguishers, refrigerant

gasses, and other liquid, non-liquid or vapor gas applications. They are manufactured to

comply with stringent hazardous materials shipping and storage requirements.

The DOT-39 cylinders, approved by the DOT, are low-pressure cylinders (service

pressure < 500-psi (3.45-Mpa)), which can be commercially filled and used in industrial,

commercial, consumer markets, and medical applications. These cylinders shown in Fig.

1.1 are non-refillable and used for refrigerant applications by refrigerant producers and

packagers around the world and usually contain refngerant gases such as R12, R22,

R134A, R404A, R500 and R502. The refngerant cylinders, known as NRV (non-

refillable-valve) or NRC (Non-refillable cylinder) in the industry, are used as non-

refillable and non-reusable cylinders having capacities ranging from 15-lbs (6.8 kg.) to

50-lbs (22.7 kg.). The cylinders are also equipped with a non-refillable valve, one-way

hermetic leak-stop, to prevent refilling which is imsafe and illegal.

The 4-series of the DOT specification cylinders addressed in this document are

4BA, and 4BW, which are also low-pressure cylinders. These cylinders shown in Fig.
1.2, mostly refillable and re-usable, are manufactured with seams either longitudinally or

circumferentially based on their type and capacity. The cylinder body and heads (ends)

are formed by a drawing or pressing process and each cylinder must be uniformly and

properly heat-treated (stress-relief) prior to tests. The heat treatment is performed after

the completion of all forming and welding operations. The cylinders are in either

spherical or cylindrical shape, with water-capacity of l,ÜÜÜ-lbs (454-kg) or less and

service pressures of at least 225-psi (1.6-Mpa) and not over 500-psi (3.45-Mpa). Also,

welding procedures and operations have been employed and qualified in accordance with

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet C-3.

In the production process o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders, three types of

pressures are conducted and used to control cylinder quality: 1) service (working), 2) test,

and 3) burst pressures. The service pressure (SP) also called as working (operating)

pressure is the pressure at which the cylinders are filled and used in industrial

applications. By the definition of DOT Code concerning the designing rules, the SP is

260 psi (1.8 MPa) for the NRV cylinder with inner diameter {ID) o f 9.5-in (241.3-mm)

and the shell thickness (/) o f 0.032-in (0.8-mm). The test pressure (TP), however, is the

pressure at which all cylinders have to be tested before being put in service. According to

the Code, the minimum TP should be 3/2 times the SP for these cylinders. The cylinders

have to be tested for any gas leak and any undesired permanent volume expansion due to

plastic deformation under TP. However, the burst pressure (BP) or failure pressure (FP),

is associated with the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders only. Practically, the BP (or FP)

reflects the strength, and capacity o f the cylinders, is the maximum pressure a cylinder

can hold without bursting. In comparison, the BP is at least 2 times greater than the TP, a
fact that is supported by the experiment and computer aided modeling. In Chapter 4, we

will shed some light upon this point. On the other hand, after all forming and welding

operations done, the D 0T-4BA propane cylinder needs to be performed in bending test

instead o f burst tests before being put in services. Since the D 0T-4BA cylinders are

experienced to the heat treatment (stress relief annealing) in such a way ± a t the cylinder

material properties have been become homogenous. When the cylinder material including

weld zones being tested for bending test after the heat treatment process, the elongation

must be obtained minimum 20% without any crack, fracture or failure.

1.2 Motivation for the Research

Currently, the surveyed literature does not contain any study covering the

problems that are specifically related with the DOT codified refillable/non-refillable

cylinders explained above. A majority of the studies in the pressure cylinder and vessel

analyses focus on failure and prediction of fracture by using analytical and experimental

methods. Most o f these studies consider uniform wall geometry and homogeneous

material properties for the cylinders subjected to either internal or external pressure with

mostly temperature effected. These studies are not usually related to predict the physical

phenomena as mentioned in this study. Several comprehensive analytical models o f end

closures were presented in the literature. Some o f studies were aimed to model elastic-

plastic analyses o f flat and/or torispherical heads by using FEM modeling. In this

literature review, due to some o f different cases, the studies mostly about thick walled

pressure vessels under external pressure and open vessels tmder internal pressure (such as
gas pipes) are not considered.

Since then, a number o f theoretical and experimental investigations has been

addressed to the problem o f elastic and/or elastic-plastic instability o f a pressure vessel

subjected to internal or external pressure with along temperature effects and tensile

and/or torsional loading conditions. Good accounts o f these can be found in recent

publications o f Jiang (1992-93), Jiang & Wu (1993), Tabiei & Jiang (1997), Boote et al

(1997), and Boyle et al (1997). In the case o f instability o f cylindrical shells, analytical

formulations are available for ideal shells with perfect geometry and specific boundary

conditions in [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)], [Bednar, (1986)], and [Spence & Tooth, (1994)].

It is also important to predict the bursting pressure o f the vessels. Recently a few studies

has been done experimentally or theoretically by Tadmor & Durban (1995), Hill et al

(1995), Kieselbach (1996), Updike & Kalnins (1998), and Sun et al (1999).

In the modeling and analysis of the end closure o f the internally pressurized

cylinder case, the end closure have been analyzed in many studies for the failure by

elastic and/or elastic-plastic buckling, with wrinkles occurring around the circumference.

A number o f studies for the design and failure o f the torispherical and ellipsoidal end

closure subjected to internal or external pressure loading conditions have been recently

done experimentally and/or theoretically. Most o f these studies on the torispherical and

ellipsoidal end closures having elastic material properties and uniform thickness and

manufactured by spinning or bending processes have been addressed by Galletly,

Blachut, Soric, Taffeshi and Updike & Kalnins.


Figure 1.1: The DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinder (NRC or NRV Cylinder).
Handle

Valve-and-Tubing
System

Cylindrical Shell

i Weld Zone

Footring End-closure

Figure 1.2: The D0T-4BA refillable propane cylinder.


1.3 S c o p e and O b jectives o f R esearch

Discussions with the manufacturer o f the DOT specification cylinders during the

research initiation phase indicated that, in spite o f the advances made in modeling and

understanding o f better design of the cylinders, the manufacturer primarily still needs to

improve and comply with their design specifications concerning the SP, TP, and BP in

accordance to the DOT regulations. The manufacturer has to determine keen

qualifications of their products, such as the BP for each type o f cylinder series, and a new

design o f end closures to eliminate the undesired deformation o f the cylinders. Especially

from the expressions o f the manufacturer, when the cylinders are subjected to their TP’s,

undesired physical phenomena are primarily taken place permanently at the end closure

o f the cylinder. Approximately, the manufacturer using trial-and-error methods, which is

not an appropriate way to develop or acquire a practical system, obtained some o f the

design specifications. These specifications are including deformation of burst pressures

(BP) and burst failure locations (BFL) and elimination o f the permanent physical

phenomena of the DOT specification cylinders. Their possibilities would not help them to

achieve substantial time, energy, and cost savings in cylinder design and determine

specifications by improving material savings and enhancing productions rate. Therefore,

the company needs to support their product design by using the computer-aided modeling

and analysis for optimum design. To our knowledge, the company was not able to

support their production systems with a computer-aided modeling to determine the BP

and BFL for each type o f cylinder series to prepare a BP diagram. Also, the design o f the

convex-end closure was needed to be optimized to eliminate the flip-flop (buckling)

8
phenomenon to fulfill the requirements of the cylinder during the services. Hence, the

brief objectives o f this study are generally to focus o f the following contents:

> Determination o f the BP and BFL for each types o f the DOT-39 non-refillable

refrigerant cylinders (see Fig. 1.1) using both experimental and computer aided finite

element analysis (FEA) modeling approaches;

♦ Setup an experimental utility for the bursting test in the manufacturer’s facilities

and pressurize the cylinders hydrostatically until burst by filling with water,

♦ Development of a suitable 2-D axisysmmetric non-linear FEA modeling,

♦ Investigation of material properties of the drawn cylindrical shells,

♦ Investigation o f thickness variation of the drawn cylindrical shells,

♦ Investigation of the thickness and material properties o f the weld zone,

♦ Assumption to be made no dimples affect on the BP and BFL.

> Prediction o f ballooning phenomena at the bottom and permanent volume expansion

o f the cylinder using both experimental and 3-D axisysmmetric nonlinear FEA

modeling approaches;

♦ Setup an experimental utility for the ballooning prediction in the manufacturer’s

facilities and pressurize the cylinders hydrostatically to their TP’s,

♦ Development of an appropriate 3-D axisysmmetric non-linear FEA modeling,

I Use nonlinear, non-homogenous material properties in the modeling process,

❖ Use non-uniform wall thickness for the cylindrical shells.


❖ Use nonlinear material properties and thickness variation o f the weld zone,

❖ Generate the dimple geometry and its location in the modeling process.

> Elimination o f the ballooning phenomenon at the bottom o f the DOT-39 refrigerant

cylinders using 3D axisysmmetric nonlinear FEA modeling approach;

♦ Use the 3-D axisysmmetric non-linear FEA model having nonlinear, non-

homogenous material properties and non-uniform thickness variation,

♦ Use material properties of the weld zone

♦ Apply design optimization method to find optimum dimple location.

> Prediction o f the flip-flop (buckling) event at the bottom o f the D 0T-4B A refillable

propane cylinders (see Fig. 1.1) using both experimental and nonlinear FEA

modeling.

♦ Use the experimental results from the manufacturer’s data,

♦ Development o f a suitable 2-D axisysmmetric non-linear FEA modeling,

♦ Investigation o f the blank steel (SAE-1018) sheet material properties o f the end-

closure and its weld zone,

♦ Assuming there are no material change and thickness variation during the drawing

process o f the end-closure since being very shallow drawing.

> Elimination o f buckling phenomenon at the bottom and nonlinear design analysis for

the end-closure o f the D0T-4BA refillable propane cylinders;

10
♦ Use the 2-D axisysmmetric non-linear FEA modeling to eliminate the buckling

(flip-flop) event,

♦ Development of a new design of the end-closure by optimizing thickness,

♦ Analysis o f the convex end closure depending on the design characterizations.

1.4 Outline of the Dissertation

This document is organized into 6 chapters and provides a general review o f

pressure cylinder technology and analysis together with the results o f some experimental

and computer-aided studies. It includes a survey o f current industrial practices, based on

a literature review of specification o f Design Codes, and detailed explanation o f the

current study on developing a computer-aided Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for the

design of pressure cylinder applications. A brief outlining o f the cylinders technology and

aspects o f the manufacturers' environment, objectives and scope of the current research

with a research motivation is also provided in chapter 1. A summary o f the analysis

techniques including general technical background on pressure cylinders, and definitions

o f the design codes with a related literature reviews is given in Chapter 2. An extensive

review o f the technology in manufacturing processes o f the DOT specification cylinders

is summarized in chapter 3. An investigation o f the drawn cylindrical shells materials

properties and thickness variations including the weld zone properties o f the pressure

cylinders is also described in detail in chapter 3 as well. Also, the investigation o f BP and

the BFL for each type o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders using both

experimental and the computer-aided FEA approaches is given chapter 4. The plastic

11
instability and/or aspects o f bursting failure, nonlinear structural, stress-strain, large

deflection analyses, and elastic-plastic loading conditions are also explained in Chapter 4.

An optimum design o f imperfect end-closures o f the DOT Codified cylinders such as

D 0T -4B A refillable and DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders is analyzed in detail in chapter

5. Chapter 6 provides a summary, the concluding remarks and contributions, and presents

an outline o f future work.

12
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Design for Pressure Cylinders

The meaning of design in engineering conveys different meaning to different

persons. In this case, the design appears from the beginning o f the recognition and

identification o f a problem to the creation of an end result by taking definite action or the

creation o f something having physical reality [Bednar, (1986)]. The visualization o f the

design is an important component o f the conceptual design process. A manufacturer

needs to visually interpret drawings in order to recognize and interpret the drawing for

manufacturability [Waldron & Waldron, (1996)]. Also, The meaning o f the design does

not include only the calculation o f the detail-dimension of the cylinder, but also the mode

o f failure, the method of stress analysis and significance o f results, and the selection o f

material type and its environmental behavior. The design process can be explained and

interpreted in a different ways. For example, Bickell and Ruiz (1967) are pressure vessel

designers that use sequential approach and Shigley and Mischke (1989) use a parallel

approach are designers of mechanical components as shown in Fig’s. 2.1 and 2.2,

respectively.

13
The first step of the design procedure is to select all relevant information,

establishing a body o f design requirements for the pressure cylinders as seen in Fig. 2.1.

The necessary information includes in the first instance the functional and operational

requirements and limitations. Also, the requirements o f the Design Codes as listed in

Table A.l in Appendix A, can be considered because they usually cover the design o f the

various cylinder components. When the design requirements are established, the available

material selection should be considered. The specified Design Code, gives allowable

design stress for the materials selected, is used to dimension the main pressure shells

[Nichols, (1971)] and [Bickell & Ruiz (1967)].

The functional requirements consider the geometrical design parameters, such as

size and shape, locations of components, etc. Some o f these parameters may have to be

designed in collaboration with the design team but for the majority o f them, the pressure

cylinder designer is entirely free to act on the basis o f his/her own experience. On the

other hand, the operational requirements and limitations, imposed on the design o f the

pressure cylinders, are primarily divided into two groups. First group is the results from

the operation at the maintained loading conditions. The second group includes the

transient conditions that exist during a change in loading conditions, such as starting up

and shutting down. [Bednar (1986)], [Bickell & Ruiz (1967)], [Shigley & Mischke,

(1889)], and [Waldron &Waldron (1996)]. As a results, pressure cylinders generally can

be designed in engineering application with different shapes based on their applicable

field such as an example of three different pressure vessels used in different appliances

are shown in Fig. 2.3 [Harvey, (1974)].

14
Functional
Requirements

Establishments of the Operational


Operational Design Conditions Limitations
Requirements

Selection of Materials

Design
Codes Determination ofttie
Preliminary Layout

Fulfilment of
Design Requirements

Final D esign

Figure 2.1 : Step by step design procedure [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)].

Recognition o fN eed

Definition o f Problem

JL
Synthesis
~ ~ T ~

Analysis & Optimization

Evaluation
Itcnmon
JL
Presentation

Figure 2.2: The engineering design phase [Shigley & Mischke, (1989)].

15
é

Figure 2.3: Three different engineering cylinders; spherical vessel for low-temperature

liquid gas storage (top), a 4000°F air heater vessel for space flight research (middle), and

steam drum for a large boiler [Harvey, (1974)].

16
2.2 Design Codes for Pressure Cylinder Technology

The scope and philosophy o f Design Codes (Rules) has developed to a more

advanced state over the years. Higher design stresses are being used and the latest

research literature is widely employed in design methods. In the engineering design o f the

pressure cylinder technology, there are many kinds o f codes/rules to regulate the

characterizations o f the functional requirements and the material specifications o f the

cylinders during the manufacturing and service processes. The multiplicity o f Codes for

pressure cylinders can be demonstrated by a comparison o f representative Codes from the

USA, UK and Europe. The legal standing o f various national and international codes is

listed in Table A.l in Appendix-A. For example, in the USA, ASME Section V lll Boiler

and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B&PVC); in the UK, the British Standard Institution

BS 1515 (or for End-closure BS 5500) Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels; and in Europe,

German Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. In most countries, the National Codes have the

force o f law and strict adherence to their rules is required. [Nishols, (1971)], [Bickell &

Ruiz, (1967)], and [Chuse & Carson, (1993)].

The codes normally cover interpretation, responsibility, certification, selection o f

materials, normal design stresses, manufacture and workmanship, inspection, quality

control, testing as well as design. It is worth bearing in mind that the design rules are

intended to guard against various modes of possible failure. In pressure vessel codes and

standards some o f these failure modes are more adequately covered than others [Spence

in Ref. Spence &Tooth, (1994)]. These are usually listed as follows:

17
Bursting of cylinder/vessel wall.

Tearing at a discontinuity.

Brittle fracture at defect.

Creep rupture at elevated temperature.

Low cycle fatigue.

Stress corrosion cracking.

Corrosion fatigue.

Buckling,

Excessive deformation (steady load).

Retching (cyclic load), and

Vibration and damage.

2.2.1 The ASME Code

The ASME B&PVC, Section VIII Division 1 & 2, gives rules that pertain to the

design, materials selections, fabrication, inspection, and testing o f pressure vessels and

their components. The Division 1 includes allowable stress, factor o f safety, factors o f

joint efficiency, brittle fracture, and fatigue. With few exceptions, the rules that cover the

design o f components tend to be complicated to implement. The Division 2 gives

alternative rules for the pressure vessels, and gives a choice to clients, manufacturers, etc.

[Farr & Jawad, (1998)]. The ASME B&PVC has been accepted for many years as the

standard for the construction o f safe boilers and pressure vessels, and is in progressive

18
and viable and important changes and additions are made when required [Chuse &

Carson, (1993)].

Two quick-handy reference charts similarly developed by Chuse & Carson,

(1993) and Farr & Jawad, (1998) illustrate the various parts graphically or components of

a pressure vessel and the Code paragraphs those apply to each component as shown in

Fig's. A.l and A.2 in Appendix-A. Also, Table A.2 in Appendix-A lists the various

classes o f materials to be used in the design o f pressure vessels from the ASME Section

VIII Division 1, and additional helpful hints. The factors o f allowable stress and joint

efficiency, £y, (weld efficiency, stress risers) to be used in calculations for all sections and

head thicknesses are set forth in Code Par. UW-12 and Code Table UW-12 as shown in

Table A.3 in Appendix A [Chuse & Carson, (1993)]. The required joint efficiencies for

various components o f the cylindrical shells are defined/characterized by the ASME

Code in a flow chart as shown in Fig. A.3 in Appendix A.

The criteria for establishing allowable stress in ASME Section V lll Part 1 are

detailed in Appendix P of ASME Section VIII Part 1 and Appendix 1 o f ASME Section

11 Part D. The allowable stress at design temperature, rd, for most materials is 1/3 less

than minimum effective tensile strength or 2/3 the minimum yield stress o f the material

for temperatures below the creep and rupture values. A summary o f the bases used for the

design stress, is shown in Table 2.1, but as the various criteria tend to be complex

some application has been done. In the table, the creep range is defined based on the

design temperature, Td, which is 300°C < 7]/ < 500°C is taken as below the creep range,

and in the creep range, respectively [Nichols, (1971)].

19
Basis o f Design Stress £7^
CODE
Below Creep Range In Creep R ange

ASME v m Division 1
1.6 1.67
To be
ASME v m Division 2 Specified
1.5

BS 1515 Part 1 '^ y d r


1.5 '7 1 4 14

German C ode '-'yd yd


1.5 1.5

Table 2.1: Comparison of the design stresses (<%) among the well-known design codes

[Nichols, (1971)].

2.2.1.1 Hydrostatic Test Requirements

Pressure cylinders that are designed and constructed to ASME Section VIII Part 1

rules are required to pass either a hydrostatic test (defined in Par. UG-99) usually

preferred test method or a pneumatic test (defined in Par. UG-100). In accordance witli

the requirements o f all design Codes; the cylinders have to undergo a pressure test prior

to their acceptance. The hydrostatic TP at every point in the cylinder o f the ASME

Section V lll Part 1 shall be at least 1.5 times the maximiun allowable working pressure

{Pall) multiplied by the ratio o f the allowable tensile stress (%//) values at test temperature

20
(r,) divided by the maximum allowable tensile stress value at the design temperature {Td).

The TP varies from 1.1 to 1.5 times o f the equivalent design pressure (ED?) defined by

[Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)], as: EDP = P^, In this case, the maximum

allowable working pressure of each element is determined and multiplied by 1.5 and then

adjusted for the hydrostatic test. The lowest value is used for the test pressure, which is

adjusted by the test temperature to design temperature ratio [Farr & Jawad, (1998)].

2.2.1.2 Cylindrical Shell Calculations

The regulations for cylindrical shells in the ASME Section VIII Part I and Part 2

take into consideration internal pressure, external pressure and axial loads. The rules

assume a circular cross section with uniform thickness in the circumferential and

longitudinal directions. Design requirements are not available for cylinders with variable

thickness and variable material properties. According to the ASME Section VIII Part I

Par. UG-27; the required cylindrical shell thickness (/) under internal pressure (p) loading

shown in Fig. 2.4 can be defined as in Eq. (2.1) in the circumferential (hoop) direction

and in Eq. (2.2) in the longitudinal direction. Similarly, according to the ASM E Section

VIII Part 2 Par. AD-201 ; the required cylindrical shell thickness (t) can be identified as in

Eq. (2.3) in the circumferential (hoop) direction under internal pressure (p) and in Eq.

(2.4) in the longitudinal direction under axial tensile force (F).

21
]T T T

P erpendicular
A rea on which
F_ a c ti

SECTION A-A

Figure 2.4: Internal loading and resultant forces o f the DOT specification cylinders.

p - ID
when ( p < 0 .3 8 5 -cx^„ ■Ej ) (2.1)
(2 • E ^ —1.2 • p)

p-ID
tt — (2.2)
■Ej -0 .8 ■p)

P ■ID when ( p < 0.4 • cr„„ )


= (1 3 )
2 ku// —0.5 • p)

0 .5 -p ■ID + 2F
t, = when ( F < 0.25■p - ID) (2.4)
2 -W —0.5 • p )

22
2.2.2 The European Codes

The British Standard Institution (ESI) is currently the most advanced British Code

for conventional pressure vessels. Design procedures are given for all vessel components

including tube sheets, and "area for area’" is used as the nozzle reinforcement basis. The

scope of the BSl probably falls between those for the two divisions o f ASME Code

section Vlll, it requires more stress analysis then Division 1 but does not go to the extent

o f the analysis experiments of Division 2. Part 1 deals with carbon and ferritic alloys and

uses design stresses based on 1;2.35 o f the tensile strength or 2/3 of the 0.2% proof stress.

Part 2 deals with the austenitic stainless vessels and has essentially the same scope as part

1. On the other hand, the German Code consists of a series o f specifications; each one is

dealing with a specific design aspect. Design stresses are mainly based on a factor o f 1.5

applied to both proof stress and rupture stress and design procedure are given for typical

vessel components, although the scope is probably not so comprehensive as the Codes

mentioned above.

2.2.3 The DOT Code

The scope o f the DOT Rules for the cylinders used for storage and transporting o f

the hazardous materials is defined by the Research and Special Programs Administration

(RSPA) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Federal Hazardous Material

Transportation Law (Federal Hazmat Law), 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127, authorizes the

Secretary o f Transportation to regulate the design, manufacture and continuing

23
qualification o f packagings used to transport hazardous materials in commerce, or

packagings certified under Federal Hazmat Law. The HMR, 49 CFR Parts 171-180,

contains requirements for the manufacture, use, and re-qualification o f cylinders as

containers subject to Federal hazmat law, including defining materials and methods of

construction, the frequency and manner o f inspection and testing, standards for cylinder

rejection and condemnation, cylinder marking and record keeping, authorizations for

packaging hazardous materials in cylinders, filling, loading, unloading, and carriage in

transportation [49 CFR, (1999)].

This study deals with some o f the DOT Codified steel cylinders designated as 3 ,4

and 8 series, and 39 as defined in Part 178 Subpart C of the HMR. Specifically, the 3-

series and 39 cylinders are produced as seamless; the 4 and 8 series o f the cylinders are

produced with seams. These cylinders are marked to conform to applicable requirements.

For example, the markings have been applied in industrial applications for series 3: DOT-

3AA, D0T-3AAX, and D0T-3BN, etc.; for series 4: D0T-4B, D0T-4BA, and DOT-

4BW, etc.; for series 8: DOT-8 and D0T-8AL; and for 39 seamless: DOT-39 [49 CFR,

Part 178 Subpart C (1999)].

In considering the issue o f cylinder filling limits, RSPA also reviewed technical

information supplied by cylinder manufacturers and by holders o f exemptions that

authorize either a TP o f 3/2 times o f SP or 10% overfill for materials specified in 49 CFR

173.302(c). The hazardous materials information system database for incidents involving

marked cylinders, and the work currently is being done by the ISO and the United

Nations Group o f Experts on the Transport o f Dangerous Goods. In effect, the

compressed gas association's (CGA) proposal would increase the filling limit for most of

24
the new seamless DOT specification cylinders to that currently authorized for cylinders

marked w ith a "+" sign [49 CFR 173.302(c), (1999)].

CGA petitioned RSPA to change the TP from 5/3 times o f SP for currently

authorized DOT specification seamless cylinders to 3/2 times o f SP for newly constructed

DOT specification seamless cylinders. The most significant change is the marking o f

these specification cylinders with the TP instead o f the WP, since the DO 1 specification

cylinders have always been designed to the TP rather than the WP. Specifically, the stress

formulas used to determine the minimum wall thickness o f DOT specification cylinders

are calculated at the minimum the TP. In addition, the 3/2 o f the TP would result in a

calculated minimum wall o f barely 0.001-in (0.0254-mm) less for a current cylinder with

a 0.250-in (6.35-mm) wall minimum. The ASME and Europe (18 countries) use a 3/2 o f

the TP to the WP ratio [49 CFR, (1999)].

2.3 Design by Rule and Design by Analysis

The main philosophy of virtual design standards is based on the concept o f

design-by-rule. The basic idea of design by rule is that one the leading scantlings are

fixed in this way the designer simply obeys the rules laid down in the procedures for

specified components such as nozzles, heads, flanges, etc. Essentially it involves the use

o f formulae and rules to calculate basic shell thickness to keep nominal stress below o f

allowable design stress. Thereafter, component details are dealt with by strict adherence

to specific rules delineated in the standard. The design-by-rule approach has the great

benefit o f simplicity and consistency but has obvious limitations, which are immediately

25
apparent when loadings or geometries are encountered which are not covered in the

standard. On the other hand, the design-by-analysis methodology, now incorporated to

some extent in several national standards, is a more general approach based on specific

criteria associated with a full stress analysis. Essentially, design by analysis is based on

the idea that if a proper stress analysis can be conducted then a better, less conservative,

assessment o f design can be made then would otherwise be the case by the usual

approach o f design by rule [Spence, (1994); in Spence and Tooth, (1994)].

2.4 Design Rules for Perfect End-closures

The end closures on pressurized cylinders are usually dished ends o f torispherical

and spherical shape although sometimes hemispherical or ellipsoidal heads are employed.

Head selection is made on an economic and/or functional basis, such as boiler drums,

heat exchangers, oil or gas storage tanks, food processing industry, the chemical industry,

the nuclear industry, etc. The end closures can be manufactured by various manufacturing

processes including hot/cold forming (pressing), spinning, machining, and crown-

segment technique.

According to the definitions o f the design rules for the end closures o f the

pressurized cylinders, the end closures are usually involved within constant or uniform

thickness, standard geometry within codes’ limitations and homogeneous material

properties. For these reasons, these end-closures having similar constant design

parameters and material properties are described as “perfect end-closures”. However in

reality, it is not possible to manufacture the heads in perfect conditions, which are

26
characterized in the design rules. The parameters used to define a particular torispherical

or ellipsoidal end-closure shapes are defined in BS 5500 Sec. 3.5.2.2 and in ASME

Section VIII Part 1 Paragraph UG-32 (d) and (e) [Farr & Jawad, (1998)] and by Galletly

& Moffat [in Ref. Spence & Tooth, (1994)]. In addition to this, the governing equations

for design o f the end closures in terms of pressure loading conditions are given in Article

1-4 o f Appendix 1 o f ASME Section Vlll Part I. Ihe Design parameters reproduced

from the codes for the ellipsoidal and torispherical ends-closures are shown in Fig. 2.5.

The thickness, /, internal crown radius, /?c, internal knuckle radius, J?*, and internal head

height, h are usually non-dimensionalized with respect to the outer diameter {OD) or

inner diameter {ID). The related limitations for these geometrical parameters o f the main

end-closures prescribed in the design rules as listed in Table 2.2.

Torispherical End-closure Ellipsoidal End-closure

Figure 2.5: Geometry of perfect torispherical and ellipsoidal end-closures by Galletly &

Moffat [in Ref. Spence & Tooth, (1994)], and [Chuse & Carson, (1993)].

27
Eiid-Closures .^SME-Vin-i UG-32 BS 5500 S.3.5.2.2

0.002 < — <0.08


1 R ^= 0.67 -ID OD
Torispliaical ^ < 0.06 '
R, 1 R ,= I D - ^ > 0 .0 6 <1
OD OD
1
> l-t

1
/, 1 = 0 .1 7 -1 0 0.002 < — <0.08
OD
Ellipsoidal ^ = 0.25
ID , = 0.9-ID — >0.18
1 OD

Hemisphei'ical — <0.178 0.002 < — <0.16


ID OD

Table 2.2: The limitations o f the end-closures based on the design rules.

2.5 Design of the DOT Specification Cylinders

In the terminology of the structural analyses, closed or open cylindrical

geometries are referred to as shells, which are designed like tank containers with an end-

closure used to contain fluids (gasses and liquids). Generally, the DOT codified cylinders

are mostly designed and produced as cylindrical shell along with two-end closures to

complete and fulfill the requirements o f liquid containers. M ost common group o f the

28
DOT specification cylinders is shown in Fig. 2.6. As mentioned before, two types o f

these DOT codified cylinders, DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant and D0T-4BA refillable

propane, have mainly been analyzed and designed in this study. Both of these cylinders

have usually been designed with the torispherical and/or ellipsoidal end-closure.

Figure 2.6: General types of DOT specification cylinders.

29
2.5.1 The DOT-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant Cylinders

The NRV cylinders have usually been designed thin-walled and manufactured in

different types depending on their inner diameters {ID) and associated wall thicknesses

(r). These cylinders may be made in three groups by their ID, such as 7.5-in (190.5-mm),

9.5-in (24l.3-mm), and 12-in t304.8-mm), which are shown in Fig. 2.7, are called by

their ID are ID: 7.5, ID: 9.5, and ID: 12. Each group o f these cylinders has different “f”

ranging from 0.02-in (0.508-mm) to 0.1-in (2.54-mm). According to the design variables

explained above. Table 2.4 is listing the nominal dimensions o f the each group o f the

NRV cylinders. Indeed, the "t'\ is the initial thickness {to) o f the purchased blank steel

sheet. On the other hand, the DOT specification cylinders have always been designed to

TP rather than SP. Especially, the stress formulas used to determine the minimum ’7” of

the NRC are calculated at the minimum TP. Consequently, the pressure specifications of

the most commonly manufactured cylinders used in industrial applications are given as

an example illustrated in Table 2.3.

The components of the NRC (or NRV) mainly consist o f two semi-ellipsoidal

bottomed cylindrical shells, hermetic leak-stop valve and tube system. The NRV

cylinders are generally manufactured by a deep drawing process in two semi-ellipsoidal

bottomed cups, top and bottom shell components, as shown in Fig. 2.8, and the hermetic

one-way valve system as a component o f the NRV cylinder is illustrated in Fig. 2.9.

These two shell components are welded together at the middle circumferentially about

their axis o f rotation to form a NRV cylinder as shown in Fig. 2.10. Also, these cylinders

have a tubing-valve system, and a handle is welded at the top of the cylinders. In

30
addition, the cylinders have a pressure relief device placed on the top shell component as

shown in Fig. 2.10.

The bottom shell component is designed with four small dimples located

symmetrically and circumferentially about the axis o f rotation shown in Fig. 2.10. These

dimples produced with a certain location and geometry on the imperfect ellipsoidal end-

closure. The location circumferentially and radius o f dimples are shown with Ri and Rd,

respectively. The purpose of these dimples is to provide a stationary platform to position

the cylinders in a stable vertical orientation on horizontal surface.

The physical design characterizations o f refrigerant cylinders are shown in Fig.

2.10. In the figure, some design variables are shown and designated as inner diameter

{ID), outer diameter (OD). minimum diametrical wall thickness (/), knuckle radius (/?*),

crown radius {RD. and length of the cylindrical shell (Z,). Based on the definitions o f the

ISO code, these cylinders are thin walled, t/ID < 1/40, and defined as shallow cylinders,

L/2 < ID [Bednar, (1986)]. Based on the DOT specifications, the minimum wall thickness

must be such that the wall stress (cr,,,) at TP does not exceed the yield strength o f the

finished cylinder-wall material. The stress calculation, for the cylindrical shell sections

must be made by the following empirical equation from Appendix B, namely:

T P - ilJ - O D - + 0 .4 -ID-)
O D ^ -ID '----------

31
ïrtiV .!.

JL
b ID 9 S 10 1Z0 I D
lOO 5 mm 241 3 mm 3 0 4 .8 m m

Figure 2.7: The three groups o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders.

Cylinder ID Wall Thickness Service Pressure Test Pressure Water capacity


(t) (SP) (TP)
Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Psi (MPa) Psi (MPa) lbs (kg)
7.5 (190.5) 0.03 (0.762) 260 (1.793) 325 (2.241) 13.51 (6.13)
9.5 0.032 (0.8128) 260 (1.793) 400 (2.7579) 29.7 (13.472)
(241.3) 0.058 (1.4732) 400 (2.7579) 500 (3.4472) 29.7 (13.472)
12 0.04 (1.016) 260 (1.793) 400 (2.7579) 49.6 (22.5)
(304.8) 0.104 (2.6416) 350 (2.4132) 700 (4.8263) 49.6 (22.5)

Table 2.3: Pressure specifications of the DOT39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders.

32
t/ID t / Rc t / Rk t/L
C ylinder G roup I : /D = 7.5-in
0.0027 0.00332 0.0178 0.00179
0.004 0.00498 0.0267 0.00268
0.0063 0.0067 0.0356 0.00358
0.0067 0.0083 0.0445 0.0045
0.008 0.00995 0.0534 0.0054
0.0093 0.0116 0.0623 0.0063
0.01067 0.0133 0.0712 0.0072
0.012 0.015 0.08 0.0081
0.013 0.0167 0.089 0.00894
C ylinder G roup I : /D = 9.5-in
0.00211 0.00261 0.0136 0.0015
0.00316 0.00391 0.0204 0.00228
0.00421 0.00621 0.0273 0.00304
0.00625 0.00651 0.0341 0.0038
0.00632 0.00781 0.0409 0.004563
0.00737 0.00911 0.0477 0.0053
0.00842 0.01042 0.0545 0.0061
0.00947 0.01172 0.0613 0.0068
0.01053 0.01302 0.0681 0.00761
C ylinder G roup I ; /£> = 12-in
0.00167 0.00206 0.011 0.0014
0.0025 0.0031 0.0162 0.0021
0.0033 0.0041 0.022 0.0028
0.004167 0.005154 0.02697 0.0035
0.005 0.00618 0.0324 0.0042
0.00583 0.0072 0.03776 0.00489
0.00667 0.00825 0.0432 0.0056
0.0075 0.0093 0.0486 0.0063
0.0083 0.01031 0.053 0.007

Table 2.4: Nominal dimensions o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

33
Bottom Top
Shell Shell

Inner Diameter (ID) Inner Diameter QP)

SECTION A-A
SECTION A-A

Figure 2.8: Bottom and top shell components o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

34
H e rm e tic d e s ig n
s e a ls c o m p le te ly
w ith m in im u m to rq u e

S p rin g -lo a d e d p r e s s u r e re lie f d e v ic e


B ra ss c o n s tru c tio n . reliev es e x c e s s p r e s s u r e w ith o u t
n e e d le s s ly e m p ty in g th e ta n k .

Figure 2.9: Hermetic one-way valve for DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

35
H andle
V alve & T u b e
System

T orispherical
H ead
P ressure R elief
D evice

T op S hell ^
C om ponent

W eld Z one

Inner D iam eter (ID )

B ottom Shell
C o m p o n en t "

Dimples For F eet

C row n SECTION A-A

Figure 2.10: Design specifications o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinder.

36
2.5.2 Design of D 0T -4B A Propane Cylinders

The D0T-4BA refillable cylinder used for storage and transporting o f propane

gasses basically consists o f one cylindrical shell, one end-closure, and valve and tube

system. The cylindrical shell is a torispherical bottomed drawn cylindncal cup using deep

drawing process as shown in Fig. 11(a). The end closure is also pressed a very shallow

end used to close the bottom of the cylinder as shown in Fig. 2.11(b). These drawn

components, bottomed cup and end-closure, are welded together circumferentially at near

bottom o f the cylinder to form a D0T4BA refillable cylinder as shown in the figure.

Also, these cylinders have a tubing-valve system, and a handle that is welded to the top of

the cylinders.

The physical design characterizations of the end closure of the propane cylinders

are shown in Fig. 2.11. From the figure, some design variables are shown and designated

as the ID, minimum end thickness (/), knuckle radius (/?*), crown radius {Re), and height

of the dished-end-closure {h). The relationships o f these design parameters o f the end-

closure used for D 0T-4BA propane cylinders are as follows;

h t
— = 0.24
ID Id

R-y K = 0.802
- ^ = 0.14
ID Id

37
W hen these relationships are compared with the limitations o f the design

parameters for the perfect heads listed in Table 2.2, they are not matching exactly.

However, the design specifications o f the D 0T-4BA ’s end-closure are very close to the

ellipsoidal end closure prescribed in the rules o f ASME V III-1. Based on these

comparisons, the end-shape definition o f the D0T-4BA propane cylinders can be defined

as "convex-end closure” as far as the pressure is concerned. For the convex-end closure,

the pressure is in contact with the outer surface o f the curved end o f the end/head as

shown in Fig. 2.11(b). Besides having non-standard design parameters, the end-cInsures

o f the D 0T-4BA refillable cylinders have non-uniform wall thickness and non-

homogenous material properties due to manufacturing processes. Similarly, the end-

closures o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders (shown in Fig. 2.8) have also

non-standard geometrical design parameters, non-uniform wall thickness and non-

homogenous material properties as well. For these reasons, both types o f these end-

closures used to form o f DOT-39 and D0T-4BA specification cylinders are defined as

''Imperfect End-closures”. Based on the definition o f the DOT rules in Appendix-B, the

cylindrical shells must have wall stress, <t ,v , in terms o f the TP and outer diameter (OD)

calculated by the formula as follows;

r P - ( l .3 - 0 D '+ 0 .4 - / D ')
OD^ - I D' - ----------

38
A I

{
\

S E C T IO N A -A SECTIO N A -A

(a) (b)

Figure 2.11: (a): The D 0T-4BA refillable cylinder, and (b): The convex-end closure.

39
2.6 Design for Pressure

Design pressure {pu) is the pressure used to determine the minimum required

thickness o f each type of cylindrical shell component, and denotes the difference between

internal and external pressures, which is usually referred to atmospherically pressure. It

includes a suitable margin above the operating pressure (or SP), which is 10% o f the SP.

According to the Code definition, minimum p j i s 15 psi less than SP. The maximum

allowable SP is the maximum gauge pressure permissible at the top o f the completed

cylinder in its operating position at the designated temperature, room temperature for

DOT-39 cylinders. By the DOT Code definition, the required thickness as computed by

the Code formulas, which are given in Eq’s. (2.5) and (2.6). on the other hand, according

to the ASME rules, the minimum required shell thickness equations are specified in Eq’s.

from (2.1) to (2.4). The design thickness is the minimum required thickness o f the non­

drawn circular steel sheet. The cylindrical shell must be designated to withstand the most

severe combination o f coincident pressure under expected operating conditions [ASME

S-VIII P-1], [Bednar, (1986)], and [Chuse & Carson, (1993)].

2.7 Technical Background of Thin-wailed Pressure Cylinders

The pressure cylinder design is taken to mean the underlying philosophy,

decisions and calculations to the design o f a vessels such that it will withstand the various

loadings applied to it and adequately perform the service required. The designer has to

40
consider how the desired shapes o f the vessels are to be designed and how these shapes

will perform under service loading. For this reason, the role o f engineering mechanics in

this part of design process is to provide descriptions o f the pressure cylinder parts and

materials in terms o f simple models, which can be analyzed numerically. Typical

pressure vessel details are listed in Table 2.5, organized in a fashion so as to highlight the

different aspects and considerations that may need to be into account. Table 2.6

summarizes the analysis side of design by highlighting the purpose o f the analysis. The

table is offered as a suggestion for a useful overall approach to pressure vessels design

which identifies the type of information that can be deduced from various levels for

analysis [Spence, in Ref. Spence & Tooth. (1994)]. Therefore, as mentioned before, the

pressure cylinders design and manufacturing viewpoint are usually designed within two

main shell components, cylindrical shells and end-closures. In the literature, the

cylindrical shells and the end-closures are usually designed and analyzed separately when

the end-closure and the cylindrical shell are not manufactured as a unique part as shown

in Fig. 2.8. In the application of D0T-4BA refillable propane cylinders, the components

o f the cylindrical shell and end-closure are manufactured separately as shown in Fig.

