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The Nature of Research

Ervin Ramos
DLSU-D

Some materials taken from the WWW.


RESEARCH DENOTATIONS AND CONNOTATIONS

 When you think of research, what images


appear in your mind’s eye?
 What do you usually associate with
research? (Connotations)

Tons of
paper
work!!!
 What do you usually associate with
research? (Connotations)

Experiments?
What is research? (Denotation)

 Origin of the Word


“Research”

 From the French


word "recherche"
which means to
travel through or
survey
What is research? (Denotation)
Research is the “process of posing
a research problem, gathering
information, determining
relationships, and writing the
paper” (Plata et. Al, 2006).
What is research? (Denotation)
...An unusually stubborn and persisting
effort to think straight which involves the
gathering and intelligent use of data.
Hamblin, H. (1966). What is research? American Vocational Journal, 41(6), 14-16.
TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave,
Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992)

Action
Basic
Applied
TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave,
Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992)

This type of research is done for the


main purpose of arriving or
testing a theory.
The main objective of the research is
to establish general principles
without known or intended
BASIC RESEARCH
practical application of the
findings.
As Fox (1969, as cited in Sevilla, et.
Al, 1992) wrote, “It is in search of
knowledge for knowledge’s
sake” (p. 65).
TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave,
Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992)

This type of research


is done to solve a
research problem
through the
application of a APPLIED RESEARCH
theory. It is also
sometimes done
to test a theory
and evaluate its
usefulness.
Pulitzer prize winning photo
taken in 1994 during the Sudan famine.
Pulitzer prize winning photo
taken in 1994 during the Sudan famine.

The picture depicts a famine stricken child crawling


towards a United Nations food camp, located a
kilometer away.

The vulture is waiting for the child to die so that


it can eat it. This picture shocked the whole world.
No one knows what happened to the child, including
the photographer Kevin Carter who left the place
as soon as the photograph was taken.

Three months later he committed suicide due to


depression.
TYPES OF RESEARCH (Sevilla, Ochave,
Punsalan, Regala, & Uriarte, 1992)

This refers to
research done by
discovering or
identifying and
solving a problem
in the immediate
ACTION RESEARCH
local setting
without the
intention of
generalizing its
results.
Two Approaches to Research

Quantitative

Qualitative
Quantitative
 Emphasizes numbers,
measurements,
control, and
experimentation

Goal: statistically or
numerically describe,
analyze, show
relationships
(correlations) or
establish causality
Do you agree?
Do you agree?
Qualitative
 Emphasizes natural
settings, observations,
verbal narratives, and
interpretations
 Some Goals:
 Develop understanding
 Describe multiple realities

 Capture naturally
occurring behavior
Qualitative vis-à-vis Quantitative
Sample Size?
Box A Box B

Small  Large

Nonrepresentative  Representative

Purposeful  Random Selection
 Control Groups
 Stratified

Qualitative Quantitative
Qualitative vis-à-vis Quantitative
Methods?

Box A Box B

Experiments  Observation

Quasi-experiments  Open-ended

Surveys interviewing

Structured Interviews  Review of documents

Structured Observations and artifacts

Quantitative
Qualitative
Which Approach is Best?
 One is categorically not better than the other.

 The research problem, objectives, questions,


and data determine which approach is best.

 Before, some researchers underestimate the


importance of qualitative research. Today,
however, qualitative is a significant tool for
researchers worldwide.
Three Major Types of Research

 Historical- WHat Was

 Descriptive - WHat is

 experimental – WHat can be


Possible Sources of Research Problems?

 When there is an absence of information


resulting in a gap in our knowledge.
 When there are contradictory results.
 When a fact exists and you intend to
make your study explain it.
 When you want to improve a product, a
process, a situation…