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Chapter 4

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of data

This chapter presents the results and discussion of data gathered

based on the research problems for this study. The presentation

attempts to answer the problems congruently.

The aims of the study are to identify the demographic profile of

according to the student’s reading ability and comprehension, remedial

reading instruction implements in the classroom, remedial reading class

strategies used by the teachers; remedial reading class improves the

Reading Skills of the students and Ito know if there is a significant

relation between the remedial reading strategies of the teachers to the

improvement of the reading skills of the student.

Demographic profile

In searching for the demographic profile of the teacher

respondents, the researchers identified the demographic profile as school

address, teacher’s position and the type of school of the teacher

respondents. The researchers also identified the demographic profile of

the pupils as the number of enrolment per gender and the reading profile

as independent, instructional reader and frustration level.


Table 1.1: School Address
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

Barangay Poblacion 3 25.0 25.0 25.0

Barangay Kauswagan 6 50.0 50.0 75.0

Barangay Mejo 3 25.0 25.0 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0

Table 1.1 shows the school address of the teachers respondents,

there are 3 (three) teacher respondents who is teaching in barangay

poblacion with 25.0 percent, there are 6 (six) teacher respondents who is

teaching in barangay kauswagan with 50 percent and there are 3 (three)

teacher respondents who is teaching in barangay mejo with 25 percent.

Table 1.2: Position of the Teacher Respondents


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

Teacher I 1 8.3 8.3 8.3

Teacher II 4 33.3 33.3 41.7

Valid Teacher III 6 50.0 50.0 91.7

Master Teacher I 1 8.3 8.3 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0

Table 1.2 shows the position of the teacher respondents; the

researchers identified the position as Teacher 1, Teacher 2, Teacher 3

and Master Teacher 1. 1 (one) teacher respondent whose position is

teacher 1 with 8.3 percent, 4 (four) teacher respondents whose position

is Teacher 2 with 33.3 percent, 6 (six) teacher respondents whose


position is Teacher 3 and 1 (one) teacher respondents whose position is

Master Teacher 1 with 8.3 percent.

Table 1.3: Types of School


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

Complete Elementary
12 100.0 100.0 100.0
School

Table 1.3 shows the type of school teaching by the teacher

respondents, all of the teacher respondents teaching in a complete

elementary school with 100 percent.

Table 1.4: Enrolment for Male


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

5-9 5 41.7 41.7 41.7

10-15 5 41.7 41.7 83.3

16-20 1 8.3 8.3 91.7

0 1 8.3 8.3 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0

Table 1.5: Enrolment for female


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

5-9 5 41.7 41.7 41.7

10-15 4 33.3 33.3 75.0

16-20 2 16.7 16.7 91.7

0 1 8.3 8.3 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0


Table 1.4 shows the enrolment for male, the researchers range the

enrolment as 5-9, 10-15, 16-20 and 0. There are 5 (five) teacher

respondents responded that there are 5-9 and 10-15 males enrolled in

remedial class with both 41.7 percent. One (1) teacher respondent

responded that there are 16-20 males enrolled in remedial class with 8.3

percent and 1 (one) teacher respondent responded that there are no

males enrolled in remedial class with 8.3 percent.

Table 1.5: Independent reading profile


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

0-5 7 58.3 58.3 58.3

6-10 4 33.3 33.3 91.7


Valid
16-20 1 8.3 8.3 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0

Table 1.5 shows the independent reading profile of the pupils as

responded by the teacher respondents of the study. There are 7 (seven)

teacher respondents responded that 0-5 pupils are independent reader

with 58.3 percent, 4 (four) teacher respondents responded that 6-10

pupils are independent reader with 33.3 percent and 1 (one) respondent

responded that 16-20 pupils are independent reader with 8.3 percent.
Table 1.6: Instructional Reader Profile
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

0-5 5 41.7 41.7 41.7

6-10 2 16.7 16.7 58.3


Valid
11-15 5 41.7 41.7 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0

Table 1.6 shows the instructional reader profile of the pupils as

responded by the teacher respondents. There are 5 (five) teacher

respondents that 0-5 pupils are instructional reader with 41.7 percent, 2

(two) teacher respondents that 6-10 pupils are instructional reader with

16.7 percent and 5 (five) teacher respondents that 11-15 pupils are

instructional reader with 41.7 percent.