2. I I . In the case o f discontinuity stresses at the junctions o f cylindrical shells and end-

closure, these two shell components are sometimes analyzed together. Both cylindrical

shell and the end-closure of the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders, manufactured as a

unique part as seen in Fig. 2.8. were analyzed together. However, in the case o f DOT-

4B A propane cylinder illustrated in Fig. 2.11, the convex-end-closure was only analyzed

regardless considering the cylindrical shells because o f problem related with the

structural of the convex-end closure.

41
Component Details Considerations

Nozzles Spheres, cylinders, oblique loads. Elastic


p . M . T ... Plastic
Limit
Flanges Taper hub, quick release, gaskets. T K arm al
bolt loads ... Transients
Residual
Piping Supports, elastic follow up. Distortion
seismic, snubbers, transients Dynamic
(bends, bellows) flexibility ... Seismic
Thick sections
Valves Non-standard shapes, seals Imperfections

Supports Legs, saddles, brackets, skirts Philosophy

Storage vessels Construction, stability - wind and SCF


vacuum, temperature, vibration - Yield
pumps, mixing, erosion. Shakedown
distortion, sinkage, special Limit load
materials - cryogenic, double Fatigue
walled .. . Crack growth
Buckling
Damage

Transportable Gas/fluid properties, acceleration Material


vessels sloshing, new materials . . . properties

Vessel ends Manufacture, shape tolerances. Yield stress


buckling ... (design stress)
Toughness
Etc. Impact
Weldability

Table 2.5: Examples of pressure cylinder components and associated considerations

[Spence, in Ref. Spence & Tooth, (1994)].

42
Areas of study C oncepts Characterising param eter(s)/
criteria
Elastic stress Stress concentration Maximum stress (intensity), â(S)
analysis factors (SCF) Nominal o r m em brane stress, <r„
SCF = ô j o „
Plasticity First yield Yield pressure, Py
Shakedow n Shakedow n pressure (factor).
Limit load
Limit pressure, P\,
Cracked bodies LEFM (Linear elastic Stress intensity factor, K
fracture mechanics) Toughness, /(,c
GYFM (G ross Crack tip opening displacem ent
yielding fracture (CTOD), 6
mechanics) Critical CTOD, 6g
Fatigue Number of cycles (n) Number of cycles to initiation, /Vj
Crack initiation Number of cycles for
Propagation propagation, Afp
Cumulative dam age Cumulative dam age, ^ { n / N )
Time dependent Elastic analogy Steady-state stress, cr„
Reference stress Reference stress/displacem ent/
time,
Damage Damage parameters, %,w
Com binations Ratcheting Bree type diagrams. D am age
C reep/fatigue sum m ations, etc.
Fracture, etc.

Table 2.6: Pressure vessels design [Spence, in Ref. Spence & Tooth, (1994)].

43
2.7.1 Specifîcations of the Thin-walled Cylindrical Shells

The cylindrical shells are the most frequently used geometrical shape with two

radii of curvatures, meridional, R&, and circumferential, in general shells o f revolution

as shown in Fig. 2.12. Based on the definition o f the shell theory, rotation o f a straight

line parallel with the axis of rotation develops the cylindrical shell as shown in Fig. 2.13

[Bickell and Ruiz (1967)]. For the case o f DOT specification cylinders, the meridional

(longitudinal) radius o f curvature o f the cylindrical shell, R l = ao, and the radius o f

curvature o f the cylindrical shell is the radius of the formed cylinder (tangential radius),

R, = R = 0.5-ID, as shown in Fig. 2.8. On the other hand, the end-closures o f the DOT

specification cylinders usually designed in two shapes, ellipsoidal and torispherical, have

two radii o f curvatures, R l and R,. For these reasons, these two components having

different design parameters including different thickness along with different material

properties and stress analysis are analyzed separately in this chapter.

For mechanical analysis, the geometry of thin walled cylindrical shells has to be

specified using the form of the mid-wall surface having a principal radius o f curvature

about axis o f rotation as shown in Fig. 2.14, and initially the same wall thickness at every

point. According to the principles o f the engineering strength o f materials, these cylinders

may be treated as thin-walled, because the wall thickness is quite small in comparison

with other dimension. That is; based on the definition o f ASME Code and the current

literature, the ratio o f the radius o f curvature, R = 0.5 */D, to the wall thickness T’ is R/t >

10. This also means that the tensile, compressive or shear stresses produced by internal

pressure in the cylindrical shells can be assumed to be equally distributed over the

44
wall thickness. In the case o f DOT specification cylinders, the ratio o f the radius o f

curvature, R (or 0.5 */D), to the wall thickness is varying in the range o f 37 < / / < 600,

as shown in Table 2.4.

2.7.2 Stresses in Thin-wailed Cylinders

Pressure cylinders, having a uniform internal pressure are subjected to stresses in

their walls, which tend to failure or tear the wall of the cylinder. The stresses are

produced by the forces, which must be developed to maintain all parts o f the cylinder in

equilibrium. In analyzing a pressure cylinder, the objective is to determine the stresses in

the wall o f the cylinder in order to ensure safety. The internal pressure o f the liquid or gas

contained in the cylinder acts perpendicular to the walls, uniformly overall the interior

surface. According to the assumption of thin-walled cylinders, the stress distribution

across the wall is very uniform, and it can be assumed that all the material o f the wall

shares equally to resist the applied forces [Baker et al, (1972)], [Bull, (1988)], [Bickell &

Ruiz ( 1967)], and [Vinson, ( 1989)].

Two separate stress analyses are shown here without considering the bending

stresses, which occur at jim ction o f cylindrical shells and the end-closure. In the first step,

the tendency for the internal pressure creates the force of F/., to pull the cylinder apart in

a direction parallel to its axis o f rotation is found. This is called longitudinal stress oz.

The second, a ring around the cylinder is analyzed to determine the stress due to F,,

tending to pull the ring apart. This is called hoop (tangential) stress, a,. These Forces F l

and Ft are shown in the Fig. 2.4.

45
r
u

Figure 2.12: General shell vvith surface o f revolution [Faupel & Fisher, (1981)].

46
Axis of Rotation

M id
Point

SECTION A-A

Figure 2.13: Coordinate system and stresses for cylindrical shells under internal pressure

[Bednar, (1986)] and [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)].

47
lo p P o in r Crown region

Knuckle Region

Mid-surface o f the
DOT-39 \
Cylinder

Middle o f th e
Cylindrical Shell

Middle
Point

9.5" DOT Cylinder, Mid-surface Geometry for FEM Analysis, KLSIOGLU

Figure 2.14: Axisymmetric mid-surface geometry o f the DOT-39 cylinder.

48
2.7.2.1 Longitudinal Stress

The cylinder subjected to uniform internal pressure, p , is cut perpendicular to its

axis of rotation to create a free body as shown in Fig. 2.4. In the figure, assuming that the

end-closure o f the cylinder is closed with a flat head, the pressure acting on the circular

area o f the end would produce a resultant force, F r, which is acting on a projected area,

Ap = K • r J , where (or 0.5-Dm) is the mean radius o f the shell as shown in Fig. 2.13.

This force must be resisted by the force, F l, acting on thickness area, in the cylinder wall,

which, in turn, creates a tensile stress in the wall. The wall thickness area o f the cylinder

is .-I,, = 7t-I - R„,-t. The areas o f .4,^ and Ap are shown in Fig. 2.15. Considering these

diametrical cross-sectional areas, /l^ and Ap, the force equilibrium equation, Fl = F r,

which can be written as: a, - R„, t = p - K - R j ' [Spence & Tooth, (1994)]. From

which the longitudinal stress can be written as follows;

(2.7)

1.1.2.2 Circumferential (Hoop) Stress

The presence o f tangential stress can be visualized by isolating a ring from the

cylinder is shown in Fig. 2.15. The uniform internal pressme pushes outward evenly all

aroimd the ring. The ring must be developed a tensile stress in the tangential direction to

49
the circumference of the ring to resist the tendency o f the pressure to tear the ring. The

magnitude o f the stress can be determined by using half o f the ring as a free body shown

in the figure. Therefore, the resultant o f the forces due to the internal pressure must be

determined in the horizontal direction and balanced with the forces in the wall o f the ring.

The resultant force, F r, is acting on the longitudinal projected area,

Ap = ■L = 2 - R„, ■L , must be resisted by the force, F,, which is acting on the

circumferential thickness-cross-sectional thin area, =2-{t ■L). In other words, the

tensile stress in the wall of the cylinder is equal to the product o f the resisting force, F,, at

the cross-sectional area of the wall. In this case, the equilibrium equation for these forces,

F, = F r, may be written as: -2-t ■L = p - 2 - ■L [Mott, (1978)] and [Spence &

Tooth, (1994)]. From which the circumferential (hoop. Tangential) stress can be written

as follows;

0 -, = (2 . 8 )

2.7.2.3 Principal Stresses

The principal stresses, o/ and o), for the thin-walled cylindrical shells subjected

to uniform intemal pressure are the same exactly defined as the normal stresses, a, and

at, respectively, as we found in the equations above. By the definitions o f shell o f

revolution, the principal directions are in the same directions with the main axes o f the

50
cylindrical shells. The tensile stresses are acting on the cross-sections; that is, the cti is

acting circumferentially, and the c i is acting longitudinally due to intemal pressure, p, as

shown in Fig. 2.16. Therefore, the principal stresses for the thin-walled cylindrical shells

are defined as; the 0 / is the circumferential (hoop, tangential) stress equal to the 0, and

the 0 j is the longitudinal (axial) stress equal to the 0 ^.

2.7.2.4 T he M axim um Shearing Stresses

The principal stresses are acting on the intemal face of the differential element o f

the cylinder wall as shown in Fig. 2.17. Since is very small then unity o f p (or 05)

is very small compared with 0 /, and 0 j, and then the effects o f the p ( 0 )) may be

neglected. The stress state in the cylinder wall approximates to a simple two-dimensional

system with the at and 0 j. Based on the different projection plane in 3-D cases, the

maximum shearing stresses are; = 0.5 (0 , - 0 , ) is in the plane o f 0 / and 0 );

= 0.5 • (0 , ) is in the plane of 0 / and p; and = 0.5 • (0 , ) is in the plane o f cn and

p. Therefore, the maximum shearing stress produced in these projection planes, in

general, occurs on a plane at 45" to the tangent and parallel to the longitudinal axis o f the

cylinder can be obtained in the plane o f 0 / and p, which is given [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967]

and [Spence & Tooth, (1994)] as follows;

(2.9)

51
Wall Area
on which

s 'm
Projected
area on
which
Fo acts

Figure 2.15: Cylindrical Shell-ring internally pressurized and hoop forces [Mott, (1978)].

Figure 2.16: Principal stresses and their directions for the cylindrical shell [Mott, (1978)].

52
Ptaneof\Ux.
Shearing Stress

Figure 2.17; Stresses acting on an element o f the wall o f a circular cylindrical shell with

closed ends under intemal pressure [Spence & Tooth, (1994)].

2.7.3 Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis of C ylindrical Shells

Stress is an important mechanical input in assessing potential failure in a machine

component, strain is also very important. Strain, a second-order tensor quantity, is the

term used to define the intensity and direction o f the deformation at a given point with

respect to a specified plane within the solid body. Relationship between stress strain, both

in the elastic and plastic ranges o f behavior o f engineering materials, are important and

useful tools o f the engineering designer. Such relationships also form the basis for many

of the theories o f failure [Collins, (1993)]. The distinction between engineering stress and

strain compared with true stress and strain is important to recognize, especially when

machine components operate in the plastic range. Usually, when nominal material
53
properties are evaluated or specified, the concept o f engineering stress-strain are

employed. To provide a more accurate measure o f stress strain, the quantities true stress

and true strain have been defined and employed. True stress is the actual stress based on

the accrual area a corresponding at every instant to current value o f load. True strain is

associated with an instantaneous value o f gage length, which changes with increase in the

applied load [Bickell & Ruiz. (1V67].

2.7.3.1 Elastic Stress-Strain Analysis

The linear relationship between stress and strain in the elastic range for

homogeneous and isotropic engineering materials has been well established

experimentally, which was first presented by Hooke and is known as Hooke’s law. The

Hook’s law is related to the normal or elongational strains to the applied normal stresses

through two constants. Young's modulus, E. and Poisson ratio, v [Case & Chilver

(1971)]. However, this relationship for 3D case can be deduced directly in terms o f

principal stress and strains as follows;

= - ^ k , - v ' - k : + o ’3 )] (2.10a)

g] = -^ k z ki (2.10b)
E

= -^ k i k (2.10c)
E

54
2.13.2 Plastic Stress-Strain Analysis

Since machine parts and structure are sometimes operated beyond the yield point,

it is important to investigate the stress-strain relationships in the plastic range where the

linear elastic relationships no longer are applicable. The stress-strain relationships in the

plastic region are not generally independent of time. Any exact theory o f plastic

deformation from the time the plastic flow was initiated. Such relationships would be

complex, involving the stress and the time rate o f strain, which is at any given time would

be determined through a step-by-step integration over the entire strain history.

Two simplified theories, the proportional deformation and the incremental strain,

have been proposed for use in the plastic range. The proportional deformation theory is

actually a simplified case of the strain increment theory in which the ratio o f the principle

shearing strains to corresponding shearing stresses are assumed equal at any time during

the deformation. As long as, the temperatures are below the creep range and strain rates

are reasonable low, the proportional deformation theory yields relatively accurate results.

In developing expressions for the plastic stress-strains relationships using proportional

deformation theory, the following assumptions have been summarized and reproduced

from [Collins, (1993)] and [Ugural and Fanster, (1995)] as follows;

• change in volume as a result o f plastic deformation is zero,

• true strains remains parallel to the true stresses throughout the deformation,

• the ratios of the principal shearing strains to the corresponding principal

55
shearing stresses are equal at any stage o f plastic deformation,

• the elastic components of strain are negligible compared to the plastic

components of strain,

• the plastic flow assumptions and equations apply only for the case of

increasing loads. For decreasing loads the behavior is assumed to be elastic.

Using these assumptions, the equations to define the relationships o f the true

shearing strains (// ) with the true stresses ( 05) in the plastic range are given by Collins

(1993) in terms of instantaneous modulus o f plasticity D = 3/(2C ,) (not constant), and

poisson ratio. v= l/2. in Eq. 2.11. Similarly, the nonlinear stress-strain relationships in the

shear deformable finite-shell element are defined by Tabiei & Jiang (1998) in the matrix

form using constant shear correction factor, (ai. 2 ), in Eq. 2.12.

0-1 - - ' k + 0-;) (2 . 11 a)

2C.
ri=- (2 . 1 1 b)

2C,
/3 = 0-3 + 0 ":) (2 . 1 1 c)

2_
Eu

>= O': (2.12a)


E,II
Xi <^1:
1
0 0

56
\7n ÛT, Gij
(2.12b)
1/23. 1 23 .

ûr-, - G-,

The behavior of a material in a multi axial state o f stress or strain to simple

uniaxial tensile behavior (cr = k-0') requires the postulation o f a combined stress theory.

The best combined stress theory for ductile behavior is the distortion energy, or

octahedral shear stress theory. Accepting for now that the octahedral shear stress theory is

the most applicable to the region o f plastic deformation, the expressions for octahedral

shear stress, %, and octahedral shear strain, yo, heave been derived, respectively, by Nadai

[in ref. Collins, (1993)] as follows;

ro = Y +k -C T ,)' +(cr, -CT,)' (2 13)

Y V k -^2) “ ^'3) ~^\ ) (2.14)

With these definitions o f equations prescribed above, the plastic behavior can be

defined as principal true strains in terms of principal true stresses by simplifying as

follows;

8, = ■\pc' + P ' + \ - a • P - a - • i_a_A (2.15a)


2 2

57
ô-, = • [ « ■ + p- + \ - a-P- a-pf ' "' ' ' ' " ■ . - ^ - 1 (2.15b)
9 9

■\a' + P' ^ \ - a - P - a - p \ ^ • P - —- - (2.15c)


^ 9 9

vvnere:

a =^ and P =^
CT, cr,

2.7.3.3 Elastic-PIastic Failure Analysis

The analysis of failure of any functional components is an extremely important

aspect o f engineering design. The failure analysis deals with the determination o f the

causes of the failure of the components. In the broad and correct sense, the examination

of a failed component can be defined as the inability o f a part to function properly. The

purpose of the failure analysis is to define the mechanism and causes o f the failure and

usually to recommend a solution to the problems. One o f the most important causes o f

failures is the design errors, which are specified by the design processes, including size

and shape o f the part, material, and environmental properties. It is interesting that to

examine some information about the causes of failure o f the functional parts such as

improper material selection, faulty design considerations, fatigue failure, and inadequate

stress analysis. [Brooks & Choudhury, (1993)], [Ugural & Fenster, (1995)], [Bednar,

(1986)], and [Collins, (1993)].

58
2.T.3.4 Failure Modes for Pressure Cylinders

The mechanical properties o f cylinder material are determined by simple uniaxial

tension test. When the structural shapes are subjected to simple tension tests, allowable

stress o f the material is related with tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength.

However, in order to determine the allowable design stresses for multi-axial stress

conditions, which occur in practice, several theories have been developed. Their purpose

is to predict when failure will occur under the action o f combined stresses on the basis o f

data obtained from simple tension test. Failure refers to either yielding or actual rupture

of the material, whichever occurs first. The state of stress in steady-state stress analysis,

which can exist in a cylinder body, can be determined by three principal stresses cti, o j,

and CT3 acting on it as shown in Fig. 2.16. All stresses are acting in tension so they are

positive. The relation between the principal stress values is cti> G2 > 03 [Ugural &

Fenster, (1995)], [Bednar. (1986)], [Harvey, (1963)]. In the case o f ductile material,

yielding occurs first and this is the basis o f failure theories for these materials. Therefore,

in the structural failure analysis, to interpret the determination o f material properties from

tensile test, the following most common failure theories with a brief definition have been

using in engineering practices, such as failures o f pressure cylinders [Harvey, (1963)].

Failure by yielding occurs localized due to material non-homogeneity and loading

non-uniformity, depends on the service conditions, as well as the stress distribution and

the material properties. Failure by fracture, separation o f a material under stress into two

or more parts due to brittle material properties, leads to either elastic or inelastic

termination of deformation. [Collins, (1993)], and [Shigley & Mischke, (1989)].

59
According to the octahedral shearing stress theory, failure occurs by yielding when the

octahedral shearing stress (toct) at a point achieves a particular value o f material yield

point, r„^., = 0.47 • . [Ugural & Fenster (1995)]. However, a material fails by

fracturing based on the Maximum Principal Stress Theory (MPST) when the largest

principal stress exceeds the ultimate tensile strength (Guts), |cr,|,or,|o-;| = [Collins,

(1993)].

The Maximum Normal Suess Theory (MNST) represented graphically in two

dimensions in Fig. 2.18. is based on the maximum or minimum principal stresses as a

criteria o f failure, which occurs in a stressed body when one o f the principal stresses

reaches the yield point value. = ±<7,,, [Harvey, (1963)]. [Ugural & Fenster,

(1995)], and [Collins. (1993)]. Maximum Shear Stress Theory (MSST), represented with

an irregular hexagon EAFGCH in graphical illustration in Fig. 2.18, postulates that

yielding in a cylinder occurs when the Maximum Shear Stress (MSS) becomes equal to

the MSS at yield point in a simple tension test, r = (cr, - cr, )/ 2. Likewise, the tmax in a

tension test is Tma.\ = (typ / 2. Considering the maximum Distortion Energy Theory (DET),

shown in Fig. 2.18 with ellipse shape, failure occurs at any point in the body, when the

distortion energy per unit volume in a state o f combined stress becomes equal to the

elastic yielding condition: (cr, - c r j ’ +(cr, - c r ^ f +(cr^ - cr,)' = 2cr^^. In addition, for

plane stress conditions 03 = 0 , the Von Mises stress equivalent is

= c r = ( c r , ‘ - a ^ - a T + c r l Ÿ ' ' . However, the strain energy o f distortion in terms o f

principal stresses may be used to determine yielding o f the material, the total strain

60
energy U = 0.5-a ■s . by using U = — (cr,‘ + cr,’ + )--^(cr,cr, + cr,cr] + cTjCTj ).
2E E

These are the most popular predictions o f failure modes in material’s and commonly used

in pressure cylinder design [Bednar, (1986)], [Harvey, (1963)], and [Bickel & Ruiz

(1967)].

/ y - M
--0.fi

- . 0.2

- 1.0
oa 0.4 0.6 0 4 /2 "

III

- 1.0

M N ST
M SST
DET

Figure 2.18: Graphics of the failure theories [Collins, (1993)].

61
2.7.3.S In stab ility o f T h in -w alled P ressu re C ylinders

The preceding analysis has been made under the assumption that the material is

isotropic. Because pressure cylinders are internally pressurized, the onset o f plastic flow

is predicted in accordance with one o f two-criteria, the MSST and the MDET as

previously explained. According to both o f these criteria, the yielding begins when the

following equation come true in material behavior.

c r ,y , = • a/ [ ( ^ i - ^ 2 )■ + k , - )■ + k z - 0 - 3 )■ J (2 .1 6 )

In the case o f strain hardening material the uniaxial true stress and true strain

curves are represented by two expressions in the elastic and plastic fields, as shown in

Fig. 2.19. As it can be seen from this figure, these fields are defined as the large plastic

strain and the small elastic range.

The stress analysis of thin shells o f revolution loaded in the elastic range is

straightforward. The states of stress and strain can be related to the actual load

[Timoshenko and Krieger (1959)]. At increased values o f load, there is a more or less

well defined point where the assumption o f elastic conditions is no longer valid and the

material will flow plastically. As the load further increase, the plastic region spreads over

the rest o f the shell until the elastic region either disappears or is insufficient to prevent

the plastic deformation o f the cylinder. The value o f the load (pressure) is called

62
bursting pressure. At present, the incipience of plastic flow is predicted in accordance

with the von Mises criterion explained with Eq. (2.16).

In case o f a strain hardening material as shown in Fig. 2.19, the uniaxial stress-

strain curves may be represented by two expressions: one valid in the elastic field, Eq.

(2.17a), and the other valid in the plastic field, Eq. (2.17b) so that the total strain is given

in Eq.. (2.17c). When large plastic deformations exist such as in the bursting o f the

cylinders, the elastic strain. Seiasttc, may be neglected. It is apparent, trom Fig. 2.19 that

plastic flow can proceed only under increasing values of stress. A simple geometrical

interpretation o f this behavior is to assume that the yield surface expands, without

altering its shape, when the strain increases. According to the von M ises yield criterion,

the effective stress and plastic strain can be defined in terms o f principal stresses and

strains in Eq's (2.18) and (2.19). Additionally, the plastic strain is defined as the

integration o f the plastic strain increments that are developed during the loading history

[Stouffer and Dame, (1996)].

= (2-17a)

^ (2.17b)

^ ~ ^elastic ^plaxiic (2.17c)

cT = ^ - ( ( c r , -o -,)-+ ((T , - 0 -3)- +(CT, - 0 -3)-)" ' (2.18)

^=“ ‘((^i - ^ 2 )' + (f| - ^ 3)' + (^ 2 “ ^ 3)'} (2.19)

63
ANSYS 5 , 3
True Stress-Strain Curve AUG 4 1997
o f SAE-1008 Sted 1 5 :0 5 :1 1
T a b le D ata

Plastic

44

loger = log AT+ M 'logg


o:UTS

1600 ' n = a /b
800*

2
True Strain (%'

9 .5 C Y L ^ M aten al cu rv e o f O rig in a l S te e l S h e e t,K IS IO G L U

Figure 2.19: Strain hardening, true stress-strain curve o f the SEA-1008 (AKDQ).

The plastic instability o f thin-walled cylindrical shells having strain hardening

material under internal pressure can be defined as a function of effective stress and strain.

Because, the hoop, radial, and longitudinal directions are principal, the membrane

stresses in Eq’s (2.7) and (2.8) can be transformed to effective stresses. The hoop stress,

higher than the longitudinal stress, can be defined, for instance, as effective stress such

64
as; cr = 1.032 • ^ • e~ where the / and ID are used as constant or initial values. For
2 •t

instability to occur increased deformation must be possible without any increase in load;

that is d p / s = 0 . Then the instability condition for a thin-walled cylinder can be defined

as 0.5- d â I d s = â . Therefore, the BP caused by a plastic instability condition for a

thin-walled cylindrical shell under internal pressure is defined by Bickell and Ruiz (1967

in terms o f effective stress and strain as shown in Eq. (2.20), below. The effective stress

and strain as an input for this equation can be obtained from either PEA simulation or

analytical calculations. On the other hand, the BP for the torispherical end-closure is

found to be about 2 times that for a cylindrical shell [Bickell and Ruiz (1967)].

ttvilahihn ( 2 .20 )

The point o f the instability o f the cylindrical shells is reached when the true hoop

strain. Si, reaches a value of one-half the strain-hardening exponent o f the material. The

collapse pressure, pmax. required to produce instability was defined by Collins, (1993) in

terms o f initial thickness (/«) and initial diameter (Do) o f the shells including coefficient

o f strain hardening {k) and strain hardening exponent (n) [Collins, (1993)], as follows;

2k-t.
Pmax (2.21)

65
2.7.3.6 In sta b ility o f Pressu re C ylin d ers in R ecen t Studies

Updike & Kalnins calculated pressure at a tensile plastic instability o f a pressure

vessel and its relationship to burst test results has been analyzed. They proposed that the

instability pressure be accepted as an upper bound to the pressure at which a vessel

bursts. A strength reduction factor is used to predict the BP. [Updike & Kalnins, (1998)].

By testing some cylindrical shells under pressure, they obtained the ratio o f the burst

pressure o f the test to the calculated pressure at a tensile plastic instability, expressed in

percent, ranging from 71% to 96%. From the comparison o f the test and calculated

pressures, the highest and lowest ratios o f the pressures occur for a pressurized shell with

no significant defect and welded in longitudinal direction, respectively. As a result, the

presence o f the welds had a detrimental effect on the burst strength,

Jiang has discussed and investigated the elastic-plastic response o f the thin-walled

tubes subjected to combine axial and torsional loads [Jiang, (1992)]. He used the

kinematic hardening model and obtained solutions o f exact closed-form for linear loading

path. The reaction of the material under non-proportional loading was proved to be path-

dependent and hardening behavior is shown to be different from the under proportional

loading conditions. In his other work, the yield condition for a material having residual

stress and strain is derived in the elastic-plastic case o f tubes subjected to variable loading

[Jiang, (1992)]. He developed a general program to make the theory applicable to

complex loading cases to achieve the solutions for the closed-form o f tubes.

The response of elastic-plastic behavior o f the thin-walled tubes subjected to

combined internal pressure and axial load based on the kinematical hardening theory

66
were studied by [Jiang & Wu, (1993)]. They obtained the linear loading path for a closed-

form solution, and also illustrated how kinematic hardening rules describes the material

behavior under non-proportional cyclic loading based on the reaction of the elastic-plastic

behavior of the thin-walled tubes. On the other hand, Tabiei & Jiang (1998) developed

and analytical methodology for post-buckling o f laminated cylindrical shells under axial

and lateral pressure considering the nonlinear stress-strain relations for transverse and

shear modulus of elasticity. In their study, a user defined material subroutine program

(UM AT) was used in the commercial finite element software package, ,ABAQUS, which

was employed in generating results.

To investigate the relationship between the collapse mechanism and the various

types of geometric imperfection, caused by manufacturing processes, a series of

experimental tests on scale models has been carried out for thin-walled cylinders

subjected to external pressure by [Boot et al, (1997)]. In order to keep the instability

phenomenon in the elastic range, they selected the dimensional parameters o f the

specimens. At the same time, the numerical calculations simulating the experimental tests

have been performed using the FEM. They found a good agreement in comparison

between experimental and numerical results.

Cheng & Firmie, (1985), obtained the stress intensity solutions for axisymmetric

cracks in thin-walled cylinders prescribed axial stress distribution from plane strain

solutions. An approach used in their study is illustrated by comparing solutions for

internal circumferential cracks in several axial stress fields with numerical solutions for

axisymmetric cracks. Cheng & Finnie (1986), in their other study, described an approach

for cracked elements using the plane strain assumption to obtain the stress intensity factor

67
for a long axial crack In thin-walled cylinder based on the use of rotation and

displacement solutions. In this study, they found that the hoop stress distribution in the

prior cracked cylinder is arbitrary. With this approach, they also obtained the results are

in good agreement with numerical solutions for several hoop stress distributions.

2.7.4 Membrane Stress Analysis for Cylindrical Shells

In the case of elastic-plastic analysis o f thin walled cylindrical shells, the radial

deformation Sr of the cylindrical shells subjected to internal pressure loading is assumed

to be small with respect to the wall thickness {Sr < t/2) and the maximum stresses remain

below the proportional limit when the cylinder material is elastic. The external load on

the cylinder surface due to internal pressure is acting perpendicular (radial) on the

cylindrical shell element on the body as shown in Fig. 2.13. Elastic shell elements resist

loads by means o f the internal stress resultants and stress couples, which are acting at the

cross sections of the differential element, as shown separately for clarity in Fig. 2.20.

Taking a differential element from the cylinder shown in Fig. 2.13, and applying

the boimdary conditions for the analysis, we can get the results o f the force applications

as shown in Fig. 2.20. Considering the external load components, radial P r , longitudinal.

P i, and tangential, P,, are acting on a differential element which is an axially symmetrical

shell. For uniform internal pressure P, P l = P , = 0 and P r = P as shown in the figure. From

the figure, the plane membrane stress resultants and Ng, are in tension and Nx» and

N qx are in shear planes. Neglecting the trapezoidal shape o f the element, Nxo = Nek, from

the membrane state of stress and considering the axisymmetrically loaded

68
shells, the stress resultants of membrane stresses are N^e = N qc = 0 [Bickell & Ruiz,

(1967)].

Therefore, inmost practical cases the loads on a cylinder act in such a way that the

reacting stress resultants. Fig. 2.20, will be predominant and the small bending moment

terms and transverse shear forces so small that they can be neglected. Here there are only

two unknowns, N^, No, in case o f axisymmetric boundary conditions, which can be

determined from the equations for static equilibrium. Therefore, the main conditions for a

membrane stress analysis for cylindrical shells in axisymmetric conditions are explained

well in [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)], [Harvey, (1963)], and [Bednar, (1986)].

2.7.4.1 The Relationships of the Stresses, Strains, and Displacements

The cylinder problem can be solved by approximating the state o f stress within

the cylinder wall to be two-dimensional. There are two types o f forces, which are

experienced by a volume of material within the cylinder wall. The first type acts on the

volume o f the material and is called a body force such as gravity and reversed mass

accelerations, but our case of cylinder problem does not have these body forces. The

second type of force, e.g. internal pressure, acts on the surface o f the volume and is

applied by the surrounding material [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)], [Harvey, (1963)].

From Fig. 2.21, writing the Fx, Fy, and Fz as the components o f the body force,

F„, the equilibrium equation for the volume in Cartesian coordinate system, the

equilibrium equations for elastic stress analysis o f a general shell o f revolution (shown in

69
Fig. 2.12) can be re-written from [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)] as follows;

(2.22a)
a. a, a„

(2.22b)
a. a. a.

(2 .2 2 c)
a, a, 6 ;

'XX

XX

Figure 2.20: Stress resultants on a cylindrical shell element [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)].

70
Figure 2.21: Stress at a point. P. o f the cylindrical shell in Cartesian coordinates [Bickell

& Ruiz. (1967)].

The position o f a general point of P within a cylinder (in Fig. 2.13) with internal

and external radii, n, (R = r) and the cylinder length. L, is determined by the values of

cylindrical coordinates r. .v. 6. At P the stress system is a function o f cylindrical

coordinates, cxpg (p, q = r. x. 9) and the deflections are vv, v, u parallel to the coordinate

axes as shown in Fig. 2.13. The equilibrium equation o f Eq. (2.22) can be re-written in

cylindrical form as follows;

(2.23 a)
or ox ou

^ (r +% +^ k . J + r-F , =0 (2.23b)
dr ox ou

71
(2.23c)
ôr ox ou

The relationships between stresses and deflections for general cylinders without

temperature effects become as follows, namely;

/, s ÔW ÔV V ÔU
cr„ = (1 — y ) ' — 4- V * — 4---- - w + - (2.24a)
ôr dx r dU)

dw dv V du
= V ------ 4* (1 —I/) 4- — • w + - (2.24b)
(l + t / ) ( l - 2 i / ) dr ÔX r 'ôë)

dyv dv (1 - v) dll
V . ------ 4* V *---- 4*------------ VV+ - (2.24c)
(1 + y ) ( l - 2 w) dr dx r \ ~S0

du 1 dv
(2.24d)

dx r dO

dv dv
cr.. = (2.24 e)
2 (1 + k) dr dx

dll 1 dw
— II (2.24f)
2(1 + 1-) dr r Id

2.7.4.2 The Equilibrium Equations for Thin Wailed Cylindrical Shells

The solution o f Eq. (2.23) is long and complex so that it can be proceed for simple

conditions. The equation governing the shell behavior are obtained by writing the

equilibrium conditions between resultant o f the stresses acting on the shell element and

72
by establishing the relationships between these resultants and the deflections o f the mid­

surface as shown in Fig 2.14. There are three forces but only two moment equilibrium

equations, because condition of torsional equilibrium about axis normal to the mid­

surface is satisfied as (Jro = cror [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)].

The equilibrium conditions for thin walled cylindrical shell can be obtained by

drawing a diagram o f the shell element with the forces and moments acting on it as

shown in Fig. 2.20. On the other hand, the same equilibrium equations can be derived

from Eq. (2.23), adapting r = r + z where -t/2 < z < t/2, so that the force equilibrium

equations can be obtained by integrating o f Eq. (2.23) with respect to z. In addition to

this, the moment equilibrium equations are obtained by multiplying the last two rows o f

Eq. (2.23) by z and integrating as before. Therefore, the equilibrium equation for thin

walled cylindrical shells can be wTitten as in Eq. (2.25) and the relationships o f the stress

resultants and the displacements are in Eq. (2.26).

(2.25a)
ox o&

f — ^xo ^ ' Po (2.25b)


ox off

— (2.25c)
ox ou

ox oO

r— + — Mgg - r - N ^ - 0 (2.25e)
ox ot)

73
E t dv
iV„ = r \-v w+ (2.26a)
\-v' r dx \ dd)

E t dv ( dii^
=
V r 1- \v + (2.26b)
l-v r âr

t du { dv^
r h — (2.26c)
r dx \d9 j

E-E 1 d'w
= — r- — — r (2.26d)
dx- dd-

E-r 1 ô ’vv ô’w


=- Vf- (2.26e)
12 ( l-K -)r

The stresses in terms o f stress resultants are as follows;

(2.27a)

Ngy 12 r
(2.27b)

(2.27c)

2.7.4.3 Axi symmetric Loaded Cylindrical Shells

As can be seen from Eq. (2.25), there are many unknown terms o f the stress

resultants, moments, and deflections when general loading is applied to the cylindrical

74
shells. To find these unknown terms, some considerable simplifications specifically valid

for our modeling conditions, can be used when the loading condition is symmetrical

based on the rotation axis o f the cylindrical shells. In this case, when the applied loads are

symmetrical about the axis of the cylinder, none o f the functions are dependent upon 6

and tangential displacement u is zero. In addition to this. There are two forces but only

one moment equilibrium equations, because the condition o f torsional equilibrium about

an axis normal to the mid-surface is satisfied as = (%. = 0, in axisymmetric case

loading case. Under these circumstances the force equilibrium conditions o f equation can

be written for a thin-walled axisymmetric cylindrical shells by using Eq. (2.25) as

follows;

-f'V .. =-P, (2-28a)


dx

r± N ,-N „ = -r-p , (2.28b)


dx

(2.28c)
dx

The approximation in the non-temperature effect has significance even for

strongly non-linear distributions. The complete expressions o f stress resultants and

bending couples in terms o f the mid-surface displacements for axisymmetric loading case

are as follows;

75
dv
= • r — + K-w (2.29a)
l- v r dx

dv
V r — + \r (2.29b)
\- v r dx

2 d'w
= (2.29c)
~d^

d-w
(2.29d)
1 2 -(l-v/-) dx-

When these equations. Eq’s (2.28) and (2.29), used for the stresses are given in

terms o f the stress resultants without temperature effect and if terms o f [/r are neglected

in the thin shell theory, the corresponding stress is derived by Bickell & Ruiz, (1967) for

the thin-walled cylindrical shells as follows;

p-r
(2.30)

2.7.5 Discontinuity Stresses

As discussed above, industrial pressure cylinders consist o f axially symmetrical

elements o f different geometries, different shell thicknesses as shown in Fig. 2.22, or

different materials. If the individual shell components are allowed to expand freely as

separate sections under internal pressure, each such shell element would have an edge

radial displacement and edge rotation o f the meridian tangent that would differ from the

76
edge radial displacement and the edge rotation o f the adjacent shell component. Since the

shell elements form a continuous structure and must deflect and rotate together, at

junctions o f these differences in radial displacements and rotations result in local shell

deformations and stresses required preserving the physical continuity o f the shell

[Bednar, (1986)]. One such location would be at juncture o f the cylinders is not the same

as that o f the head when the cylinder is pressurized; hence, at the jimcture o f these parts

local bending takes place to preserve the continuity o f the cylinder wall [Harvey, (1963)].

Stresses induced by such interaction of two shell components at their jimction (an abrupt

change in geometry o f the cylinder shell or a structural discontinuity) are called

discontinuity stresses. The discontinuity stresses themselves at the junction o f the shells

or shell elements due to changes in thickness or shape are not serious imder static loading

of ductile materials; however, they are serious under conditions o f cyclic or fatigue

loading conditions [Young, (1989)].

mm 6, = R-. - I , /2

Figure 2.22: Thickness variations on the cylindrical shell [Young, (1989)].

77
M eridional and circumferential membrane stresses (positive when tensile) at the

junctions o f two cylindrical shells having variable thicknesses are specified as follows;

IV
C T,= ^ (2.31)
h

+ v a. (2.32)
R,

Meridional and circumferential bending stresses (positive when tensile on the

outside) for the two cylindrical shells different thickness as shown in Fig. 2.22 can be

written as follows;

c r ; = - ^ (2.33)

cr, = V, • (T, (2.34)

where:

• C ase 1: Considering only uniform internal pressure is acting on the cylindrical

shells and is not creating load, (Pq) acting axially on the cylinder as shown in Fig.

