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International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE'2012) June 16-17, 2012, Bangkok

DTC in Contrast to FOC on Power train of

Hybrid Electrical Vehicle
Javad. Khodabakhsh

Abstract— This article assesses performance of two

frequently used induction motor control strategy, DTC and
FOC, and compares their performance in accelerating and
A. Induction motor dynamic
decelerating cycle of an HEV. In case study a dynamic model
for the vehicle drive by a three-phase induction motor power The mathematical model of the system consists of
train had got picked, and two different drive strategy executed induction motor, space vector PWM voltage source inverter,
for the same situation on acceleration and deceleration cycle and control system. This clause provide induction motor
of the vehicle's model. The simulation outcomes indicate the model. In stationary reference dq frame induction machine
performance of either of two methods. equation can be written as [5]:

Keywords— Direct Torque Control, Field Oriented Control, 

 dq dq dψ dq  (1)
Hybrid Electrical Vehicle, Induction Three Phase Motor, Power u s = R .i s + m + jω ψ dq
s s m
train, Vehicle Dynamic Model. dt
 dq dq dq
ψ m Lm .(i s − i r ) (2)
dψ m dq  dq (3)
= Rr .i r − j (ω − ω )ψ m
E NVIRONMENTAL and economic constraints
competitive market structure are the principal incentives
in the direction of the car manufacturers for maturing
and dt
Where u dqs
s m
is stator voltage vector, R s , R r are the stator and
rotor ohmic resistance respectively, ψ dq is flux vector in dq
innovative solutions used in HEV. Improving efficiency, m

safety, dynamic response and eco-friendly behavior are vital reference, ω s , ω m are synchronous and mechanical angular
speed, L is magnetizing inductance and dq dq are stator and
goals in contemporary car design. HEVs are new generation m is , ir

of cars. An HEV typically consists of a small combustion rotor current vectors.

engine act alongside an electric power train [1]. Selecting the It is noted that in this case some further simplification is
proper type of electrical apparatus is one of the main parts for possible given that, ψ dq m =ψ m
i.e., the vector is real because the
HEV design. The maintenance free low cast three phase direct axis is aligned with this vector. All the remaining
induction squirrel cage motors are the attractive choice for vectors have both a real (direct) and an imaginary component.
electrical propulsion of HEVs. Improving three phase motor Furthermore, Produced torque can be written as:
dynamic performance leads to better HEV overall P q (4)
= T .L (i .i − i d .i )
performance. Adjustable-speed induction motor drives are e 2 m s rd s rq
steadily more being used in nearly all industrial applications. B. Field Orientated Control
The development of high performance control schemes for
The FOC involves of controlling the stator currents
drives, driven by the demands of industry, has resulted in a
represented by a vector. This control method based on a
swift growth throughout the last decades. Two well-known
projection which transforms a three phase time and speed
strategies for motor performance control are Direct Torque
dependent system into a two coordinates.
Control (DTC) [2, 3] and Field Oriented Control FOC [4]. In These projections cause to an arrangement comparable to that
this paper FOC and DTC methods compared for exploiting to of a DC machine control. Field orientated controlled machines
control an induction motor for HEVs’ power train. Motor need two parameters as input:
torque outcome to these methods of control should apply to • The torque component (associated with the q co-
the dynamic model of the car for a complete study. Because ordinate)
full car dynamic model is so complicated, a simplified model • The flux component (associated with d coordinate)
selects for study of a car dynamic behavior. This control strategy is basically founded on projection of
parameters to time invariant frame. The control structure
Javad. Khodabakhsh is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
handles instantaneous parameters as a result precise control
Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; strategy in both steady state and transient can be achieved.
phone: +989126202275 ;e-mail:

International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE'2012) June 16-17, 2012, Bangkok

The FOC thus solves some basic problems include attainment flux and electromagnetic torque estimator and the switching
constant reference, applying torque control in the dq reference vector look-up table.
According to equation 4 maintaining the amplitude of the
rotor current at a fixed level leads to a linear relationship
between torque and isq , therefore torque can be controlled
by controlling the torque component of stator current. The
simulations of the FOC drive were realized using
MATLAB®/Simulink® simulation package. FOC control
system structure depicted on Figure 1.
Fig. 2. DTC control system

Table I depict the performance summary is given for the two

drive types [7].

