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The Basics…

Mass balance

Energy balance

Example 1

atmospheric pressure. It is being pumped at steady state by

a pump at a rate of 0.567 cu. m/min from this tank to a

second tank whose water level is 20 m above the water level

on the first tank. The motor driving the pump supplies

energy at a rate of 7.45 kW. The water passes through a heat

exchanger, where it gives up 1408 kW of heat. Calculate the

final temperature of the water delivered to the second tank.

Ans. 48.41 °C

Example 2

mass flow rate through a uniform-diameter pipe. The

entrance pressure of the fluid is 68.9 kPa abs in the pipe,

which connects to a pump that actually supplies 155.4 J/kg

of fluid flowing in the pipe. The exit pipe from the pump is

the same diameter as the inlet pipe. The exit section of the

pipe is 3.05 m higher than the entrance and the exit

pressure is 137.8 kPa abs. The Reynolds number in the pipe

is above 4000 in the system. Calculate the friction loss in the

pipe system. Ans. 56.5 J/kg

Design Equations for Laminar and

Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Vmax vs. Vave

Design Equations for Laminar and

Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Vmax vs. Vave

Pressure Drop and Friction Loss in

Laminar Flow

Recall Navier-Stokes Equations…

Math Magic!!!

32𝜇𝑣∆𝐿

𝑝1 − 𝑝2 =

𝐷2

The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for LAMINAR FLOWS ONLY!

Example 3

and a length of 0.317 m is being used to continuously

measure the flow rate of a liquid having a density of 875

kg/m3 and μ=1.13 x 10^-3 Pa-s. The pressure drop reading

across the capillary during flow is 0.0655 m water (density of

996 kg/m3). What is the volumetric flow rate in m3/s if end

effect corrections are neglected? Ans. 1.066 x 10^-6

Friction factor, f

∆𝐿 𝑣 2

𝐹𝑓 = 4𝑓

𝐷 2

𝜖

𝑓 = 𝑓𝑢𝑛𝑐. ( , 𝑅𝑒)

𝐷

For laminar flow…

16

𝑓=

𝑅𝑒

Moody’s Diagram

Example 4

(1.25 kg/s) through a 25 mm diameter pipe, 30 m long, to a

reservoir 12 m higher than the feed point. Calculate the

pressure drop in the pipeline.

μ = 2.5 x 10^-3 Pa-s

Density = 1840 kg/m3

Pressure drop and Friction Factor in

Flow of Gases

4𝑓∆𝐿𝐺 2

(𝑝1 − 𝑝2 )𝑓 =

2𝐷𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑒

Or…

4𝑓∆𝐿𝐺 2 𝑅𝑇

(𝑝12 − 𝑝22 )𝑓 =

𝐷𝑀

Note:

𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑒 is the density at the average pressure

When the pressure drop is greater than 10% incompressible

flow cannot be assumed.

Example 5

pipeline between the tank and the truck is 200 ft of 1-in

schedule 40 commercial steel pipe. Both tank and truck are

open to the atmosphere, and the level in the tank is 20 ft

above the level in the truck. What is the flow rate of the

gasoline? Ans. 12.6 gal/min

Example 6

horizontally from an air conditioner to an outbuilding 800 ft

away. The air is a 40 degF and 0.1 psig (the atmospheric

pressure is 14.7 psia). At the outbuilding the pressure is to

be 0.0 psig. We will use a circular sheet-metal duct with a

roughness of 0.00006 in. Find the required duct diameter.

Ans. 8.15 in

Effect of Heat Transfer on Friction

Factor

0.17

𝜇𝑎

𝜑= ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 > 2100

𝜇𝑤

0.11

𝜇𝑎

𝜑= 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 > 2100

𝜇𝑤

0.38

𝜇𝑎

𝜑= ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 < 2100

𝜇𝑤

023

𝜇𝑎

𝜑= 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 < 2100

𝜇𝑤

For non-circular conduits

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒

𝑟𝐻 =

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒

The hydraulic diameter is now defined as

𝐷𝐻 = 4𝑟𝐻

Friction Losses in Expansion, Contraction

and Pipe Fittings

1. Sudden enlargement losses

𝑢12 𝐽

𝐹𝑒 = 𝐾𝑒

2𝛼 𝑘𝑔

2. Sudden contraction losses

𝑢22 𝐽

𝐹𝑐 = 𝐾𝑐

2𝛼 𝑘𝑔

3. Fittings and valves

𝑢12 𝐽

𝐹𝑓𝑣 = 𝐾𝑓𝑣

2𝛼 𝑘𝑔

Important Notes on the K’s

Example 7

Hot water in an open storage tank at 82.2 degC is being

pumped at a rate of 0.379 cu m/min from the storage tank.

The line from the storage tank to the pump suction is 6.1 m

of 2-in schedule 40 steel pipe and it contains three elbows.

The discharge line after the pump is 61 m of 2-in pipe and

contains two elbows. The water discharges to the

atmosphere at a height of 6.1 m above the water level in the

storage tank.

a. Calculate all the frictional losses

b. What is the power requirement of the pump if its

efficiency is 75%?

Example 8

A new water piping system is being designed for an

apartment complex. The supply water to this complex must

provide 1200 gal/min at a pressure of 25 psi and will come

from the large diameter main city supply line which is

maintained at 65 psi. We want to determine the appropriate

pipe diameter to use to connect the city line to the

apartment complex line. We are going to use a plastic

material with an equivalent roughness of 5x10^-7 ft. We also

know that we are going to use 100 ft of pipe, 4 threaded 90

elbows, 10 threaded unions and a swing check valve for

forward flow. The elevation difference between the main

source and the apartment source is 10 ft. Determine the

pipe diameter to use. (Density = 1.94 slugs/ cu ft, μ=2.34 x

10^-5 lb-s/sq. ft)

Empirical Relations

0.079

𝑓 = 0.25 𝑓𝑜𝑟 4,000 < 𝑅𝑒 < 105

𝑅𝑒

Colebrook Formula (For rough pipes)

1 𝜖 1.256

= −4 log + 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑒 > 4000

𝑓 3.7𝐷 𝑅𝑒 𝑓

Churchill Equation

0.9

1 0.27𝜖 7

= −4 log + 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑒 > 4000

𝑓 𝐷 𝑅𝑒

Empirical Relations

Empirical Relations

1 Q, D, e, u Head, h

Volumetric

2 D, e, u, h

Flowrate, Q

3 Q, e, u, h Pipe Diameter, D

Empirical Relations

𝑒

For : 10−6 < < 10−2

𝐷

3000 < Re < 3 𝑥 108

2 0.9 −2

𝑄 𝐿 𝑒 𝑢𝐷

ℎ = 1.07 5 ln + 4.62

𝑔𝐷 3.7𝐷 𝑄

Empirical Relations

5 0.5 2 0.5

𝑔𝐷 ℎ 𝑒 3.17𝑢 𝐿

𝑄 = −0.965 ln +

𝐿 3.7𝐷 𝑔𝐷3 ℎ

Empirical Relations

𝑒

For: 10−6 < < 10−2

𝐷

5000 < Re < 3 𝑥 108

𝐿𝑄 𝐿

𝐷 = 0.66 𝑒1.25 + 𝑢𝑄 9.4

𝑔ℎ 𝑔ℎ

Example

transport 0.002 cu. meter per second of 20 C water over a

400-m length so that the head loss does not exceed 30 m?

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