2.20. Based on these definitions o f this case, the bending moments, M \ 2 , the shear

forces, N \ 2 , the radial deflections, ARa, loading terms, LTa,b, and some constant

numbers for the loading conditions can be defined as follows;

78
iV, =0

AR_, 4 a, fC. wi • •
= •“ A

M, = p - r ^ - K , „

'-'.u '^H tt AB

K LT,-C,,-LT,-C,,
' .« fl« '- AB

C.t, =
2-D,-/i; 1-R,-D,-X\

r - ~ ^ i '^1 • ^ 1 "A
2-D,-/1-’ 2 -/ Î , -A-A;

a, - zr,
A- / I , 2 J(,.A 4

A T - 4 - ^ 1 ^ 2 - ^ 2 - ^ 1 I ^ | ( 4 ' - ^ 2 ) f « 2 - 4 4 r , '

f- A - / , •/, 8 -f‘ I \ ^ 1 ' ^ 2 ' ^2 ^2 ’h

cii —b.
LT,=E,ib;--b;)-\
4 • /?2 ■A • A y

A: '^.2
A.: =
1 2 - ( i - 1^,4)

^ 1.2 -

Case 2: The axial load. Pa, created by the uniform internal pressure is acting

79
axially on the cylindrical shells. However, there is no axial load on the left

cylinder, which has // thickness. A small axial load on the right cylinder, whose

thickness is r?, balances any axial pressure on the joint. For an enclosed pressure

cylinder superpose an axial load: = p-K-b^ . Based on these definitions o f this

case, the bending moments, .V/1.2, the shear forces, iVi.2, the radial deflections,

AR a , loading terms. LTa.b, and some constant numbers for the loading conditions

can also be defined as follows;

iV, =
1 - K- R,

AR^ =

;r- R:

R-, —R,

-(R ,-R ,)R ;E ,


LT, =
2- Ri • Di ■X-,

On the other hand, considering the combined loaded o f the thin walled cylindrical

shells, which is under both uniform internal pressure and axial loading conditions, the

shear force and bending moment terms for the continuity stresses at the juncture o f the

thickness variation derived by Faupel & Fisher (1981) as follows;

80
{2-y)p (c
-V, =
2 /?, ( c - + i y + 2 c '''( c + l)_

[2-v)p
iV /, =
4#' (c- + l ) ' + 2 c ' - ( c + l)

â E Z I
c c!

2.8 Dilation of Pressure Cylinders

Dilation, radial deflection, o f a cylindrical shell can be obtained by integrating the

hoop strain in the cylinder wall from an axis through the center o f rotation and parallel to

a radius [Harvey, (1974)]. The radial deflection o f the cylindrical shell is shown in is

shown in Fig. 2.23. Therefore, the radial growth o f the cylindrical shell can be found by

using the following empirical equation, namely:

(2.35)

2.9 Design of the End-closures

Axisymmetric end element shapes of which are chosen on the basis o f fabrication

and strength requirements and usually used to close the pressure cylinders. From the

production viewpoint, the end-closures should be as shallow as possible, while stress

81
analyses suggest a higher contour for the head so as to result in a smooth membrane

stress transition from the end-closure to the cylinder. Also, bending effects should be

minimized at the juncture between head and cylindrical shells [Bednar, (1986)], [Soric &

Zahlten, (1995)], [Soric, (1990). (1995)], [Tafreshi, (1997)], [Tafreshi & Thorpe (1996)],

and [Stanley and Campbell. (1981)]. For these reasons, the joint efficiency between the

end-closure and the cylindrical shells, standardized by ASME Code, plays an important

role under these circumstances. According to the ASME Code, the required joint

efficiencies for various components o f the cylinder heads are indicated in flow-chart in

Fig. A.4 in Appendix A. As well as clearly outlining where the designer may find the

applicable joint efficiencies for various weld categories in ASME Code Section VIII,

Division 1.

Figure 2.23. Dilation of cylinder due to intemal pressures [Harvey, (1974)].

82
The ASME Section VIII Part I and Part 2 contain rules for the design o f spherical

shells, heads and transition sections. Head configurations include spherical,

hemispherical, ellipsoidal and torispherical shapes. Transition sections include conical

and toriconical shapes. The design rules for most o f these shapes differ significantly in

Part 1 and Part 2. This difference is due to the design approach used in developing the

equations for Part 1 and Part 2. The design rules for the perfect end-closures are

explained in Sec. 2.4. Therefore, the design o f the end-closures, ellipsoidal or

torispherical, is usually covered by the Design Rules by using the general equation in

terms o f the design parameters of the end closures [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)], namely;

(2.36)
4-0-./

where t is the required minimum thickness; p is intemal pressure; D is the cylindrical

flange diameter; is the design stress; and m is the shape factor. The shape factor

depends on the ratio o f the outside height o f the head, ho, to its diameter, D.

2.9.1 Stress Analysis for the End-closures

2.9.1.1 Ellipsoidal Heads

The ellipsoidal head of the pressure cylinder, treated as separate components with

no restrains at edges under uniform intemal pressure, will be analyzed. The ellipsoidal

heads are developed by rotation of ellipsoid as shown in Fig. 2.24 [Bednar, (1986)].

83
According to the ASME B&PVC, the ellipsoidal head under intemal pressure the

following equations must be used when the ratio o f the major axis diameter, D=2R, to the

minor axis, A, is 2:1 (ASME S-VIII. Par. UG-32). For some reasons, the shape in

application can be approximated by a crown radius, Rc, o f 0.9 *ID and a knuckle radius,

Rk o f 0.17-/D as shown in the figure. The required thickness o f 2:1 heads due to pressure

on the concave side is given in Par. UG-32 (d) o f ASME Section VIII Part 1 as shown in

Eq. (2.37). Ellipsoidal heads with a radius-to-depth ratio other than 2:1 may also be

designed to the requirements as described in Appendix 1-4 o f ASME Section VIII Part 1,

shown in Eq. (2.38). The £) is a Joint efficiency factor [Bednar, (1986)] & [Chuse &

Carson (1993)].

P -ID
t= (2.37)
{2-a-E^ - 0 .2 .

P ■ID K
t= (2.38)
( I - ct- E , - 0 . 2 - p )

where:

/ ID
f 1
K =-- 2 +
6 V 2-h = 1 . 0 - 3 . 0

The main radii o f curvatures are defined in Fig. 2.24, such as the longitudinal

1/2
R'-h- ... \r*
= — 4- L 4 ' ■X- . On the other hand, from
Jl- ><-)

84
the figure, the tangential and longitudinal radii o f curvatures at point 1 can be defined as

R~ h~
R, = R, = — and at point 2 can also be defined as R, = — , and, R, = R. Since the
h R

longitudinal, R l (or Rc) and tangential, R, (or Rk), radius o f curvatures at point “a” on the

ellipse shape are variable gradually, so that the longitudinal and tangential stresses <
j l and

<7„ respectively, are also variable gradually. The stresses are the principal stresses, with

no shearing stress on the sides of the differential element. Therefore, the and cr,,

stresses at point 1 can be described as in Eq’s. (2.39) and (2.40) from the equilibrium

equation written for the section A-A in the vertical (axial) direction. Similarly, the at and

(Tl, stresses at point 2 can be determined as in Eq’s (2.41) and (2.42) from equilibrium

equation. Namely,

p-R-
0 -/. = (2.39)
2t - h

p - R, pR'
(2.40)
~ It ~ 2t - h ~

p •R
O’/. = (2.41)
~ ir

p ■R
O’, = 1 - (2.42)
2h-

R
As a result, if the ratio o f j- < 1 then the stress a, remains tensile; if the ratio of
2 • h ~

R-
- > 1 then the stress ex, becomes (negative) in compressive. However, the
2 A"
85
radial displacement. A/?, at a point 2 is positive when {RI h)~ + v < 1 , and negative

when ( / 2 / / z ) ' + V> 2 [Bednar, (1986)]. Based on these conditions, the radial

displacement at point 2 can be found as follows;

(2.43)

axis of
ro tatio n

knuckle ring

— i t = Q.5*ID — -

Rt - Rj ii n 0, tangential radius of curvature.


Rl = longitudinal (meridional) radius of curvature.

Figure 2.24: Geometry o f an ellipsoidal head [Bednar, (1986)].

86
2.9.1.2 T o risp h erical H eads

Torispherical heads have a meridian formed o f two circular arcs, a knuckle

section with radius Rk, and a spherical segment with crown radius Rc, as shown in Fig

2.25. The torispherical heads known as shallow heads which are commonly referred to as

Flanged and Dished heads, (F&D heads), can also be built to the rules o f ASM E Section

VIII Part 1, in accordance with Far. UG-32 (e). The most commonly used F&D heads can

be approximated by a crown (spherical) radius, Rc, o f 1.0*ID and knuckle radius, Rk, o f

0.06*ID as shown in Fig. 2.15. The torispherical heads with various crown and knuckle

radii may also be designed to the requirements o f ASME Section VIII Part I , so that the

governing equation for the required minimum thickness (t) is given in Appendix 1-4 of

ASME S-VIII D-1, and reproduced as follows;

P • Rf ■M
t= (2.44)
(^2 • O’ • EI —0.2 • p]

where:

1/2 ■
R ^
M =— 3+ (Rc] - ^ = 1.0 -1 6 .6 7
4 V.Rk / <Rk /

As in the design o f semiellipsoidal heads, to simplify the procedure o f finding an

adequate head thickness t to code introduces an empirical correction factor M into the

formula for membrane stress in the crown region, to compensate for the discontinuity

87
stresses at the shell-head junction. Based on the Code formula for the required minimum

thickness in terms o f maximum allowable stress in the head becomes as follows;

t= (2.45)
-Ej-0.2-p

where.

I':"
I
3 + r &i
3 ^& ,

Membrane stresses, circumferential and meridional, due to intemal pressure in the

knuckle at point (a) in Fig. 2.25 are calculated as follows:

p-R,
= 1 - (2.46)

'R. ^
(2.47)
4/ V y

88
•xii of ro ution

knuckle region
90"-

R=-O.STD

It • depth of dish
t “ corroded thickness Membrane pressure in the
sin ^ = (^ - r)/(L - r) knuckle o f a torispherical head

Figure 2.25: Geometry of the torispherical heads [Bednar, (1986)].

2.9.2 Instability Pressures for the End-closures

Common shapes that are used in practice include the 2:1 ellipsoidal and the

torispherical heads with a radii Rc = 2Rk. Such heads are used on large pressure vessels

for which the diameter/thickness ratio is relatively large (D/t > 700 in) difficulties are

encoimtered in terms o f wrinkling in the compressive stress zone, a phenomenon which

can be explained on the basis of a simple stress analysis. For this typical use o f heads, the

circumferential compressive stresses o f the thin walled for both ellipsoidal and

torispherical heads are indicated. Both shapes indicate regions o f circumferential

89
compressive stresses, which obviously become dangerous in the case o f thin walled

structures, are responsible for such local buckling. Some o f the local buckling events

were predicted in many studies such as experimentally by Kirk & Gill, (1975) and Patel

& Gill, (1975) and numerically by Brown, (1976), Bushnell, (1977), Galletly, and

Kanodia et al, (1977), Tafreshi and on instability o f the ends studies by Soric, Galletly,

Bushnell using different material properties including aluminum, mild steel and cooper.

Figure 2.26 shows local buckling modes obtained by Bushnell & Galletly (1977) using

mild steel and aluminum specimens. The buckling modes were predicted and hoop stress

resultants distributions as a function o f pressure.

Similarly, the bifurcation buckling was investigated by Bushnell (1977) with use

of the B 0 S 0 R 5 computer program based on finite difference method. Predicted behavior

was found to be sensitive to pre-buckling geometric nonlinearitj' as well as material

nonlinearity. It was demonstrated that how nonlinear geometric and material behavior

affect the axisymmetric pre-buckling states and non-symmetric bifurcation buckling

pressure o f the end-closures under intemal pressure [Bushnell, (1977)]. His results for the

symmetric and nonsymmetric buckling events o f the end closures are shown in Fig. 2.27.

Szyszkowski & Glockner, (1987), found the membrane stress resultants in the

apex region are equal to maximum circumferential membrane stress resultants in the

cylinders. The membrane force distribution for both ellipsoidal and torispherical ends

was plotted as a function o f arc length as shown in Fig. 2.28. By correcting the end

profiles, the membrane force distribution for the buckle-free model was plotted as a

function o f arc length illustrated in their studies.

90
S K C IM C N w n

T— I r

HCmOW W L STW SS,


04 aa 12
0 ' '(■' 1

i •0 2 s .
bu c x u n o
(U S « 3 1 .
i u
g& o

i-a u c x u N O
• 0 .4 - I (4 C J
-B U C X U N Q (4 A )

-0 6
I O '* /E

M U IO IO N M . p l a s t i c STRAW , (f t%)

T M tO R T

— FLOW
B U O a.lW (US * 3 ) TK O R T *T
I ' M S

B U C K L IN O (4 C
K -0 .4
d e f o r m a t io n
THEORY AT
, ' S .4 I
D E F O R M A T IO N T H E O R Y
AT , . 10 6
B U C K L IN O (4 A ) T O R O ID A L K N U C K L E - ----------- N * C Y l

d is t a n c e a lon g sh e l l r e f e r e n c e SURFACE

Figure 2.26: Predicted buckling modes for four Galletly's specimens, and meridional

hoop stress strain, b) Predicted buckling mode and hoop stress resultants distributions as

a function o f pressure [Bushnell & Galletly, (1977)].

91
uo'
PVC SMELLS
E • (MSi 10* p»i
V«0.37

( a) DISCRETIZED MODEL

10 (^ /E • 24.5
"cr* *°
lO* p^/E ■ 1.60

(b ) MFURCATION auCXLINO MOOES FOR


____________ TWO *A* SPEOMENS________

(a) (b)

Figure 2.27: a) Buckling mode o f torispherical head; b) buckling mode o f ellipsoidal head

[Bushnell, (1977)].

92
Torus

E lllp ta d

I ,/R .
Re'O.SD

(s) Som * and profil**

N."
Circumftrsflliel M iwOroo < Foret
M sridicool MsmDrons F o r e ^ / ,(B snO ing sMscIs

Are Lsngtfi, t -

E llip s o id Cylindsr
(b) M*mbran* fore* dlalifbutfon for 2:1 *ltlp*oldal *nd

N * . Clrcum«srsn«lal Msitibrso* Fores

ii.
ÏÎ-I
Méridional Msir Prons F o re s. N*
r N f l b s n d n * s lts c ts W dudsdl

Are Lsnpdi, s —
^ Cylindsr

y Tbrus ( ^ - ')
(c) M *m bran* fore* dlttrlbufloii for lorf*ph*rfc*l *nd

Figure 2.28: Typical ends o f cylindrical pressure vessels. Variation o f buckle-free

profiles with “c”, correction values and membrane stress resultants in buckle-free design

for c=0.1 [Szyszkowski & Glockner (1987)].

93
Tafreshi, (1997), developed an FEM modeling to analyze the stress evaluation

and buckling estimation o f a perfect torispherical end-closure o f the cylinders using

IDEAS and ABAQUS computer program. These software packages were used in his

study for FEM modeling and analyses to perform the stress evaluation and buckling

estimation o f the tonsphencal end-closure. The 3-node quadratic axisymmetric shell

elements, designated in ABAQUS, were used for modeling torispherical ends subjected

to intemal pressure. By applying the required boundary conditions, a typical perfect

torispherical end together with exaggerated deformed profile as shown in Fig. 2.29

[Tafreshi, (1997)]. This figure shows the perfect geometry o f the torispherical end and

the axisymmetric buckling mode.

Blachut pressurized the torispherical end-closure externally in his study under

quasi-static incremental loading condition found stability through bifurcation buckling o f

the end closure as seen in Fig. 2.30. In some situations, the length o f the cylindrical

flange and boundary conditions at the base can influence both magnitude of buckling

pressure and the mode o f failure [Blachut, (1998)].

94
La

Figure 2.29: Geometry of the torispherical end and axisymmetric buckling mode

[Tafreshi, (1997)].

Pnrli

[a «HI

IbU

Figure 2.30: Deformed shapes prior to buckling for different boimdary conditions

[Blachut, (1998)].

95
An analysis o f axisymmetric prebuckling o f thin torispherical shells subjected to

intemal pressure and an investigation o f the effect o f post-yield strain hardening on the

size of the plastic region, and thus on the distribution o f intemal forces was studied by

[Soric and Zahlten, (1995)]. While the pressure and yield stress was kept constant, the

elastic-plastic tangent modulus was varied. Also the linear strain hardening was assumed

constant. They also studied the influence o f the size o f the plastic region on differences in

the distribution o f the hoop stress resultant and the meridional bending moment. All

computations were performed using the FEM with doubly curved multilayered element

with 48 degrees o f freedom. In their study, the FEM computer program, FEMAS, was

applied. Geometrically nonlinear elastic-plastic computations of a torispherical shell with

D/h =1000, R/D=0.l. R/D=\ characteristics, were performed for different tangent

moduli E, assuming constant yield stress 207 MPa. The material o f the shell was mild

steel. The load was partly taken over by bending moments outside the plastic region,

where their values for elastic, perfectly plastic material exceed those associated with

strain hardening as shown in Fig. 2.31(a). The plastic regions o f the deformed

torispherical shell at /?=0.15 MPa for elastic, perfectly plastic and strain hardening

material are shown in Fig. 2.31 (b).

Li & et al, (1998), obtained the buckling prediction utilizing the FEM analysis for

buckling o f the pressure vessels with ellipsoidal head subjected to uniform pressure. They

developed a method for large deformation elastic analysis o f axisymmetric structure

subjected to axisymmetric loads. Then the formula o f bifurcation buckling analysis for

such structure was presented using the complex constraint method. By using this method,

the axisymmetrically deformed head under uniform intemal pressure is shown in Fig.

96
2.32(a). The computed elastic buckling loads was 0.054 MPa and the first buckling mode

of the whole structure is as shown in Fig. 2.32(b) [Li & et al, (1998)].

SPHERE TORUS

6.9

-Ï.3

-6.9

-9.2

09 1.0
Mvndional d itta n c * Iro n a p « . s/RV

(a) (b)

Figure 2.31: a) Meridional moment distribution and b) plastic region at pressure p=0.15

Mpa [Soric & Zahlten. (1995)].

97
1.25

1. 0 0 -

0.75- Undeformed Vaisel


■— Oefoimed Vassal
0.50-

0.25-

0.00
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25
(b)

Figure 2.32: a) Axisymmetrically deformed head, and b) Buckling mode under intemal

pressure [Li & et al, (1998)].

98
2.9.2.1 T o rip sh erical E nd-closures

Cylindrical shells subjected to intemal pressure are often closed at their ends by

shells o f revolution, which are ellipsoidal or torispherical in shape. Such dished-end shell

structures are used in many industries and often they have diameter/thickness ratios in the

range o f 500 < ID/t < 1500 [Galletly, (1979)]. Since the tangential compressive stress in

the knuckle region o f a torispherical heads is much larger than that in a semiellipsoidal

head, the possibility o f failure would seem to be higher. The thin-walled torispherical

heads having large diameter are known to collapse by elastic buckling, plastic yielding or

elastic-plastic yielding in hydro-tests. Because the modulus o f elasticity, E, for ordinary

and high strength steel are almost the same, there is no advantage to use with a high

strength steel for the thin-wall torispherical heads with a large diameter. To predict a

possible failure under internal pressure the following approximate formula for the

collapse pressure, Pe, which is close to the test results, o f a torispherical head with large

ID /t ratios can be used as follows;

I- - 2
(Rl ^ r r 1 ( R. ) r r 1
P.. = cr„ 0.43 + 7.56- + 34.8- 1-4.83 . -0.00081 (2 48)
[r j [ i D j Rc >

For standard torispherical heads having the design parameters Rc = OD and Rk =

0.06-OD the instability equation can be written as follows;

99
( t ^
p, = ^ y " 0.8836 + 24.7179- -0 .0 0 0 8 1 (2 .4 9 )
[ODj [oD j

The values o f critical pressure, pc in the elastic range for the torispherical ends

were determined by Galletly, (1979) over the ranges 500<D/f<2000, 0.06<i?;/ZK0.15,

and 0.75<(?/Û<i.50. The values are obtained from the program B 0 S 0 R 5 and tlie simple

relation form can be assumed as follows;

p^. = 1 0 0 E- + 0 .6 8 (2.50)
I D j

2.9.2.2 Ellipsoidal E nd-closure

The Eq’s. (2.48) and (2.49) could be used to estimate the instability (collapsing)

pressure in semiellipsoidal heads if values for Rk and Rc approximating closely the

ellipsoidal radii and are substituted. Semiellipsoidal heads with ID/2h = 2 have

torispherical properties equivalent to a torispherical head with RJID =0.9 and Rk/ID =

0.17. Using above equation, the instability equation for the semiellipsoidal can be

reproduced from Bednar, (1986), as follows;

R.
_A
P. = cr, 0.33 + 5.5 + 28 1 2.2
- -0 .0 0 0 6 (251)
\ID j ^ID ) \ P c J

100
On the other hand, the critical intemal buckling pressure, pc, can be assumed and

derived from the computer program (B 0 S 0 R 5 ) results for the ellipsoidal end closure

having the diameter/thickness ratios in the range o f 700<D/f<1500. The pc equation can

be approximated with variation of D/t as follows;

( D \'^
p^. =A 55- E- — (2.52)

2.9.3 Design Equations for Elimination o f Instabilities

Design rules to prevent the buckling instabilities in the torispherical and

ellipsoidal end closures subjected to intemal pressure are not yet available in either

ASME or British pressure vessel codes. The situation is, however, rather better with the

axisymmetric yielding mode. They are the subjects o f present studies and some design

equations are suggested. Some equations were obtained from the buckling equations for

perfect end closures after considering all known experimental results on the fabricated

models. The empirical constants in the proposed design equations depend on the type

head constmction used. As a result, details o f the buckling and collapse o f torispheres

under intemal pressure may be found in some studies o f Galletly and Bushnell.

The theoretical equations to be discussed were obtained for perfect torispheres

made from elastic, perfectly plastic steel. The Program (B 0 S 0 R 5 ) employed by Galletly,

(1986) in the analyses incorporates isotropic strain hardening-and the von Mises yield

criterion. The simple equation was suggested by Galletly and Radhamohan, (1979) for

the critical intemal buckling pressure, pc, o f the torispheres over the range o f

101
500<D/f<1500. is as follows;

r / R V "
285.[ 1- 125. O',,
yp 1.1
(153)

.J 10 j

This equation was argued by Galletly (1982) that, for various reasons, it was not

possible to predict the buckling pressures of the fabricated torispheres with precision. By

using some exponents in Eq. (2.53), the critical buckling pressure with more accuracy in

predicting was suggested that a simpler design equation as follows;

- 1.5
_D
p^. % 260 • a (2.54)
k J \

In Galletly and Blachut (1985), the calculations from B 0 S 0 R 5 were extended to

torispheres having D/( ratios down to 250 and in addition more values of cxyp were

explored. By using both the flow and deformations theories in the calculations for the

approximate equations for pc, they were suggesting an approximate equation as follows;

Rk
12 0 .
D
Pc * cr .p • 1.46 I IS
(155)
" D" ( Rk]
<t , .D,

102
The instability problems regarding both cylindrical shells and end-closures with

different shapes involving intemal pressure have been studied by many investigators.

Many remarkable studies on the instability analyses o f the end-closures usually imder

internal pressure loading conditions utilizing both experimental and analytical approaches

have been performed by Ualletiy, Soric, Tafreshi, Bushnell, and Blachut. A few

investigators worked on the elastic-plastic instability problems o f the end-closures

involving either finite element or finite difference methods. On the other hand, some

design equations for preventing buckling failure problems o f the torispherical end-

closures considering intemal pressures have been carried out theoretically by Galletly,

and Gallettly & Soric.

103
CHAPTER 3

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND

INVESTIGATIONS OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES

3.1 Material Selection for DOT Specification Cylinders

The selection o f the steel material for producing a DOT specification cylinder was

based on a general understanding of available grades o f sheet and formability

requirements as well as other required factors. These factors are essential in the processes

o f the forming or drawing in the material into a cylindrical shape. The list o f factors are

given in details by Davis. (1996) including service requirements, thickness, allowable

tolerances, size, strength and shape o f the blank steel, quantities, surface characteristics,

special finishes, aging properties. The strength requirements in the formed shells o f the

NRV cylinders should also be considered affer drawing process. These factors generally

are considered to select the materials in part manufacturing. It is noted that the production

o f the DOT specification cylinders requires specialized low-carbon steels that are

selected considering these factors.

104
The primary types o f steels used for this selection are cold-rolled and hot-rolled

steels. The advantage o f using these types is to obtain the material properties for cold

forming process. The cold-rolled steel was selected to produce the cylindrical shell o f the

DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders as shown in Fig. 2.7. The hot-rolled steel was

chosen to fabricate the bottom end-closure (convex-end closure) o f the D 0T-4B A

refiliable propane cylinders as shown in Fig’s. 2 .1 1(a). Both materials are codified by the

Society o f American Engineering (SAE) as SAE-1008 and SAE-1018 steels which are

low-carbon steels as shown in Table 3.1 [Brady et al, (1997)]. This table provides data for

comparing the maximum values o f the elements involved in the composition o f the low-

carbon steels (C Steels). Because o f the requirements o f the manufacturing processes

such as deep drawing, these steels are selected based on their mechanical properties

availability, and formability in the production o f the drawn cylindrical cups. The selected

low-carbon content steels provide some reasonable forming advantages to the

manufacturer during the production processes, including low cost, good formability,

weldability, machinability, and availability.

3.2 Features of the Selected Materials

The SEA-1008 steel. Aluminum Killed Drawing Quality (AKDQ) and cold-

rolled, is one of the low-carbon content steels, which contains 0.06%C in its chemical

composition. This material is selected because enhanced cold formability or drawability,

which is required in manufacturing o f the pressure cylinders. In the literature, the SAE-

1008 has relatively low tensile strength values o f 30-35 Ksi (-205 to 240 MPa). Within

105
the carbon range o f the group, the strength and hardness o f this material increase with an

increase in carbon and cold work. This increase in strength is at the sacrifice o f ductility

or the ability to withstand cold deformation [Waterman & Ashby, (1997)] and [Brady et

al, (1997)]. The SEA-1018, Silicon Killed Draw Quality (SKDQ), is a low-carbon and

hot-rolled steel, which is rolled to its final thickness in an elevated temperature process.

The carbon content in the chemical composition o f this material is 0.18%C as shown in

Table 3.1.

Physical Properties Low Carbon Steels SEA - 1008 SEA - 1018


Carbon (C) % 0 .2 max 0.06 0.18
Manganese ( Mn ) % 0 .6 max. 0.4 0 .8

Phosphorus ( P ) %
0.04 max. 0.025 0.15
Sulfur (S) %
0.05 max. 0.015 0 .0 1

Silicon ( S i ) %
0.5 max. 0 .2

Aluminum ( A1 ) % 1.4 max 0.025 0.015


Cobalt (C o ) % 0.008
Calcium ( C a ) % 0.005

Table 3.1: Physical properties o f the low-carbon steel, SAE-1008 and SAE-1018

[Avallone & Baumeister, (1987)].

106
The formability is commonly used to describe the characteristic o f the steel to

maintain its structural integrity while being plastically deformed into cylindrical shapes

as well. Therefore, in the drawing practice to make cylindrical shapes, selecting a grade

of steel that has the forming characteristics. These characteristics are nominally estimated

from an analysis of the mechanical properties o f these steels, which are determined by a

uniaxial tensile test [Waterman & Ashby, (1997)J.

3.3 Engineering and True Stress-Strain Curves

The concepts o f engineering stress and engineering strain are employed when

nominal material properties are evaluated or specified. The Engineering stress (or

nominal stress), oi, is generally defined to be the applied simple tensile force (F) per unit

f
of original cross sectional area {An), namely, = — . Similarly, the engineering strain
A.

(nominal strain), 4 , is defined as the elongation (AI) per unit o f original length (/»), which

is = — [Bickell and Ruiz, (1967)]. If a simple tension test is performed to measure


^It

engineering stress and engineering strain over a range o f loading, an engineering stress-

strain curve may be plotted from the data, as shown in Fig. 3.1.

In the definition o f engineering stress and engineering strain, the original cross-

sectional area and the original gage length are used. In fact, the dimensions do change as

the load (F) applied; these calculations o f engineering stress and strain are subjected to

errors. For ductile materials in the plastic range, and for certain brittle materials, these

107
errors in stress and strain calculations are based on Ao and /o and often become

intolerable. For ductile materials in the plastic range, the errors are generally small and

considered negligible. However, the errors are not negligible for the brittle materials. The

true stress and true strain have been defined to provide a more accurate measurement for

both stress and strain. True stress, a \ is the actual stress based on the actual area. A,

p
corresponding at every instant to current value o f load, F, which is <r = — . Similarly,
A

the true strain ( f 1 is defined as the integration o f the plastic strain increments that are

developed during the loading history [Stouffer & Dame, (1996)], and associated with an

only instantaneous value of gage length (//), which changes with increasing in the applied

load. Therefore, the true strain can be defined based on the integration result, which

yields as g = ln(l + g J .

In the literature, therefore, the low-carbon steels are represented by engineering

stress-strain (ESS) and corresponding true stress-strain (TSS) curves as shown in Fig’s.

3.1 and 3.2. These stress-strain curves o f the low-carbon steels have a smooth transition

between very low elastic strain and the higher plastic strain regions o f the curve. When

the load is removed in the elastic region, the component returns to its original

dimensions. When this loading is done in the plastic region, the part retains permanent

deformations [Davis, (1996)].

3.4 Material Properties of the SAE-1008 and SAE-1018 Steels

The well-known tensile test technique applied to identify the material properties

108
of the selected SEA-1008 and SAE-1018 steels. Two different tensile test specimens are

cut out from the cold and hot rolled steels, non-drawn blank-steel sheets; o f which one is

in rolling and the other one is in perpendicular to the rolling direction. These specimens

are subjected to tensile test and the elongation values of the tension specimens that are

based on the applied tensile force (F). These values are used to find the engineering

stresses, then, the engineering stress-strain values are obtained with nonlinear curves as a

function o f elongation, as shown in Fig 3.3. Furthermore, the corresponding true stress-

strain (TSS) curves are obtained as seen in Fig. 3.4. These TSS curves are converted from

the corresponding engineering stress-strain (ESS) curves/data. Likewise, the material

properties for the weld zone are obtained in the same way using the tensile test

specimens. The properties of the weld zone are represented with the ESS and TSS curves

in Fig’s. 3.3 and 3.4, respectively.

In the literature, the mechanical properties o f low-carbon steels are illustrated in

Table 3.2. These properties are represented with ultimate tensile strength (UTS), tensile

yield strength (TVS), elongation and modulus o f elasticity (£). In that table, the

mechanical properties of the low-carbon steel can be compared with the properties o f the

selected steels (SEA-1008 and SEA-1018) for the NRV cylinder production. The

properties o f SAE-1008 cold-rolled steel are similar with the properties o f general low-

carbon steels. Table 3.2 illustrates some important findings such as the different

mechanical properties between the SAE-1008 cold-rolled and the SAE-1018 hot-rolled

steels. That is to say; the properties o f the cold-rolled (SAE-1008) steels are more ductile

than hot-rolled (SAE-1018) steels. In addition, table 3.2 depicts the mechanical properties

of weld zone where the cylindrical shell components are joined together to form a NRV

109
cylinder. For the joining o f the cylindrical shells, the Gas Metal-arc welding (GMAW),

NS-101 (AKA ER 70 S-3) was used. As expected, the weld zone properties are obtained

higher than carbon steel properties. This trend can also be seen in Fig. 3.3. and 3.4.

M ate ria l Tensile S trength Yield S trength Elongation Young M odulus

N am e psi (M Pa) psi (M Pa) % E : ksi (G P a)

Low C Steel 48000 (331) 28000 (193) 40 30000 (207)

SAE-1008 48510 (335) 28970 (200) 38 35000 (241)

SAE-1018 65000 (448) 45000 (310) 26 25000 (172)

W eld Z o n e 84900 (585) 70900 (489) 26.3 120000 (827)

Table 3.2: Mechanical properties of the SEA-1008, SEA-1018 steels, and weld zone.

3.5 Effects of Carbon content on the M echanical Properties

The mechanical properties such as the TYS and UTS increase slowly but

progressively with the increasing carbon (C) content, and depend on section thickness.

The sm aller sections have higher strength due to a faster rate o f cooling. The toughness

decreases with increasing both C content and cleanness. Figure 3.5 shows the influence

of the C content on the low-carbon steel [Davis, (1996)]. A careful study o f Fig.

110
3.5 indicates that an increase of C content highly affects the mechanical properties o f hot

rolled steels than cold rolled steels. Especially, UTS of hot rolled steels increases rapidly.

In addition, the ratio between UTS and TYS slightly elevated with increase o f the C

content.

400 56
Ultinr a te ter isile 1
48
sitrength
1
300
(0 — ^
40
Q.
5 1 1 3
{/» 1
1
32 S
V)
0) 200 t
1
1
w
tfj 1 24 %
o> 1 O)
c c
kZ 1 Yiei d strer ig th
16
0)
0)
100 1
1 1
1 Total
L
1
S
c 1 U niform | g j ^ )ngatic
’5) O)
c 1 elo n g atio n | ’"1 - c
LU \ UJ

1 1 I T _

10 20 30 40 50
E ngineering strain, %

Figure 3.1: ESS curve o f the low-carbon steels [Waterman & Ashby, (1991), (1997)] and

[Davis, (1996)].

Ill
400

300

200

100

0.2
True strain

Figure 3.2: TSS curve o f the low-carbon steels [Waterman Sc Ashby, (1991), (1997)] and

[Davis, (1996)].

112
E n g i n e e r i n g S tr e s s - S t r ai n C u rv e s
90000

Weld
80 00 0

70000
M S.4E-1018
a
co 60000
H
4>
5 00 00
V)
a
c 4 00 00
4> SAE-1008
O
Ç 30000
O) SAE-1008
c
LU 20000 SEA-1018

10000 Weld

0
0 0415 0.1 0.15 0.4
E n g i n e e r i n Strain (%)

Figure 3.3: ES S curves of the SAE-1008 and 1018 steels and weld zone materials.

113
Comparison of the Material Properties
120000

110000
Weld
100000

90000
SAE-1018
80000
w
t 70000

50000
SAE-1008
a, 50000

g 40000

30000 SAE-1008

20000 SAE-1018

10000
— Weld

0 0 05 0 1 0.15 0.2 025 03 0.35


True Strain %

Figure 3.4: TSS curves of the SAE-1008 and SAE-1018 steel and weld materials.

114
120
800 ■

700 100

600
IS .
Cold Drawn
2 500

400 60 3
Y.S. Odd Drawn

300

200

100

02 04 05 08 07 08 09
CARBCN C O N TB<rw r%

Figure 3.5: Influence of carbon content on the strength o f the carbon steel [Davis,

(1996)].

115
3.6 Design for M anufacturing

The cylindrical shells o f the NRV cylinders are usually produced from axially

symmetrical elements having various design parameters including different shell

thickness and different material properties. The DOT-39 pressure cylinders are designed

and produced as two cylindrical shell components, namely TOP and BOTTOM shell

components (see in Fig. 2.8) with the complete dimensional characterizations and

geometrical shapes as shown in Fig. 3.6. For geometrical reasons, these two cylindrical

shell components are welded together at the middle about their axis o f rotation to form

the NRV cylinder as shown in Fig 3.6.

The safe-use of the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders is very important due to

containing the hazardous material. For this reason, using appropriate tools o f design and

manufacturing process are very important in engineering standpoint, such as design for

manufacturing and assembly (DFMA). These tools are one o f the most effective

approaches to implement concurrent engineering, which is an environment for product

development.

The assembly a major part o f the total part manufacturing processes as shown in

the flowchart o f the DOT-39 pressure cylinders in Fig. 3.7. The integrated manufacturing

processes including raw materials, finished part, assembly, and product finish are

conducted in the DFMA processes o f the cylinder production. The DFA focuses on the

business aspects o f the assembly, which is the life cycle o f the production. On the other

hand, the purpose o f the DFM is to enable design teams to weigh alternative designs and

production procedures, quantifying manufacturing cost, and make the necessary decisions

116
between part consolidation, increased material and manufacturing costs [Waldron &

Waldron (1996)]. As an example for the process o f the DFMA applications, using the

sectional view in Fig. 3.8 shows the complete assembly o f the NRV cylinders including

its valve-and-tubing assembly.

Handle H erm etic


O n e-w ay
Valve & tube
system

Torispherical
Head

TopSheU ,
Component

WELD LINE

Inner D iam eter (ED)

Bottom SheU
Component
Dimples for Feet

Knuckle

Bottom End o f C ylinder

Figure 3.6; Design parameters for manufacturing and assembly of the DOT-39 refrigerant

cylinders.

117
■j Rmv M aterial
R aw M ateiial: S E A -i 008 I
I
J Finished Part
------ '
Top Shell Bottom Shell Handle Set Valve sys Tube

f* W
Welding of two Valve-Tube
Shells Assembly
'r 'F

Handle Welding
on the Cylinder

Painting

I
Assembly of DOT-39
: Assembh' Pressure Cylinders

Adjusting

I
Testing

Gas Filling

Product
Finish Production of DOT-39
Pressure Cylinders
— f— T-

Figure 3.7: The process flow of DFMA with integrated processes for the NRV cylinder.

118
Handle

Cylinder Shell and


Wall Thickness

Withdrawal Tube
and Assembly of
Valve-and-tubing
System

Dimples
for Feet

Figure 3.8; Assembly the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinder components.

119
3.7 M anufacturing Processes of the DOT Specification Cylinders

The DOT-39 non-re fillable refrigerant cylinders consist o f different components

such as top and bottom shells, valve-and-tubing system that are required to separately

manufacture with different processes. For the production o f these components in such a

way assembly them together as seen in Fig. 3.8, the procedures o f the DFMA processes

are taken place. Additionally, considering the DFMA requirements in the sequence o f

integrated manufacturing processes as seen in Fig. 3.7, the optimum manufacturing

processes are selected for the production o f DOT-39 specification cylinders. These

processes are then chosen to optimize the properties o f the finished product to facilitate

inspection for quality control. Consequently, three types o f manufacturing processes are

conducted with the sequence of production o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders:

blanking, deep drawing, and welding processes.

3.7.1 The B lanking Process

The blanking process is a sheet metal shearing/cutting operation that produces a

workpiece o f an enclosed contour with a single stroke o f the press for further use in the

deep drawing process as shown in Fig 3.9. The blanking is cutting/shearing the sheet

metal strip in a circular shape to prepare it for the deep drawing process. The required

circular blanking diameters are given in Table 3.3 and based on the ID o f the DOT-39

refrigerant cylinders. The cutting operation during the blanking process is shown in Fig.

120
3.10 with the path of punching operation. The cutting force (Ft), during the blanking

process, increases until the maximum force is reached, then it decreases as illustrated in

the figure. The circular punch and die are used and the blank is completely sheared

without other resistance, so that the basic equation for calculating the shear (blanking)

force (Ft) for a circular shape o f ductile material is defined as: F^ = 0.85 • UTS -Tr-dQ-tQ,

where do is the circular blank diameter, and to is the blank sheet thickness.

3.7.2 T he Deep Drawing Processes

Deep drawing process, one o f the most common sheet metal forming processes

(bending, stretching, and deep drawing), is basically characterized by tensile and

compressive stresses. The main tools used in this process are a die, a pimch and a

blankholder. The blank sheet material is clamped between the die and the blankholder.

Primarily, the deep drawing is the permanent deformation process o f reducing a circular

blank o f a diameter (do) to a circular cup o f diameter (di or -ID) using a punch to deform

the sheet into a die cavity. The final shape o f the product is defined by both the punch

and die. Both the friction and blankholder forces are restraining the material flow during

the deep drawing process [Avallone & Baumeister, (1987)]. The plastic deformation

implies that the shape of the work-piece is changed, without a change in the volume. It

occurs as the metal moves from flange to the cylinder wall. Primary deformation zone in

this process occius in the circular wall o f the cylinder, which is undergoing axial tension

and circumferential compression. The secondary deformation zone is the bending aroimd

the radius o f the die while the tertiary deformation zone is the stretching in the cylinder

121
wall. Therefore, the deep drawing process a combination o f all three-deformation modes,

is relatively complex process to analyze. In addition, there is wall thinning in the final

product o f the cylinder due to the combination o f deformation modes.

