Nomenclature*
A = crosssectional area of pipe, ft2 q = net lateral load per unit z*(X, a>) = Fourier transform of z{x, to),
length, lbf/ft, equation (13) fps, equation (19)
b = — [EI/(mP + m f ) ] ' /  , time Q = shear force, lbf, equation (11) a = {mFV2 + pA)/EI,{t"
r = quantity defined by equation
constant, sec  1 , equation /3 = 2mFV/EI, sec/ft 3
(25), f t 
(47b) 7 = (mp + mP)/EI, sec 2 /ft 4
?•' = coordinate in crosssectional
E = modulus of elasticity, lbf/ft 2 6 = angle between vertical and
plane, ft, Fig. 1
f{x) = initial pipe displacement, ft, R = local radius of curvature of radius of curvature, rad,
equation (17a) pipe, ft, Fig. 1 Fig.l
/*(X) = exponential Fourier transform R{ = inside pipe radius, ft di = angle defined by equation (27),
of f{x), ft2, equation (21) R0 = outside pipe radius, ft rad
Fr' = resultant pressure force in s = arc length on pipe wall, ft, 82 = angle defined by equation
(•'direction, lbf, Fig. 1 Fig.l (28), rad
Fe = resultant pressure in zdirec s' = arc length of neutral axis, ft, X = wave number or Fourier trans
tion, lbf Fig.l form variable, f t  1
g{x) = initial pipe velocity distribu >S = maximum stress in pipe wall, Xmin = {K/EI)1/', wave number of
tion, fps, equation (176) lbf/ft 2 , equation (52) slowest positive wave, f t " 1
t = time, sec fi = angle defined by equation
g*(\) = exponential Fourier transform
V = flow velocity, fps (26), rad
of g{x), ft 2 /sec, equation
Vc = critical flow velocity defined p = po/EI, sec/ft 4
(22)
by equation (42), fps po = damping coefficient, lbf sec/
7 = 7 [ft 4 Rf. area moment Vp = co/X = wave velocity, fps ft2
4 V* = bL, fps, equation (47c)
of pipe about principle axis, pp = fluid density, slug/ft 3
x = axial distance from origin, ft
ft4 pF = pipe wall material density,
X = x/2L = dimensionless axial
k = K/EI, ft~ 4 slug/ft 3
distance, equation (51a)
K = foundation modulus, lbf/ft 2 Ax = axial distance from translating T = dimensionless time, equation
axis of symmetry, ft (51a)
I — arc length, ft, Fig. 1
y = coordinate in crosssectional <f> = angle defined by equation
L = initial shape factor, ft, equa
plane, ft, Fig. 1 (29), rad
tion (30)
z{x) = lateral deflection of neutral co = angular frequency of oscilla
mF = pFA = fluid mass per unit
axis at position x, ft, Fig. 1 tion or Laplace transform
length, slug/ft «o = initial displacement of posi variable, rad/sec
mP = pPir[Ro2 — Rf} = pipe mass tion x = 0, ft Wo = [K /{mp + mP)}l/* = angular
per unit length, slug/ft Az = amplitude difference at ± A s , frequency, rad/sec, equa
M = bending moment, ftlbf, equa ft, equation (44) tion (47a)
tion (12) z{x, co) = Laplace transform of z{x), fps, fl = dimensionless frequency,
p = internal fluid pressure, lbf/ft 2 equation (20) equation (51c)
Development and Application of the Equation of Motion Making the common approximation for small deflections, i.e.,
dz
Equation of Motion — « 1, gives the following result:
dx
Fig. 1 is useful in formulating the effect of internal pressure on
the motion of the pipe. The component of pressure force in dF, d*z
(10)
the r'direction acting on the area element dlds is given by dx dx2
thereby transmitted to the pipe, then it can be shown t h a t the All these coefficients are real and positive provided flow is in the
two pressure terms would exactly cancel one another and there positive direction. The initial conditions which determine the
would be no net effect of internal pressure. motion of the pipe are
On the basis of Fig. 2, the remaining forces on the pipe element
may be determined. Assuming that the pipe behaves as a z(x, 0) = /Or) (17a)
simple beam with its deflection described by the neutral axis, and
then the equilibrium equations for small deflections are
dz{x, 0)
9(x). (176)
Q = (11) dt
0.0
1 /
A ,
/°l
z/z0
0.0
8.7 X 103 lbfin. 2 /ft 4 ) and for a hard foundation modulus (K =
2.07 X 10' lb f in. 2 /it 4 ). The internal pressure is zero and the
flow velocity is 100 fps. The approximate observed frequencies
for these two cases a r e / = 0.24 cps a n d / = 18.0 cps, respectively.