1.7: Frustration Level


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent

0-5 9 75.0 75.0 75.0

Valid 6-10 3 25.0 25.0 100.0

Total 12 100.0 100.0

Table 1.7 shows the frustration level of the pupils as responded by

the teacher respondents. There are 9 (nine) teacher respondents

responded that 0-5 pupils are frustrated readers with 75.0 percent and 3

(three) teacher respondents responded that 6-10 pupils are frustrated

readers with 25 percent.


Implementation of Remedial reading instruction in the classroom

In searching for the implementation of the remedial reading

instruction in the classroom, table 1.8 shows the implementation as

responded by the teacher respondents in the study.

Table 1.8: Implementation of Remedial reading instruction in the


classroom
Statement Frequency Percent Response
The teacher applies 9 75.0 Almost Always
strategies to pupils who do
not understand the words
found in the reading
materials

Teacher provides extra 7 58.3 Almost Always


reading materials, journal,
books and other resources
to be used to help pupils
read

The Teacher assesses pupil 8 66.7 Almost Always


grade level reading skills

The teacher shows a good 10 83.3 Almost Always


rapport towards the pupils

The teacher knows the 8 66.7 Almost Always


fluency level of the students
in reading English

Table 1.8 shows the implementation of remedial reading

instruction in the classroom, there are 9 (nine) teacher respondents

almost always applies strategies to pupils who do not understand the

words found in the reading materials with 75.0 percent, there are 7
(seven) teacher respondents almost always provides reading materials,

journal, books and other resources to be used to help pupils read with

58.3 percent. Almost always, 8 (eight) teacher respondents assess pupil

grade level reading skills with 66.7 percent. 10 (ten) teacher respondents

almost always shows a good rapport towards the pupils with 83.3

percent and the 8 (eight) teacher respondents almost always knows the

fluency level of the students in reading English with 66.7 percent.

Remedial reading class strategies used by the teachers

In searching for the remedial reading class strategies used by the

teachers, the researchers identified the different strategies that used by

the teacher respondents in remedial classes.

Table 1.9: Remedial reading class strategies used by the teachers

Statement Frequency Percent Response


The teacher uses technology 6 50.3 Usually
as part of classroom
instruction

The teacher gives creative 6 50.0 Usually


activities support with
technology

In every lessons, the teacher 4 33.3 Usually/ Almost


exposes the students to the Always
technology as part of the
lessons

The teacher uses intervention 6 50.0 Usually


format one-on one, paired
peers, one-to three, small
group or large group

The teacher uses phonic 7 58.3 Almost Always


decoding to identify
unfamiliar words essential to
effective reading

Table 1.9 shows the remedial reading class strategies used by the

teachers, there are 6 (six) teacher respondents usually used technologies

as part of classroom instruction with 50.3 percent, 6 (six) teacher

respondents usually used creative activities support with technologies

with 50.0 percent and there are 4 (four) teacher respondents usually and

almost always exposes the students to the technologies as part of the

lessons. Usually, the 6 (six) teacher respondents usually used

intervention format one-one-one, paired, peers, one-to-three, small group

or large group with 50 percent.

Furthermore, the 7 (seven) teacher respondents usually utilized

pictures/power point presentation in remedial reading classes with 58.3

percent, 7 (seven) teacher respondents used phonics decoding to identify

unfamiliar words essential to effective reading with 58.3 percent.

Remedial reading class improves the Reading Skills of the students

In searching for the remedial reading class improving the reading

skills of the students, the researchers identified the effects of the

remedial class to the reading skills of the pupils.


Table 1.10: Remedial reading class improves the Reading Skills of the
students
Statement Frequency Percent Response
The pupils develop their
reading skills, by attending to 8 66.7 Almost Always
remedial reading class

Learners show significant


improvement in their reading 7 58.3 Usually
skills such as finding the
mean idea of a passage,
phonics and fluency

Learners are motivated to


develop knowledge of a 6 50.0 Usually/Almost
particular subject, work on Always
reading skills and writing
skills

Learners increased
motivational level because of 6 50.0 Usually
visual image, video, texts, and
sound incorporated into
different remedial

Increase pupils engagement 8 66.7 Almost Always


during remedial classes
improves pupil motivation

Incorporating remedial 6 50.0 Almost Always/


reading instructions in the Usually
classroom raises student
motivation and consequent
learning

