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WORKBOOK Exercise 100 NOTE: We use must to assert what we infer or conclude to be the most Skely interpretation ofa situation or events, : c eg He must be at least sixty We don’t know for a fact that this is true, but taking everything into account, we think that it is almost certainly so. The opposite of must in this sense is can’t: John: — He must be at least sixty. Peter: Oh no! He can’t be anything like as old as that. John is almost certain that ‘He! is sixty, and Peter is equally certain that ‘He’ is not. In report: ed speech, this dialogue becomes: John said he must be a least sixty, but Peter thought he couldn't be anything like as old as that. To refer to past time, we use must and can’t (or couldn't) with the perfect infinitive: It must have been a great shock to him. (It was a great shock, | feel sure) You can’t (or couldn't) have understood what he said. (It seems clear that you didn’t under- stand) (jt seems clear that you didn’t understand) : Complete the responses to the statements, using must or can’t, to suggest what seems to be the most likely explanation. His fiancée writes to him every day. She must I don’t seem to have my key with me, | must have He drivers a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes. They must No one thought he would be offered the job, but he was. The person who interviewed him must have He has no idea what the book is about. He can't have nwNo He talks about going to the moon next year. He must She didn’t reply to his letter. She can’t have evan He wears glasses all the time, His eyesight can’t 9 They haven’t been on speaking terms recently. They must have 10 His said he would ring, but he hasn't, He must have 11 His last bus has already gone. It must than | thought. 12 I'm amazed that she married him so soon. She can’t have worksook 7 oe an Advanced Learner's English Grammar: eg _i'mhorrified thet he should have told anyone, This use of should is particularly common when the subject is it: It’s odd that you should mention his name A similar pattern is found after adjectives like important, essential, vital: : It’s vital that you should be there to meet him Re-word the following sentences using it as subject: 1 Quite naturally, you're upset about what's happened 2 It’s incredible! We've been living in the same street for two years and have never got to know each other, 3 You missed the one talk that was worth hearing. What a pity! 4 That's curious! He asked you to come rather than me. 5 It's typical of him. He expects everyone else to do all the work. | 6 _ Isn't it odd! They're getting married, after all they've said about marriage. 7 You have to pay so much tax. It’s crazy! 8 Look over the agreement before you sign it. This is essential 9 Read the instructions carefully before you start answering the questions. This is important. 10 How splendid! You'll be coming to live near us. 11 You've bought the house we once thought of buying ourselves. How interesting! 12 Emergency supplies must reach the area quickly. This is vita. Exercise 107 (A) Complete the sentences with either must, mustn't, or a suitable form of have to 1 We hurry, or well be late. 2 ‘Application forms be returned to this office within 15 days." 3 You visit us again some time. 4 I can never remember people's phone numbers. | always look them up. 5 The car broke down, and we have it towed to a garage. 6 The situation has now become intolerable, and something be done about it immediately 7 | realize how difficult the situation is, but you ‘ty not to let it get you down. 8 "Visas, where required, be obtained before travelling to the countries con- cerned.’ I'm sorry to tell you this, but you leave me no alternative. 10 It's not fair! | always do the dirty work! 82 An Advanced Learner's English Grammor ii ~ WORKBOOK 44 You really try to be a little more tactful 42 Noone likes work at the weekend, 13. Whichever party forms the next government probably reintroduce some sort of prices and incomes policy 14 ‘Candidates write in ink, and warite on one side of the paper only.” 45 The verdict of jury be unanimous: if its members are unable to reach agreement, the case be retried before a new jury. 16 We have made quite alot of progress, but we forget that several other problems stil cleared up before we can say that an agreement is in sight. 17 Fortunately, the crowd dispersed peaceably. f they hadn't the police might use force 18 We make the job sound too difficult, or he won't take it on. 19 He suddenly took a turn for the worse, and | call the doctor in the middle of the night. 20 Ifa similar problem crops up again, you report it to me at once 21 I's very difficult choice to make, (B) When you have checked your answers to the last exercise, write the sentences in reported speech, using the sentence openings suggested below. 1 | pointed out that 2 The advertisement stipulated that 3 I told him 4 He said 5 We explained that 6 The tenants stated that 7 told him 8 The regulations laid down that 9 I ssid 10 He complained that 11 He told me 12 | agreed that 13 The editorial board argued that : 14 The instructions stated that |; 15 According to the book | was reading, the verdict i 16 At the end of the meeting, the union leader said [ 17 The newspaper reported that j 18 | warned the others that —— Workoox a3