The drawing o f the sheet metal causes elongation in one direction and

compression in the perpendicular direction. Some o f the significant specifications o f the

deep drawing, illustrated in Fig. 3.11, should be considered for manufacturing and

design. These specifications are related with material properties o f sheet metal and design

parameters including the clearance between the die and the punch, blank holder force

friction and lubrication at the interfaces o f the die, the punch and the workpiece, speed of

punch, and blank thickness ratio to punch diameter {to / IrJ). The deep drawing {Fdd) and

blank holder {Fbh) forces derived by Siebel can be calculated by using the following

equations (the factor “c" ranges from 2 to 3); also Hill's yield criterion introduced by

Hosford & Backofen (1964) is examined, respectively, namely.

hh + cr.,
1.1 (Ty • In — + (3.1)
/ F- d f - t o 2 r,

3 ^ 0.005-c/q
fw = l O ' . c {LDR-\) (3.2)

122
Scrap skeleton Sheet m etal strip

Blank

Figure 3.9: Circular blanking from sheet metal strip [Mielnik, (1991)]

R equired C ircu lar Blanking D iam eters

DOT-39 Refrigerant Cylinder Circular Sheared

Inner Diameters {ID) Blank Diameters {do)

inch (mm) inch (mm)


7.5 (190.5) 14.5 (368.3)
9.0 (228.6) 16.75 (425.5)
9.5 (241.3) 17.313 (439.75)
12 (304.8) 20.125 (511.175)

Table 3.3: Required circular blank diameters for each group of the cylinders.

123
Maximum punch focoe
Initiation o f crack
Circular punch Secondary cracki probably formed
Fnctional resistance between ;
Sharp or PrcMure (a) Blank and hole
ndiused (b) Punch and hole
(c) Blank and die
Frictional resistance
W o rk mainly between punch
a n d hole
Separation of blank
from sheet

blajtk Friciional resistance


mainly between punch
and hole
Radiai clearance, c
Punch displacement
Stripping of sheet from punch

Figure 3.10: Analysis o f the blanking process [Mielnik, (1991)].

D E T A IL - A

Blankholder

. BUVNK\ punch I FORCE


H O IU E R ' Flange
See
Oeuilf
PUNCH
, ' DIE

Sheet
(Elements)
DEEP DR-VWN,
DOT-J9 Die
S E M IE U JP S O ID A L
CYLINDER
HEAD Cylinder
CR O W N
Waü "

Figure 3.11: Drawing of the DOT-39 cylinder in the deep drawing process.

124
3.7.3 T h e W elding P rocess

Welding is one o f the most important processes in building pressure cylinders.

The welding, one o f the joining processes, is a solid-state bonding process through which

interatomic bonds may be established by bnngmg the atoms o f two surfaces into class

proximity. It is absolutely essential that the bonding surfaces should be free o f

contaminants such as oxides, absorbed gas films or lubricant residues. The deformation

o f the interface welding process is ensured by placing the sheets, or shells at a bent form

to each other as shown in Fig. 3.12. The welding technique applied for joining the

cylindrical shell is done based on the requirements of the CGA regulation as explained in

Section 2.2.3. For these reasons. Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW) a suitable technique

for most metal was used in the welding process. The GMAW is using the consumable

electrode fed through the welding gun and shielded an inert gas that is the older acronym,

which is metal inert gas (MIG) welding [Mielnik, (1991)] and [Schey, (1987)].

125
Handle

e ra
Svatera

Tonsphencal
Head

Top Shell
Com ponent
M e a iu re m e n t
d ir e c tio n
Tensile Test
Specimen for ^ iT
3
Weld zone • b
Weld Deposit

Bottom S hell,
[finer D iam eter i ID )
/
Component
Dimples for Feet

Knuckle
0 .0 3 3 > in
L ro w n
W e ld J o in t
(0.889*nim)
D e s ig n
Pole

Figure 3.12: Design o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinder and weld joining [Kisioglu et al,

( 2000 )].

126
3 .8 Investigation o f M aterial P roperties

It is well known that the work hardening effect o f the deep drawing process can

cause a variation o f material properties including shell wall thickneeses in the drawn shell

properties. The cylinder is produced using the SEA-1008 cold-rolled steel that has

homogenous material properties (see Fig. 3.3 and 3.4) before drawing it. However, after

drawing process, the general idea is that the deep drawing is a strain hardening process,

which highly affects to change the shell properties including the shell-wall thickness

uniformity as well. For this reason, it is necessary to well specify the material changes

and the thickness variations of the drawn shells o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders. In

order to obtain more accurate results o f the cylinder analyses, these specified properties

must be performed in the computer-aided modeling processes in such a way to be

validated by the experimental results. Accordingly, all these investigations o f the drawn

cylinder material properties have been done by using one o f the US major cylinder

manufacturer facilities.

3.8.1 Cylindrical Drawn Shell Properties

The deep drawing process is deforming material plastically with strain hardening

so that non-homogenous deformation o f the material is taken place as understood from

the path of the punching operation in Fig. 3.10. That is; the variation o f the cylinder

material is changing non-uniformly at every point o f the drawn cylindrical cup (see Fig.

2.8). To investigate the actual drawn shell material properties, a drawn shell component

127
o f the cylinder is divided into four regions (zones) between points “a” and “b” as shown

in Fig. 3.13. These zones named are; ''shell by w eld' between the points “a” and “c”,

"shell by knuckle" between the points “c” and “d”, "crown by knuckle" between the

points “d” and **e”, and finally "crown" between the points '"e” and '‘b”.

Tensile test specimens, subjected to tensile force using well-known tensile test

technique, were cut from each cylindrical shell zones in both longitudinal and

circumferential directions about the principal axes. The orientations o f the tensile test

specimens were cut from the cylindrical shell regions as shown in Fig. 3.13. After applied

tensile test technique, it was observed that the material strength o f the cylindrical drawn

shell in the longitudinal direction was obtained higher than the material strength in the

circumferential direction. The shell material is stretched out during the drawing process

in the longitudinal direction. On the other hand, the material properties in the spherical

(crown) region, including most o f the knuckle zone, exhibit almost the same

characteristics in all directions. For this reason, the material properties o f the whole

crown region, including the knuckle, are represented as one region that has the same

property in the modeling process. These material properties were obtained and

represented with TSS curves o f each group o f DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders, which are

ID=7.5, ID=9.5, and /D=12 (see Fig. 2.7) as shown in Fig's. 3.14, 3.16, and 3.18,

respectively. In addition, to this, the material property o f the original blank steel, SAE-

1008, is represented by its TSS curve in these figures and the strain hardening highly

affects the material properties during deep drawing process. The TSS curves are

converted from corresponding ESS curve/data by using well-known empirical equations

based on the conversion given in [Avallone & Baumeister (1987)]. The conversion

128
equations are defined as for true stress is cr, = cr • (1 + f ) , and for true strain is

s, = In(l + g ), where a and e refer to the engineering stress and engineering strain,

respectively.

The variations in the mechanical properties o f the drawn shell materials as listed

in Table 3.4, are altering significantly depending on the regions o f the drawn shell

components. These variations of the mechanical properties (UTS, TYS and elongation)

are calculated for each group of cylinder in a percentage o f the original material

properties (SEA-1008) and are represented in graphical illustrations. These illustrations

for each group of the NRV cylinders are shown as a function o f the different regions o f

the drawn shell components in Fig's. 3.15, 3.17, and 3.19, respectively. As it can be

evidently seen from Fig. 3.17. the UTS and TYS increases while the elongation

represented by the second y-axis decreases. These variations are shown clearly within

numerical values in Table 3.4. For example, in the region o f shell by w eld', the UTS

about 58% and the TYS about 151% increase while the elongation decreases about 82%.

3.8.2 Weld Zone Properties

In the general aspects o f the design viewpoint, the welded joints must implement

functionality of the required strength, which is usually more intensive than jointed

components. In order to avoid the affects o f stress concentrations as well as discontinuity

stresses, the geometrical discontinuity at the welded joints must be applied smoothly

considering the welding procedures. The welded joints were used in the cylinder

manufacturing processes when the two cylindrical shell components; top and

129
bottom shells (see Fig. 2.8) were jointed together to form DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

In the case of welded joints o f the cylinders, the weld zone geometries were generally

generated quite uniform. Randomly a few cylinders selected for the test specimens were

removed from the manufacturing stack and cut out half to get its full cross-section then

weld zone geometries were measured using a micrometer with a precision o f 0 .0 0 1 -in

(0.0254-mm). The average values o f the nominal dimensions o f the weld joint as

measured are shown in Fig. 3.12.

To investigate the weld zone properties, a few tensile test specimens were taken

from the welded zone in the middle o f the assembled cylinders. These specimens were

cut circumferentially about axis o f rotation and examined by using the tensile test

technique. A tensile test specimen cut out is shown with a dashed line on the weld zone in

Fig. 3.12. From the tensile tests, the ESS data and associated ESS curves were obtained.

It was observed that the obtained ESS data and related ESS curves behave approximately

in the same ranges and slopes. Similarly, the conversion method, used to investigate the

drawn shells properties explained above, was also performed to explore the weld zone

properties that were converted from average values o f its ESS to TSS curves, which are

illustrated in Fig's 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. The mechanical properties o f the weld zone

were investigated from the tensile test technique, and the results are as follows;

Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) : 84900 psi (585.4 MPa)

Tensile Yield Strength (TYS) : 70900 psi (488.8 MPa)

Modulus o f Elasticity (E) : 176 ksi (1.2 GPa)

Elongation ; 26.25%

130
Crown b AN

Knuckle

Tlie Orientation of
Shell by Tensile Test Specimens
Knuckle

Shell by W eld

We d z o n e

Tensile Test
I Specimens^

ID"? . 5 1 n , R e f r i g _ C ^ i n , t ° 0 . 0 3 o T n ^ l l A c t u a l S h e l l .KISIOGL^

Figure 3.13: The region division o f the actual drawn shell and the orientations o f the

tensile test specimens cut from the divided zones [Kisioglu et al, (2000)].

131
True S t r e ss Strain Curves of DOT-39 R. Cylinder (ID:7.5-in)
90000
Shell By Crowi.
80000 r \ _____________

70000
Shell By SAE-1008
60000 Knuckle

50000 Crown

40000

,SAE -1008
30000
S hell b y W eld

20000
S h e ! by Knuckle

10000 — C rovwi

True strain (% )

Figure 3.14: True stress-true strain curves {ID: 7.5).

132
Variation o f Material P r o p e r ty (10:7.5-In)
180

160

140 -20

20 -30

0 0 ----- -40

Elongation -50

-60

-70

-8 0

-90
C row n Crown b y Shell b y Shell b y W eld
K n u ck le K n uckle

Figure 3.15: The variations o f the mechanical properties (ID: 7.5).

133
Transformation of SAE-1008 Steel Property as Drawn Cylindrical
shell

80000
B y W e ld
70000
SEA-1008
60000 By Knuckle

Crown
£ 50000

(A
(A
40000
£
25
0)
30000
SAE-1008
g
By Weld
20000
By Knuckle

10000 Crown (Top)

0 0 05 01 015 02 025 03 035


True Strain %

Figure 3.16: True stress-strain curves (ID: 9.5-in) [Kisioglu et al, (2000)].

134
Var ia ti on o f Material P r o p e r t y (I D: 9. 5-i n)
155

135 ---10

- - -20

- a- u t s - -30

-a -T Y S - -40
c
o
Elongation
(0 -- -50
•c
«
>
-- -60

-- -70

-- -80

-90
Crown Crown by Shell b y Knuckle Shell b y Weld
Knuckle

Figure 3.17: The variations o f the mechanical properties (ID: 9.5-in) [Kisioglu et al,

(2000)].

135
True Stress-Strain Curve o f D o t - 3 9 R. Cylinder (ID: 12-in)
90000
SheUByWeld
80000

70000
Crown SAE-1008
SheUBy
60000 Knuckle

50000

40000

SAE-1008
30000
S h e l l by W e l d

20000 S h e l l by Knuckle

Crown
1 0 0 00

0 . 05 0. 25 0. 35
True Strain (% )

Figure 3.18: The true stress-strain curves (ID: 12).

136
Variat ion o f Mat e ri ai P r o p e r t y (iD : 12- in)

175

- - 10
150
-■ -20
125
-■ -30
UTS

100 - -
-- -40
C TYS
o
- © —Elongation
(0 -■ -50
75 -H
L.
(0
> -- -60

- -70

-- -80

Crown C r o w n by Shell by K n u c k l e Shell by Weld


Kn uckle

Figure 3.19: The variations o f the mechanical properties (ID: 12).

137
3.8.3 A ctual Draw n Shell thickness V ariation

The effects o f manufacturing process on the thickness o f the drawn shell

components were considered as well. It is expected that the drawn shell thickness is non-

uniform due to the strain hardening. This variation is investigated by measuring the mil

cross-sectional geometry o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinder as shown in Fig. 3.12. The

measurement procedure, using a micrometer, is done in both "‘point-by-point” and “by-

sliding” the micrometer on the surface. Between points “a” and “h”, 12 different shell

thicknesses were measured at approximately every 0.4-in (I0.16-mm) along the length o f

the cylinder shell. From point “h” through point “u”, at the crown region, 13 different

shell thicknesses were measured. For instance, the wall thickness was measured to be

about 0.0365-in (0.9275-mm) at point “a”, about 0.0317-in (0.80418-mm) at point “h”,

and about 0.0388-in (0.98552-mm) at point “u”. It was noted that the thickness measured

at point “u” was very close to the nominal thickness o f SAE-1008 steel-sheet. In fact, the

SAE-1008 steel sheet is manufactured within the some tolerances o f the sheet thickness.

In this case, a close study o f the data obtained through the measurement indicated that the

minimum wall thickness occurred at point “h”, which is in the '"''shell by knuckle'" region.

The thickness variation of the drawn cylindrical shell is shown as a function of

shell regions in Fig. 3.20. The wall thickness changes in the cylindrical drawn shell

region more than that o f the "crown" region. The maximum and minimum thickness

variations were about 18% in the '"shell by knuckle" region, and about 1% at point “u”

that is in the "crown" region, respectively.

138
Drawn Cyliudircal Shell Material Properties
Material T. Strength (UTS) Y. Strength (TYS) Elongation
Name psi (Mpa) psi (Mpa) %

SAE-1008 48510 (334.5) 28970 (199.7) 38

Crmvn & Khuclde 47200 (325.4) 42800 (295.1) 32

Shell fay knuckle (58800 (474.4) 66600 (459.2) 5

Shell fay Weld 76700 (528.8) 72600 (500.6) 7

Table 3.4: Mechanical material properties o f the drawn cylindrical shells.

T h i c k n es s Variation of 9.5-in ID (t=0.032-in)

Cylindrical Shell Knuckle Crown

Figure 3.20: Thickness variation of the drawn cylindrical shell.

139
CHAPTER 4

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BP AND BEL

4.1 M odeling of Bursting Test for the DOT-39 Refrigerant Cylinders

This study originated with the idea o f investigating the BP and BFL o f the DOT-

39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders (NRV cylinders). Bursting is the failure o f the

material, which is a significant portion o f the cylinder wall becoming fully plastic, so that

the cylinder loses its required functionality from the requirements o f the design. The BP

and BFL for each type of three NRV cylinder groups (see Fig. 2.7) must be determined as

their technical features based on the requirements o f the DOT regulations. Because it

contains the hazardous materials that are dangerously flammable and explosive in

transporting and service, the BP has to be at least 4-times that o f the SP. As a result, the

BP represents the strength and capacity o f the cylinder, which is the maximum pressure

that cylinders can hold without bursting. Likewise, the BFL is the place where the

deformation becomes fully plastic and the cylinder wall starts to be tom and fractured.

It is noted that the investigations o f the BP and BFL o f the NRV cylinders are

important in order to comply with the DOT Rules. The effects o f material performance

and geometrical properties on the relative loading (pressure) capacity o f the cylinder are

140
considered in the bursting test modeling. Based on these considerations, two different

types o f bursting test models, experimental and computer-aided finite element analysis

(FEA), have been conducted in order to specify the BP and BFL of each type o f the

DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders.

4.2 E xperim ental M odeling of the Bursting Test

The experimental burst investigations o f the NRV cylinders have been carried out

in the R&D laboratory o f a major U.S. cylinder manufacturer. In order to test these

cylinders in the experiment, the cylinders are completely filled with water, and the

pressure is controlled by means of a single acting hydraulic pump. By venting air during

the filling, the water is fully utilized for the tests at room temperature. The cylinders are

randomly selected from every 10 0 0 -manufactured stack and carefully placed in the

experiment apparatus. The cylinders are located horizontally in the equipment of

experiment instead of placing them on the dimples located at the bottom.

In the bursting experiments, 581 DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders with the ratio of

the inner diameter to the wall thickness t/ID = 0.0034 are tested at different tim es. Fig.

4.1 shows the BP distribution of 581 refrigerant cylinders tested, as a function of

frequency o f the cylinders. Since the initial, to, o f the blank steel sheet is variable due to

manufacturing tolerances, the BP values range from a minimum o f 680 psi (4.67-M Pa) to

a maximum o f 760 psi (5.24-MPa). The mean BP value obtained is about 730-psi (5.03-

MPa) for 225-test specimens out o f 581 NRV cylinder samples. Similarly, the same

bursting experiments are applied for these cylinders in the same group with the ratios o f

141
t/ID = 0.0055 and t/ID = 0.0097, so that the average BP values for these cylinders

obtained are about 1196-psi (8.3-MPa) and 2010-psi (13.86-MPa), respectively. The

distribution o f the BP values obtained from these experiments as a function o f frequency

is observed with the same distribution as shown in Fig. 4.1. For instance, the burst

cylinder experienced in the experiment is shown in Fig. 4.3.

F r e q u e n c y of Bur st P r e s s u r e s
250
225
. 200
o 175
g 150
3 125
§■ 100
£ 75

679 680 685 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770
B u r s t P r e s s u r e (psi)

Figure 4.1 : The BP frequency o f the experimental results.

142
The BFL of the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders is well demonstrated

by the experimental burst tests as shown in Fig. 4.3. When those cylinder specimens are

subjected to the burst test in the experiment, a bursting fracture is observed, which

usually occurs at the junction o f the cylindrical shell and knuckle regions, at point “A,” as

shown in Fig’s. 4.2 and 4.3. This point is defined as the BFL o f the NRV cylinders. In the

experiment, the cylinder specimens fracture at this point in such a way that the bursting

crack continues longitudinally up to point “B,” where the weld zone is located

circumferentially as shown in Fig's. 4.2 and 4.3. When the bursting fracture meets with

the weld stiffness, the fracture direction changes and continues circumferentially about

the rotation axis o f the shell as shown in Fig. 4.2. This fracture phenomenon and the BFL

are also in good agreement with the BFL definitions specified by the DOT regulations.

Burst
Failure
Location

Figure 4.2: Burst failure location (BFL) of the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

143
Miller

Figure 4.3: Experimental bursting and bursting location in the DOT-39 refrigerant

cylinders.

144
4.3 Com puter-A ided Modeling of the Bursting Test

The finite element code ANSYS, versions 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5, was used to

investigate the BP and BFL o f the DOT 39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders. In the

ANSYS code, the ANSYS programming design ianguage (APDL), has been performed

well throughout the development o f entire computer-aided modeling processes. As an

example, one o f the APDL programs developed for the burst modeling processes is given

in Appendix C. For the generation o f the computer-aided modeling (FEA model), the

current geometrical design parameters o f the NRV cylinders (see Fig’s. 2.7 and 2.10) are

considered here as an axisymmetric model in 2-D case with respect to the main axes o f

rotations and with respect to the applied uniform load. In addition, the material

nonlinearity measured from the actual cylinder is applied well in the FEA modeling

processes.

A 2-D axisymmetric FEA model has been developed by using the quarter

symmetry o f the current cylinder geometry and the mid-surface o f the wall thickness as

shown in Fig. 4.4. The reason for using the mid-surface o f the shell-wall thickness, the

finite shell elements are usually defined by the mid-surface o f the wall (part, or

component) thickness, which has to be used as a real constant to specify the shell element

modeling. Therefore, preliminary investigations for the FEA modeling processes have

been done to select the most suitable finite shell element from the ANSYS Code and

determined the most appropriate axisymmetric boimdary conditions.

145
Crown A N

Crown Shell

Knuckle

<fc
Shell by
Knuckle

-- t

Shell by
Weld

'W
c
JL
<L tw 3. H Weld
Deposit
I D ° 7 . 5 i n , R e f r i g _ C y 1 i n d e r , t ° 0 . 0 3 0 , nrtr i : SAE-1 QO8_CR,KISIOGLU

Figure 4.4: Axisymmetric FEA model of the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

146
4.4 M aterial Nonlinearity

The uniaxial behavior o f the cylinder is described by a piece-wise stress-strain

curve that displays nonlinear structural behavior, starting at the origin with positive TSS

values in a data table as shown in graphical forms in Fig’s. 3.14, 3.16, and 3.18. The

material nonlinearity can be used to determine the inelastic behaviors such as

displacements and stresses in structures subjected to steady loading conditions. In

addition, nonlinear stress-strain relationships are a common cause o f nonlinear structural

behavior. The data tables associated with a material number are used to define nonlinear

material characteristics, which are TSS curves in the modeling processes. The form o f the

table, referred to as TB table and created as sub-directory-files by programming in

ANSYS, depends upon the data corresponding to TSS curves as seen in Appendix C. To

specify the TSS curves in the FEA modeling, one o f the options, isotropic hardening, is

used in the Batch file programming (APDL) as shown in Appendix C. In the FEA

modeling processes, the isotropic hardening rule uses the Von Mises yield criterion with

an isotropic work hardening assumption, which is performed for non-cyclic load histories

[ANSYS Manuel (1998)]. In addition, the isotropic hardening is preferred to specify the

material characterization in the simulation due to large strain effects involved in the

failure o f the pressure cylinder.

147
4.5 Selection of Axisymmetric Finite Shell Element

The geometrical models, generated as a ID in 2D working-plane, recline on the

mid-surface o f the wall thickness o f the cylinder as shown in Fig. 4.4. By using the

design parameters o f the current geometry, the model has been defined with the aid o f the

wall thickness and the radii o f curvatures of the cylinders (see Fig. 2.8). For a suitable

FEA modeling, a fine mesh generation requiring small element size has been conducted

by using a 2D axisymmetric structural shell element. The length o f the shell element

within the element shape tolerance defines the element size. Because the model is

axisymmetric and analyzed in a 2D plane strain, it is necessary to select a mesh with a 2-

node axisymmetric finite shell element that allows the description o f such model

behavior. As a result, preliminary investigations are carried out to select the most suitable

finite shell element from the ANSYS element library, so that the axisymmetric structural

shell, SHELLS 1. element is considered.

The finite shell element, SHELLS 1, is defined by 2-node, 2-end thicknesses, and

four degrees of freedom (DOF) associated with each node. The geometry, node locations,

and the coordinate systems for this element are shown in Fig. 4.S. These 2-nodes and 2-

faces, on which the BCs are applied, are labeled as “I” and “J” and “ 1” and “2”,

respectively. Since the SHELLS 1 element is defined with four DOFs, three o f the DOFs

are translational displacements in the nodal x, y, and z directions and the fourth one is

rotational displacement about the nodal z-axis. The output results o f SHELLS 1 from the

simulations consist o f the nodal solution, which is primarily the DOF solution. The

extreme orientations o f the conical SHELLS 1 element enable the user to use a linearly

148
varying thickness. In order to specify the cylindrical shell thickness in the FEA modeling

process, the wall thickness values have been used as real constant inputs in APDL by

applying them at each node. The SHELLS 1 element has nonlinear material capabilities,

stress components, rate-independent plasticity, and nonlinear elasticity. In order to obtain

the most accurate deformation o f the cylinder simulations, the SHELLS 1 element is

conducted with extra displacement shape functions (ESP) rather than without ESP

defined in the manual. (For details, see the ANSYS Manual, 1998).

4.6 Axisym m etric B oundary C onditions

The selection of boundary conditions (BCs), axisymmetric with respect to the

circumstances o f the FE.A. modeling processes, the loading, and the geometrical

conditions have been considered. In the loading applications as BCs, the cylinders are

subjected to incremental internal pressure from pressure-free to bursting time. In order to

perform the geometrical conditions, the node located at point "a” has been restricted to

translational displacement in the “y” direction and the other node placed at point '‘6 ” has

been constrained translational displacement in the “x” direction as shown in Fig. 4.4.

Because o f the geometrical and selected finite shell element features, the rotational

displacements about the “z” axis for both nodes located at points “a ” and “ 6 ” have also

been constrained to free rotation. All other nodes in the entire FEA model are free to both

translational in both the x and y directions, except for the z-direction, since the model is

generated in 2D conditions. In addition, all of these nodes o f the model are free to

rotational displacements about the z-axis. Various parameters are used to specify the

149
BCs, consisting of geometrical and loading conditions in FEA simulations to predict the

structural behavior o f the NRV cylinders. These parameters for the BCs are illustrated on

the model and labeled related symbols as shown in Fig. 4.6. The meanings o f the labels

are explained on Table 4.1.

T4

T3

A X IA L (Y )

T1
T2
R A D IA L (X )

Figure 4.5: Axisymmetric finite shell element, SHELLS 1 [ANSYS Manual, (1998)].

150
Translational Displacements in x, y, z, directions.
Rotational Displacements about x, y, and z axes.
Normal Forces act on the perpendicular surfaces.
Normal moments.
Reaction Forces
Reaction Moments
Axisymmetrical Load (Uniform Internal Pressure)

Table 4.1 : Definitions of the labels used for the boundary condition.

ANSYS 5 . 3
DEC 4 1996
1 6 :3 0 : 1 8
ELEMENTS
TYPE HUM
J

NFCR
NWOM
af:r
RNOM
PRES

zv =1
• D I S T .4 .3 4
•XF S 2 .3 8 9
•YF = 3 .2 1 7
2-BUFFER

9 .5 ~ R e f . C y l . i n 1c k n = 0 . 0 0 5 8 . m t r 1 : 1008CR ( 7 8 6 ) . KISIOGLU

Figure 4.6: Axisymmetric boundary conditions used on the 2D FEA model.

151
4.7 Development of Non-linear FEA Modeling

A FEA model has been developed using a suitable methodology investigated and

performed to apply the material nonlinearity and geometrical non-uniformity throughout

the modeling processes to determine the BP and BFL for each type o f the DOT-39

refrigerant cylinder groups. The modeling was performed in quasi-static, nonlinear large-

deflection and the axisymmetric plane strain conditions. The quasi-static analysis in

nonlinear conditions is used to determine the displacements, stresses, strains, and forces

in the cylinder structure caused by internal loads. Therefore, two different types o f non­

linear FEA models, uniform and non-uniform, have been developed using 2D

axisymmetric conditions. The non-uniform axisymmetric FEA model o f the NRV

cylinders has been generated with the effects o f the non-uniform geometrical properties.

However, in the uniform modeling process, the cylinder geometry is considered within

the constant thickness properties. As a result, the bursting tests o f the entire computer-

aided axisymmetric FEA modeling processes, considering all required conditions, are

clearly illustrated in a flow chart in Fig. 4.7.

At the initiation o f the development o f the axisymmetric FEA modeling to

determine the BP and BFL, some assumptions have been made for some geometrical

features excluded, even though they are part o f the current cylinder models. First, the 4

dimples located at the bottom shell component and the pressure relief dimple (device)

located at the top shell component (see Fig. 2.8) are not considered in these modeling

processes. That is; it is assumed that there are no effects o f these dimples on the BP and

152
the BFL o f the NRV cylinders. Second, since the crown region (including the knuckle

zone) has shown approximately homogenous properties after the drawing process,

homogeneous material properties have been applied to both zones in the modeling

process. Third, it is assumed that the effects o f the weld zones at the valve-and-tubing

area (including the nozzle zone, where the tube is placed (see Fig. 3.8)), are not

incorporated. Fourth, from the manufacturing viewpoint, an assumption is made that

there are no residual stresses due to deep drawing and the welding processes.

4.7.1 D evelopm ent of Uniform Axisymmetric FEA M odeling

The uniform FEA models have been developed within 2D axisymmetric and

uniform wall geometrical conditions with the effects o f nonlinear material properties.

Two different types of uniform FEA models, homogenous and non-homogenous, were

developed based on the types o f the material properties and will be explained in the next

sections. Besides the assumptions made above, other additional assumptions have also

been made in the uniform modeling processes. First, it is initially assumed that there is no

thickness variation in the cylindrical shell-wall after deep drawing processes so that the

initial blank-steel-sheet thickness, to, listed on Table 2.3, is utilized. The initial to is

considered a uniform wall in the entire uniform FEA model between points “a” and “b”

as shown in Fig. 4.4. Second, in addition to this, some more assumptions based on the

FEA modeling types are made that can be explained in two cases as follows:

Case I : It is assumed that there are no effects o f the weld zone properties on the

BP and the BFL of the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders. The weld zone is located

153
circumferentially in the middle of the cylinder to connect two-cylindrical shell

components to form a NRV cylinder (see Fig. 2.10). This assumption was made for both

homogenous and non-homogenous axisymmetric PEA models.

C ase II : The effects of the weld zone material properties including the zone

thickness, tw, were taken into account for both homogenous and non-homogenous

models. The weld zone material properties, including its thickness variations (see Fig.

3.12), were performed between points "a" and "c” as shown in Fig. 4.4.

4.7.1.1 N oniinear Homogenous Axisymmetric FEA M odeling

In the development of the homogenous modeling process, it is assumed that there

are no changes in the material properties o f the cylindrical shells during the cup drawing

process, so that the initial blank steel (SAE-1008) material properties for the cylindrical

shells are conducted in the computer-aided modeling. The homogenous axisymmetric

FEA modeling processes are performed for both Cases I and II. The SAE-1008 material

is represented corresponding to the TSS values in the homogenous computer models

between points “a” and "b"’ in Case I as seen in Fig. 4.4. However, in Case II, the weld

zone material properties including the zone thickness, r„., values are adapted between

points “a” and “c” in the homogenous FEA model as shown in Fig. 4.4. The SAE-1008

material properties are used for the remaining zone o f the geometrical model between

points '‘c” and *‘b” as seen in Fig. 4.4. Therefore, the homogeneous model is generated

using the assumptions for Case II as illustrated in Fig. 4.8.

154
FEA Modeling Process of the Bursting Test
1
A nsynunetric Shell Element &L

Uniform Drawn Shell Properties Non-uniform


FEA M odeling FEA M odeling

W eld Zone Properties

N on-hom ogeneous Step


FEA M odeling Wall T hickness Variation Function

H om ogeneous A nsym m etnc


Incremental
F EA M odeling Boundary
Loading
Conditions W edge
Function

SAE-1008 Blank
S tee l Sheet N onlinear FEA Process
M aterial
Properties

FEA Postprocess

Stress Stram
B urst Pressures
Large D e flectio n
Failure Locations
A nalysis

Figure 4.7: Flow-chart o f nonlinear axisymmetric FEA modeling processes to determine

the BP and BFL o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinder.

155
4.7.1.2 Nonlinear Non-bomogenous Axisymmetric FEA Modeling

A suitable non-homogenous computer-aided FEA model is also developed

considering the actual drawn shell material properties and constant wall thickness

conditions as seen apparently within the 3D case in Fig. 4.9. The material properties o f

three different drawn shell zones (see Fig's. 3.14 through 3.19) are taken into account for

these modeling processes. In order to perform the drawn shell properties in the modeling,

the 2D geometrical model has been divided into three regions as illustrated Fig. 4.10.

These three zones correspond to the three cylindrical shell regions where the places are

used to measure the drawn shell properties. The divisions of these shell zones are labeled

L I, L2, L3, and L4, representing the corresponding shell regions, which are weld, shell-

by-weld, shell-by-knuckle, and crown, respectively. When the FEA modeling is

generated within the assumptions made in Case I, the LI and L2 zones are incorporated

as one shell region. The non-homogeneous FEA modeling has been generated as well as

the homogeneous model considering the assumptions made in both cases. Case I & II.

Especially the FEA model shown in Fig’s. 4.9 and 4.10 has been created using Case II

conditions, since the weld zone properties are considered in the model generation.

4.7.2 Development of Nonlinear Non-uniform Axisymmetric FEA Modeling

A suitable methodology is investigated and used in the development o f the non-

uniform axisymmetric FEA models primarily within the effects o f the non-uniform

geometrical conditions as well as material nonlinearity. The drawn cylindrical shell

156
thickness variations (see Fig. 3.20) are taken into account for the origination o f the non-

uniform FEA models and based on the shell regions, as explained and given in Section

3.8.3. A t the initiation o f the model, the geometry was divided into different small zones

where the thickness variations were performed as shown in Fig’s. 4.10 and 4.11. The

division quantity o f the geometry was done based on the available methods and applied to

perform the thickness variations. These zones also represented the shell regions between

points ‘"a” and "u" (see Fig. 3.12), where these places were used to measure the actual

shell thickness variations. In order to perform the shell thickness variations at the divided

zones o f the non-uniform axisymmetric FEA modeling, two different types of

geometrical functions, step and wedge, were applied by conducting the actual measured

values o f the thickness. In addition, the effects of the weld zone material properties

including its thickness variations were investigated at the weld zone in the entire non-

uniform axisymmetric FEA modeling processes.

4.7.2.1 The Step Function

The concept o f the step function, as shown in Fig. 4.12, assumes that the variation

in thickness is not symmetric about the mid-surface o f the shell wall. The general idea is

to perform the step function. The cylindrical shell is divided into a series o f sub­

cylinders, each sub-cylinder being considered with a constant wall thickness. [Bickell &

Ruiz, (1967)]. Accordingly, the non-uniform FEA model o f the NRV cylinder has been

divided into 13 sub-cylinders in order to perform the step function as shown in Fig. 4.10.

The thickness variations measured from the shell regions (see Fig. 3.12) were applied to

157
the corresponding areas o f the non-uniform FEA model and developed as shown in Fig.

4.13.

ID=7.5,DOT-39_R.Cylinder,t=0.030,mtrl:SAE-1008+Weld,KISIOGLU

Figure 4.8: Homogenous FEA model using Case II conditions.

158
AN
Crown Region
Properties

Shell by lâin ck le
Properties

S h e: by W eld
Properties

Weld Zone
Properties
ID:9.5"Ref-Cyln P=400 BaiinTest t=0.038+x SHELL+BELD KISIOGLU

Figure 4.9: Non-hcmogenous axisymmetric FEA model in Case II.

159
ANSYS 5 .3
MAY 21 1997
1 4 :4 6 :4 4
LINES
MAT NUM

*DIST=3.7
hXF = 2 .7 5 1
«YF = 3 .4 0 3
Z-BUFFER

1.3

D i= 9.5" CYLINDER. T=0.05B+X. Matrl:SHELL+UELO, YKISIOGLU

Figure 4.10: Non-homogenous axisymmetric FEA model in 2D.

160
ANSYS 5 , 3
MAY 21 1 9 9 7
1 4 :4 8 :4 3
LINES
REAL N'uiM

»*DIST=3,662
hXF = 2 .7 1
hYF = 3 .3 9 7
Z-BUFFER

L17
Lie
LIS
L14
L13
L 12

L ll
LlO

16

D i= 9 .5 " CYLINDER, T =0.058+X , Matrl:SHELL+UELD, YKISIOGLU

Figure 4.11: Non-uni form axisymmetric FEA model.

161
A .I.2 .2 Wedge Function

The idea of the wedge function, shown also in Fig. 4.12, assumes that the

thickness variation is nearly symmetric about the neutral axis o f the mid-surface o f the

wall. In other words, the wall thickness is considered as a tapered shell with an irregular

ring at each end of the sub-divisions [Bickell & Ruiz, (1967)J. When the wedge function

is utilized to generate the thickness change, the geometrical model was divided into 19

sub-cylinders as shown in Fig. 4.11. The non-uniform wal 1-thickness o f the cylinder has

been specified as an irregular ring at each division. Therefore, both the step and the

wedge functions were used to generate the thickness variation in order to obtain more

accurate results from the FEA modeling processes. Fig. 4.13 shows two non-uniform

axisymmetric FEA models, using both step and wedge functions within the material non-

linearity conditions.

4.8 Selection of Loading Conditions

Different types of loading conditions represented with linear and nonlinear curves

are applied based on the modeling types by pressurizing the cylinders internally in the

FEA simulations. The incremental internal loading (pressure) conditions are performed in

the nonlinear axisymmetric modeling processes from zero pressure until bursting o f the

cylinders. At the initiation o f the loading, the incremental internal pressure is applied and

increased linearly with 10-psi (0.7-MPa) per increment. By programming the APDL, as

the load increases linearly and reaches roughly 80%-90% o f BP o f the cylinder model

162
(depends on the model types), the loading conditions become nonlinear as seen in Fig.

4.14. This is because the material o f the cylinder model becomes fully plastic range in

such a way that plastic deformation takes place. Some selected loading conditions

represented with corresponding curves in terms o f both linear and nonlinear cases are

shown in Fig’s. 4.14, 4.15. and 4.16.

Step Wall Wedge Wall

Figure 4.12: The step and wedge functions.

163
AIM

Non-uniform FEA M odel with Step Function Non-uniform FEA Model with Wedge Ftmcbon
ID :9 .5 "Ref .Cyln_P=400_Bal .Test .Dmpls_t= .038X_SHL-mLD_KISIOGLU

Figure 4.13: Generation o f the thickness variations in the FEA modeling processes by

using both step and wedge functions.

164
The incremental loading conditions for both homogenous and non-homogenous

axisymmetric FEA models and associated curves named as “Oij30-12” and “She30-12,”

respectively, are shown in Fig. 4.14. These homogenous and non-homogeneous models

represent the cylinders with the ratio o f the design parameters, t/ID = 0.0025. These

incremental loadings were applied to both FEA model types under the conditions o f Case

I. The incremental loads for both homogenous and non-homogenous FEA models were

performed in Case II are shown as curves named as ■‘OW 95-30” and AW 95-30”,

respectively, in Fig. 4.15. Additionally, these FEA models were generated for the

different NRV cylinders with the design parameter ratio, t/ID = 0.0032, as illustrated in

Fig. 4.14.

The loading increments for both homogenous and non-homogenous FEA models

were performed linearly up to points “a” and “b”, respectively, as shown in Fig’s. 4.14

and 4.15. When the linear loadings achieved these points, the cylinder materials entered

the fully plastic range and changed to nonlinear behavior. Therefore, these points, “a” and

"b”, can be called “break-down points” for the elastic-plastic range o f the material

properties. After these breakdown points, the nonlinear loadings increase gradually, since

the fully strain plasticity conditions are taking place. When the loads achieve points “c”

and “d” , the loads shift suddenly to a linear condition for a short burst o f time as seen in

Fig’s. 4.14 and 4.15. The loadings achieve the bursting loads o f the model at these points,

“c” and “d”, so that these points are called “bursting points” for the modeling processes.

After the bursting points, the loads reach points “e” and “f \ representing the initial

estimations selected at the beginning o f the BP loading conditions in the APDL

165
programming of FEA simulations.

Likewise, three types o f loading conditions are applied in the simulations based

on the FEA model types named as “She95-32”, “SheW95-32” and “SheW T95-32” as

shown in Fig. 4.16. The FEA models correspond to the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders

with the design parameter ratio o f t/ID = 0.0034. The legends of the loading-curves

■“She95-32” and “SheW95-32” represent the uniform (non-homogeneous) FEA models in

both Cases I and II, respectively. However, the loading curve, “SheWT95-32” , represents

the loading condition o f the non-uniform FEA model. The load increments o f the applied

load for the non-uniform FEA model are also illustrated as a function o f the loading sub­

step with the legend o f “Load Incrmnt” as shown in Fig. 4.16. The function for the curve

o f the “Load Incrmnt” is represented with the secondary y-axis. The explanations o f the

points "a”, “b”, "c”, “d”. ”e", ”f ’, "g” “j ” and “k” shown in Fig. 4.16 can be specified

with similar definitions made above for the relevant points shown in Fig. 4.14. Similarly,

the points “a”, "b”. and "c” represent the “break-down points” for the elastic-plastic

range o f the material o f the model. Points “d”, ”e”, and “f% indicating the “bursting

points”, represent the corresponding FEA modeling types. Finally, points “g”, “j ”, and

“k” indicate the initial-loading estimates for the loading conditions corresponding to

applied modeling processes.