Control Law

Torque ripple HIGH LOW
Average torque
within motor
Fig. 1. FOC control system
Complexity of
Current regulator is a PWM technique, very modest to LOW MEDIUM
implement and supervising directly for the current control. Fixed switching
The switching logic is implemented by three hysteresis frequency
controllers. The hysteresis PWM current control is done in the sensitivity
three phases separately. Each controller determines the
switching-state of one inverter in such a method that the D. Vehicle Modeling
corresponding current is maintained within a hysteresis band
Δi [5]. Some literatures compared FOC and DTC method from
electrical motor performance view, but main focus of this
C. Direct Torque Control article is modeling of electrical drive assessment. Accordingly,
Direct Torque Control (DTC) has been developed by in the modeling of HEV modeling of vehicle dynamic behavior
German and Japanese scientist for use in torque control of is based on two criteria keeping accuracy and simplicity.
power servo drives. The DTC theory history actually goes back Subsystem models all the mechanical parts of the vehicle:
to 1971. Recently, DTC method has provided a substitute to • The single reduction gear reduces the motor's speed
the field oriented control strategy. DTC is a control philosophy and increases the torque.
using the torque and flux producing capabilities of induction • The differential splits the input torque in two equal
machines when fed by a simple voltage source inverter that torque for wheels.
does not require current regulation loops, still achieving similar • The tires dynamics represent the force applied to the
performance to that attained from a vector control drive. ground.
Three control techniques used for realizing DTC drives:
• The vehicle dynamics represent the motion influence
• Switching Table (ST)
on the overall system.
• Direct Self Control (DSC) • The viscous friction models all the losses of the
mechanical system.
Direct Vector Modulation Control (DVMC) ST and DSC
regulators are of the hysteresis type, whereas the DVMC uses Figure 3 illustrates vehicle model block diagram.
digitally implemented analog controllers [6]. The simulations
of the DTC drive were carried out using MATLAB®/Simulink®
simulation package. The DTC scheme for induction motor
drives is shown in Figure 2. The main blocks are the stator

International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE'2012) June 16-17, 2012, Bangkok

Fig. 4. FOC drive torque command and response

According to Figure 4 applying nominal torque to motor

cause to torque doubled during acceleration of electrical motor
and after full acceleration required torque decrease to
mechanical system necessity and value need for overcoming
friction on electrical motor. FOC driver’s PI controller
parameters adjust for the best response.
The same condition had chosen and applied to the driver
Fig. 3. Vehicles model
which work based on DTC control scheme. Figure 5 revealed
the command and produced torque by electrical motor that had
driven by DTC driver.
For assessment of two schemes of induction machine speed
and torque control a number of example situations considered.
Test bench system substructure consists of a vehicle model as
indicated on Figure 3, derived by a 200 HP three phase
induction motor. System parameters listed in Table II. The
parameters picked up from MATLAB®/ Simulink® simulation
Fig. 5. DTC drive torque command and response
With respect to Figure 5 DTC scheme with adjusted
Parameters parameters has been a smoother and slower response. Two
Device methods compared on accelerating cycle of the vehicle from
Parameter Value Unit the aspect of speed. Vehicles’ speed produced by electric
motor torque in two methods depicted on Figure 6. As shown
Mass 1325 kg
Horizontal distance from
on Figure 6 two charts have a slight difference. Therefore, the
1.35 m absolute value of their difference has been shown on Figure 7.
CG* to front and rear axle
Frontal area 2 m2
CG height from ground 0.5 m
Drag coefficient 0.26 -
Initial longitudinal velocity 0 m/s