•/ lA These values agree approximately with the frequency a>o that is
1.0 1/ 1.0 V= 1000 ft/sec
calculated from equation (47). co3 = [K/(mF + m P )] 1 / 2 represents
 V = 3 0 0 ft/sec the angular frequency of those waves whose wave number, X, is
zero (i.e., infinite wavelength). Hence, for low values of flow
P = 1.86 x 10 4 l b f / f t 2 velocities and internal pressure, the short wavelengths do not
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f  i n 2 / f . 4
significantly influence the observed frequency response and the
Po = 0
x = 0
effects of flow velocity are not pronounced.
However, as flow velocity and pressure are increased, then
effects become important even for large values of the foundation
modulus. Fig. 9 demonstrates the effect of flow velocity on the
system response for a fixed pressure (p = 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 ) and
a hard foundation modulus (K = 2.07 X 10' lb f in. 2 /ft 4 ). As
shown, the increased flow velocity severely alters the form of the
oscillation.
Wave Propagation. The previous discussion is centered on the
time response of the point x = 0. In this section the wave
V = 2 0 0 0 ft/sec ,0L V = 2 5 0 0 ft/sec form of the entire pipe is considered to illustrate the character
Fig. 9 Pipe displacement for hard foundation with pressurized fluid istics of the wave propagation as influenced by flow velocity,
flowing at different velocities internal pressure, and foundation modulus.
Fig. 10 shows the spatial wave form at various instances for a
t = 0.05 sec
../l VY.
t = 0.05 sec
t =0.15 sec
I = 0.15 sec
V.= 0 , p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f l 2 , p0 = 0
t = 0 . 2 5 sec
t = 0.25 sec
t= 0 . 5 0 0 sec t = 0 . 5 0 sec
K = 0
K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f  i n 2 / f t 4 K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b ,  i n 2 / f t 4
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f  i n . 2 / f t 4 K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f  i n . 2 / f t 4
Fig. 10 Displacement profile for pipe with unpressurized static fluid Fig. 11 Displacement profiles for pipe with pressurized static fluid w i t h
with various foundation moduli various foundation moduli
r = X2[X2  (a  0 7 4 7 ) ] + k. (45)
I t is required t h a t the quantity Az be identically zero for all { and
Ax if a symmetric wave is to develop about this translating axis.
I t is apparent t h a t the integral of equation (44) is not zero except
in the trivial case that /3 = 0, t h a t is, if the flow velocity is zero.
Fig. 3 was constructed using mF/mP = 1.0, but the labels on the The constants «o, b, and V* are defined as follows:
 MM1,
curve are shown for the general case.