166
Loading C onditions
750 T

700
Q. Shc30-12
650
Orj30-12 I
600

550

500

450

-I 400

350

Step

Figure 4.14: Case I; Loading conditions for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous

models.

167
L oading C onditions
non

850

800 AW95-30
750

700
650
OW95-30
•o 600
-I 550
500
450

400
350

300
250
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
Step

Figure 4.15: Case II, Loading conditions for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous

FEA models.

168
Loading Conditions

1 k --
Loatllncnant
300 P
■ n
1j I
1 g
750
1

-o
cs
o
700

650 — B.J

1c

1
1d
SbeS 5-32
— Je
SheW95-3:>
- She
fr -

--

-■
1
%
e

600 t V.
/ s
r '— - ■—
550

55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115


Loading Step

Figure 4.16: Loading conditions for the uniform and non-uniform FEA Model [Kisioglu

etal, (2 0 0 0 )].

169
4.9 D eterm in ation s o f BP o f the DO T-39 N on -refillab le C ylin d ers

In general terms, resistance of the model to the burst or failure primarily depends

on the strength o f its material. When the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders are subjected to

internal pressure loading incrementally, the internal pressure “■/?” reaches above some

critical value, ’'p>Pc\ then the system achieves an unstable behavior. As the ‘V ’

increases from zero stage through ''pc \ at the instant o f the '"p=pc \ a bifurcation state

takes place in such a way that the maximum stress o f the FEA model reaches the

corresponding material property (defined by the UTS). In this case, the maximum stress

tends to tear the wall o f the cylinder so that the bursting phenomenon begins to occur.

In the design o f a cylinder, nonlinear deformation occurs along with plasticity as

well as large strain distribution is an important item and should be allowed into the

design considerations. The proceeding o f the nonlinear analysis has been made under the

plane strain assumption that the material is isotropic, recommended for large strain

analysis. Since the material stress-strain properties input is in terms o f TSS, the large

deflection and large strain behavior o f the model are associated with plastic material

response. Therefore, the effective strain plays an important rule during the failures o f the

cylinder model. When the internal pressure applied to the cylinders reaches a certain

critical value, the large deflection behavior takes place in such a way that the fully plastic

strain o f the FEA model reaches the ultimate strain value o f the material. The

deformations at the selected points from both homogenous and non-homogenous FEA

models during the burst simulations are shown in Fig. 4.17 and 4.18, respectively. These

large deformations represent the large deflections and/or large strains obtained in terms o f

170
different nonlinear behaviors based on the material properties, which are ductile and

brittle used in the homogeneous and non-homogeneous FEA models, respectively. When

the ductile material such as SAE-1008 properties are taken into account for the

homogenous FEA modeling, the large deflections are obtained in long burst-loading time

as shown in Fig. 4.17. However, the large deflections are found in a short burst-loading

time, when the brittle materials such as drawn shell properties are considered in FEA

modeling processes as shown in Fig. 4.18.

ANSYS 5.3
DEC a 1396
11:18:39
P0ST26

tliC •DIST=.660923
-XF =.449797
-YF =.411838
-:F =.5
2-BUFFER

320 AOO
240 400 560 730

Cylinder Bunt Tune

9.5" Ref.Cyl. t=0.Q3O, mtrl:1008CR(786). KISIOGLU

Figure 4.17: Nodal deflection of critical points o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders for

the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models

171
ANS
JUN 2 1999
17:58:00
P0ST26

MidiUeX

CrovvnY*

.6 4

CyKniiqY

>
.04

- .O S

0 300 600 600 lOOO


KO

Burst Ti me

Diam=9.5" Ref.Cyl.t = 0 ■032,Mtrl:K0T_1,3&4, KISIOGLU

Figure 4. 18; Large deflection at the selected points o f the non-homogenous FEA model.

172
There are several methods such as Von Mises yield criterion (e.g., DET) and

maximum principal stress theory (MPST) to realize the bursting failure o f the cylinder in

the FEA modeling simulation processes. Using the maximum plastic strain obtained from

the FEA simulations and comparing with the corresponding ultimate strain o f the cylinder

material can also indicate the bursting failure. In addition, the bursting phenomenon can

be identified from the non-convergent processes o f the nonlinear FEA simulations.

According to the MPST, for example, the maximum principal stress obtained

from the FEA model at the instant of burst time can be compared with the corresponding

UTS o f the material. The values of the maximum principal stresses (max_PS) found at

the failed shell regions by burst obtained from the FEA simulations and corresponding

material’s UTS are listed on Table 4.2. The bursting failure analysis, based on the

comparison o f the max_PS values obtained from both homogenous and non-homogenous

FEA models with related material properties, is explained on Table 4.2. For example

reading from Table 4.2, in the homogenous FEA modeling in the Case II conditions, the

max PS value (48863-psi) obtained at the shell-by-weld region (see Fig. 4.4) o f the FEA

model is found higher than the corresponding material UTS value (48510-psi). Since the

failure starting point is in the shell-by-weld region close to the weld zone, the weld zone

has not failed yet. That is; tlie weld zone’s max PS value, (53751-psi), obtained from the

FEA model, is less than the corresponding weld material UTS value (84900-psi). A

similar burst failure analysis can be done with the data o f the non-homogenous FEA

model as listed on Table 4.2.

173
Bursting Failure Analysis
FEA Model Types Homogenous FEA Model Non-homognoues FEA Model
Modeling Cases Case n Case n
Selected Regions : Cylindrical Shell Weld Zone Cylindrical Shell Weld Zone
Matterial Types : SEA-1008 Weld SheU-by-weld Weld
Units: psi (IVIpa) psi (Mpa) psi (Mpa) psi (iVIpa)

Materials - UTS 48510 (335) 84900 (585) 76700 (529) 8 4 9 0 0 (585)

FEA Model- A'laxJ*S 48863 (337) 53751 (371) 84206 (581) 70318 (485)

Table 4.2. The Maximum Stresses at the burst locations and corresponding material

properties (UTS).

Effective (equivalent) stress and strain (von Mises) values are obtained at the

selected nodes including the maximum deformed node where the FEA model fails first

and the equivalent stress reaches maximum, while the effective strain exceeds

corresponding material properties. The maximum deformed node for the non-

homogenous FEA model within the Case I assumptions is foimd at point “a” as shown in

Fig. 4.4. The equivalent stress strain values plotted as a function o f burst-time for this

point "a" are also shown in Fig’s. 4.19 and 4.20, respectively. The values o f the

equivalent stress, 76885-psi (530.1-Mpa), and strain 0.82 at point “a”, as shown in Fig’s.

174
4.19 and 4.20 respectively, are obtained higher than corresponding material properties,

ultimate stress, 76700-psi (529-Mpa) and strain 0.07.

E q u i v a l e n t S t r e s s e s ( Vo n M i s e s )
80000

70000

60000
105
&
T 50000 204

40000

> 30000

IS E Q V Mi dd le
20000
91 S EQVCyKnuc-j

105 S EQV Knuckle


10000
^ — 204 S EQV Crown

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
8 u re t i n g T i m e

Figure 4.19: Equivalent (effective) stresses at the burst instant o f the non-homogeneous

FEA model in Case I.

175
A N r
JUN 2 1999
18:15:15
P0ST26

Crown

200 600 1000


100 300 MO 700 900

D i a m = 9 . 5 ” R e f . C y l .t = 0 .032,M t r l : K 0 T _ 1 , 3 & 4 , KISIOGLU

Figure 4.20: Equivalent (effective) plastic strain at the instant o f burst o f the non-

homogeneous FEA model in Case I.

176
The prediction of the burst failure o f the nonlinear FEA modeling can also be

identified from the non-convergent simulations process as shown on Table 4.3. The

convergence criteria based on the Newton-Raphson method can be applied to checking

on force, moments, displacements, or rotations or any combinations o f these items, which

have their own different convergence tolerance values. The Newton-Raphson method

evaluates the out-of-load vector, which is the difference between the restoring forces (the

loads corresponding to the element stresses) and the applied internal pressure [ANSYS

Manual, (1998)]. In these nonlinear FEA simulations, the convergence criteria are

performed checking on the combinations o f both forces and moments. The last three

iterations at the end of the non-homogeneous FEA simulations processes (in Case I) are

given on Table 4.3 at the loading time of 653.43, which represents the bursting time. The

initial estimation o f the loading time for this FEA modeling simulation is 900 as shown

on Table 4.3. In this process, the non-convergent item, the force, is the stored element

stresses become higher than applied load. As it can be seen in the iteration process on

Table 4.3, the convergence norm o f the force calculated each time is getting higher than

the previous ones. Therefore, it can be noted that this idea is in good agreement w ith the

idea used for evaluations o f the effective stress-strain values above.

In the process of determining the BP of the NRV cylinder, the procedures used to

predict the burst failures in the FEA simulations are considered. From the findings in the

burst failure analyses, it is noted that the non-convergent loading time o f the simulation

processes represents the BP o f the FEA model. Consequently, the BP results based on the

FEA modeling processes are plotted as a function o f the ratios o f the wall thickness to

177
inner diameter (t / ID) as shown in Fig’s. 4.21 through 4.24. The BP results are obtained

from the FEA modeling for the three groups o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders. Fig.

4.21 illustrates two curves o f the BP represented by two different legends “SAE-1008”

and “Actual Shell” resulting from both homogenous and non-homogeneous FEA models,

respectively. These BP values are obtained for the NRV cylinders group with the ratios o f

0.0027<r//£)<0.014 as shown in Fig. 4.21. Fig. 4.22 depicts that the BP values o f the

NRV cylinders having design parameters with the ratios o f 0.0021 <t//D <0.011 are

carried out using both homogenous and non-homogenous FEA modeling processes. Both

of these FEA models have been simulated under both Case 1 & 11 conditions. The effects

o f the weld zone material properties including its thickness variation on the BP values are

illustrated obviously in Fig. 4.22. The BP values o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders

using both uniform and non-uniform FEA modeling are plotted as a function o f t/ID, in

the range o f 0.0015<//7D<0.0085 as shown in Fig. 4.23. The results o f the non-uniform

FEA model are illustrated by the label “Non-Uniform” . The uniform FEA models

including only non-homogenous models represented with the labels “ActualShell” and

“Act.Shell+W eld”, are performed in both Case 1 & 11, respectively, as seen in Fig. 4.23.

As a result, the BP results o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders

using the FEA modeling approaches are determined by the validations o f the

experimental result as shown in Fig. 4.24. The BP results o f the NRV cylinder group with

the design parameter ratios in the range o f 0 .0 0 2 1 <//70<0.011 are plotted as a function o f

t/ID in this figure. These results investigated are obtained using both bursting model

approaches, nonlinear-axisymmetric FEA and experimental. Fig. 4.24 indicates four BP

curves represented by four different legends “Actual Shell” , “A.Shell+Weld” , “Non­

178
uniform”, and "Experiment”, which are named based on the FEA modeling types. The

first two curves illustrated and labeled by "Actual Shell” and "A.Shell+Weld” are the BP

results obtained by using the uniform FEA model in Cases I and II, respectively. The

third curve labeled "Non-uniform” is the BP results for the non-uniform FEA model and

the last curve labeled "Experiment” shows the BP results investigated from the

experimental burst tests. As it can be seen in Fig. 4.24, the BP curve for the non-uniform

FEA model is higher than that o f the uniform models. Since the non-uniform

axisymmetric FEA modeling developed by considering both material nonlinearity and

geometrical non-uniformity, the results from the non-uniform model are most closely

corrected to the experimental results as indicated in Fig. 4.24.

4.10 Determination of the BFL of the DOT-39 Refrigerant Cylinders

The BFL o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders is well investigated by the

experimental burst tests (see Fig's. 4.2 and 4.3), and failure occurs at the junction o f the

cylindrical shell and knuckle regions, which are indicated at point "e” as shown in Fig.

4.4. This point, defined as the failure location o f the refrigerant cylinders, is also shown

w ith a node number "N98” of the FEA model in Fig. 4.25. In the burst experiment, the

cylinder specimens fracture at point "e” in such a way that the burst tearing is continuing

longitudinally through the weld zone as shown in Fig. 4.3. When the burst tearing meets

w ith the weld zone, it continues on circumferentially about the rotation axis o f the shell.

179
Ti m e - 653.43 Load Seep- 1 Subscep- . ’b Equilibrium Iteration^ 4998.
“ Convergence Norm= 3138.7 Previous Norm- 3186.7
FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 3191. CR I T E R I O N ^ 55.72
MOM E N T CONVERGENCE VALUE = ü.üOCOEtOO CR I T E R I O N : 7.514 <<< CONVE R G ED
EQ U I L ITER4993 COMPLETED. N E W TPIANG MATRIX. MA:< DCF INC= 0.1082E-Q2
LINE SEARCH PAR.AI4ETER = 1.000 SCALED .MAX DCF INC = 0.1082E-02
E leme n t Formation Element^ 130 Cum. Iter.- 9217 C?= 51130.739
T i m e = 653.43 Load Scep= 1 Dubnrep= 75 Equilibrium Iteration: 4999.
F Convergence Norm- (190.8 Previous Norm: 3188.7
FORCE '■'OM'^ERC.ENCE var UP - 3193 C R I T ERION: 55.72
MOM E N T CONVERGENCE VALUE ^ U.OCOOE+JO CRITERION: 7.514 « < CONVE R G ED
E Q U I L ITER4999 COMPLETED. N E W TRl.ANG MATRIX. MA X DOF INC= 0.1083E-J2
LINE SE.ARCH ?/vRAJ4ETER = l.COC SCALED M A X DGF INC = 0.1083E-02
E lement Formation Element: 160 Cum. Iter.: 9218 Cp: 51136.859
Time : 653.41 Load Step* 1 Substep: 15 Equilibrium Iteration: 5000.
r Convergence Norm- 1192.8 Previous Norm: 3190.8
FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE : 3195. C R I T ERION: 55.73
MOME N T C C . W ERGENCE VALUE = O.OOOOE»00 C R I T ERION: 7.515 < « CONVE R G ED
E Q U I L ITER50')0 COMPLETED. NEIV TRI.ANC MATRIX. MA X DOF INC: 0.1084E-32
LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = l.COC SCALED MA X DOF INC % 0.1084E-02
Ele m e n t Formation Element 13Ü Cum. Iter.: 9219 CP: 51142.770
Ti m e : 6 5 3 . 4 3 Load Step- 1 Substep: 75 Equilibrium Iteration: 5001.
F Convergence Norm: 3194.8 Previous Norm: 3192.8
FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 3197. C R I T E R I O N : 55.73
MOMENT C O N VERGENCE VALUE : O.OCOOF.tOO C R I T E R I O N : 7.516 « < CONVE R G ED
* " ERROR ' ' CP: 51143.289 TIME: 14:56:20
S o l u t i o n not c onverged at time 653.43 (load step 1 substep 75).
Run terminated.
•*» W A R NING C?= 51144.969 TIME= 00:02:14
T h e uncor.vnrqed solution 'identified an time 900 n u b step 999999) is
cutout for analysis debug purposes.
E lem e n t Output Element 13 Cum. Iter. 9218 CP: 51145.129
Ti m e : 900.00 Load Step- 1 Substep:999999 E q u i librium Iteration: 5000.
F Convergence Norm: 3195.8 Previous Norm: 3194.8

R E S T A R T I N F O R M A T I O N
R E A S O N FOR T E R M I N A T I O N UNCO N V E R G E D S O LUTION
FI L E S NEEDED FOR RESTARTING .............. file.osav
f i l e .emat
file.db
T I M E OF LAS- SO L U T I O N ................... 653.07
T I M E AT START O F THE LOAD STEP . . . . O.OCOOQEvOO
T I M E AT END O F T H E LOAD S T E P ......... 900.00

Table 4.3: Non-convergent processes (flow) o f the Nonlinear non-homogeneous FEA

simulation.

180
a urst P r e s s u r e of D OT-39 R e f r i g e r a n t C y l i n d e r s (ID: 7.5)
3500

300 0

3 2500 A ctu al Shell


tfl
I 2000

I-
W
(II

3 1000
CD

500

0 0 02 0 004 0. 006 0.008 0. 0 1 0 0 012 0.014


t/ID

Figure 4.21: The BP values o f the NRV cylinders using the homogenous and non-

homogenous FEA models under Case I conditions.

181
B u r s t P r e s s u r e s o f DOT - 39 R e f r i g e r a n t C y l i n d e r s (ID:9.S-in)
2250

2000 3 E A - 10 0 5

-a-SEA -1000+W E L D
1750
- ( ^ A c t u a l S hel l

1500 A ctu al S hell+W ELD

1250

100 0

750

500

250
0.002 0.003 0 004 0.005 0 006 0.007 0 008 0 009 0.01 0.01 1

Figure 4.22: The BP results o f the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders using both

homogenous and non-homogenous FEA modeling processes under both Case I & II

conditions.

182
B u r s t P r e s s u re s of DOT-39 R e frig e ra n t C ylin d ers (ID:12-In)
2 00 0
1900
1800
A c tu a l S h e ll
1700
1600 A c t .S h e ll+ W e ld
1500
N o n -U n ifo rm
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
0.0015 0 0025 0 0035 0.0045 0.0055 0.0065 0.0075 0.0085
t/ID

Figure 4.23: The BP values of the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders using non-homogenous

(under both Case I and Case II) and non-uniform FEA models.

183
Burst P ressure of DOT-39 Refrigerant Cylinders
2400
2200 Act ual Shell

^ 2000 -*-A.Shell+W eld

A 1800 - 6 - Non-uniform

^
2 1600 o Experiment

w
4> 1400
i 1200

“ 1000
3
CO
800
600
400
0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 0.011
t/ID

Figure 4.24; The Determination of the BP o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders using both

experimental and FEA modeling approaches.

184
In the case of computer modeling for bursting the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders,

the BFL is obtained in different places, based on the nonlinear FEA modeling types. The

BFL investigated from the different FEA models are shown in Fig. 4.25. The burst

location is obtained at point “N l ” when the uniform model is considered in Case I.

However, in Case II, the BFL o f the NRV cylinder is obtained in the region o f “shell-by-

weld” shown between the points "N16” and "N25” illustrated in Fig. 4.25. In addition,

the exact BFL from the computer-aided FEA modeling is obtained in the region o f “shell-

by-knuckle” shown by point "N98”, when the non-uniform FEA model is considered in

the simulation processes as shown in Fig. 4.25. This location is confirmed by the

experimental results in such a way that the BFL is determined using the computer-aided

FEA modeling approaches.

4.11 The BP Guidelines of the DOT-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant Cylinders

The aim of the DOT regulations is to provide a cylinder having sufficient

thickness for a given shape that would safely sustain its expected loading conditions in

service. By the requirements o f the rules, the bursting failure including plastic

deformation, incremental collapse and buckling o f the cylinders must be avoided.

Consequently, the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders must be sufficient to store and carry

its contents, usually hazardous materials, during transportation as well aswhile in

service. For these reasons, the BP o f the NRV cylinders must be specified and well

known by the manufacturer. Therefore, the BP values investigated are represented by

corresponding curves for tfiree DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinder groups (see

185
Fig. 2.7) provided in Fig. 4.26. These three curves named as ID-7.5, ID-9.5, and ID-12,

represent the three groups o f the NRV cylinders that have the design parameters ratios

ID/t in the range o f 0.0027<t//D<0.014, 0.002K r//D <0.011, and 0.0015<///£»<0.0085,

respectively.

Æ. OCT 16 1998
m 17:15:18
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=1
SUB =999999
N112 TIME=700
USUM
N98 &a RSYS=0
DMX =.720832
SMN =.545008
SMX =.720832
ZV =1
*DIST=7.572
Z-BUFFER
IX
.545008
S .555997
S .566986
.577975
«X .588964
.599953
.610942
.621931
.63292
1=3 .643909
.654898
.665887
= 3 .676876
E=] .687865
.698854
.709843
.720832

9 .5 " R e f .C y l i n d e r th=o755O,W ti*i:~SSÉT008 & UELD, YKISIOGLU

Figure 4.25: The BFL of the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders.

186
B u r s t P r e s s u r e s o f t h e D O T -39 R e f r i g e r a n t C y l i n d e r s
000

2750

2500 ID: 7 . 5 - i n
m 2250
ID: 9 . 5 - i n
&
in 2000
«
3 1750
10
10
4l _> 1500
a.
(0
125 0
u
3
CD
1000

750

500

250
0.01 0. 02 0.03 0.04 0D7 0J)8 0.09 0.1
W a l l t h i c k n e s s (in)

Figure 4.26: The BP guidelines o f the DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders.

187
C H A PTER 5

D E S IG N O F IM P E R F E C T E N D -C L O SU R E S

5.1 B rief Review of the Problem s

It is beneficial at this point to review the problems that DOT specifications

cylinders encounter, which require specific methods for solution to be followed in

planning and implementing in the analysis modeling processes. From the standpoint o f

engineering design and analysis, the definition o f the problem comes significantly before

going to proceed to the methods and rules for the solution processes.

The objective o f this chapter is to design and analyze the imperfect end-closures,

the second primary components of the DOT specification cylinders, for the physical

phenomena. Since the end-closures have non-homogenous material, non-standard

geometrical parameters including non-uniform thickness properties, they are known as

imperfect end-closures (see Section 2.5). When the DOT specification cylinders are

subjected to the TP, the physical phenomena such as buckling (flip-flop) and ballooning

take place permanently at the bottom end-closure o f the cylinders. By the definitions o f

the regulations, the TP is 3/2 times the SP. W hen the end-closures have such permanent

phenomena, it is evidently realized that the cylinder is losing its primary required
188
function, which is the stationary position o f standing on the feet. According to the

regulations, the DOT specification cylinders are designed based on the TP, so that these

cylinders have to be tested at the TP to check the failure o f the design requirements, such

as buckling and ballooning. Therefore, this study is designated to the development o f a

suitable FEA modeling to predict the collapse (failure) pressure for buckling, including

ballooning problems. The results o f the study will be compared with corresponding

experimental results. In addition, a new design for the imperfect end-closures is

developed to prevent the buckling and ballooning events at the bottom end o f the DOT

specification cylinders.

5.1.2 Definition of the Ballooning Problem

The ballooning phenomenon has occurred at the bottom end-closure o f the DOT-

39 non-refillable cylinders. When the NRV cylinders are pressurized until their test

pressure (TP) and then the pressure is released, the cylinder is permanently deformed,

especially at the bottom end-closure. When the bottom end-closure is expanded

permanently, the cylinder loses its stability because o f the ballooning phenomenon. The

ballooning formation specifically occurs among the 4-dimples, which are located at the

bottom o f the cylinder as shown in Fig. 5.1. The 4-dimples provide a stationary position

to the cylinder so that the cylinder is placed on these dimples. In addition, the ballooning

deformation is a residual deflection since the pressure is released after the cylinder is

subjected to the TP.

189
Consider the horizontal plane, where the cylinder can only sit on the 4 dimples

located at the bottom because o f the positive clearance between points "a” and “b” as

shown in Fig. 5.2. The positive difference between these two points at the bottom is

designated and produced about 0.099-in (2.52-mm). Since the ballooning formation

although residual deflection, the negative difference between these two points, "a" and

"b” is taken place instead of positive difference as shown in Fig. 5.2. That is; the positive

value o f the difference between these two points, ”a" and "b”. is becoming a negative

value, which is about -0.023-in (0.59-mrn).

The dimples are originally located with the circumferential radius o f DL (called

dimple location) at the bottom o f the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders as seen in Fig. 5.2.

The manufacturer realized that the cylinders are losing their stability by testing the

cylinders at the TP because of the ballooning formation. The rate o f this instability

problem of the NRV cylinders under the TP is about 20%. that is. 20% o f the cylinders

are losing their stationary position so that they cannot sit on the dimples. The company

has eliminated this problem by performing the trial-and-error method to avoid the tooling

cost. In order to avoid the ballooning deflection, the manufacturer has selected a new

location for the dimples by reducing the dimension o f the DL about 70%. The new

dimple location (DI.svu). chosen closer to the point "a" at the crown region as shown in

Fig. 5.2. can be defined as DIwu = DL-Lx, in such way that tlie ballooning phenomenon

has been eliminated. However, the is bringing out a new problem with the

cylinders. That is; the DI.w»- plays an important negative-role in improving the cylinder

stability upon resting on the floor. When the cylinder is sitting on the dimples in the

190
horizontal plane, the cylinder can be tilted/overtumed easily by an oscillating

phenomenon.

Handle

Valve & Tube


System

Pressure Relief
Torispherical
Dimple
Head \

Knuckle

Top Shell
Component

Weld Zone
2L

Thickness ( t ) Inner Diameter (ID)

Bottom Shell
Component
4 Dimples for Feet

Knuckle

Bottom-end of Cylinder

Figure 5.1 : The DOT-39 non-re tillable cylinders sit on the 4-dimples.

191
Axis o f Rotation

DL

Knuckle

Dimple

0.099-in

Figure 5.2: The bottom-end-closure geometry of the current NRV cylinder.

5.1.2 Definition of the Buckling (Flip-Flop) Problem

The D0T-4BA refillable cylinders that encounter the flip-flop (buckling)

phenomenon are basically jointed by welding the torispherical bottomed cylindrical shells

with the convex end-closure as illustrated in Fig. 5.3. The problem associated with the

convex-shaped end-closure as shown in Fig. 5.4 is buckling (flip-flop), when the DOT-

4BA cylinders are tested at the TP. at which the cylinder must not fail. However, it was

realized that the bottom convex-end closure is buckling before reaching the TP during the

experiments when both the cylindrical shell and the end-closure have the same thickness,

/. as seen in Fig 5.3. That is, these cylinders are losing their design requirements, such as
192
the flip-flop event, at the bottom end-closure, at a pressure less than their TP values.

When the flip-flop phenomenon occurs at the bottom convex-end closure so that the

instability position for the cylinder takes place, this leads to change in the shape o f the

convex-end to a concave one as depicted in Fig. 5.5. The manufacturer has also

eliminated this buckling problem with these cylinders by selecting the new end-closure

thickness as twice o f the cyiindricai sheii thickness {tend=^'tsiwii)-

L t Cylindrical
Shell
1 Covex-end
1 Closure

Weld Zone

Figure 5.3: The D0T-4BA refillable cylinders.

193
.Axis û f Rotation

Figure 5.4: The geometry o f the convex end-closure of the D 0T-4BA retlllable cylinders.

ANSYS 5.6
Onaiial Convex-eiid Closure MAR 31 2000
12 :00:51
NODAL SOLO
USOM(.AVG)

- N155

D 0T-4BA Convex End-closure, M t r l :SAE-1018 (HR), KISIOGLU

Figure 5.5: The flip-flop (buckling) shape of the convex-end closure.

194
To predict the physical phenomena, ballooning and buckling (flip-flop), two

different approaches, experimental and computer-aided nonlinear FEA modeling, are

conducted in this study. The results for ballooning and buckling obtained from the

computer modeling approaches are compared and validated by the experimental ones.

5.2 E xperim ental Test for Prediction of Buckling and Ballooning

The experimental tests for the investigation of the buckling pressures o f both

ballooning and flip-flop phenomena were performed in the lab facilities of the major U.S.

cylinder manufacturer. To test the DOT-39 non-refillable and D0T-4BA refillable

cylinders at the TP. the same methods and apparatus, used in the burst test and explained

in Section 4.2. were used in both ballooning and buckling tests. However, these cylinders

are internally pressurized until their TP values in the experimental investigations.

The ballooning experiment is performed on the NRV cylinder groups with the

design parameter ratios of t/ID = 0.0034 and t/ID - 0.0026, where t is the minimum

thickness after the drawn shells. The ballooning experiments for each cylinder group are

applied on the 6 different cylinder samples and the experimental ballooning results o f the

experiments are listed in Table 5.1. The procedure of the ballooning experiment is

applied step-by-step for the given pressure values in the first column o f the table. W hen

the cylinders are subjected to each o f these pressure values, the pressure is released after

holding at least 10-sec. After each time o f testing the cylinders at these given pressures, it

was observed that the points "a'’ and “b" shown in Fig. 5.2 have been deformed

195
permanently. This deformation is the residual deflection, since the applied pressure is

released. The difference between points “a"’ and ”b” shown in Fig. 5.2 was measured and

the values for the cylinder sample 1 are given in the second column of Table 5.1. As can

be seen in Table 5.1, the difference between these two points is decreasing whereas the

applied pressure is increased. When the cylinders having the ratio of t/ID = 0.0034 are

subjected to 4U0-psi (2.8-Mpa). the difference between these two points becomes a

negative value (-0.026) for the first sample in such a way that the permanent ballooning

deformations take place. The average difference o f these two nodes' deflections obtained

from six specimens tested in experiments is reproduced from Table 5.1 as given on Table

5.2. The applied pressure values and the average differences between points "a" and "b"

(see Fig. 5.2) listed on Table 5.2 are taken as the base loads for the computer modeling

processes.

The buckling experiment for the D0T-4BA refillable cylinders was also

performed in the same lab facilities o f the cylinder manufacturer. According to the

information received from the manufacturer, the buckling experiment was applied to a

number of D0T-4BA cylinder specimens (about 20) selected randomly, which have the

design parameter ratio o f t/ID = 0.011. and the TP>750-psi (5.2-Mpa). ./\t the initiation of

the experiment, the cylinders are subjected to the TP hydrostatically by filling the

cylinder with water. As it was observed in the experiment, the flip-flop (buckling) takes

place permanently at the convex-end closure before reaching the TP value o f the cylinder.

The buckling pressure (& ) distribution is obtained as 650psi <Pc< 750-psi in between

from the buckling experiment. The average buckling pressures for these cylinder

specimens are observed at about 730-psi (5-Mpa).

196
12 " PSl BALLONING BOTTOM TEST
SAMPLE. S2 «3 74 75 76 TOTAL' AVERAGE:
PSl
UNTESTED Ü 12 3 0 12 5 13 0 0 ". 2 4 0 "24 0 (27 0 623 0103833333
325 00 Ü 0 O': 6 0 O': 3 0 050 0 05à 0 054 0.312 0.052
350 020 0 034 0 C 35 IJ U24 Û 02': (' j 3i 0.15 0.025
375 ■0 000 0 ':C5 0 004 0 L .". a 0 0 04 -0.001 ■0.00016667
400 ■0 043 •0C 32 ■Û C33 ■040 0 044 •3 0 3 6 -0 188 ■0.03133333
425 •0 074 0 005 0 •BOD®425 .070 'B 0D ,ï425 ■0 0 " 0 O'.iL ■0.34 ■0.05666667
450 ■Û 103 •OOD@450 C ':3a -BOD,Y450 0 L'(!2 •BOD...Ï440 0 '71: •Q CD.g440 ■0.202 ■0.101

9 5 PSl BALLONING BOTTOM TEST SECOND TEST


SAMPLE: *1 92 *3 S4 75 76 TOTAU AVERAGE:
PSl
UNTESTED J Oa.' Ü3J aaJ Lia4 à 94 '/.if. 0.568 0.094333333
VO 325 3 049 04,' 1,51 055 05 . Û45 0.297 0.0495
350 0 023 020 02Ü 032 027 02'3 0.151 0.025166667
375 Û 302 003 OUI (."OS O.'i,! llO. 0.017 0.002833333
400 L2C 024 BOD %400 024 019 32.3 Ii24 ■0.14 -0.02333333
425 '2b BODg410 .10 Ü Ü D , 3,420 021 [3004:410 .' 44 BOD,J425 049 BQ[)$425 ■033 •0.0465
450

Table 5.1 : The experimental results o f the ballooning test o f the NRV cylinders.
E xp erim e ta l R esults fo r B a llo o ning
of the D O T -39 R e frig e ra n t C ylinder
with t/ID = 0 .0 0 3 4
w all thickness under te s t p re ssure

Test Pressure Aver. Deflection


psi (Mpa) in (mm)
0 0.094 (2.39)
0 0495 0 26)
350 (2.41) 0 0252 (0.64)
375 (2.6) 0 00283 (0.072)
400 (2.76) -0.023 (0.58)

Table 5.2: Experimental test results of the ballooning of the NRV cylinder t/ID = 0.0034.

5.3 Computer-aided modeling for Ballooning

The finite element commercial software. ANSYS, versions 5.5 and 5.6, is

employed to predict the permanent ballooning formation occurs at bottom the end-closure

of the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinder. In the FEA modeling processes, by performing the

APDL functions, the material nonlinearity and the geometry non-uniformity are taken

into account. An APDL program, for example, given in Appendix C. is developed for

these computer-aided modeling processes. Therefore, a suitable 3D nonlinear

axisymmetric FEA model is developed considering the 3D stress-state conditions,

requiring the stress calculations in x-, y-, and z-directions. In order to create the 3D FEA

model, the current design parameters o f the NRV cylinders including the dimple

198
geometry and its location (see Fig’s 2.7 and 2.10) are considered in the quarter-symmetry

of the 3D form by using the mid-surface o f the shell thickness as shown in Fig. 5.6. The

geometry o f the model is divided into different areas that enable it to develop an

appropriate finite element mesh generation. Based on the generated geometrical model, a

suitable axisymmetric boundary condition applied and a finite shell element are selected

from the ANSYS element library so that the SHELL 181 element is considered in the

applications.

5.3,1 Selection of Finite Shell Element

In the selection o f the finite shell. SHELL181, element, the FEA modeling

specifications such as thin-shell structure, material nonlinearity, large strain analysis, and

geometrical non-uniformity are considered. The SHELL 181 element considered is a

suitable shell element for analyzing the thin-shell structure of the DOT-39 refrigerant

cylinder modeling for large strain analysis in the ballooning simulations. The SHELL181

element, as shown in Fig. 5.7. is specified with 4 nodes and 6 -DOF associated at each

node. Three of the DOFs define the translational nodal displacements in the x-. y-. and z-

directions and the other three DOFs specify the rotational nodal displacements about the

X -, y-. and z-axes. Besides, it is considered that the SHELL 181 element has a triangular

element option and is used as a filler element at the dimple area while generating the

modeling process. In addition, this element is well suited for large strain nonlinear

applications performed in these modeling processes. The geometrical specifications, node

locations, and coordinate system of the SHELL181 element are shown in Fig. 5.7.

199
I D : 9 . 5 ’’R .C y ln _ P = 4 0 0 _ B a l .T e sC _ C = 0 . 038X_SHELL+;-IELD_KISIOGLU

Figure 5.6: The 3D geometrical model.

200
THETA

K;.

(Triangular option - not recommended)


(Note - X and y are in the plane o f the element)

Figure 5.7: The finite shell element. SHELLI81 [.ANSYS Manual. (1998)].

201
5.3.2 Selection of Axisymmetric Boundary Conditions

In the selection of the boundary conditions (BCs), the model specifications are

considered, which are axisymmetric with respect to the geometrical and the loading

conditions. In the case o f the loading conditions, the FEA models o f the DOT-39 non-

refillable cylinders are subjected to the incremental uniform internal pressure until the

TP. The incremental uniform load is performed at 10-psi (0.69-Mpa) per step during the

pressurizing as well as pressure-releasing conditions. After reaching the load to the TP

value, the pressure is released. In order to perform the BCs for the DOF for nodal

limitations, the nodes located between points "a" and "b" (see Fig. 5.6 and 5.8) have been

restricted to translational displacements in the z-direction and the rotational

displacements are constrained in all three, x-. y-. and z-directions. Furthermore, the nodes

located between points "a" and "c" in this figure have been constrained to translational

displacements in the y-direction and the rotational displacements are constrained in all

three, x. y, and z directions. Additionally, the nodes located between points “b” and "c"

have also been constrained to translational displacements in the x-direction and the

rotational displacements are restricted in all three, x-. y-. and z-directions as seen in Fig.

5.8.

5.3.3 Development of nonlinear axisymmetric FEA modeling

Using these BCs and the SHELL181 element specifications, the FEA modeling is

developed in order to simulate the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders to predict the

202
ballooning deformations as shown in Fig. 5.8. The FEA model has been conducted in

quasi-static analysis and three stress-state conditions considering the material

nonlinearity and the geometrical non-uniformity. To perform the material nonlineraity as

in non-homogeneous conditions, the drawn cylindrical shells including weld zone

properties are applied as shown in Fig. 5.8. In order to do this, the isotropic hardening

option in the ANSYS. uses the Von Mises yield criteria coupled with an isotropic work

hardening assumption that is applied by using the TB family of commands in APDL. The

TB commands are used in the APDL to define the nonlinear material property

relationships in terms of a TSS data table. These properties are defined with

corresponding TSS curves o f the drawn shells including weld zone properties as shown in

Fig's. 3.14. 3.16. and 3.18. In addition, the geometrical non-uniformity requires

cylindrical shell thickness variations as well as the weld zone thickness variation

generated in the modeling processes by using the step function (see Fig. 4.12)

requirements as shown in Fig. 5.8.

At the initiation of the development o f the axisymmetric FEA modeling processes

to predict the ballooning formation, some assumptions have been conducted. Since the

crowTi region including the knuckle zone has shown approximately homogenous

properties after the drawing process, the homogeneous material properties are applied for

both zones in the modeling process. Second, it is also assumed that the effects o f the weld

zones at the valve-and-tubing area including the nozzle zone, where the tube is placed

(see Fig. 3.8). are not incorporated into these modeling processes. Third, the thickness

variation and material property o f the dimples including the filler area circumferentially

(see Fig. 5.6) between dimples and the crown have no changes after dimpling during the

203
drawing processes so that the initial thickness o f the non-drawn sheet thickness (to) and

the crown region material property are performed in the dimple areas. Finally, from the

manufacturing viewpoint, an assumption is made that there are no residual stresses due to

deep drawing and welding processes.

D im ple Dimple

Crown Shell
M aterai as Drawn

Knuckle
Knuckle

Drawn
Shell by
Knuckle

Drawn
Shell by
W eld

W eld
Non-uniform FEA M odel
usmg STEP Function Non-homogenous FE A M odel y Zone
a
ID :9.5"R ef-C yin_P = 400_B aiinT e3t_C = Q .038+ x_S H E L L +W E L D _K IS IO <jL U

Figure 5.8: The non-uniform and non-homogenous FEA Models

204
5.3.4 Predictions of Ballooning using FEA Modeling

The noniinear-ncnuniform axisymmetric FEA model developed and used in this

study is representing the DOT-39 non-re tillable refrigerant cylinder with the design

parameters ratio o f t/ID = 0.0034 and the TP value is 400-psi (2.8-Mpa). This FEA model

IS subjected to the incremental internal pressure from zero pressure until the I P value.

The incremental internal pressure is applied and increased linearly with 10-psi (0.7-Mpa)

per increment from the beginning until the TP. Since the material property o f the cylinder

remains in the range of the elastic-plastic state, the loading conditions are sustained

linearly until TP in this application. The absolute convergence criteria o f these loading

conditions applied in the nonlinear simulation processes are performed and plotted as a

function o f the cumulative iteration number as illustrated in Fig. 5.9. In the APDL

applications, two convergence criteria, forces and moments, are selected in the conditions

of the Newton-Raphson method (see Section 4.7) and performed in the simulations. The

"F" sign designates the force criteria and the "M ” sign represents the moment o f

convergence criteria as shown in Fig. 5.9. As it can be seen in this figure, both o f these

criteria are converged at time o f TP. 400-psi (2.8-Mpa).

In order to proceed with the ballooning tests, based on the TP values given on

Table 5.2. 4 different times of the ballooning trial, for the pressures 325-psi. 350-psi.

375-psi and 400-psi, have been conducted in FEA modeling processes as well as in

experimental tests. That is; In the first trial, the cylinder models are subjected to

incremental internal pressure loading from zero pressure to 325-psi and then the pressure

is released and thereafter the deflections are evaluated between the points N32 and N798

205
as seen in Fig. 5.10. Similarly, the second, third and fourth trials for the ballooning tests

in the FEA modeling as well as in the experiments are performed for the pressure values

of 350-psi, 375-psi and 400-psi. respectively.