Rated Power 149.2 kW

Induction Rated Voltage-Frequency 460-60 V/Hz
Motor Design class-T st /T nom C-2.5 -
Model Poles 2 Pair
Inertia / Friction 3.1/0.08
Fig. 6. Vehicle’s speed and for FOC and DTC drive in acceleration
In first step of test a FOC controller utilized for control of
power train, and then DTC control strategy used for control of
power train. Sample test is accelerating from the stationary
position to specified speed (100km/h). In this test, an
accelerating command applied to power train control system
and motor output torque cause to accelerating vehicle.
Motor started at no-load condition for 100ms and then
nominal torque applied to motor. Figure 4 exhibited the
command and produced torque by electrical motor with FOC
driver. Fig. 7. Vehicle’s speed differnces for FOC and DTC drive in
acceleration process

International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE'2012) June 16-17, 2012, Bangkok

As shown on Figure 6 and Figure 7 in acceleration of

electrical motor a slight difference exist on torque switching
time, but other portions of speed profile are same as another
Second test includes deceleration response with electrical
motor brake. This test target is decreasing vehicle’s speed
with electrical motor brakes. A negative torque command
applied to the driver when the motor is under the nominal load
conditions. For initial condition vehicle’s speed assumed 107
km/h and induction motor work at rated power. Then a brake
command applied at t=1sec.
Fig. 11. Vehicle’s speed differnces for FOC and DTC drive in
Figure 8 shows the FOC method brake command and deceleration process
induction motor reaction to this command
Two common methods for an induction motor drive evaluated
in general speed change conditions in a case study for a HEV.
In comparison DTC method has smothered and slower
response to acceleration and deceleration command.
Furthermore, differences are negligible because mechanical
system inertia, a slight difference in transient condition
observed. There is a noticeable note that in the deceleration
Fig. 8. FOC drive torque response for brake process, FOC method can regenerate more energy, cause to
Figure 9 demonstrate the DTC method brake command and the system low response time, and show better brake behavior.
induction motor answer to this command. This study mainly focused on the acceleration and
deceleration process of HEV.

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Fig. 9. DTC drive torque response for brake Applications, Vol.22,no.5, Sept./Oct. 1986, pp.820-827
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change in result of breaking torque is approximately same as transvector closed loop control of rotating machines”, Siemens Review,
Figure 10. Because of more clarity, the difference between VOL. 30, no.5, 1972, pp.27-22
two method speed changes shown in Figure 11. [5] F. Labrique, H. buyse, G. seguier and R. Bausière, “Converters power
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[6] G. Buja, D. Casadei, G. Serra “ Direct stator flux and torque control of
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of IEEE-IECON’98, Aachen, Germany, August 31-Sept. 4, 1998, vol.
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[7] M. Cruz, A. Gallegos, R. Alvarez, and F. Pazos, “Comparison of several
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Javad Khodabakhsh was born in Tehran, Iran, on 1980. He is graduated in

electrical engineering in MS. Degree from Electrical Engineering Department
Fig. 10. Vehicle’s speed for FOC and DTC drive in deceleration (power system division), Tehran University, Iran, He have worked as Faculty
process member of Electrical Engineering Department of Shahr-e-Qods Branch,
Islamic Azad University. His major experience is in Power Electronic
As shown on Figure 10 and Figure 11 deceleration of application in smart micro grid, such as Distributed
Energy Resource Integration to Micro Grid, Power
electrical motor has a slight difference on torque instantaneous Electronic Based current limiter and Plug-in Hybrid
change, although other parts of speed profile are same as Electrical Vehicle. His industrial experiments include
another strategy. cooperation in installation and commissioning of 33kV
Static Var Compensation at a steel mill plant, and many
technical consultancies at Iranian Industries.