Remedial Reading has a 6 50.0 Almost Always/


positive effect on the Usually
knowledge and emotions of
the pupils who struggles in
reading fluency and
comprehension

Remedial reading enable 7 58.3 Almost Always


student to learn basic English
and phonics
Remedial reading increases 7 58.3 Almost Always
the productivity of learners

Students increased their 6 50.0 Almost Always/


phonological/phonemic Usually
awareness, phonics, fluency,
vocabulary, and text
comprehension

Learning sound-letter cues is 6 50.0 Almost Always/


far more important than Usually
focusing on syntax and
sematic

Readers are able to recognize 7 58.3 Usually


different words without any
contextual cueing because of
previous decoding and
memorization of sound
structure

Teacher consider the strength 10 83.3 Almost Always


and weakness of the pupils

Struggling readers are no 7 58.3 Usually


longer labelled as simply
"poor guessers" but those who
need to develop sight
vocabulary through decoding
direct instruction and
repeated exposure/practice

Table 1.10 shows the effects of remedial reading instruction to the

pupils, there are 8 (eight) teacher respondents that almost always the

pupils develop their reading skills, by attending to remedial reading class

with 66.7 percent, 7 (seven) teacher respondents that usually learners

show significant improvement in their reading skills such as finding the

mean idea of a passage, phonics and fluency with 58.3 percent, 6 (six)
teacher respondents usually and almost always learners are motivated to

develop knowledge of a particular subject, work on reading skills and

writing skills with 50 percent and 6 (six) teacher respondents usually

that learners increased motivational level because of visual image, video,

texts, and sound incorporated into different remedial with 50 percent.

Furthermore, 8 (eight) teacher respondents almost always that

pupils increase engagement during remedial classes improves pupil

motivation with 66.7 percent, there are 6 (six) teacher respondents that

almost always and usually that incorporating remedial reading

instructions in the classroom raises student motivation and consequent

learning with 50 percent. There are 6 (six) teacher respondents almost

always and usually that Remedial Reading has a positive effect on the

knowledge and emotions of the pupils who struggles in reading fluency

and comprehension with 50 percent, 7 (seven) teacher respondents

almost always that remedial reading increases the productivity of

learners and there are 6 (six) teacher respondents almost always and

usually that students increased their phonological/phonemic awareness,

phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension with 50 percent.

Moreover, there are 6 (six) teacher respondents that almost always

and usually learning sound-letter cues is far more important than

focusing on syntax and sematic with 50 percent, 7 (seven) teacher

respondents usually that readers are able to recognize different words

without any contextual cueing because of previous decoding and


memorization of sound structure with 58.3 percent, 10 (ten) teacher

respondents that almost always teacher consider the strength and

weakness of the pupils with 83.3 percent, and 7 (seven) teacher

respondents that usually struggling readers are no longer labelled as

simply "poor guessers" but those who need to develop sight vocabulary

through decoding direct instruction and repeated exposure/practice with

58.3 percent.

Significant relation between the remedial reading strategies of the

teachers to the improvement of the reading skills of the student

Table 1.11: Significant relation between the remedial reading strategies of


the teachers
Statement Mean Square Significant Response
Result
Significant
relation between
the remedial 38.321 .151 Significant
reading
strategies of the
teachers to
improve the
reading skills of
the students
Significance level: 0.05

Table 1.11 shows the significant relation between the remedial

reading strategies of the teachers to the reading skills of the students,

the data shows that there is a significant between the remedial reading

strategies of the teachers to the reading skills of the students. It implies


that, the remedial reading instruction strategies affect the reading skills

of the students.
Chapter 5

Summary, Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusion and the

recommendation considered from the results and the findings of the

study.

Summary

The aims of the study are to identify the demographic profile of

according to the student’s reading ability and comprehension, remedial

reading instruction implements in the classroom, remedial reading class

strategies used by the teachers; remedial reading class improves the

Reading Skills of the students and Ito know if there is a significant

relation between the remedial reading strategies of the teachers to the

improvement of the reading skills of the student.

Findings

The study shows revealed that the highest response of the teacher

respondents is that there are 16-20 pupils that are independent readers.