When the internal loading reaches the TP along with the convergence norms, then

the pressure is released in the simulation processes to the pressure-free state. Also,

releasing the pressure is done incrementally with a 10-psi (0.7-Mpa) per increment from

the TP to zero pressure. After internal pressure is released, the residual deformation is

obtained as shown in Fig. 5.10. As it can be obviously seen from Fig. 5.10, the maximum

residual deflection occurs at the crown region. In order to predict the ballooning

deformation, the magnitude o f the residual deflections of the points (nodes), "N32" and

”N 798'\ are compared with each other on the horizontal plane. In this evaluation o f the

deflection, the residual nodal-displacements o f these two nodes are considered only in the

y-direction. These displacements are designated with the symbol o f " U c " and " u ,/y "

representing the nodes N32 and N798, respectively, as indicated in Fig. 5.11. As expected

from the nonlinear FEA simulations, the behaviors of the nodal displacements o f these

nodes obtained as nonlinear are plotted as a function of the incremental loading time as

seen in Fig. 5.12. These nodal displacements o f these nodes also represent both

conditions o f the loading, pressurize and then release the pressure, in the simulation

processes.

At the initiation o f the incremental loading time o f the simulation, the magnitudes

of the displacement for the N32 is lower than that of the displacement o f the N798 as

seen in Fig. 5.12. However, the nodal displacement behavior o f the N32 is increasing

faster, while increasing the loading increment and met at point ''a ” with the displacement

206
o f the N798 about the loading time o f 255, as illustrated in Fig. 5.12. As a result, the

expansion of the crown deflection at N32 after the coincident is rapidly increasing, so

that the large difference of deflection between these two nodes can take place. Therefore,

the displacement o f the N32 in the positive y-direction has come about higher than that o f

the N798, in such a way that the ballooning deformation has taken place permanently and

predicted as obviously seen in both untested (unloaded) and tested FEA models at the TP

in Fig. 5.13.

According to the deflection analysis made above for both nodes o f dimple (N798)

and crown (N32), it can be noted that the ballooning phenomenon is predicted as

obviously seen on the FEA models in Fig 5.13. Based on these FEA modeling processes,

these deflection results obtained from the simulations are compared with corresponding

experimental results as given in Table 5.3. The first column o f this table lists the pressure

values applied to the FEA models. The second and third columns give the deflection

results obtained from both experiment and FEA modeling approaches, respectively. In

order to find the magnitude {Differ) of these deflections listed in Table 5.3. the

displacement amount of the N32 in the y-direction is taken away from the displacement

amount of the N798 in the y-direction. That is; it is basically calculated using a simple

equation given on Table 5.3 as Differ = U - U , where Udy and Uc represent the

displacements in the y-direction for both nodes N32 and N798. respectively, as illustrated

in Fig's. 5.10 and 5.11. The negative Differ represents the ballooning problem is exists

which is undesired problem. Therefore, The magnitude o f the ballooning deflections at

the TP value of the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders {t/ID = 0.0034) are obtained negative

207
as -0.0233-in (-0.592-mm) and -0.0241-in (-0.612-mm) from both experimental and FEA

modeling approaches, respectively, as given in Table 5.3.

AIM
Time = 400
g 1.0E»02

L. 0E*01 F CRIT : r i ':

I .0E*00 F L2

I .OE-Ol

r I.OE-02

I.OE-03 M L2

1 .OE-04
N
0
r 1 .OE-05
m 20 40 60 80 100
10 30 50 70 90
C u m u lative I t e r a t i o n Number

Figure 5.9: The absolute convergence norm o f the nonlinear FEA simulation processes.

208
ANSYS 5.6
(T op o f the Dimple) •TTîM 1 ?nnn
N32 23:13:40
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=2
SUB =12
TIME=500
N 1S23 USUM (.AVG)
RSYS=0
?owerGraphies
EFACET=2
AVRES=Man
DMX =.290625
SMN =.703E-03
SMX =.290625
N1451 _ .703E-03
.032917
.06513
.097344
.129557
.161771
N 36j S
.193984
.226198
□ .258411
.290625

N 360’

ID :9.5"Ref-Cyln_P=400_3allnTesC_C=0.038+x_SHELL+WELD_KISIOGLU

Figure 5.10: Residual deflections o f the end-closure after releasing the pressure.

209
DL

Figure 5.11 : Design parameters for the Optimization.

210
AN
(x lO * « - l)

3 .1 5

N32 Y

P o l e o f Cr own

1 .7 5
’3j
3 N798 V

1 .0 5 Pole of Dimple

.35

0 30 160 240 320 400 480


40 120 200 280 360 44 0 520
Loading

X D : 9 . 5 " R e f - C v i n ?=400 Balir.TesC C - 0 . 0 3 8 + X 3HELL*WZLD KI3ICGLÜ

Figure 5.12: The nodal displacements behavior o f the crown (N32) and dimple (N798).

211
0.099-in 0.0241

U ntested M odel T ested M odel (L o n d ed and R eleased)


:D;9. 5"Re£-Cyln_?=t00_BaIl.'iTes>:_t=0 .033»x_SHELL*WELO_KISIOGLU

Figure 5.13: Prediction o f ballooning deformation at the end-closure of the DOT-39 non-

refillable cylinders.

212
.-Applied Ballooning Deflection
lYessure D iffer = Uify - Uc
CTP) Experiment
(psi) (in)
0.0943 0.099
0.0495 0.0517
0.0252 0.0293
0.00283 0.00288
-0.0233 -0.0241

Table 5.3: Comparison of the ballooning results obtained from both experimental and

FEA modeling approaches.

5.4 O ptim ization of the Dimple Location (DL)

For the purposes of this study, the new designing approach viewpoint, it is

necessary to develop a new design to eliminate the ballooning phenomena that occurs at

the bottom of the NRV cylinders. In order to investigate a new model for the bottom end-

closure of the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders, the current geometry o f the bottom-end is

re-designed. At the initiations o f the redesigning processes, the design parameters o f the

current end-closure geometry shown in Fig. 5.11 are evaluated. In the conduct o f these

evaluations, it was realized that the design parameters such as dimple location (DL),

knuckle radius (/?*), dimple radius (Rd), center location o f the dimple (Ri) and crown

radius (Rc) as seen in Fig. 5.11 cause the ballooning problem. From the cost o f the tooling
213
and the manufacturing processes standpoint, it was decided that the R j, Rk, R l and Rc

should remain constant with the initial shape o f the current model; however, the DL is

taken into account o f the redesigning the DL. In order to obtain the best DL. a suitable

optimization technique was utilized. As a result, an optimum location for the dimples to

prevent the ballooning phenomenon was found by optimizing the DL in the new

designing processes using the FEA modeling simulations. In order to optimize the DL. an

optimization method, design o f experiment, was employed in the modeling processes.

The purpose of the design o f the experimental method, an optimization technique

defined primarily as how to plan and analyze an experiment o f the stated problem to be

solved [Hicks & Turner, (1999)], [Weber & Skillings, (2000)] and [Barrentine, (1999)],

is to determine relationships between the DL and the Differ. The goal is to examine how

changing the design variable o f the DL value affects the response variable o f the Differ

value. The design variable, DL. is considered an independent variable, sometimes called

"factor" by Weber and Skillings (2000), and the response variable. Differ, is considered

dependent or the main interest variable to be determined. The independent variable, DL.

which potentially affects the response variable, is the controlled variable, which is varied

intentionally between points "o” (or "d”) and "e" on the horizontal plane as seen in Fig.

5.11. The distance between these two points in this figure is designated with '"Lx \ which

has one maximum value located at point "o" where the dimple is located and one

minimum value located at point " e '\

The experimental design in the FEA modeling processes has been performed in

two phases to optimize the DL and obtain a feasible value for the Differ to prevent the

ballooning problem. In order to carry out these two-phase experiments in the modeling,

214
the factor is divided into two-group o f levels as listed in Table 5.4, which are different

values than the design variable assumes during the experiment. The DL factor is varied in

the interval of the maximum and minimum levels o f Z,.r as seen in Fig. 5.11. The

minimum and maximum values o f the Lx are 1.5-in (38.1-mm) and 2.125-in (53.98-mm)

respectively, as given in Table 5.4. As mentioned above, the minimum and maximum

values o f Lx are the new {DLse^v) and the initial {DL) locations o f the dimples,

respectively.

In the first experiment, the independent variable. DL. between minimum and

maximum values o f the Lx is divided intentionally into 7 levels, which are the

optimization intervals as shown in Table 5.4. The experimental design is performed for

each level starting from a maximum value o f the factor by utilizing the nonlinear

axiysmmetric FEA modeling simulations. The value o f the maximum level is the initial

location of the design variable, which causes the ballooning deflection as negative Dijfer

as shown on Tables 5.3 and 5.4. .As mentioned above, the negative value o f Dijfer

represents the ballooning deflection, so that the experiment is started from maximum

through minimum levels o f the factor until obtaining the positive value o f Differ as seen

in Table 5.4. The experiment is stopped when the positive value o f the Differ is obtained

at the level of DL = 1.7-in (43.2-mm) as seen in Table 5.4. As a result o f the first

experiment, it can be noted that to eliminate the ballooning problem at the bottom o f the

NRV cylinders, the best DL should be considered as DL < 1.8-in (45.7-mm).

In order to better approximate the optimum value o f the DL, the experimental

design is performed secondarily for the new levels o f DL divided into the small divisions

o f the interval as listed on Table 5.4. In the second design o f the experimental technique,

215
the new maximum and minimum levels o f the factor are selected as 1.8-in (45.7-mm) and

1.7-in (43.2-mm), respectively, which are based on the results o f the first experiment as

given on Table 5.4. This table lists the new interval o f the factor that is divided into 5

levels. Similarly, the second experiment has also been performed starting from the

maximum through minimum levels o f the factor until finding the positive value o f the

Differ, which is obtained at the level o f DL = 1.725-in (43.8-mm) as seen on Table 5.4.

Therefore, the optimum value o f DL has fallen in the levels of 1.725-in<DA<l.75-in

(43.8-mm<DL<44.5-mm). The design o f the experimental technique may proceed further

for this small interval. However, from the manufacturing and tooling costs point of view,

the interval definition of the level was determined as indicated above. From the findings,

as a result, it can be understood that the dimple location can be considered DZ,< 1.75-in

(44.5-mm) in the new designing approach to prevent the ballooning phenomenon at the

TP, with the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders having the design parameter

ratio o f t/ID = 0.0034.

216
Design Variable (DL) Ballooning Deflection
Optimization
Results Levels of Factors Differ = Uify - Uc
ill (inm) ill (uuu)
max 2.125 (535) -0.0241 (-0.612)
2 (50.8) -0.0208 (-0.513)
First Experiment 1.9 (48.2) -0.0105 (-0.267)
1.8 (45.7) -0.00249 (-0.0632)
1.7 (43.2) 0.00106 (0.0269)
1.6 (40.6) N/A
min 1.5 (38.1) N/A

max 1.8 (45.7) -0.00249 (-0.0632)


1.775 (45.1) -0.00121 (-0.0307)
Second Experiment 1.75 (44.5) -0.000584 (-0.0148)
1.725 (43.8) 0.000103 (0.00262)
min 1.7 (43.2) 0.00106 (0.027)

Table 5.4: The optimization results o f the new dimple location {DL) using the design of

the experimental method within the FEA modeling processes.

217
5.5 Computer-Aided Modeling for the Flip-Flop (Buckling) Analysis

The finite element commercial computer code, ANSYS, version 5.6, is employed

to analyze the buckling phenomenon which occurs at the bottom convex-end closure of

the D 0T-4B A refillable cylinder, which is subjected to the TP. In the FEA modeling

processes by performing the .APDL functions, the material nonlinearity and the

geometrical uniformity except for the welding zone (see Fig. 5.3) are taken into account

in the modeling processes. An APDL program developed for the buckling analysis, for

example, performed for these computer-aided modeling processes, is given in Appendix

C. Therefore, a suitable 2D nonlinear axisymmetric FEA model is developed by

considering the 2D plane-strain conditions. In order to create the 2D nonlinear-

axisymmetric FEA model, the current design parameters o f the convex-end closure (see

Fig. 5.4) o f the D0T-4BA cylinders excluding the foot-ring shell region (see F ig 's 1.2)

are considered in the half-symmetry o f 2D form by using the end-thickness as shown in

Fig. 5.14. The 2D geometrical model is divided into different areas allowing for the

development of an appropriate finite element mesh generation. Based on the generated

geometrical model conditions, a suitable axisymmetric boundary condition and a finite

structural plane-strain element are selected from the ANSYS element library so that the

PLANE2 element is considered in the applications.

218
5.5.1 Selection of Finite Structural Solid Elem ent

A suitable finite structural solid, PLANE2. triangular element is selected

considering the FEA modeling specifications such as axisymmetric 2D, material

nonlinearity, and large strain analysis in the buckling simulations. The PLANE2

triangular element, as shown in Fig. 5.15, is specified with 6 nodes and 6 -DOF associated

at each node. Three of the DOFs define the translational nodal displacements at each

node in the x-. y-. and z-directions and the other three DOFs specify the rotational nodal

displacements at each node about the x-, y-. and z-axes. In addition, this element is well

suited for large strain and large deflection, plasticity, plane-strain, and axisymmetric

nonlinear applications performed in these modeling processes. The geometrical

specifications, node locations, and coordinate system of the PLANE2 triangular element

are illustrated in Fig. 5.15.

5.5.2 Selection of the Axisymmetric B oundary Conditions (BCs)

In the selection of the BCs, the model specifications are considered, which are

axisymmetric with respect to the geometrical and the loading conditions. In the loading

conditions, the FEA models of the convex-end-closure are subjected to the uniform

incremental external pressure loading until the TP value of the D 0T-4B A refillable

cylinders. The applied incremental pressure is internal for cylinder; it is external for the

convex-end closure (see Fig. 5.3). The uniform incremental load is performed at 10-psi

(0.69-Mpa) per step during the loading conditions o f the D0T-4BA cylinder. In order to

219
perform the BCs for the nodal limitations o f the DOFs, the nodes located at point “A” are

restricted to translational nodal displacements in the y-direction and rotational nodal

displacement about the z-direction as shown in Fig. 5.14. The axisymmetric BCs are

performed on the y-axis o f the model as seen in Fig 5.14. That is; the nodes located at

point "E " are constrained to translational nodal deflections in the x-direction and

rotational nodal deflections about the z-direction as illustrated in Fig. 5.14.

5.5.3 Development of N onlinear .\xisym m etric FEA modeling

Using these BCs and the triangular FLANE2 element specifications, the FEA

modeling is developed in order to simulate the convex-end closure to predict the flip-flop

deformation as seen in the 3D model case in Fig. 5.16. The FEA model has been

conducted in quasi-static analysis in plane strain conditions considering the material

nonlinearity and geometrical uniformity except for the weld zone. The isotropic

hardening option, in ANSYS. uses the Von Mises yield criteria coupled with an isotropic

work hardening assumption that is applied by using the TB commands in the APDL. The

TB commands are used in the .VPDL to define the nonlinear material property

relationships in terms o f a TSS data table. The nonlinear material property is defined with

corresponding TSS curve of the convex-end closure including the weld zone properties as

shown in Fig. 3.4. In addition, the only geometrical non-uniformity (thickness variations

at the weld zone) is applied at the weld zone located circumferentially at the bottom o f

the D 0T-4BA refillable cylinders.

220
At the initiation o f the development o f the axisymmetric FEA modeling processes

to predict the buckling phenomenon, some assumptions have been conducted. Since the

convex-end closure is drawn as very shallow. ID/h <40 (see Fig. 5.4), the material

property o f the end closure remain constant after the deep-drawing process. Therefore,

the SAE-1018 hot rolled steel material property in a homogeneous condition is applied

for the end closure in the modeling process. Second, the thickness o f the end closure has

also no changes after the drawing process, so that the initial thickness {in) o f the non­

drawn blank steel sheet is performed in the convex-end closure area. Finally, since the

D 0T-4BA refillable cylinders are being heat treated (stress relief process) after finishing

all welding and assembly processes, an assumption is made that there are no residual

stresses on the body of the cylinder and the convex-end closure.

5.6 P rediction of the Flip-flop (Buckling) Phenom enon

Using the developed non-linear axisymmetric FEA model, the buckling deflection

is predicted at the convex end-closure o f the D0T-4BA refillable cylinders subjected to

the TP. In order to understand the buckling phenomenon after FEA simulations, the

values o f three relevant components o f the simulation processes, load (pressure), loading

increment, and deflection, can be evaluated. The FEA model o f the convex-end closure is

subjected to uniform incremental external loading until the buckling phenomenon occurs.

When the incremental pressure achieves a critical value, Pcr=747.436-psi (5.2-Mpa), at

the load increment o f 77. then the convex-end closure is being at the instant o f the

bifurcation case. That is: the convex-end closure under the Per is reaching the maximum

221
critical deflection at the middle of the crown, which is not the buckling deflection as

shown in Fig. 5.17. 'WTien the loading increment is increased one more step from 77 to

78, then the convex-end closure is buckling with the collapse (flip-flop, failure) pressure,

Pc = 747.64-psi (5.2-Mpa). The buckling can be described in terms o f a tlip-flop

deflection: when the loading increment is increased from 77 to 78, the maximum

deflection of the convex-end closure changes from C/mar=0.0553-in (1.4-mm) to the

buckling deflection, 4.144-in (105.3-mm) as illustrated in Fig's. 5.17 and 5.5,

respectively. The nodal-deflection behaviors for the selected nodes, as seen in Fig. 5.17,

o f the convex-end closure in the buckling simulations are plotted as a function o f loading

time as depicted in Fig. 5.18. In addition, the shapes o f both geometrical and flipped

models o f the convex-end closure in the 3D case are shown in Fig. 5.19.

222
AN

COT-4BA. Convex End-closure, Mtrl:SAE-101a (HR), KISIOGLU

Figure 5.14: The 2D axisymmetric BCs o f the FEA model for the convex-end closure.

223
Y
(or Ax ia l)

'or Radial)

Figure 5.15: The PL.A.NE2 triangular structural solid element [ANSYS Manual. (1998)].

224
AM
Convex End-closure
Material
SAE-1018 (SKDQ, HR)

Weld Zone
Material
D 0 T - 4 B A C o n v e x _ E n d , B u c k l i n g A n a l y s i s , S A E - I O I B ( H R ) ,K I S I O G L U

Figure 5.16: Non-homogeneous material properties applied

225
ANSYS 5.6
.'U**. I 4. V 4.U U V

21:49:01
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=1
SUB =77
TIME=747.436
USUM (.AVG)
N155 P,SYS=0
Max. PowerGraphics
Defection EFACET=2
AVRES=Mac
DMX =.055322
SMN =.02141
SMX =.055322
.02141
.025179
NI N I7 .029946
.032714
.036482
.04025
Budding Phenomenon occurs at the Pressure o f 747.W psL
(Loading Substep is 78) .044018
Buckling Deflection is 4.144-in .047796
.051554
.055322
DCT-4BA Convex înc-clcsure, Mtcl:SAE-1013 (HR), KISIOGLU

Figure 5.17: The maximum critical deflection of the convex end-closure at the instant of

bifurcation.

226
AN
N l-X

N35 X
- . 1(5 X155 X

-.64

u
w
t -*•“
® -2S6
M55 V
-3.04

.MIS V

0 160 320 480 (540 SOO 9(50


sa 240 400 560 720 880 1040
LOADING

D0T - 4 3 A Con v e x En(d-ciosure, Mtrl :S A E - 1018 (HR), KISIOGLU

Figure 5.18: The deflection behaviors of the selected critical nodes o f the convex-end-

c losure.

227
AN
ANSYS 5.6
MAY 9 2000
21:58:11
NODAL SOLUTION

Origuial Convex-Eiid
Closure Model

Buckling of Com-ex-End
Closure FEA Model
DOT-4 BA C o n v e x _ E n d , B u c l t l i n g A n a l y s i s , 3 A E - i 0 i 3 (HP.), KXSICGLU

Figure 5.19: The geometrical and after buckling models o f the convex-end closure.

228
5.7 Elimination of the Buckling Phenomenon

The elimination of the buckling phenomenon at the bottom convex-end closure o f

the D0T-4BA refillable cylinders has been performed using the developed nonlinear

axisymmetric FEA modeling processes. To make this happen, the axisymmetric PEA

model has been conducted in the design optimization method of the ANSYS computer

code. For the optimization techniques, the APDL shown in Appendix C has been

performed successfully in the FEA simulations in the cases of the quasi-static, plane

strain, and nonlinear material implementation.

5.7.1 Design O ptim ization M ethod

Design optimization utilized within the ANSYS program is a technique that seeks

to determine an "optimum design." which means one that meets all specified

requirements but with a minimum expense of certain factors such as volume, stress, and

thickness o f the component. The ANSYS program offers two optimization methods, sub­

problem and first-order, to accommodate a wide range o f optimization problems. The

first order method which was appropriate to employ for the buckling problem in this

study is based on design sensitivities and is more suitable for this problem that requires

high accuracy. For the first order methods, the ANSYS program performs a series o f

analysis-evaluation-modification cycles. That is. an analysis of the initial design is

performed, the results are evaluated against specified design criteria, and the design is

modified as necessary. This process is repeated until all specified criteria are met

229
[ANSYS M anual, (1998)]. Some o f the above concepts can be better understood through

an illustration as in the optimization data flow as shown in Fig. 5.20. which is the flow o f

information during an optimization analysis. The optimization database created by the

optimization analysis contains the current optimization environment, which includes

optimization variable definitions, parameters, all optimization specifications, and

accumulated design sets.

It is necessary to describe the terminology used as optimization variables referring

to the design criteria in the optimization technique. These optimization variables include;

( 1) design variables (DVs) are independent quantities that are varied in order to achieve

the optimum design. Upper and lower limits o f the DVs are specified to serve as

"constraints" on the design variables. These limits define the range o f variation for the

□V. (2) State variables (SVs) are quantities that constrain the design. They are also

known as "dependent variables." and are typically response quantities that are functions

of the DVs. A state variable may have a maximum and minimum limit, or it may be

"single sided." having only one limit. (3) The Objective Function is the dependent

variable that is attempted to minimize. It is a function o f the DVs. that is, changing the

values o f the DVs changes the values o f the objective function [ANSYS Manual. (1998)].

230
F ile.D B
A N SY S
D a ta b a se
file

M odel
D a ta b a se F ile .L O O P
L o o p F ile

Analysis File \f^ p ip Y ir O PEX E


(Parametrically O p tim iz a tio n
Oellned Model) / D a ta b a se
OPEX E F ile .O P O
L ast Loop
O u tp u t

F ile .O P T
O p tim iz a tio n
, D ata File

Figure 5.20: The optimization data flow [ANSYS Manual. (1998)].

231
5.7.2 The Procedure of the Design Optimization Technique

In order to proceed the optimization techniques in the FEA simulations, it must be

decided what criteria, such as design parameters, material property, etc. o f the convex-

end closure can be effective to prevent the buckling problem. The material property has

already been selected by the manufacturer so that it cannot be changed by the designer.

For this reason, the design parameters o f the convex-end closure are considered in the

optimization processes. The design parameters. /?*, Rc, and / as shown in Fig. 5.21. are

considered to optimize in the simulation processes. Since the buckling sensitivity depends

on these design parameters besides the material properties of the end closure, the first

order optimization method o f the .ANSYS code is employed in the optimization loop,

which is one pass through the analysis cycle.

The design parameters. Rc. Rk, and i (see Fig. 5.21). are selected as design

variables (DVs) for the optimization loop in the data flow analysis o f the ANSYS code.

These DVs are the independent variables, which play a role of geometrical effects on the

buckling deflection of the convex-end closure. The maximum deflection, maximum

material plastic strain, maximum equivalent and principal stresses are chosen as state

variables (SVs) (responses). These SVs are considered as dependent variables, which

depend on the DVs' criteria. In addition, the minimization o f the total end-closure

volume, a function of especially the DVs' thickness (f). is selected as the objection

function in the optimization method. As a result, the purpose o f this optimization

technique is to minimize the volume of the convex-end closure while preventing the

buckling problem.

232
AIM
AUG 1 1998
12;09;26
ELEMENTS
TYPE HUM

4 1/4* 4BA BOTTOM M trl;1018H R (759) KISIOGLU

Figure 5.21; Design parameters of the convex end-closure.

The optimization loop is operated in some selected ranges o f the DVs within the

geometrical shape-allowance tolerance in the FEA modeling processes. That is. the

ranges o f the selected DVs do not cause any geometrical confirmation for each level of

the factors during the optimization loops. The shape allowance tolerances (Toi)

depending on the magnitude and ranges o f the DVs which are calculated basically using

the empirical formula defined as Tot = (m a x D F '-m in D T )/1 0 0 . Therefore, the design

parameters, t. Rc, and Rk, of the convex-end closure are considered as DVs in the

optimization loop in the range of 0.1-in<r<0.2-in (2.54-mm<t<5.1-mm), 6.8-in</?c<7.2-in

(172.7-mm</?c<183-mm), and 1.08-in<i?t< 1.168-in (27.4-mm<i?Ar<29.7-mm),

respectively, as shown in Table 5.5. The initial values o f these DVs, t, Rc, and Rk, are

233
taken as O.l-in (2.54-mm), 7 .14-in (181.4-mm) and 1.1426-in (29-mm), respectively,

which are used in the current geometrical model o f the convex-end closure.

As a reminder, in order to operate the optimization loops more accurately and to

analyze more precisely, all design parameters of the FEA model have been magnified

with a magnification number of 100. That is. all design parameters o f the model are

magnified 100 times the current one. In this analysis, the optimization cycles are

performed 15 times and the design set number is designated as 16 as seen in Tables 5.5

and 5.6. The best feasible design set is obtained at the set number o f 9. as seen in Table

5.7. The feasible design is the one that satisfies all specified constraints on the SVs as

well as constraints on the DVs. If any one of the constraints is not satisfied, the design is

considered infeasible. .All feasible and infeasible DVs during the optimization cycles are

listed in Table 5.6. The best design is the one that satisfies all constraints and produces

the minimum objective function value which is obtained at set number o f 9 as given in

Table 5.7.

When the optimization variables are taken in the optimization loops within their

ranges (levels) defined above, the optimum values for these DVs are obtained as shown

in Fig's. 5.22 and 5.23. The radii o f curvatures. Rc. and Rk, o f the convex-end closure are

optimized and plotted as a function o f the optimization set number as seen in Fig. 5.22.

Two curves indicated in Fig. 5.22 are named "RCRWN” and "RKNCK." representing the

optimum results o f the Rc and Rk, respectively. The optimum values for these radii. Rc,

and Rk, of curvatures are found and approximated to the upper limits o f their levels.

7.199-in (182.8-mm) and 1.168-in (29.67-mm). respectively, listed in Table 5.7. Also, the

end-closure thickness (r) designated as “//j” in the optimization cycles is plotted as a

234
function o f the cycle number as seen in Fig. 5.23 and the optimum thickness obtained as

f/z=0.l 13-in (2.87-mm) and indicated in the best design of the optimization cycles in

Table 5.7.

D e s i g n V a r ia b le s ( M a g n i f ic a t io n Nr.: 100 )
721 117

720
-- 1 1 6 .5

719

-- 1 16
718

717 115.5

716 -6-R C R W N
- 115

715 RKNCK
-- 1 1 4 .5
714

713 114

Set N um ber

Figure 5.22: The optimum values o f the design variables, Rknuckie and Rc

235
o : 2 A ? : 0 X S T A T U S

Acuive opuiT.izauicr. m e t h o d t ool .s z o rd e r


Maxitr.un r.uaiber of iterations. IE
Limit applied to rr.ax s t e p s i z e 102. peroenr
l o r w a r d d i f f e r e n c e ............ 0.210' percent
■Ar.sys o p t i m i z a t i o n a n a lysis f ile C o n v e x . ig*.v
-Ansys o p t i m i z a t i o n data file. . file.opr
Torrent j ob n a m e for the analysis file
Save the d ata files tor b est set on
Current best desior. set nurrioer. ÿ
Read anaiysis f ile f rom the . . fi r s t line
Cesiqn variables during looping do n o r p r o c e s s
S a v e d p a r a m e t e r s i ur i n g l o o pi n g scalar
C u r r e n t n u m n e r of d e s .gn .sets .
Highest des ign s et nurr.oer . . . It
Cumulative number cf opt loops.
H u m b e r cf i p t l m . z i t itn v a r i a b l e s
o D t i m i z a t i on s o i u t i t n n r i n t o u t . ;e s u r j T .a r v i
n%Y _ ' w I. nurioer
-axis ;or .aoe.

MA.ME MIN MA.*, TO LERA N CE


:C<DErL ST None :.. l o c o o j .i o c : : g e -03
None 6 10 0 0'.:' J .l O O C D C E - O l
r-CtL'LPSN ST None 0 . i;OC'0'OE-C2 J .l O C O O C E - 0 4
None 7 5 0 C .0 3 . lOOOJC
TH DT 10 .ÛOCC I : .0000 0.lOCODGE-02
RKHCE DC 1C8.:cc 1 1 6 . SCO :. 100ÛOCE-02
RCFV.'M D'.t cAQ.OCC "20.000 :.l O GQ OC E- Oi
EVSUM 3SU 3. 1 0 0 0 j C

Table 5.5: The initial optimization status.

236
AN
20 UPPER

19

IS

17

13
TH

11

LOWER
10
L S 9 13 17 21
11 19
S e t N um ber

D0T-4BA Convex E n d - c l o s u r e , M t r l : SAE-1018 (HR), KISIOGLU

Figure 5.23: The optimum values o f the design variable, thickness (Th).

237
1.1S ^ 0 "TI :-!:2.:..TIC;i SETS FP.CM SET I TO SET 15 .7043 .SHOW
OMLV O-TT /'TZ.ATTC =.^R:o'irTE?s

SET : .SEO- 4
:As:3LEi F.-WS IBLF :
X:\3EFL .92429 ‘ .91:3.] .94122
JV 1 3:924. 5:555. 5 2 296.
M:ciLP5t: 13V1 I .91297E-C2 .H9545E-C3 7 .9 2 7 2 9 E-‘
12
? s :m s _: 1S'.'! 4-72:4. 46912. 4 75'.:.
in 1 12.9 5 7 12 .=29
.=.:-L'!CK iT'.’) 114.55 115.29 I 15 .29
?.c : (D'.’! :: "715. 94 "2C.20 7:9.98
=rvsu>: GHJ ) .1 ■■T S r E - 0 8 ; .:€r'5]’E-Cfl 1.255C2E-CH 0 .25575E*"}8

SET 7 S ET .3
FEAS:3L£, :FEASIBLE. FEASIBLE 1 1 FEASIBLE!
.96242 :.'3" 193 2.99:15
MrKFQV'.'y. :2992. Î4C54. 5 4 5 9 2.
.^ixNLPsr; ' : .9-'- IIE-I 3 ■.974 063-0 2 .1I ..42E-''T.
?R:XE_: ' ; 41950. 4'953. 4 5297.
TH . ) 12.239 13.3:5 12.113
?.:<:icK DV) 1:5.31 1:5.50 115. 3 23
RCHW; " : c .0 2 ': c .:0 "19.99
=r/suy ÜHJ) :.254033.C4 1'.25231E*':8 0 .:4H52E<-08

: .... . ^ SET 12
:ILTEASIBLEl :::FE7,s:3LE' 'FEL'-.SIBLE'i
M:tDF.p:. ■J. ; ',QQiQi -39919 ; ;P690
' ■ ; Of ; ,4 -74, 5445 1 .
J’.''
• - . . . » 1_ - w .11145E- . '96:BE-22
4F - 4 ) 4 : -,1 ,
D',' ■.'•.2:1 : 2 . 249 12.151
FKMCK 3v : • 1 '.' .T : : 5 .50 116.30
?.c?w; DV} "]?.99 "19.99 719.99 719.99
=r/su>: 03 J) ■].:',h 5: e - g != 9.:47393*C8 ; .:4725E + '18 J .24947E* IS

SET 14 SET 15 SET 15


FEASIBLE) tlIJFEASIBLE) ,IMFEASIBLE) tFEASIBLE!
Î'KDEFL S'.'] J .9S757 0.99850 ; .99902 :.98712
MXEQV"y>! S'.'] S8-Î69 . 54-752 . 54775. 54456.
.
m x :;l ? s n S'.'' : .997;SE-03 > ;.::i333-o: > ;.: g i 45 e - c : : . 9 9 6 6 1 E - 13
??. :r:s i 48:96. 48529. 45551. 43256.
TH 13.250 12. 159
.=:c;cK 2 15 .4.1 115.30 116.30
r.C-.VCi D': ".9.39 "19.99 "19.99 "19.99
HVSÎJÎ'! 03 J) :..:49 3 5E-08 0.:4739s.ru 2.24729E*0fi : . :4942E*0fi

Table 5.6: List of the optimization results from all loops with the set numbers.

238
■t : m : - A : ' : ' <u p a f a i -i k t e

:. 99:3':

: 9 . 99

Table 5.7; The best set o f design variables for feasible solution o f optimization.

Similarly, the other optimization variables, such as the SVs and the objective

function are obtained from the cycles using the FEA modeling simulations as shown in

Fig's. 5.24. 5.25. and 5.26. The SVs. maximum critical deflection, maximum nonlinear

plastic strain, principal and maximum equivalent stresses are selected and performed as

response variables in the optimization loops and the results are plotted as a function of

the cycle set number. The results of the maximum critical deflection and maximum

nonlinear plastic strain are shown in Fig. 5.24. In addition, the results o f the principal

stresses and the maximum equivalent stress (effective or Von Mises) are seen in Fig.

5.25. At the initiation o f the optimization analysis, the selection o f the limitations for the

stress values, especially first principal and maximum equivalent stresses designated as

PRINS_1 and MXEQVVM. respectively (see Fig. 5.24), has been done in consideration

of the upper limit values. These upper limit values are selected smaller than
239
corresponding material UTS values, because the undesired buckling deflection is to be

prevented.

On the other hand, the result o f the objective function, minimizing the volume o f

the convex-end closure, is investigated and plotted as a function o f the cycle numbers as

shown in Fig. 5.26. The objective function, the dependent function o f the DVs. is to

minimize the volume of the end-closure. The optimum volume o f the end-closure based

on the optimized DVs is tbund about 2.5-in'’ (41-cm^) plotted and shown in Fig. 5.26. In

addition, the numerical values o f the optimization variables such as DVs. SVs. and

objective function as in data tables are gathered from the loop processes and listed based

on the iteration numbers as seen in Table 5.8.

According to the optimization results, the optimum values o f the DVs are

replaced as new design parameters in the FEA model for the buckling simulations and the

new buckling pressure values are investigated That is. the optimum design variables are

evaluated by using them in the FEA simulations for buckling deformation. .A.s expected,

the buckling pressure value based on the optimum values of the DVs is found higher than

the corresponding previous buckling pressure obtained when using the current

geometrical parameters. For instance, when using the optimum values o f the design

parameters, r. Rc. and /?*, in the FEA buckling simulation, the buckling pressure is

obtained about 1200-psi (8.3-Mpa) which is higher than the TP>750-psi (5.2-Mpa) o f the

D 0T-4BA refillable cylinder. On the other hand, using the only optimized thickness

value. r=0.131-in (3.3-mm) even though the radii, Rc and Rk, o f curvatures are taken as

constant in the simulation, the buckling pressure is found as about Pc=1080-psi (7.45-

Mpa) as seen in Fig. 5.27. which is also higher than the previous value o f the pressure

240
causing the buckling problem. Therefore, the design parameters o f the convex-end

closure are optimized so that the buckling problem is prevented. That is, the convex-end

closure with the new thickness does not fail at the TP value.

Stat e V a r ia b le s ( M a g n i fic a t io n Nr; 1 0 0 )


2.50E-03

2.30E-03
-Ù -M X D E F L
2.10E-03
MXNLPSN
1.90E-03
yi
1.70E-03

1.50E-03
0.8
1.30E-03
0.6
l.lO E -03
0.4
9.00E -04

0.2 7.00E-04

5.00E-04

Set N u m b er

Figure 5.24: optimum values of the state variables, maximum deflection and maximum

non-linear plastic strain.

241
AN
6500

6000

MXEQVVM
M
a
X
5000

s 4500
r
r
e
5
3500
S

e
s 3000

2000

L500
L 9 13 17 21
11 15 19
Set Number

D O T - 4 BA Convex End-closure, Mtri:SAE-1018 (HR), KISIOGLU

Figure 5.25: State variables for max equivalent and principal stresses.

242
AN

2700

2600
T
0
t 2500 EVSUIVI
a
1

2300
0
1
2200
u
m
e 2L00

2000

1900

1800
1 5 9 13 17 21
11 15 19
Set N u m b e r

D 0 T - 4 B A Conv ex E nd -closure, M t r l :S A E - 1 0 1 8 (HR), KI SI O G L U

Figure 5.26; Objection function of' the optimization, minimization of the total end-closure

volume.

243
se

H4 -F

4E-0

'• -1c

OûC

Table 5.8: The numerical results o f the optimization variables.

244
AN
1

\3 0 X
a N2')l \
\4 4 X

wnieii tlie optuiuzed eiicl-closiire tluckuess Tli - 0 131-ui


aiid Rc nnd R k are taken constant in tlie buckluis
suunlaQous, the buckling pressure is obtained as N'291 V
Pc = lOSO-psi at loading step 110
■3
0 am 400 soo 1 000
100 300 500 HO 900 1100 1300

Loading

□0 T -4BA Convex End,BucKling A n a l y s i s , S A E - 1 0 1 8 ( H R ) ,K I S I O G L U

Figure 5.27: The new buckling pressure value using the optimum thickness (Th) value.

245
5 .8 Sensitivity A n alysis o f the C on vex-en d C losure

In this practical problem, o f interest is not only the optimal solution o f the

convex-end closure problem, but also how the solution changes when the design

parameters of the end-closure change. The change in the design parameters may be

discrete. The study o f the effect of the discrete parameter, which changes on the optimal

solution, is called sensitivity analysis. One way to determine the effects o f changes in the

design parameters is to solve a series o f new problems once for each o f the changes made

[Rao. (1996)]. Based on these definitions, the sensitivity analyses o f the convex-end

closure to changes o f its design variables have been conducted using the nonlinear

axisymmetric FEA modeling processes. Some results obtained from the analyses are

illustrated in the following figures. In this analysis, two different FEA models.

homogeneous and weld-zone-effect. are performed in the simulations. The homogenous

model considers only the SAE-1018 blank steel material properties in the entire end-

closure model without using the weld zone properties. The weld-zone-effect model is

developed considering the effects o f the weld zone material properties including its

thickness variation along with the SAE-1018 property as seen in Fig. 5.16. The first and

second FEA models are designated with the signs o f SAE1018 and SAE1018W.

respectively, as seen in the following figures.

Figures from 5.28 through 5.33 illustrate 4 curves o f the results named,

corresponding to the FEA modeling types. Figure 5.28, the letters. BP, and BT on the

name o f the curves, represent the buckling pressure (BP) and buckling time (BT),

respectively. The names of the curves, ”SAE1018” and "SAE1018W,” represent the two

246
types o f FEA models, homogenous and weld-zone-effect. respectively as shown in Fig.

5.28. From Fig. 5.29 through 5.33. the names o f the curves begin with a letter followed

by underscore and then the name o f the corresponding FEA model types. The letters in

these figures. P and U on the name o f the curves, represent the critical buckling pressure

(CBP) and maximum critical deflection (MCD), respectively.

The effects of the design parameter ratio o i l /ID on the critical buckling pressures

(CBPs), buckling time (BT). and maximum critical deflections (MCDs) are obtained as in

similar influences while the radii. Rc and Rk, o f curvatures are taken as constant. The CBP

is the pressure where the end-closure o f the cylinder can hold without buckling. The

MCD is the maximum deflection where the end-closure is accomplished at the time o f

CBP before the buckling occurs. The BP and the BT are found and plotted as a function

of t/ID ratio within the same slope as shown in Fig. 5.28. .A.lso. the influence o f the

geometrical. t/ID, ratio on both CBPs and MCDs is found while the Rc and Rk are taken

as constant as seen in Fig. 5.29.

