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Transport Processes 1

Lecture 3: Mechanical Energy Balance and Bernoulli’s Equation

The Basics…

 Mass balance
 Energy balance
Example 1

Water at 85 °C is being stored in a large, insulated tank at

atmospheric pressure. It is being pumped at steady state by
a pump at a rate of 0.567 cu. m/min from this tank to a
second tank whose water level is 20 m above the water level
on the first tank. The motor driving the pump supplies
energy at a rate of 7.45 kW. The water passes through a heat
exchanger, where it gives up 1408 kW of heat. Calculate the
final temperature of the water delivered to the second tank.
Ans. 48.41 °C
Example 2

Water with a density of 998 kg/ cu. m is flowing at a steady

mass flow rate through a uniform-diameter pipe. The
entrance pressure of the fluid is 68.9 kPa abs in the pipe,
which connects to a pump that actually supplies 155.4 J/kg
of fluid flowing in the pipe. The exit pipe from the pump is
the same diameter as the inlet pipe. The exit section of the
pipe is 3.05 m higher than the entrance and the exit
pressure is 137.8 kPa abs. The Reynolds number in the pipe
is above 4000 in the system. Calculate the friction loss in the
pipe system. Ans. 56.5 J/kg
Design Equations for Laminar and
Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Vmax vs. Vave
Design Equations for Laminar and
Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Vmax vs. Vave
Pressure Drop and Friction Loss in
Laminar Flow
Recall Navier-Stokes Equations…
Math Magic!!!
𝑝1 − 𝑝2 =
The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for LAMINAR FLOWS ONLY!
Example 3

A small capillary with an inside diameter of 2.22 x 10^-3 m

and a length of 0.317 m is being used to continuously
measure the flow rate of a liquid having a density of 875
kg/m3 and μ=1.13 x 10^-3 Pa-s. The pressure drop reading
across the capillary during flow is 0.0655 m water (density of
996 kg/m3). What is the volumetric flow rate in m3/s if end
effect corrections are neglected? Ans. 1.066 x 10^-6
Friction factor, f

For laminar and turbulent flows,

∆𝐿 𝑣 2
𝐹𝑓 = 4𝑓
𝐷 2

𝑓 = 𝑓𝑢𝑛𝑐. ( , 𝑅𝑒)
For laminar flow…
Moody’s Diagram

Please refer to the Handbook…

Example 4

Ninety-eight percent sulfuric acid is pumped at 4.5 ton/h

(1.25 kg/s) through a 25 mm diameter pipe, 30 m long, to a
reservoir 12 m higher than the feed point. Calculate the
pressure drop in the pipeline.
μ = 2.5 x 10^-3 Pa-s
Density = 1840 kg/m3
Pressure drop and Friction Factor in
Flow of Gases
4𝑓∆𝐿𝐺 2
(𝑝1 − 𝑝2 )𝑓 =
4𝑓∆𝐿𝐺 2 𝑅𝑇
(𝑝12 − 𝑝22 )𝑓 =
𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑒 is the density at the average pressure
When the pressure drop is greater than 10% incompressible
flow cannot be assumed.
Example 5

A gasoline storage tank drains by gravity to a tank truck. The

pipeline between the tank and the truck is 200 ft of 1-in
schedule 40 commercial steel pipe. Both tank and truck are
open to the atmosphere, and the level in the tank is 20 ft
above the level in the truck. What is the flow rate of the
gasoline? Ans. 12.6 gal/min
Example 6

We wish to transport 500 cu. ft/min of air (μ=0.017 cP)

horizontally from an air conditioner to an outbuilding 800 ft
away. The air is a 40 degF and 0.1 psig (the atmospheric
pressure is 14.7 psia). At the outbuilding the pressure is to
be 0.0 psig. We will use a circular sheet-metal duct with a
roughness of 0.00006 in. Find the required duct diameter.
Ans. 8.15 in
Effect of Heat Transfer on Friction
𝜑= ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 > 2100
𝜑= 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 > 2100
𝜑= ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 < 2100
𝜑= 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑒 < 2100
For non-circular conduits