The highest response for instructional readers that there are 11-15

pupils that are instructional readers as revealed by the teacher

respondents and the frustration level of the pupils that according to the

teacher respondents there are 0-5 pupils that are frustrated readers.

The implementation of remedial reading instruction in the

classroom revealed that the teacher respondents implement strategies to


pupils who do not understand the words found in the reading materials,

the teacher respondents provides reading materials, journal, books and

other resources to be used to help pupils read. The teacher respondents

also assess pupil grade level reading skills; they always show a good

rapport towards the pupils and the teacher respondents knows the

fluency level of the students in reading English.

The teachers usually used technologies as part of classroom

instruction, used creative activities support with technologies and expose

the students to the technologies as part of the lessons. Teacher

respondents usually used intervention format one-one-one, paired, peers,

one-to-three, small group or large group. The teacher respondents

usually utilized pictures/power point presentation in remedial reading

classes and used phonics decoding to identify unfamiliar words essential

to effective reading.

The effects of remedial reading instruction to the that pupils

develop their reading skills, by attending to remedial reading class,

teacher respondents observed that learners show significant

improvement in their reading skills such as finding the mean idea of a

passage, phonics and fluency, learners are motivated to develop

knowledge of a particular subject, work on reading skills and writing

skills and learners increased motivational level because of visual image,

video, texts, and sound incorporated into different remedial.


Furthermore, teacher respondents observed that pupils increase

engagement during remedial classes improves pupil motivation,

incorporating remedial reading instructions in the classroom raises

student motivation and consequent learning. Teacher respondents

observed that Remedial Reading has a positive effect on the knowledge

and emotions of the pupils who struggles in reading fluency and

comprehension, remedial reading increases the productivity of learners

and students increased their phonological/phonemic awareness,

phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension.

Moreover, teacher respondents revealed that learning sound-letter

cues is far more important than focusing on syntax and sematic, they

usually observed that readers are able to recognize different words

without any contextual cueing because of previous decoding and

memorization of sound structure, consider the strength and weakness of

the pupils, and struggling readers are no longer labelled as simply "poor

guessers" but those who need to develop sight vocabulary through

decoding direct instruction and repeated exposure/practice.

Conclusions

1. The study shows that there are greater numbers of pupils enrolled in

the remedial reading class but shows improvement such as being an

independent reader, instructional reader and lessen their frustration

reading level.
2. The implementation of remedial reading instruction in the classroom

revealed that the teacher respondents implement strategies to pupils who

do not understand the words found in the reading materials, and

provides reading materials, journal, books and other resources to be

used to help pupils read.

3. The teacher also assess pupil grade level reading skills; show a good

rapport towards the pupils and the teacher respondents knows the

fluency level of the students in reading English.

4. Teachers used technologies as part of classroom instruction and used

creative activities support with technologies, utilized pictures/power

point presentation in remedial reading classes and expose the students

to the technologies as part of the lessons.

5. Remedial reading instruction shows development in pupils reading

skills, by attending to remedial reading class, learners show significant

improvement in their reading skills such as finding the mean idea of a

passage, phonics and fluency.

6. Learners are motivated to develop knowledge of a particular subject,

work on reading skills and writing skills and learners increased

motivational level because of visual image, video, texts, and sound

incorporated into different remedial.

7. Teachers observed that pupils increase engagement during remedial

classes improves pupil motivation, incorporating remedial reading


instructions in the classroom raises student motivation and consequent

learning.

8. Teacher observed that Remedial Reading has a positive effect on the

knowledge and emotions of the pupils who struggles in reading fluency

and comprehension.

9. Remedial reading increases the productivity of learners and students

increased their phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,

vocabulary, and text comprehension.

10. Struggling readers are no longer labelled as simply "poor guessers"

but those who need to develop sight vocabulary through decoding direct

instruction and repeated exposure/practice.

Recommendations

1. Teachers may find other strategies that may help to improve the

reading skills of the pupils. The teachers may consider the frustration

level of the pupils so that the teachers may know the strategies that may

place.

2. Teachers may use technologies that may help in their remedial reading

instructions. It is good to note that according to the study, the

technologies really help to improve the reading skills of the pupils.

3. School administration may conduct workshops and seminars about

strategies for remedial reading instruction and its effects to the pupils

reading skills for teacher’s development.


4. School administrator may procure more reading materials,

technologies that may improve the reading skills ability of the pupils.