The effects of the R k/ID ratio on both CBPs and the MCDs are obtained inversely

proportional to each other as illustrated in Fig. 5.30. while keeping the t and Rc constant.

That is, the CBPs increase while the MCDs decrease as a function o f the R k/ID ratio. In

addition, the CBPs are found from both FEA model types within the same slope.

However, the MCDs are obtained within different slopes and magnitudes as shown in

Fig. 5.30. On the other hand, the influences o f the Rc/'ID ratio on both CBPs and MCDs

are carried out within different slopes and magnitudes as illustrated in Fig. 5.31. when the

t and Rk are taken as constant. Additionally, the effects o f the Rc/ID ratio on the MCDs

247
are found from both FEA models as seen in Fig. 5.31, which is slightly different than the

influences o f the R k/ID ratio found as illustrated in Fig. 5.30.

When the only thickness, t. of the convex-end closure is taken as constant, the

effects o f the variable o f both radii o f Rc and Rk on both CBPs and the M CDs are

investigated inversely proportional to each other as seen in Fig. 5.32. In this case, both o f

the Rc and Rk radii are linearly increased proportional to each other in the simulation

processes. From Fig. 5.32, it is pointed out that the similar slopes o f both CBPs and

MCDs are carried out from both FE.A. modeling processes. In addition, the same

magnitudes o f the MCDs are found from both models.

In the case that both radii Rc and Rk are taken and varied inversely proportional to

each other in both simulations while holding the t as constant, both o f the CBPs and the

MCDs are affected differently as shown in Fig. 5.33 than were previous ones, illustrated

in Fig. 5.32. Based on these inverse variations o f the radii Rc and Rk. the CBPs found

from both models decrease within slightly different slopes. However, the influences of

the RJRk ratios on the MCDs are obtained in nonlinear sinusoidal effects as seen in Fig.

5.33.

248
Buckling Pressu re and T im e o f C o n v e x E n d -clo su re

225
1750
200

175
1500
150

g 1250 125

100
1000 -o-BP_SA E1018W

-Û-BP_SAE1013
-*-BT_SAE1018W
750
-O -B T SAE1018

500

0 01 7 5 0 02 0 0225
T h i c k n e s s / ID

Figure 5.28: The effects of the t/ID ratios on the BP and BT.

249
Buckling P r e s s u r e & M a x Critical Deflection
2 0 0 0 -r 0 25

0 225
1750

a 0 175
S3 1500
I
1250 0. 125 Û

A
P_SAE1018W
1 1000
P SAE1018 0 075 X
<5
-6-n_SAE1018W 0 05
750
-•-U _SA E 1018
0 025

500

0 01 0 012 0 014 0 016 0 018 0 02 0 022


Thi ckness / ED

Figure 5.29: The influence of the t/ID ratio on both CBPs and MCDs.

250
T h = 0 1-m (2 5 4 - m m ) , R c r o w n = C i
760 0 088

750
-- 0 086

P_SAE1018+W
-- 0.084
P_SEA1018
U_SEA1018+W
720 IJ S E A 1 0 1 8 0.082 c
00
S
Z 710 - - 0 08

~ 700
a
■£ 6 9 0

-- 0 076
680

670 0 074

0 124 0 126 0 128


Rknuckie / ID

Figure 5.30: The effects o f the Ri/ID ratios on CBPs and MCDs.

251
T h = 0 . 1 -in , R k n u c k l e = C i
77 5 - r 0 105
-O -P _SA E 1018 +W
-6-P_SAE1018
75 0
-*-U _SE A 1018 +W
-4-U SEA1018
a 725 0 095
1)
3

700 0 09 c
ao
c
Q
67 5 0 085

650 0 08

O
0. 0 7 5

6 00 0. 0 7

0 73 0 74 0 75 0 76 0.77 0 78 0. 7 9
R c r o w n / ID

Figure 5.31 : The effects of the R^JID ratios on CBPs and MCDs.

252
Th = O.l-in ; R k & R c V ari ab le
800 0.11
Cm-P_SAE1018+W
775 0.105
>-P_SAE1018
o-lT_SAE10184-W
750
m-U SAE1018

725 0.095

S700 -- 0.09

Cq675 0.085

650 0.08

625 0.0 75

600 0.07

1.46 1. 4 8 1. 52 1. 54 1.56 1 . 58
R c r o w n / ED

Figure 5.32: The effects of both RJID and Ri/ID ratios on both o f CBPs and MCDs.

253
T h = 0 .1 -in , Rc &. Rk va riab le (in v e r s e )
750 0 095

725 0.09

0.085

o>

0 075 §

P SAE1018W
625
P SAE1018
U SAE1018W
600 0.065
<£^TJ S A E 1018

575 0 06
0 147 0 15 0 153 0 156 0 159 0.162 0 165 0 168 0 171 0 174
Rcrown / Rknuckle

Figure 5.33: The effects o f the ratios on CBPs and MCDs.

254
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

6.1 C on clu sion s

Research activities in this dissertation can be divided into three major parts. These

are (I) investigation of material properties. (2) determination o f the BP and BFL. and (3)

development o f a new design for imperfect end-closures o f the DOT specification

cylinders. The objective of the first part is the investigation o f the drawn-shell properties

including thickness variations for each three-group NRV cylinders along with

understanding the manufacturing processes employed in the cylinder productions. The

second part is intended to determine the BP and BFL including BP guidelines o f a series

of three-group DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders. The third part is based on the

idea o f developing the new design for the imperfect end-closures, the possible utilization

of the nonlinear FEA modeling, and optimization techniques. The required tasks in these

three parts o f this dissertation have been completed successfully and the targeted results

have been accomplished by employing the nonlinear computer modeling processes. The

outcomes are concluded in the following sections.

255
6.2 Investigations of the M aterial Properties

It was necessary to investigate the drawn cylindrical shell material properties

including shell thickness variation and the weld zone properties to specify them as an

actual material performance in the computer-aided modeling processes. In the

investigation process, the tensile test technique was employed effectively. Ihe low-

carbon steel. SAE-1018 cold rolled ductile material, was selected and used in the

production o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders. It can be noted that the

property o f the S.A.E-1008 steel is highly altering from ductile to a brittle case because o f

the hardening effects of the deep drawing processes. This is predictable from the

investigations and explained in detail in Chapter 3. The property o f the SAE-1008 steel

changes mostly in the cylindrical shell part rather than the crown region, including the

knuckle. The changes in the drawn-shell materials are compared with corresponding non­

drawn SAE-1008 steel property and indicated graphically by TSS curves in Fig's. 3.14.

3.16. and 3.18. Furthermore, in the cylindrical shell parts, the material has extremely

changed in the region ot' ".shell-by-kniickle". The changes on the mechanical properties o f

the drawn materials regarding the drawn shell areas are also well carried out and

illustrated graphically in Fig's. 3.15. 3.17. and 3.19 and listed numerically in Table 3.4.

The outcomes from the investigations o f the material properties can be concluded

and summarized from Fig's. 3.14 through 3.19. For example, in the "shell-by-w eld'

region of the cylinder group 1D=9.5. the UTS and TYS increase by about 58% and 151%

respectively, while the elongation decreases about 82% as indicated in Fig. 3.17. The

UTS change also increases about 3%, 5%, 40%, and 58% at the crown, crown-by-

256
knuckle, shell-by-knuckle. and shell-by-weld regions, respectively, as illustrated in Fig.

3.17. However, the TYS increases about 50%, 40%, 130%, and 151% at the crown,

crown-by-knuckle, shell-by-bnickle, and shell-by-weld regions, respectively. Similarly,

the amount of the variations of the TYS versus elongation can also be analyzed using Fig.

3.17. In the same way. the changes in the material properties o f the cylinder groups of

ID=1.5 and ID=\2 can be analyzed using corresponding figures, as well. Regarding

cylinder groups, the variations of the properties are also important. The UTS, for

instance, in the shell-by-weld region of the cylinders ID=7.5. ID=9.5. and /D=12

increases about 75%, 58%. and 65% respectively. In the same zones o f these cylinder

groups, 7Z>=7.5, /D=9.5, and ID=\2. however, the elongation decreases about 87%, 82%.

and 90%, respectively (see Fig's. 3.15, 3.17. and 3.19).

The variation in shell thickness is also investigated and changed from the initial

blank steel sheet thickness (to) to the drawn shell thickness (/) due to effects o f the strain

hardening o f the deep drawing process. The drawn-shell thickness variation has highly

changed especially in the cylindrical shell component. The investigations o f these

variations within the percentage o f the to regarding drawn-shell regions are explained in

Chapter 3. The maximum thickness change is investigated about 18% o f the to at tlie

jimction o f the cylindrical shell and the knuckle, whereas the minimum thickness change

is obtained at the crown region, about 1% of the to. as indicated in Fig. 3.20.

In addition to these investigations, the property o f the weld zone located at the

middle o f the NRV cylinders including its thickness variation is also well specified. The

weld zone thickness (r„.) is generally obtained from the measurement that is about 0.035-

in (0.89-mm) thicker than the shell thickness. In addition, as expected, tlie stiffness o f the

257
weld joint is obtained extremely higher than the properties o f the cylindrical shells. Based

on the UTS values, the weld zone was found stronger by about 44%, 20%, and 10% than

the crown, shell-by-knuckle, and shell-by-weld regions, respectively.

6.3 Determination o f BP and BFL o f the DOT-39 Non-refillable Cylinders

The BP and BFL of the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders are

determined utilizing both experimental and computer-aided computer modeling

approaches. Details o f the procedures can be seen in Chapter 4, The computer-aided

models are developed employing the FEA method within nonlinear material performance

and non-uniform geometrical properties in axisymmetric plane strain conditions. In the

development of the modeling processes, the nonlinear material properties o f the cylinders

are performed successfully in both homogenous and non-homogenous performances.

Also, the geometrical non-uniformity o f the cylindrical shells is well specified and

applied to both geometrical functions, step and wedge, to determine the BP and BFL.

In the case o f a series of thin-walled DOT-39 refrigerant cylinders exposed to an

incremental internal pressure, the BP and BFL are determined exactly by the computer-

aided FEA approach and validated with corresponding experimental results. The FEA

models use a 2D axisymmetric element and simulate non-uniform and imperfect

geometrical and non-homogeneous material property conditions in a nonlinear field. The

2D FEA modeling processes using a 2-node finite shell element, appropriate

axisymmetric boundary conditions, and incremental internal loading yielded desired

results for the BP and BFL. Based on the generated results in Chapter 4, the following

258
conclusions can be made:

> Good agreement between the measured BP in experiments and the corresponding

values o f the FEA modeling simulations is found for all o f the models. However,

the BP values for the models generated by uniform modeling characteristics are

found to be less than the experimental ones. In the case o f the uniform modeling

process, when only drawn shell properties regardless o f geometrical non-

uniformity are considered, the BP value is about 10.65% less than the

experimental ones. On the other hand, when the weld properties are taken into

account in the uniform modeling, the BP was only about 5.55% less than the

experimental values.

> A guideline chart for the BP o f the DOT-39 non-refillable refrigerant cylinders is

prepared performing the FEA modeling simulations. The BP o f the cylinders are

investigated in a graphical representation and generated as a function o f the

minimum drawn shell thickness.

> Good experimental and FEA agreement is found for the BFL o f the NRV

cylinders when considering the non-uniform FEA modeling process. The

investigated place o f the BFL complies with the definitions o f the DOT

regulations. However, for the uniform FEA modeling cases, the burst locations

did not agree with the experimental ones.

259
> It can be concluded that the weld joint properties yielded crucial characteristics in

the determination of the BP and BFL.

> Good agreement between analytical and FEA models is found for membrane

stresses and burst failure. The analytical approaches to find the bursting (collapse)

pressure {Pc) within the inelastic analysis are explained in Chapter 2. The

equations, given in Chapter 2 using required stress values gathered from FEA

simulations to specify the Pc o f the thin-walled cylindrical shells approximately

verify the BP values obtained from the FEA modeling simulations.

> For each model, good experimental-FEA modeling agreement is found for the

deformed shapes that take place during the incremental loading process. The

physical phenomenon is then considered to be correctly simulated by the FEA

modeling process.

> In the FEA analysis, the behavior of incremental loading regarding model types

remains linear up to pressure levels at about 88-95% o f the failure load.

> The actual drawn shell material properties including wall thickness variations and

weld zone properties are well-specified in the study o f the BP and BFL

investigations and successfully adapted into the .A.NSYS computer code FEA

modeling.

260
> The dimples for the feet located at the bottom of the cylinders did not affect the

BP and BFL in the nonlinear FEA modeling process.

6.4 The Ballooning Phenom enon

The prediction and elimination o f the ballooning formation which occurs at the

bottom end-closure o f the DOT-39 non-refillable cylinders (see Fig. 2.7) have been

completed. Details and explanations of the modeling using both experimental and FEA

methods for both prediction and elimination can be seen in Chapter 5. The results o f the

3D FEA modeling applications yielded a very good outcome for the prediction o f the

ballooning phenomenon. .A, specific 3D geometrical model enables the researcher to

simulate the nonlinear FEA modeling, which was developed successfully especially for

the dimple areas. Desired results were obtained for the residual ballooning deformations.

Considering the non-homogenous material non-linearity and the geometrical non-

uniformity have been performed efficiently by employing the only geometrical step

function (see Fig. 4.12) in 3D modeling processes. In addition, the incremental internal

pressure for the cylinder model is performed during both loading and unloading (pressure

releasing) conditions. Therefore, the results obtained from both experiments and FEA

simulations to predict the residual ballooning deflections at the bottom o f the DOT-39

non-refillable refrigerant cylinders are compared and shown on Table 5.3. in Chapter 5.

One o f the major tasks in these research activities was to eliminate the problem,

which is imdesired residual ballooning deformation. In order to eliminate this problem of

the NRV cylinders, the bottom end-closure (see Fig. 5.2) is redesigned. This redesigning

261
process has accomplished finding the optimum location o f the dimple {DL) utilizing the

design of the experiment method, which was explained in detail in Chapter 5. The

method of experimental design is employed in 3D axisymetric FEA modeling,

considering the material non-linearity as well as geometrical non-uniformity conditions.

The incremental loading conditions are performed in both loading and un-loading cases.

The FEA simulation cycles were employed well for variations o f the DL values since the

development of the 3 0 geometrical model was generated successfully. Therefore, the

results obtained from computer-aided modeling utilizing the design of the experiment

method to eliminate the ballooning phenomena are given in Table 5.4.

6.5 The Flip-flop (Buckling) of the Convex End-closure

The prediction and preventing o f the buckling (flip-flop) problem that D0T-4BA

reflllable cylinders encounter at the bottom convex end-closure have been completed

using the 2D axisymmetric FEA modeling. The procedures o f the utilized methods and

details are explained in Chapter 5. In 2D modeling processes, the axisymmetric boundary

conditions are performed in the plane-strain and quasi-static nonlinear structural field. A

2-node triangular structural solid element is employed in the FEA modeling processes

considering the material nonlinear performance and uniform geometrical properties.

Utilizing the first-order design optimization method in the nonlinear axisymmetric FEA

simulation, the design parameters o f the convex end-closures are optimized to prevent the

buckling phenomenon.

The outcome o f the FEA modeling process yielded detailed information regarding

262
analysis o f the convex end-closure. However, it was decided to proceed further with a

sensitivity analysis to understand the relative impacts of the design parameters, t, Rc, and

Rk, more objectively to support by numerical comparisons. Upon the completion o f the

2D modeling sensitivity- analysis, increasing these design parameters resulted in more

effective determination of the new design to get higher buckling pressure. Increasing the

thickness o f the convex end-closure regardless o f buckling deflection and material cost is

more efficient from the tooling-cost viewpoint. However, increasing magnitudes o f the

radii of curvatures. Rc. and Rk. including thickness, i. are more valuable in obtaining low

buckling deflection and higher buckling pressures.

6.6 Future W ork

This section designates the future work in this area to yield better findings for the

imperfect end-closures of the DOT specification cylinders.

> An experimental work should be employed to test the new location o f the dimple

(DL) optimized and found to eliminate the ballooning problem.

> An optimum location o f the dimple (DL) perhaps can be studied for better

location considering other design parameters such as R j , and R i as shown in Fig.

5.11. Furthermore, the material property and thickness variation at the dimple area

may be measured and involved in the re-optimization o f the DL.

263
An experimental test should also be re-employed for the buckling (flip-flop)

deformation, which occurs at the convex end-closure of the D 0T-4B A reflllable

cylinders. The material properties and thickness variation after drawn processes o f

the convex end-closure should be identified.

The new design parameters, r. and Rk, o f the convex end-closure found using

the design optimization method in .ANSYS FEA modeling processes can be

performed in the experimental test. Also, to avoid the tooling cost, only the

optimum thickness value, r=0.131-in (3.3-mm). found from the optimization

modeling, can possibly be performed in the buckling experiment.

264
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266
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274
APPENDIX - A

Design Rules for Pressure Cylinders

275
P r in c ip a l N a t io n a l a n d In t e r n a t io n a l C o d e s

Legal
Country Code Title Scope Writing Body Force
A ustralia Standards A ssociation B., Standards A sso cia tio n Y es
o f Australia B oiler U .F .P .V . o f Australia
C ode, Pts. I-V
A ustria D am pfkessel Verordnung B. Bundesministerium fur Y es
(D K V ) RGBT N o . 83/ Handel und
1948 W iederaufbau
W erkstoff und Bauvor- P.V,
schriften (W BV) R G B I
N o . 264/1949
C an ad a C.S>A. Standard B 5 1 - B., C an ad ian Standards Y es
1957 incorporating U .FJ>.V . Association, A .S .M .E .
A .S.M .E . Rules
F in lan d D im ensioning, M aterials B., Y es
an d W elding o f Steel U J".P.V .
Pressure Vessels
France SN C T N o. I U .F .P .V . Syndicat N at. de No
Chaudronnerie e t T ôlerie
R églem entation des G overnm ental Rules n ot strictly Y es
appareils à vapeur et à form ing a D esign Code
pression de gaz
G erm any W erkstolf und Bauvor- B. Techniscbe Y es
schriften fur D am pfkessel Uberwachungs
und D am pfkessel Vereine
Bestimmungcn
A D -M erkbiatter U .F .P .V . -Arbeitsgem einschaft Y es
Druckbchaiter
D IN -2413 Pipes D IN Y es
H ollan d G rondsiagen waarop de B., D ienst voor het Y es
beoordeling van de U .F .P .V . Stoom wezen
constructie en het
material van stoom -
toesteien, dam ptoestelen
e n druckhoudersberust
India Indian Boiler B. Central Boilers B oard Y es
R egulations 1950
Italy Controllo della B .. A .N .C .C Y es
com bustione e U X P .V .
Apparecchi a Pressione
N e w Z ealand N % Boiler C ode B. Marine D ep t. N X Y es
N X Pressure Vessel U J .P .V .
C ode
Sw eden Tryckkarlsnormer B., P.V. C om m ission o f No
U .F .P .V . Swedish A cadem y o f
Angpanneform er B.. Eng. Science
Pannsvetnorm er B. W eld. Y es
C ode

Table A .I. Principal National and International Codes [Bickell & Ruiz. (1967)]
(CONTINUED)

276
Table A.I. CONTINUED.

Legal
Country Code Title Scope Writing Body Force

Sw itzerland R egu lation s o f the B.. Y es


Sw iss A ssociation o f U JJ.F .V .
B oiler Proprietors

Britain L loyd's R u les B.. Lloyd’s R egister No


U .F J».V . o f Shipping
p iping
R u les o f the A ssociated B .. AOTC
OfBces T echnical U .F .F .V .
C om m ittee (A O T Q
B .S . 1500; 1958 Ft. I U .F .F .V . British Standards
B .S . 1515: 1965 F t. I Institution
B .S. 1 1 1 3 :1 9 5 8 B
B .S . 8 0 6 : 1954 Fipcs
B .S . 1306: 1955 (pow er)
B .S . 3351: 1961 Fipes (oil)
B .S. 2 6 33: 1956 Fipc-lines
B .S. 2 9 71: 1961
B .S . 2654: 1956 Ft. I V ertical
: 1962 Ft. n tanks
B .S. 3 2 7 4 :1 9 6 0 H eat
exchangers
B .S . 3 9 15: 1965 N u clea r vessels

U .S jk . A .S .M Æ . C odes: B ., A m erican Society o f Y es (in


F t. I — Boilers U .F .F .V . M echanical Engineers som e
Ft. H — M aterials States)
Ft. in — N u clear vessels
F t. Vm—U.F.F.V.
F t. K — W elding
T en tative Structural U .F .F .V . U .S . B ureau o f Ships No
B asis fo r R eactor (nuclear)
Fressure V essels and
D irectly A ssociated
C om p on en ts
A S A -B 3I.1.8-63 F iping A .S .M .E . a n d A S A Y es (in
som e
States)
A FI-A JS.M .E . (similar
to A .S .M Æ . C odes)
T E M A , T ubular Heat H eat TEM A No
E xchangers
M anufacturers
A ssociation , 1959

B— Boilers
U .FJ*.V .— U nfired pressure vessels

277
£5

ilSiilllili

il

B lï
xs

31

ill llii

I 23

p i Ip
lili s sS

Figure A .l. Reference chart for pressure vessel components [Chuse and Carson. (1993)].

278
ASM E PR E SSU R E VESSEL CODE (SECTION VIII, DIVISION 1)
F u l l FACC CASKCT.##>#»E. 1-8 2-1 SPtCIBCALLY OISHCO COVERS.
APPX. 1-8 F C . V 8
«CLOCD COM <CTON.UW >t9.UW >«.-
FC.UW -16.1 FLAT FACE f i a n c e . APPENOCX Y
RCr^OPCCHCNT PAO.UC-37. U C -40. U C -41 WELOEO CONNECTION. UW -t5.UW -l6.
Ü C -a2.U W -t5. 4 P P X J.-7 F C .im -1 6 .1
COOC TCfMNATON OF V C S S t l .U - U a ) OPEN N C .U C -38 TO U C -42. APPX. 1-7.
LAP J0941 STUe £ N 0 .U C -IIU C * 4 4 .U C * 4 S APPX .L-7
lo o s e TYPC F14WCC. U C - 4 4 .A P P X .2 .rc .2 * 4 OULTPlE O P E W C S . UC -42
C IIP S 0 O 4 L i<AO P fC S S U R tS MT NON PRESSURE PARTS. UC-5. UC -22.
O C -3 2 .C X T .U C -3 3 .4 P P X .V 4 4 P P X .I -6 VC -55. U C -82. APPX.8
U C '7 6 le
rCMSPXnCAL KAO.
» < 4 0 S X W T .U C -3 3 .rC . U W -!3 .lU W -a PRESSURES. NT. o C -3 2 . APPX. t-3 . V<.
EX T .U C -33. APPX .L-6
OPTIONAL TTPC FLANCCS. U C -U . U C -44
OW-V3 f C . Ü W - 0 .2 . A P P « . 2 TftCXNE3SES.UA - ;
F C . 2 -4.A P P X . S. F C . UW-9, UW-V3. F C . UW-13.1
NUTS 8 WASHCRS. UC-V3, SHELL THCKNESS. UC-16.
U CS-n.U N F-t3. UHA-13 PRES SIRES N T JJC -2 7 EXT.UC-28
APPX. 1-1. 1-2 APPX. L -3
STUDS 8 BOLTS. UC-12. A PPX .L-I TO L -5
UCS-tO. iP f - 1 2 . IM A-12
A PPlC O INMCS. P4AT UCl.- STFFE n n C R N C S.U C -29. U C -30, APPX. L -5
UC 2 8 . i P P t .r WELDED C0A#CCTCN.UW-15. U W -I8.F C . U W -C .I
NTCCRALIT ClAO PlATC. PART
u c i. APPx.r F l a t k a o . u C - 3 4 . rc .u c -3 4 .u w -i3 .
UC-B3(d)(3lFlC’S . UW-13.2 8 U W -13J
CORROSION. UC-2S. U C S-2S. V - I J .
0 0 . - 2 5 . APPX.C 'EN N CS.F l AT ►CAOS.UC-39. 14.30
STFFCNCR P lA TC .O C -5. U C -22.
U C -54.U G -82
SUPPORT LUCS. U C -5 .U C -5 4 ,. 8ACKNG STRP. TABLE UW-12. VW-35
U C -8 2. APPX.C
loncttuonal j o p <t s . u w - 3 3 . CRCmrERENTW L AONTS. UW-3. UW -33. V W -35
UW-3. U P -3 5 . UW-9
T C ll TALC MOlCS. U C -25. U C I-2 S
ATTaC hm CNT O f JA C X C T .rc . 9 - 5
F la t H E A 0.U C -34.F C .U C -34.
JACXETCQ VCSSClS. UG -28. tolerance UC -80. APPX. L UC 39
UC-471C». APPX. 9 TV8ESMEET. APPX. A. APPX. AA.
P lU C WCLOS. UW -lT.O W -37 TEUA ACCEPTA8LE.U3 (9 )
TUBES. UC-a. PRESSURE. VC-31
BARS 8 st r u c t u r a l Sma PCS USCO
rO R STATS. U C -M .U W -ig.riC .
u w - 19.2. STATED SURFACES. U C -47 PASS P aRTi TXJN. UC-5
st a yOOlTS U C -U . O C -2 7 f. U C -47
TO U C -50.U W -t9. F C . U W -« .Î CHAMCL SECTION. Ca STMC U C -2 4
0 2 APEX ancle. UC-32 PART UCS. UNA. CAST RON. UCL
FORCNC. PART OF. WELDED CONST.
SUPPORT C K R T .U G -5 .U C -2 ). VW.CAST OUCTlE RON UCO.
V C -5 4 .A P P X .G
TOACOMCAL K A O
PRESSURES M T.U Ç -32 CXT. UC_-33

NTECRAL TYPE FLANCE.UC-44.APPX.2


STUOOED CONNECTIONS. U C -43. F C . 2 - 4 . APPX. S
UW-»8. F C . UW-18.1 UW-10
RENFORCEMENT PAO. U C -22. U C -37. U C -40.
OPTIONAL TYPE FLANGE. UG-14. UC-41. U C -82. UW-15. APPX .L-7. APPX. 1-7
V C -44. V W -U /C . U W -13J. .COXfRESSCN «H C . APPX. 1*3. 1-8
APPX. 2 . F C . 2 - 4 . APPX. S
BOLTED Fia n c e , s p h c i k a l 1/2 APEX ANCLE UC-32
COVER. APPX. -6 CONCAL ^CAOS. PRESSURES. EXT. u C -3 3 . APPX.
iAANHOLC COVER PLATE. VC-II. U C -46 L -8 NT. U C -32. U C -36. F C . UC-38.APPX. V 4 . 1-5
SMALL WELDED F1TTNCS. U C -tl. U C -43. UW*t5.
FluC O OPENWCS. U C -J8 . F C .U C -38 UW-18.FC. U W -C.1. F C . UW -C J
YOKE. uC-11 THREAOCO OPEM NCS.UC-43U}
HEAD a t t a c h m e n t . UW-13. FC.UW-13.1
STUDS. NUTS. WAS>«RS. UC-12. UG-U." FIL E T WELDS. UW -18.UW -38. TABLE UW-12
UCS-TC. UCS-11 l P f - l 2 . l P f -13 KMJCXLE RAOCS. U C -32. UCS-79
TOftSPKNCAL MEAD.
PRESSURES. N T .U C -3 2 EXT.UC-33
G O eU L NOTES APPX. 1-4 A P P X a -8
«ATTRCATieC U C -85. U W -C . U W -40. UF-31. _________ UC-T9 8 UC-21 T O T fO
uC S-58.TA B LE v C S -5 8 . U C S -79(d) MAX. allow a ble WORCNC UC 88 mvCRQSTATC VC -99. U O -9 9 .U C L -5 2 .
U C S -85. U N F-56. UHA -3) UH A -C 5. UCL-34 IB W e A T L P tO E » U C -t9. UC -30 APPX. 3
WRLMATC U W '50 & UC CO
w c c rw UC -90 T ^9^ U C -9 7 .U -M P N C B ucvcsaej sju c t t o FWOCP UC -C 1
N M CTO# OPO# C 8 VC -46
J O N T I F P C M r UW-12 8 TABLE UW-12
OMCT UW -2(dl.U-Kh)
RAOÛQRWC DMA U W -tlU W -S L
lOAOaTRCTM
UCS-57.Uir-57.UMA-33 8 UCL-35 MAO.PART. APPX. 6 . UW -42. UW -50
IfTHALKTMCC UW -2(o). UCO‘ 2 . U O -2 8 UC-99(ç}(41 VOX CXMA OF w a o e JCNT UW-52 u o TOC. APPX. 8 . u r r - 5 8 . u h a - 3 4 .
LOAOMOt UC-22 UW -42.UW .50
NO RATBOHAm UW-1Ue) ULTRA80MC APPX. 1). UW-11foH7J.
iDw TOMWTLRE U C -84. u w * 2 ( b l. NT-6 m J E fO C A C S u C -1 3 5 T>#OVCH UG-138. APPX.11 UW-53
U C S-65. U C S -66. U C S -67. AEPAN8 u C -7 8 . UW-38. UW -40<dl. UF-37. UCl-78 •PACT u C -8 4 . UCS-88. UMA-51. N F-8
UNF-65. U C L-27 8 PART Ul T
MATERALS UC-4 THRJ UC-15. UC-T8. U C -77.
MAX. ALLOW., v a l u e U C -23
U W -D lcl. U C S -23. LNF-23.UMA-23.
8
TAAWWC A WKJHI8 U C -" 5 THRU VC -120
STAAOMD8 U-3
UCL-11 8 UW-5. UCL-23 IxmW D STEAM SOURS UW -2(c). U-Ud>
TABLES NF-t THRU Af -5 OUAUTY CONTROL fVSTIM APPCNOtt C .
UW-26

Figure A.2. Quick handy chart for cylinder components [Farr and Jawad, (1998)].

279
C ybndncA l S h # lk

dT M 4 fV 3 4 to r>
So
UW-! 1

No

S«>«ct S « < tc t
A r *Of lJI RT*or Cjf
6 & C S tjii A&0 8wT1W#t<j»

jO'Hf £n c*'h:v|
'Of C'c
ST I
. O.BS
uvs 1

NOTES
' 1 ' S e e wVf : :3 ' ; 11
2i See UW M . 4»*5' '5;

Figure A.3: Joint efficiencies for cylindrical shells (ASME Section VIII Part I) [Chuse &

Carson, (1993)].

280
C overin g A p p lica b le C o d e
M a te r ia l C od e p a rt str e s s v a lu e ta b le s Remarks
C arbon a n d UCS Code S e c tio n II, B a s is for e s ta b lis h in g s tr e s s
low -alloy P a r t D , T a b le lA v a lu e s — C ode A p p e n d ix P ,
ste e ls U G -2 3
L o w -tem p era tu re s e r v ic e re ­
q u ir e s u se o f n o tc h -to u g h m a ­
te r ia ls — C ode P a r s. U C S -6 5 ,
U C S -6 6 , U C S -6 7 . U C S -6 8 , U G -
84
C o d e F ig s. U C S -6 6 , U C S -6 6 .1
C orro sio n a llo w a n c e — C ode
P a r. U C S -2 5
In h ig h -te m p e r a tu r e o p e r a ­
tio n , creep s t r e n g th is e s s e n ­
tia l
D e sig n te m p e ra tu r e — C ode
P a r. U G -20
D e s ig n p ressu re— C o d e P ar.
U G -2 1 , Fn. 8
T em p e r a tu r e a b o v e 80 0 " F m a y
c a u s e carbide p h a s e o f carb on
s t e e l to co n v ert to g r a p h ite
P ip e a n d tu b es— C o d e P a rs.
U G -8 , U G -10, U G -1 6 , U G -3 1 ,
U C S -9 , U C S -2 7
C reep an d r u p tu r e p rop er-
tie s--4 3 o d e P ar. U C S -1 5 1
N o n ferro u s UNF Code S e c tio n II, B a s is for e s t a b lis h in g v a lu e s —
m eta ls P a rt D , T a b le IB C o d e, A p p en d ix P , U G -2 3
M e ta l c h a r a c te r istic s— C ode
P a r . U N F , A p p e n d ix N F , N F -1
to N F -1 4
L o w -tem p e r a tu r e o p e r a tio n —
C o d e P a r. U N F -6 5
N o n fe r ro u s c a s t in g s — C ode
P a r. U N F -8
H ig h -a llo y UUA C ode S e c tio n II, S e le c tio n a n d tr e a t m e n t o f
s t e e ls P a r t D , T a b le LA a u s te n itic c h r o m iu m -n ic k e l
s t e e ls — C ode P ar. U H A -1 1 ,
U H A A p p en d ix H A , U H A -1 0 0
to U H A -1 0 9

Table A-2: Classifications of materials for cylinders [ASME B&PVC, 1998].

(CONTINUED)

281
Table A-2: CONTINUED

u o v en n g Applicable Code
M ateria l Code part stress value tables R em ark s

High-alloy Code Section II, Inspection and te sts— Code


steels (cont.) Part D, Table lA Pars. UHA-34 .U H A -50, UHA-
51, UHA-52
Liquid penetrant exam ination
req u ir^ if sh ell th ick n ess ex­
ceeds % in— all 36% nickel steel
welds—Code Par. UHA-34
Low-temperature service— Code
Pare. UHA-51, U G-84
High-alloy castings— Code Pars.
UHA-8, UG-7
Code Par. Ug-7
Castings Code Pare. UG-11, UG-24, UCS-
8— Code A ppendix 7
C ast iron UCI UCl-23 V eytels r.c: perm itted to contain
lethal or Qammable substances
—Code Par. UCI-2
Selection o f m aterials— Code
Pars. UCI-5, U CI-12, U G -ll,
UCS-10. U C S -ll, UCI-3, UCI-1,
UG-10
Inspection and te sts— Code
Pars. UCI-90, U CI-99, UCl-101,
UCl-3
Repairs in cast-iron m aterials—
Code Par. UCI-78
Dual cast UCI Code Pare. UC-1, UCI-23, UCI-
29
Integrally UCL (See Code Pars. Suggest careful stu d y o f entire
clad plate, UCL-11, UCL 23.) metal UCL section
weld metal Selection o f m aterials— Code
overlay, or Selection o f m aterials— Code
applied Pare. UCL-1. UCL-3, UCL-10,
linings UCS-5, UP-5, ULW -5, UCL-11,
UCL-12, UG-10
Qualification o f w eld in g proce­
dure—Code Pars. UCL-40 to -46
Postweld h ea t treatm en t—Code
Pars. UCL-34. U C S-56 (includ­
ing cautionary footnote)
Inspection and test— (]ode Pars.
UCL-50, UCL-51, UCL-52
Spot radiography required if
cladding is included in comput­
in g required th ick n ess— Code
Par. UCL-23(c)
U se of linings— Code Par. UG-
2 6 and Code A ppendix F

282
Table A-2; CONTINUED

C overing A pplicable Code


M aterial Code part stre ss value tables R em ark s

W elded and UCS Code Section II, T h ick n ess u n d er in tern a l


se a m le ss pipe P art D, Table lA pressure— Code P ar. U G-27
and tu b es (car­
bon an d low-
alloy ste e ls)
T h ick n ess under ex tern a l
pressure— C ode P ar. U G -28
Provide additional th ick n ess
w h en tubes are th rea d ed and
w h en corrosion, erosion , or wear
cau sed by c le a n in g is expected
— Code Par. U G -31
For calcu latin g th ic k n e ss re­
quired, m inim um p ipe w all
th ick n ess is 87 .5 p ercen t o f
nom inal w all th ic k n ess
30-in m axim um on w eld ed pipe
m ade by op en -h earth , basic oxy­
gen , or electric-furnace pro­
cess— Code Par. U SC -27
W elded and UHA Code Table lA
se a m less pipe
(high-alloy
steels)
F orgin gs UF Code Section II, M aterials— Code P ars. UG-6,
P art D, Table LA U G -7, U G -11, U F -6 , U CS-7 and
S ection II, P art D , T ab le lA
W elding—C ode P ar. U F -3 2 (see
a lso S ection K C ode Par. QW-
25 0 and V ariab les, Code Pars.
QW -404.12, Q W -406.3, QW-
40 7 .2 , Q W -409.1 w h en w elding
forgings)
L ow-tem p- ULT ULT-23 O peration a t v ery low tem per-
eratu re tu rcs, requires u se o f notch-
m ateria ls tough m ateria ls
L ayered ULW V essels h avin g a sh e ll and/or
construction h ea d s m ade up o f tw o or m ore
sep a ra te layers— C ode Par.
ULW -2
F erritic stee ls UHT Code Table lA Scope— Code P ar. U H T -1
w ith te n sile M arking on p la te or stam ping.
properties u se “lo w -stress” sta m p s— Code
en h an ced by Par. U H T -86
h e a t trea tm en t

283
Efficiency allowed,
Type of joint and radiography percent Code reference
Double-welded butt joints (Type 1) Par. UW-11
Fully radiographed 100 Pars. UW-51, UW-35
Spot-radiographed 85 Pars. UW-12, UW-52
No radiograph 70 Table UW-12
Single-welded butt joints Par. UW-52
(backing strip left in place) (Type 2) Par. UCS-25
Fully radiographed 90 Par. UW-51
Spot-radiographed 80 Par. UW-52
No radiograph 65
Single-welded butt joints no backing 60 Table UW-12
strip (Type 3) limited to circumfer­
ential joints only, not over %in
thick and not over 24-in ouside dia­
meter
Fillet weld lap joints and single- Table UW-12
welded butt circumferential joints
Seamless vessel sections or heads 100 Par. UW-12(d)
(spot-radiographed)
Seamless vessel sections or heads 85 Par. UW-12(d)
(no radiography)

Table A-3. Welded joint efficiency (£,) values [Chuse & Carson. 1993].

284
Heads

Full
AT R#quif#d

S#i#ci

Type

H e m is p h e ric a l E llip tical 1 T o ris p h a ric a l F lat


1 r 1r
S#l#ci
• T for Cji
A&O Bun Weld#
■n Weed
13)

Oe(#fm«ne Oeteri-niA# OeT#rm,m# Oeterm.me


M>ni 11 ' 0«r
joint Joint
EM<,*ncv Eff'C
jC
EM<iency
J o in t
Çff*ctencv EW»Ci#nC\r
T«0*4 UW-13
UW 12 UW 12 UW U UW 12
Cdiumn (•»

r 1F 1r

î2i Use (21 J se (3* U se U te


Joint Jo nt J o in t Jo
Eff-ciency E«*c ency (ffKieno EM< ency
•n UC 32 in »n uG 32 Id) in uG 32 lel in U G 34

NOTES
11) For nem« toner'cei need# use kMwesi |0 *ni rft<iencv •nciuding heed to snen etttcn m en i Ov*i w e id
12) S e e UG-32 lei end loctnoie 16
13) S ee UW )) leltSH O ’

Figure A.4: Joint efficiencies for formed heads and unstayed fiat heads and covers with

categories A and D butt welds [ASME Section-VIII Part-1] and [Chuse & Carson.

(1993)].

285
A P P E N D IX -B

DOT Rules for the Refillable and Non-refiliable cylinders

286
49 CFR 173.302 (C) 178.65
Specification 39 Non-Reusable (Non-Refillable) Cylinders

(a) Type. size, service pressure, and lest pressure. .A. DOT 39 cylinder is a seamless,
welded, or brazed cylinder with a serv ice pressure not to exceed 80 percent o f the test
pressure. Spherical pressure vessels are authorized and covered by references to cylinders
in this specification.

(1) Size limitation. Maximum water capacity may not exceed: (i) 55 pounds (1.526
cubic inches) for a service pressure o f 500 p.s.i.g. or less, and (ii) 10 pounds (277 cubic
inches) for a service pressure in excess o f 500 p.s.i.g.

(2) Test pressure. The minimum test pressure is the maximum pressure o f contents at
130° F or 180 p.s.i.g. whichever is greater.