 We use the hydraulic radius

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒
𝑟𝐻 =
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒
 The hydraulic diameter is now defined as
𝐷𝐻 = 4𝑟𝐻
Friction Losses in Expansion, Contraction
and Pipe Fittings
1. Sudden enlargement losses
𝑢12 𝐽
𝐹𝑒 = 𝐾𝑒
2𝛼 𝑘𝑔
2. Sudden contraction losses
𝑢22 𝐽
𝐹𝑐 = 𝐾𝑐
2𝛼 𝑘𝑔
3. Fittings and valves
𝑢12 𝐽
𝐹𝑓𝑣 = 𝐾𝑓𝑣
2𝛼 𝑘𝑔
Important Notes on the K’s

Listen to the lecturer…

Example 7
Hot water in an open storage tank at 82.2 degC is being
pumped at a rate of 0.379 cu m/min from the storage tank.
The line from the storage tank to the pump suction is 6.1 m
of 2-in schedule 40 steel pipe and it contains three elbows.
The discharge line after the pump is 61 m of 2-in pipe and
contains two elbows. The water discharges to the
atmosphere at a height of 6.1 m above the water level in the
storage tank.
a. Calculate all the frictional losses
b. What is the power requirement of the pump if its
efficiency is 75%?
Example 8
A new water piping system is being designed for an
apartment complex. The supply water to this complex must
provide 1200 gal/min at a pressure of 25 psi and will come
from the large diameter main city supply line which is
maintained at 65 psi. We want to determine the appropriate
pipe diameter to use to connect the city line to the
apartment complex line. We are going to use a plastic
material with an equivalent roughness of 5x10^-7 ft. We also
know that we are going to use 100 ft of pipe, 4 threaded 90
elbows, 10 threaded unions and a swing check valve for
forward flow. The elevation difference between the main
source and the apartment source is 10 ft. Determine the
pipe diameter to use. (Density = 1.94 slugs/ cu ft, μ=2.34 x
10^-5 lb-s/sq. ft)
Empirical Relations

 Blasius Equation (For turbulent flow in smooth tubes)

𝑓 = 0.25 𝑓𝑜𝑟 4,000 < 𝑅𝑒 < 105
 Colebrook Formula (For rough pipes)
1 𝜖 1.256
= −4 log + 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑒 > 4000
𝑓 3.7𝐷 𝑅𝑒 𝑓
 Churchill Equation
1 0.27𝜖 7
= −4 log + 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑒 > 4000
𝑓 𝐷 𝑅𝑒
Empirical Relations

 Churchill equation (for any type of flow)

Empirical Relations

Category Known Unknown

1 Q, D, e, u Head, h
2 D, e, u, h
Flowrate, Q
3 Q, e, u, h Pipe Diameter, D
Empirical Relations

For : 10−6 < < 10−2
3000 < Re < 3 𝑥 108

2 0.9 −2
𝑄 𝐿 𝑒 𝑢𝐷
ℎ = 1.07 5 ln + 4.62
𝑔𝐷 3.7𝐷 𝑄
Empirical Relations

For: Re > 2000

5 0.5 2 0.5
𝑔𝐷 ℎ 𝑒 3.17𝑢 𝐿
𝑄 = −0.965 ln +
𝐿 3.7𝐷 𝑔𝐷3 ℎ
Empirical Relations

For: 10−6 < < 10−2
5000 < Re < 3 𝑥 108

2 4.75 5.2 0.04

𝐷 = 0.66 𝑒1.25 + 𝑢𝑄 9.4
𝑔ℎ 𝑔ℎ

Drawn tubing of what diameter should be selected to

transport 0.002 cu. meter per second of 20 C water over a
400-m length so that the head loss does not exceed 30 m?