(3) Pressure o f contents. The term "pressure of contents" as used in this specification
means the total pressure of all the materials to be shipped in the cylinder.

(b) Material: steel or aluminum. The cylinder must be constructed o f either steel or
aluminum conforming to the following requirements:

(1) Steel.
(i) The steel analysis must conform to the following:
Ladle Check
analysis analysis

Carbon, maximum percent 0.12 0.15


Phosphorus, maximum percent .04 .05
Sulfur, maximum percent .05 .06

(ii) For a cylinder made of seamless steel tubing with integrally formed ends, hot
drawn, and finished, content percent for the following may not exceed: Carbon. 0.55:
phosphorous. 0.045; sulfur. 0.050.
(iii) For non-heat treated welded steel cylinders, adequately killed deep drawing
quality steel is required.
(iv) Longitudinal or helical welded cylinders are not authorized for service pressures
in excess o f 500 p.s.i.g.

287
(2) Aluminum. Aluminum is not authorized for service pressures in excess of 500
p.s.i.g. The analysis of the aluminum must conform to the Aluminum Association
standard for alloys 1060, 1100. 1170, 3003, 5052, 5086, 5154, 6061, and 6063 as
specified in its publication entitled "Aluminum Standards and Data".

(3) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other injurious defects not permitted.

(4) Material used must be identified by any suitable method.

(c) Manufacture.

(1) General manufacturing requirements are as follows:


(i) The surface finish must be uniform and reasonably smooth.
(ii) Inside surfaces must be clean, dry, and free o f loose particles.
(iii) No defect o f any kind is permitted if it is likely to weaken a finished cylinder.

(2) Requirements for seams:


(i) Brazing is not authorized on aluminum cylinders.
(ii) Brazing material must have a melting point o f not lower than 1,000 °F.
(iii) Brazed seams must be assembled with proper fit to ensure complete penetration
of the brazing material throughout the brazed Joint.
(iv) Minimum width of brazed Joints must be at least four times the thickness o f the
shell wall.
(v) Brazed seams must have design strength equal to or greater than 1.5 times the
minimum strength o f the shell wall.
(vi) Welded seams must be properly aligned and welded by a method that provides
clean, uniform Joints with adequate penetration.
(vii) Welded Joints must have a strength equal to or greater than the minimum
strength o f the shell material in the finished cylinder.

(3) Attachments to the cylinder are permitted by any means which will not be
detrimental to the integrity o f the cylinder. Welding or brazing o f attachments to the
cylinder must be completed prior to all pressure tests.

(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CG.A
Pamphlet C-3.

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at test
pressure does not exceed the yield strength of the material o f the finished cylinder wall.
Calculations must be made by the following formulas:

(1) Calculation of the stress for cylinders must be made by the following formula:

^ P - ( l.3 - D - + 0 .4 - J - )
D--d-
288
Where:
S = Wall stress, in p.s.i.:
P = Test pressure;
D = Outside diameter, in inches;
d = Inside diameter, in inches.

(2) Calculation of the stress for spheres must be made by the following formula;

P- D
S =
A- t - E

Where;
S = Wall stress, in p.s.i.;
P = Test pressure;
D = Outside diameter, in inches:
t = Minimum wall thickness, in inches.

(e) Openings and attachments. Openings and attachments must conform to the following;
(1) Openings and attachments are permitted on heads only.
(2) All openings and their reinforcements must be within an imaginary circle,
concentric to the axis of the cylinder. The diameter o f the circle may not exceed 80
percent o f the outside diameter o f the cylinder. The plane o f the circle must be parallel to
the plane o f a circumferential weld and normal to the long axis o f the cylinder.
(3) Unless a head has adequate thickness, each opening must be reinforced by a
securely attached fitting, boss, pad, collar, or other suitable means.
(4) Material used for welded openings and attachments must be o f weldable quality
and compatible with the material o f the cylinder.

(f) Pressure tests.


(1) Each cylinder must be tested at an internal pressure o f at least the test pressure and
must be held at that pressure for at least 30 seconds.
(i) The leakage test must be conducted by submersion under water or by some other
method that will be equally sensitive.
(ii) If the cylinder leaks, evidences visible distortion, or any other defect, while under
test, it must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section).
(2) One cylinder taken from the beginning o f each lot, and one from each 1,000 or less
successively produced within the lot thereafter, must be hydrostatically tested to
destruction. The entire lot must be rejected (see paragraph (h) o f this section) if;

(i) A failure occurs at a gage pressure less than 2.0 times the test pressure;
(ii) A failure initiates in a braze or a weld or the heat affected zone thereof;
(iii) A failure is other than in the sidewall o f a cylinder longitudinal with its long
axis; or
(iv) In a sphere, a failure occurs in any opening, reinforcement, or at a point of
attachment.

289
(3) A "lot" is defined as the quantity o f cylinders successively produced per
production shift (not exceeding 10 hours) having identical size, design, construction,
material, heat treatment, finish, and quality.

(g) Flattening test. One cylinder must be taken from the beginning o f production o f each
lot (as defined in paragraph (f)(3) o f this section) and subjected to a flattening test as
follows:

(1) The flattening test must be made on a cylinder that has been tested at test pressure.
(2) A ring taken from a cylinder may be flattened as an alternative to a test on a
complete cylinder. The test ring may not include the heat affected zone or any weld.
However, for a sphere, the test ring may include the circumferential weld if it is located at
a 45 degree angle to the ring. -/'^5 degrees.

(3) The flattening must be between 60 degrees included-angle. wedge shaped knife
edges, rounded to a 0.5 inch radius.

(4) Cylinders and test rings may not crack when flattened so that their outer surfaces
are not more than six times wall thickness apart when made o f steel or not more than ten
times wall thickness apart when made o f aluminum.

(5) If any cylinder or ring cracks when subjected to the specified flattening test, the lot
o f cylinders represented by the test must be rejected (see paragraph (h) o f this section).

(h) Rejected cylinders. Rejected cylinders must conform to the following requirements:

( 1) If the cause for rejection of a lot is determinable, and if by test or inspection


defective cylinders are eliminated from the lot. the remaining cylinders must be qualified
as a new lot under paragraphs (f) and (g) o f this section.

(2) Repairs to welds are permitted. Following repair, a cylinder must pass the pressure
test specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

(3) If a cylinder made from seamless steel tubing fails the flattening test described in
paragraph (g) of this section, suitable uniform heat treatment must be used on each
cylinder in the lot. All prescribed tests must be performed subsequent to this heat
treatment.

(i) Markings.

(1) The markings required by this section must be durable and waterproof. The
requirements of § 173.24(c)(1) (ii) and (iv) o f this subchapter and § 178.35(h) do not apply
to this section.
(2) Required markings are as follows:
(i) DOT-39.

290
(ii) NRC.
(iii) The service pressure.
(iv) The test pressure.
(v) The registration number (M****) o f the manufacturer.
(vi) The lot number.
(vii) The date of manufacture if the lot number does not establish the date o f
manufacture.
(viii) With one of the following statements:
(A) For cylinders manufactured prior to October 1. 1996: "Federal law forbids
transportation if ret'illed-penalty up to $25,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49
U.S.C. 1809)" or "Federal law forbids transportation if retilled-penalty up to
$500,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124)."

(B) For cylinders manufactured on or after October 1. 1996: "Federal law forbids
transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49
U.S.C. 5124)."

(3) The markings required by paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (i)(2)(v) o f this section must
be in numbers and letters at least \ l / 8 \ inch high and displayed sequentially. For example:
DOT-39 NRC 250/500 M l001.

(4) No person may mark any cylinder with the specification identification "DOT-39"
unless it was manufactured in compliance with the requirements o f this section and its
manufacturer has a registration number (M****) from the Associate .A.dministrator.

291
49 CFR 173.302 (C) 178.51
Specification 4BA Welded or Brazed Steel Cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4BA cylinder is a cylinder, either spherical
or cylindrical in shape, with a water capacity o f 1 .0 0 0 pounds or less and a service
pressure o f at least 225 and not over 500 pounds per square inch. Closures made by the
spinning process are not authorized.

(1) Spherical type cylinders must be made from two seamless hemispheres joined by
the welding of one circumferential seam.

(2) Cylindrical type cylinders must be o f circumferentially welded or brazed


construction.

(b) Steel. The steel used in the construction o f the cylinder must be as specified in Table
1 o f Appendix A to this part.
(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except
that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.
(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes
adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements o f this
subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably.
A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on
cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

( 1 ) Seams must be made as follows:

(i) Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms must be not less than 90 percent o f the
required thickness o f the side wall.

(ii) Circumferential seams must be made by welding or by brazing. Heads must be


attached by brazing and must have a driving fit with the shell, unless the shell is crimped,
swedged or curled over the skirt or flange o f the head and must be thoroughly brazed
until complete penetration by the brazing material of the brazed joint is secured. Depth of
brazing from end of the shell must be at least four times the thickness o f shell metal.

292
(iii) Longitudinal seams in shells must be made by copper brazing, copper alloy
brazing, or by silver alloy brazing. Copper alloy composition must be: Copper 95 percent
minimum, Silicon 1.5 percent to 3.85 percent. Manganese 0.25 percent to 1.10 percent.
The melting point of the silver alloy brazing material must be in excess o f 1,000 °F. The
plate edge must be lapped at least eight times the thickness of plate, laps being held in
position, substantially metal to metal, by riveting or by electric spot-welding. Brazing
must be done by using a suitable flux and by placing brazing material on one side o f
seam and applying heat until this material shows uniformly along the seam o f the other
side. Strength of longitudinal seam: Copper brazed longitudinal seam must have strength
at least \3/2\ times the strength o f the steel wall.

(2) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA
Pamphlet C-3.

(e) Welding and brazing. Only the welding or brazing o f neckrings, footrings. handles,
bosses, pads, and valve protection rings to the tops and bottoms o f cylinders is
authorized. Provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they
are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25
percent except in the case of 4130v0A steel which may be used with proper welding
procedure.
(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness o f the cylinder must meet the following
conditions:

(1) For any cylinder with an outside diameter o f greater than 6 inches, the minimiun
wall thickness is 0.078 inch. In any case the minimum wall thickness must be such that
the calculated wall stress at the minimum test pressure may not exceed the lesser value of
any o f the following:

(i) The value shown in Table I o f Appendix A to this part, for the particular material
under consideration;

(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength o f the material determined as required
in paragraph (j) of this section;

(iii) 35,000 pounds per square inch; or

(iv) Further provided that wall stress for cylinders having copper brazed longitudinal
seams may not exceed 95 percent o f any of the above values. Measured wall thickness
may not include galvanizing or other protective coating.

(2) Cylinders that are cylindrical in shape must have the wall stress calculated by the
formula;

^ f (l.3 D- +0.4 r/-)


D--d-
293
Where:
S = wall stress in pounds per square inch;
P - minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;
D = outside diameter in inches;
d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) Cylinders that are spherical in shape must have the wall stress calculated by the
formula:

A-t-E

Where:
S = wall stress in pounds per square inch;
P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;
D = outside diameter in inches;
t = minimum wall thickness in inches;
E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth
weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance o f 6 times wall
thickness from center line of weld);
E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(4) For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio o f tangential
length to outside diameter may not exceed 4.1.

(g) Heat treatment. Cylinders must be heat treated in accordance with the following
requirements:

(1) Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the
applicable method shown in Table 1 o f Appendix A to this Part. Heat treatment must be
accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints
are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations, but may be
done before, during or after the brazing operations.

(2) Heat treatment is not required after the welding or brazing o f weldable low carbon
parts to attachments o f similar material which have been previously welded or brazed to
the top or bottom o f cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent
welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess o f 400° F in any part o f the
top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following
requirements:

( 1) Any opening must be placed on other than a cylindrical surface.

294
(2) Each opening in a spherical type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or
pad o f weldable steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(3) Each opening in a cylindrical type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or
pad, securely attached to container by brazing or by welding.

(4) If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut. even, without checks and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of a length not less than that specified tor .A.mencan
Standard taper pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and a
calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure o f the cylinder. Gaskets,
adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as
follows:

(1) The test must be by water jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain
accurate data. A pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy o f 1 percent. An
expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy o f either 1 percent
or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to
ensure complete expansion. .Any internal pressure applied after heat treatment and
previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent o f the total volumetric
expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot o f 200 or less must be
tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(l), (i)(2), and (i)(3) o f this section to at least two times
service pressure.

(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) o f this section must be
examined under pressure o f at least two times service pressure and show no defect.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile
strength, elongation, and reduction o f area of material, as follows:

(I) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder or part thereof having
passed the hydrostatic test and heat-treated as required, taken at random out o f each lot o f
200 or less. Physical tests for spheres are required on 2 specimens cut from flat

295
representative sample plates of the same heat taken at random from the steel used to
produce the spheres. This flat steel from which 2 specimens are to be cut must receive the
same heat treatment as the spheres themselves. Sample plates must be taken from each lot
of 2 0 0 or less spheres.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over l\l/2 \ inches, or a gauge length
of 2 inches with a width not over l\l/2 \ inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the
thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wallis
not over \3/16\ inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive o f grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be
flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the
specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened
cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the
inspector’s report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed
information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating o f a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.


(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain
of 0.2 percent o f the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the "offset" method or the
"extension under load" method as prescribed in ASTM Standard E 8 .

(ii) In using the "extension under load" method, the total strain (or "extension under
load"), corresponding to the stress at which the 0 .2 percent permanent strain occurs may
be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge
length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent o f the gauge length. Elastic
extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus o f 30.000,000. In the event o f
controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength
determined from the 0 .2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set
while the specimen is under a stress o f 1 2 .0 0 0 pounds per square inch, and the strain
indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed \ l / 8 \ inch per minute
during yield strength determination.

(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a

296
2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases. Except that these elongation
percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2 -inch specimens, and by I in other
cases, for each 7,500 pounds per square inch increment o f tensile strength above 50,000
pounds per square inch to a maximum of four such increments.
(1) Tests o f welds. Except for brazed seams, welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot o f 200 or less, or
welded test plate. The welded test plate must be o f one o f the heats in the lot o f 200 or
less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as
the cylinder wall except that in no case must it be o f a lesser thickness than that required
for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same
procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder.
The specimen must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested
in accordance with and must meet the requirements o f CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this
specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional
cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either o f the latter
specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. .\ root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or
welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(l) o f this section.
Specimens must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in
accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA
Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface,
adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines a to b, must be at
least 2 0 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile
strength in excess o f 50,000 pounds per square inch, as provided in paragraph (k) o f this
section.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent
thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair o f brazed seams
by brazing and welded seams by welding is authorized.
(n) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in one o f the following
locations on the cylinder:

(1) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick.
(2) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls not less than 0.090 inch thick.
(3) On a cylindrical portion o f the shell which extends beyond the recessed bottom o f
the cylinder constituting an integral and non-pressure part o f the cylinder.
(4) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient
space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate
must be at least \ 1/16\ inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing at a
temperature of at least 1100 °F., throughout all edges o f the plate.

297
(5) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part
permanently attached to the top o f the cylinder.

(6) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity
of the cylinder does not exceed 25 pounds.

298
APPENDIX - C

ANSYS PROGRAM M ING DESIGN LANGUAGE

(APDL PROGRAMS)

299
APDL of FEA M odeling for Determination o f T he BP And BFL o f the
D O T-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant Cylinders

/BATCH
/COM.ANSYS RELEASE 5.3 UP071096 18:19:37 07/25/1997
/input.start.ans ./ansvs53/docu/ ...........1
/TITLE,9.5"Cyln_T=0'.038+X.WedgeWall_Matrl:SHELL+WELD. YKISIOGLU
/UNITS.BIN
/prep7
! Actual Shell & Weld & nonuniform thickness-9.5" and 0.038" apply WEDGE function
/com, THIS IS THE LAST "LOG FILE" FOR THE CYLINDER
/com. Thick = 0.038+X" .AND DIA=9.5" Using SHELL + WELD and Different
THIKCNESSES
ET.1.SHELL51
/com. REAL CONSTANT FOR WELD BAND
R.1.0.073.0.073
/com. REAL CONSTANTS FOR CYLINDER SHELL
R.2.0.073.0.0365
R.3.0.0365.0.0365
R.4.0.0365.0.0341
R. 17.0.0330.0.0330
R. 18.0.0330.0.0338
R. 19.0.038,0.038
eshape.2
/com. Geometric Modeling for Preprocess
/com. Center Line o f Cross Section o f the Cylinder
/pnum .kp.l
Ri=4.75
Rs= 1.509
Rb=7.7001
k.,Ri+0.038/2.0
k..Ri+0.038/2.5/38
k..Ri+0.038/2.4.5
L,3.4
LDIV,2,„8
wpav,3.241,4.5.
pcirc,Rs+0.03 8/2,,0.90
ADELE, I
300
L D E L E ,ll.l2
LDELE,9
KDELE,4
LDIV,2,0.08
LDIV,3,0.08
LDIV.6,0.08
LDIV.7,0.08
LDIV,8.0.08
LDIV.9,0.08
LDELE.all
L.2,4
L 4.15
L I 5,3
L.3.16
L 6.18
L.18,7
L 2 2 ,l l
L, 11.23
L,23,12
pcirc.Rs+0.038/2.,0.90
ADELE.l
LDELE.21.22
LDELE.19
KDELE.12
L,23,24
LDIV.20.0.018
vvpav.,-0.775,
pcirc,Rb+0.038/2..0.90
.ADELE.l
LDELE.23.24
LOVLAP,21,22
LDELE.24,25
LCOMB,23.26
/pnum ,line,l
/com, Stress_Strain C un e for the WELD material
mptemp, 1.0.0
mp,ex,1.23.62
T B .M ISO .l.l

301
h X L 22 199S
a£}4 r>».* t * t
AIM ' T jsle Catj

, :v =i
: -G IST ».0=9373
i ..XF = .4053:2
i .tF = .457752
! 'ZF = .5
I Z-cU FFE P

9 . 5 " C y l i n c er _w E L O S tre ss.Z tr-jin Carve,*.ISIGGL'J

/com. Actual SHELL Material Properties for the Cylinder Shell


/com. Material Properties For "KOT-4" Material
mptemp. 1,0.0
mp.ex.2.79.8e6
TB.miso.2.1.56

m jo p«r w t* r ;A ; anSVS 5 . 3
JUL 16 1 9 9 7
:5 :5 4 ::4
: ’jDie Data
! :!=0.C0
! :v =;
I :IS T = .7 5

I
! :F =.5
;-=UFFER

:a 7n .*» .n :.i»

9.5" C Y I SHELL. M a t e r i a l Curve 5y JEL3 L in e _<£SIGGL'J

/com. ACTUAL SHELL Material Properties For "K.OT-3" Material


mptemp, 1,0.0
mp,ex,3.31.53
302
TB ,m iso,3,l,22

ANSVS 5 . 3
JUL I c 1 9 9 7
15:56:46
TaD le D ata

i T l= O .G O

I :v =L
I D I3T = .:5
1 <V = .5

:::
: :- 3 U F F E R

9.5 -:> L ,S H E L l ^ ater;a: Curve ZZP.U ZF :=:CGLJ

/com. ACTUAL SHELL Material Properties For "KOT-1" Material


mptemp, 1.0.0
mp.ex.4.20e6
TB.miso.4.1.35

<«£39 r«C ANSYS 5 . 3


JUL 16 1 9 9 :
:6;07:17
'aG le 2 a ta

*1=0.CC
:v :1
-w-j ::sT = .: :
= 5

=.5
Z-2U FFEF

EPS

9. 5~ C>' L^ SH EL L ! - < a t e r i a i Curve For 'CP : EGTTOH t . K l S I O G L U

/COM, MESHING
esize„I
TYPE,1
MAT.l
303
REALI
ESYS.O
LMESH.All
eplor
/com.
/com, THICKNESS = 0.038" AND Different Thickness InnerDlA=9.5" Refrigerant
Cylinder,
/com. Using SHELL and WELD material properties for Cylinder
/SOLU
ANTYPE,static
NLGEOM.ON
sstiLon
NROPT.full
pred,on
csys, 1
/com, AxisSymmetric Nodes on the X&Y Axes
D,alLUZ.O
nseLs.node,, 1
dsym.symm.x,0
/com, Inner Nodes
nseLs.node.,2,103
D,all.rotz.0
nsel.s,node.. 105.223
D.all.rotz.O
nsel.all.node
SFE.all.,pres..lOOO
/pbc.all.,1
/psf,pres.norm.2
TIME. 1000
autots.on
NSUBST. 100.2500.100
KBC.O
NCNV.2
eplot
Insrch.on
outres.all.all
outpr.all.all
SBCTRAN
NEQIT.6000
save
solve
save.Rs A WT3 S.db
finish
exit

304
APDL o f FEA M odeling for Prediction and Elim ination o f the
Ballooning Problem o f the DOT-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant C ylinders

/BATCH
/COM,ANSYS RELEASE 5.6 UP19991022 22:33:44 04/02/2000
/input.menust.tmp .................. 1
/GRA,POWER
/GST.ON
/SHOW
/TITLE.ID:9.5"Ref-Cyln_P=400_BallnTest_t=0.038+x_SHELL+WELD_KISIOGLU
/UNITS.BIN
t=0.038 ! Cylinder Wall Thickness
Rcyl=4.75 Radius of Cylindrical Shell
Lcyl=4.5 Length o f Cylinfrical Shell
tvvld=5/38 Thickness o f Weld Zone
Rknck= 1.509 Radios of Knuckle
Rcr\vn=7.70095 ! Radius o f Crown
DL=2.125 ! 1.7 < DL < 2.2 Location o f Dimple
Rdimp=0.688 ! 0.5 < Rdimp <0.72 Radius o f Dimples & Fillet
xl=0.70710678*DL ! Dimple Location coordinates
yl=(6.9431+0.099)-Rdimp
zl=-0.70710678*DL
YAYA=34 ! .ARC Value: Must be Even and Bigger than 30
YAYB=(90-2*YAYA)/2
!*
KEYW,PR_SET.l
KEYW.PR_STRUC.l
KEYW.PR_THERM.O
KEYW.PR_ELMAG.O
KEYW,PR_FLUID,0
KEYW,PR_MULTLO
KEYW,PR_CFD.O
KEYWXSDYNA.0
/PMETH,OFF
I*
/prep7
/com,
305
/com , THIS IS THE LAST "LOG FILE" FOR THE CYLINDER
/com , THICKNESS = 0.038+X" (NON-UNIFORM THICKNESS)
/com , WITH THE DIMPLE OF THE FEET ON THE BOTTOM
/com . Using SHELL + WELD Material Properties
/com,
/com . Geometric Modeling for Preprocess
/com . Center Line o f Cross Section o f the Cylinder
/Pnum,kp, 1
/Pnum ,line,l
/Pnum ,area,l
k ,l„ ! Center o f Origin
k,2,Rcyl+t/2,
k,3,Rcyl+t/2.t\vld Center o f Knuckle curve
K,4.Rcyl-Rknck-i-t/2.Lcyl ! Center of Crown curve
K,5„-0.776, ! Coefficient of Magnification
K,6..Rcrwn-0.776. ! Coefficient of Magnification
CIRCLE,4.Rknck+t/2...90.
L,2,3
L,3,7
LDIV,3„.8
KDELE,S
L A RC, 16.6.5,Rcrwn+t/2
Iplot
!* Generate the 3D Shell Model
AROTAT.all l.6,Y.AYA 32% o f the Line
LSEL.S.LINE..12.22.1
AROTAT.all L6.YAYA !* 32% o f the Line
LSEL.ALL.LINE
LGLUE,all
/VIEW , 1 .1.1.1
/AN G , 1
/REP,FAST
BTOL,0.00001
aplot
/Com , GENERATION OF DIMPLE
/Com , DIMPLE LOCATION 2
K „ x l,y l,z l
A PTN, 11,22.47.48
A PTN ,33,44.45.46
ADELE,54.56
ADELE,50
ADELE,59,61
ADELE,22
LDELE,104.107
L D E L E ,lll
306
LDELE,22
KDELE,61
KDELE,63,65
!* Delete Areas at Crown and Dimple Zones
ADELE,5I.53
ADELE,57.58
ADELE,47,49
ADELE, II
ADELE,62
LDELE,l 14.124.10
LDELE.129.133.4
LDELE.103
LDELE.134

!* Generation o f Trajectory for Fillet


LCOM B.128.127
LCOMB.110,112
LCOMB.110.113
!* Generation o f Fillet Zone
LFILLT.115.119.Rdimp+t/2
ADRAG.22 131
ADRAG.44 125
A D RA G .lO l 110
ADRAG.104......116
ADELE. 11.44.11
LDELE.125.131.6
LDELE.l 10.116.6
LDELE.107.109.2
LDELE.l 17
LARC.62.69.60.Rdimp+t/2
LARC.66.6.5.Rcrwn+t/2
LARC.26.72.5.Rcrwn+t/2
LARC.48.64.5.Rcrwn+t/2
LDIV.11..30 !* 30% D IV I of the Line
LDIV.88..30 !* 30 % DIVI o f the Line
LARC.78.72.5.Rcrwn+t/2
LARC.64.79.5.Rcr\vn+t/2
wprotat.,,-45
WPAV,,.
LGLUE.l 11.100.22.119
LGLUE. 108.66.115.22
LCOMB.l 19.107
LDIV. 107,2
LARC.74.62.60,Rdimp+t/2
LARC,62,65.60,Rdimp+t/2
Iplot
307
!* Générât on o f Surface Areas
AL,33,11,116,110 * A ll
AL,55,115,110.111 * A22
AL,77G 15,66.112 * .A3 3
AL,99,88,117,112 * .A44
A L,116,113,105.109 * .A45
,AL,117,114.102.109 * A46
A L.22.111.118.104 * .A47
AL.66.22.100.44 !* .A48
AL, 101,103.102.44 !* A49
AL,104,106.105.101 !* .A50
Al,107.119,118 A51
.Al, 100.120.107 A52
.AL, 103,108.120 !* A53
AL.106,108.119 !♦ A54
aplot

/prep7
ET.1.SHELL181
!* Real Constants For Finite Shell Elements
/com. Selection of the Element Type and Real Constant
/com. REAL CONSTANT FOR WELD ZONE
TK1=0.075
R .l.T K l
/com, REAL CONSTANTS FOR CYLINDER SHELL
TK2=0.0375
TK3=0.0368
TK4=0.0360
TK5=0.0352
TK6=0.0344
TK7=0.0336
TK8=0.0330
TK9=0.0320
TKl 0=0.038
TKl 1=0.0388

/Com, Real Constants


R.2.TK2
R,3,TK3
R.4.TK4
R,5,TK5
R,6,TK6
R.7.TK7
R,8,TK8
R.9.TK9 ! Real Constant at Junction
R,10,TK10 ! Real Constant at Knuckle
308
R,11,TK11
R,12,TK12
/Com, Volume Calculations
! for Cvlindrical Shell

Tm=0.0035 ! Mean Thickness o f cylindrical Shell


Rm=Rcyl+Tm/2 ! Mean Cylindrical Shell radius
Lm=2*3.1415*Rm/4 ! Lenght o f circumferential shell
Acyl=Lm*Rm ! Area o f cylindrical Shell
Vcvl=Acvl*Tm ! Volume o f cvlindrical shell
! for Knuckle Region
Lnck=1.62
! for Crown Region
MSHKEY,1 ! MAPPED MESH
MSHAPE.0.2D ! Mesh with Quadr Elem when 2D
MSHMID,2 ! Do not Midside Nodes

/com, WELD material property for WELD band o f the Cylinder


/com, Stress_Strain Curve for the WELD material
mptemp, 1.0.0
mp.ex.l.23.62E-r-7
TB.MISO. 1.1.30

■tt :UL 22 199S


*230 r*t
AIM I
. T j c l g O a :a

■ t i =o ..: q

; :v u
•D:ST=.639373
, "XF « . 4 6 5 3 2 2
;-rr «.457757
I.Z F = .5
I :-EU;F'-E=

9 .5 " C y lin U e r .w E L O H a t r l S t r e s s . S * r a : n C arv e.K lS IC G L U

/com. Actual SHELL Material Properties for the Cylinder Shell


/com. Material Properties For "KOT-4" Material
mptemp, 1,0.0
mp,ex,2,79.8e6
TB,miso.2,1.56
309
ftuo T&bl# r«r ' 1 ANSVS 5 .3
; JUL 15 1997
! 1 5 :5 4 :2 4
I T a b le D ata
i : i= o .c o
"-1
' 2V =1
i ]I5 T = .:'5
! <F =.5
i 'F =.5
' :F =.5
; 2-5UFFE.P
MM-j

UCU'j

»*■)

•’ " i

'•“ i
i

I £=>3
Ig.g'TY i SHELL M a te r :a i Curve 2y JELJ - ; n e _<I5ICGLL'

/com, ACTUAL SHELL Material Properties For "KOT-3" Material


mptemp. 1.0.0
mp.ex.3.31.53
TB.miso.3.1.22

JL’L 16 1 9 9 7
1 5 :5 6 46
" a o le Z ata

■ 1 = 0 . ' ij
““ 1
:v %
75
-i :vF
'f
=
=
:F =
Z -3 U F F If.

o ' j* ■ .1 T ^ ' I I
.la p? -» a .n i.m

EPS
9 . 5 “CVL_SHELL M a t e r i a l C urve 2y CGRNEP . C S I C G L U

/com, ACTUAL SHELL Material Properties For "KOT-1" Material


mptemp, 1,0.0
mp,ex,4,20e6
TB.miso.4.1.35
310
r u i* r*t iMSVS 5 . 3
JUL IQ 1 9 9 7
16:07:1?
T able D a:a

:i=o.OQ
zv =1
C IS T = .:5
<r = 5
rP = :

O
I)

;9 .5 'C > 'I SHEL- - a t e - i a : Z u -.c *’o r "Z Z'TCM^.'.ISICCLU

/gropt.view. 1

/COM. MESHING
MESHING
TYPE. I
Iesize.2...I
esize.0.22
MAT. I
REAL. I
A M E SH .I.34.II

Iesize.3..,4
MAT.2
REAL.2
AM ESH.2.35.II

LESIZE.4...4
REAL.3
AM ESH.3.36.II

Iesize,5..,4
REAL.4
AMESH,4,37.11

Iesize,6.,,4
REAL,5
311
AMESH,5,38.11

lesize,7,„4
MAT,3
REAL,6
A M ESH,6.39.ll

Iesize,8,.,4
REAL,?
LESIZE.10...4
lesize,9..,4
R£AL,9
AMESH,9.42.11

LESIZE.1.,,12
MAT.4
REAL. 10
AMESH, 10.43.11

! MSHKEY.O !* Free Meshing


REAL. 11
LESIZE.115...9
LES1ZE.110...10
LES1ZE.112...10
LES1ZE.11...11
LESIZE.88...11
LES1ZE.117...12
LES1ZE.114...20
LES1ZE.109...10
LESIZE.102...16
LES1ZE.105...16
! REAL. 12
MAT.4
REAL. 12
AMESH.45.46
LESIZE,22,„5
LESIZE,44.,.5
LESIZE.118...7
! REAL. 12
AMESH.47.50
LESIZE.107.,.8
LESIZE,119.,.8
! REAL. 11
AMESH.51.54
eplot
/COM,
312
/COM, Generation OF BC's and Solution Index
/SOLU
ANTYPE.static
SOLCONTROL,on
OUTOPT
sstif,on
NROPT,fuil
pred,on
CNVTOL,M.,0.005..1
CNVTOL.F..0.005..I

/com, AxisSymmetric Nodes on the X&Y Axes


! Symmetry about z
NSEL,all,node
/COM, LOADING
SFE,aII.,pres..400
/pbc,aII„I
/psf,pres,norm,2
TIME,400
autots,on
NSUBST.40.2500,40
KBC,0
NCNV,2
Insrch,on
outres,aII,aII
outpr.alLall
SBCTRAN
NEQIT.2000
eplot
solve
! /COM, UNLOADING
TIME.500
NSUBST, 10.2500,10
SFEDELE.alL.all
eplot
NEQIT.500
solve
save
finish

313
APDL of FEA Modeling for Prediction and Elimination of the
Flip-Flop (Buckling) Problem of the DOT-39 Non-refillable Refrigerant Cylinders

/BATCH
/COM.ANSYS RELEASE 5.6 UP 19991022 14:43:46 03/30/2000
/inpuLmenust.tmp ........... 1
/GRA.POWER
/GST,ON
/UNITS,BIN
/TITLE.D0T-4BA Convex, End. Buckling Analysis.SAE-1018(HR).KISI0GLU
/show.
/STATUS.all
MN=1
th=MN*0.1 ! 10 < t h < 2 0 th=0.1 Thicknes
Rcrv\Ti=MN *7.14 ! 680 < Rcrwn < 720 Rcrwn=7.14 Crown Radius
Rknck=MN* 1.1426 ! 108 < Rk n c k < 116.8 Rknck= 1.1426
Knuckle Radius
Rcy 1=4.6* NIN
CentRc=4.9*MN
twld=MN*5/38 ! Thickness o f Weld Zone
DL=MN*2.5 ! 1.7 < DL < 2.2 Location o f Dimple
Rdimp=MN*0.9 ! 0.5 < Rdimp <0.72 Radius o f Dimples and Fillet
Rfilt=Rdimp ! *0.75 ! Fillet Radius between Dimple and Crown area
xl=0.70710678*DL ! Dimple Location coordinates
y 1=MN*(2.24-i-0.1)-Rdimp
zl=-0.70710678*DL
YAYA=30 .ARC Value: Must be Even and Bigger than 30
YAYB=(90-2*YAYA)/2
/PREP7
KEYW.PR_SET.l
KEY\V.PR_STRUC,1
KEYW.PR_THERM.0
KEYW.PR_FLUID.O
KEYW,PR_ELMAG.O
K EW ,M AG NO D .O
KEYW,MAGEDG.O
KEYW,MAGHFE,0
KEYW,MAGELC,0
314
KEYW,PR_MULTI.O
KEYW,PR_CFD.O
/Pnum,Line,l
/PN U M XINE.l
/PNUM,kp,l
/PN UM area. 1

CIRCLE,2.Rknck+th/2„.90
LDIV, 1,0.5
LDELE,2
AROTAT,aII I.4.YAYA !* 32% o f the Line
LSEL,S.LINE..4.6.I
AR0TAT,aIl.,.,..I,4.YAYB !* 13% o f the Line
LSEL,S.LINE„I0.12.1
AROTAT.all I.4.YAYB !* 13% of the Line
LSEL.S.LINE..I6.I8.1
AROTAT.all I.4.YAYA !* 32% of the Line
LSEL.ALL.LINE
LGLUE.all
/VIEW. I .1.1,1
/ANG, I
/REP.FAST
aplot
/Com, GENERATION OF DIMPLE
/Com, DIMPLE LOC.ATION 2
K ,.x l,y l.z l
ADELE, 13
LDIV.31
AROTAT,28....,.20.22.360
APTN,3.6,I6.I5
A PT N ,9.I3,I2.I4
ADELE.22,24
ADELE.27.29
ADELE.6
ADELE, 18
LDELE,32,35
LDELE.64.66
LDELE.39
LDELE.6
LDELE,48,54.6
LDELE.63
!* Delete Areas at Crown and Dimple Zones
ADELE, 15 .17
ADELE,19.2I
ADELE.25,26
315
ADELE,36,37
ADELE,3
ADELE,30
LDELE.60.62
LDELE,42.46,4
LD ELEJ2
LDELE,45
LDELEJl
!* Generation of Trajectory for Fillet
LCOMB.56,55
LCOMB.55.53
LCOMB.38,40
LCOMB.38.41
LGLUE.53.38
LGLUE,44.59.43.47
!* Generation of Fillet Zone
ADRAG.18 12
ADRAG.28 6
ADRAG.31 38
ADRAG.34 44
ADELE.3.12.3
LDELE.6.12.6
LDELE.38,44.6
LDELE.37
LGLUE.39.29.43.18
LGLUE.40.30.18.47
LARC.22.29.20.Rdimp+thy2
LARC,26.4.3.Rcrwn+thy2
LARC, 16.24.3.Rcr\vn+tliG
LARC, 10,31.3 .Rcrwn+th/2
LDIV.24,0.3 !* 30 % DIVI of the Line
LDIV.3.0.3 !* 3 0 % DIVI of the Line
LARC,35,31,3.Rcrvvn+thy2
LARC,24.34,3.Rcrwn+th/2
\vprotat..,-45
WPAV,,,
LCOMB,47.37
LDIV,37,2
LARC,22,32.20,Rdimp+th/2
LARC,25,22,20.Rdimp+tt/2
Iplot
!* Generation of Surface Areas
AL,9,3,40,44 !* A3
AL,15,40,6,43 !* A6
AL,21,43,29,39 !* A9
AL,27,39,24,45 !* A12

316
AL.44,42,35,38 !* A13
A L,45,41,32,38 !* A14
AL,29,28,I8.30 !*A15
AL.32,31,28.33 !* A16
AL,35,31,34,36 !* A17
AL, 18,6,12.34 !* A18
Al,30,48,37 !* A19
Al,33,48,46 !* A20
AL,36,46,47 !* A21
AL.37.47.12 !* A22
aplot
/PREP7
ET,1,SHELL 181
!* Real Constants For Finite Shell Elements
/com. Selection o f the Element Type and Real Constant
/com. REAL CONSTANT FOR WELD ZONE
TK1=0.135*MN
R.1,TK1
/com, REAL CONSTANTS FOR CYLINDER SHELL
R,3,TK3
/Com. Volume Calculations
MSHKEY.l ! MAPPED MESH
MSHAPE.0.2D ! Mesh with Quadr Elem when 2D
MSHMID.2 ! Do not Midside Nodes
/com. WELD material property for WELD band of the Cylinder
/com, Stress_Strain Curve for the WELD material
mptemp, 1.0.0
mp,e.x,l,23.62E+7
TB.MISO. 1.1.30
/com. HOT ROLLED material property for PROPANE Cylinder
/com, Stress_Strain Curve for the SAE-1018 HR Steel Sheet
MgNr=1.10
mptemp, 1.70.0
MSHKEY.O I* Free Meshing
LESIZE.42,,,24
LESIZE,41,.,24
LESIZE,38.„11
LESIZE.35,,,18
LESIZE,32,..18
LESIZE,44„.12
LESIZE,45.„12
LESIZE,28„.7
LESIZE,31,.,7
LESIZE,47,„8
LESIZE,6,„10
LESIZE,29,„10
317
AMESH, 15,18
AMESH, 19.22
LESIZE,3.„11
LESIZE,24,„11
LESIZE,39,„12
LESIZE,43.„10
LESIZE,40,„12
AMESH,3,12,3
ESIZE,0.18*MN
MSHKEY.l ! MAPPED MESH
LES1ZE,2.„9
AMES H .2,11,3
LESIZE,1.„2
REAL.l
AMESH, 1,10.3
eplot
/COM,
/COM. Generation OF BC's and Solution Index
/SOLU
ANTYPE.static
SOLCONTROL.on
SOLUOPT
STAT
NLOPT
OUTOPT
NLGEOM.ON
sstif.on
NROPT.fiill
pred.on
CNVTOL.M.,0.005..1
CNVTOL.F,.0.005..1

/com, AxisSymmetric Nodes on the X&Y Axes


! Symmetry about z
NSEL,S,LOC.Z '
DSYM.SYMM.Z
! Symmetry about x
NSEL.S,LOC,X
DSYM,SYMM.X
! Non-Symmetrv about Y
n s e l . s .l o c .'y
D,A11,UY,0
NSEL.all.node
/COM, LOADING
SFE,all,2,pres„ 1000
/pbc,all„l
318
/psf,pres,norm,2
TIME, 1000
autots,on
NSUBST.100.2500.100
KBC,0
NCNV.2
Insrch.on
outres.all.all
outpr.all.all
SBCTRAN
NEQ1T.2500
eplot
save
solve
finish

319