K \V«
The wave number, X, is a parameter of the curve. There (47a)
exists a wave number, X = Xmm = (K/EI)1^ (represented by the
inner envelope of the figure), such that for X § Xinin the waves EI
corresponding to the positive roots of equation (41) all have b = —A( VA (476)
wave velocities greater than that for X = Xmi„. Hence, the L1 \mF + mPJ
slowest positively traveling wave will have a wavelength equal to and
= (EI/K)1/*, provided the negative roots of equation (41) V* = bL.
are less than zero. As shown in the figure, the negative roots of As t becomes large, the expression for Az/zo approaches zero
equation (41) will result in some slower positively traveling asymptotically, indicating that the wave form tends toward
components if the flow velocity satisfies the inequality given by spatial symmetry with respect to an axis translating with a speed
of mFV/(mF + mP). I t is also apparent from equations (44)
— > [mP/(mF + mP)]1/2. (43) and (45) t h a t the absolute magnitude of Az at a given time will
' r. vary approximately inversely with the value of fc1/2 = (K/EI)1^1,
mFviPVi
pA . Fig. 4 is a plot of equation (50) for X = 4.0 (x = 100 ft) and
provided ( a — ; 8 2 / 4 Y ) = fi = 18.15 (K = 2.07 X 10' lb f in 2 /ft 4 , V = 200 fps). These
+ — is not too large.
T h a t is, a high value of the{mFfoundation
+ mP)EI modulus
EI K decreases the values were chosen so that this approximate solution covild be com
scale of the asymmetry of the wave propagation if the pressure pared with the computed results of the exact solution. The enve
and flow velocity are moderate. The rate of approach to sym lope of the oscillations shown in Fig. 4 is given by the two nonoscil
metric propagation depends on the initial shape factor L, through latoiy terms of equations (49) or (50). The exponential term has
the parameter b. the predominant influence on the envelope and if it is com
I t is of interest to investigate the behavior of the pipe in the pared with the initial shape of the disturbance at I = 0 (i.e.,
limit that the foundation modulus becomes large. The following z — zae~x2/4L'*) it is apparent that it represents a translation of
informal argument is employed to develop a description for large the initial wave form downstream at a velocity  8 / 2 Y = mFV'/
foundation moduli. I n equation (24) it can be seen that the (mF 4 nip). . T h e frequency of oscillation is approximately co0.
integrands are decreasing functions of X by virtue of the char Therefore, in the limit of very large foundation modulus, the
acter of the assumed initial wave form, i.e., /*(X) ~ e~x2L*. deformation behavior of the pipe may be represented by a con
Hence, to any degree of accuracy required, the integrals may be stantvelocity translating wave packet with frequency Wo =
approximated by integrating over a finite range of X. For ex [K/(viF + mP)]1'', the envelope of which is an unattenuated
ample, the computer calculations which covered the range duplication of the initial disturbance. At upstream locations
— 3 < XL < 3 agreed to four significant figures with those inte (i.e., for negative x) this conclusion does not hold. I n fact, for
grations covering the range — 4 < XL < 4. Thus, if k = K/EI the example cited, 0 = 18.15, the value of z(X, r)/z0 a t X =
is greater than the order of X4 ^ (3/L) 4 , the expression for r — 4.0 is always less than the order of e_ ( _ 4 ) 2
given by equation (45) may be approximated by neglecting the
terms involving X4. The term involving X2 may be dropped if Computer Studies for Case of Zero Damping
(ft"*)2
4£2 '1 + P
flection of Zo/ffio = 0.01 with no internal pressure. T h e maxi
mum stress in the pipe is given by
47co„L2 J) ElioZo
S = (52)
2L1 '
±yo>0TJ
sin < t a n ' Wo«>. (49) Using R0 = 15.0 in., E = 30 X 106 psi, and S = 1500 psi, results
£ ft \ in the value L — 12.5 ft. Table 1 summarizes these and other
x1 derived parameters used in the study. The largest foundation
2T / modulus corresponds to a value typical of crushed gravel, and the
For convenience, this expression may be rewritten in terms of
pipe and fluid properties are typical of steel and water.
three dimensionless quantities X, T, and 0
lrx)i h [2(T  X
+
Za
Table 1 Inpurparameters for computer studies
£2
X sin { tan + fir . (50) V = flow velocity 02900 fps
_2(T  X)_ p internal pressure 07200 lbt/ft 2
K foundation modulus 02 X 107 lb f in.'Vft4
The dimensionless quantities are defined as follows: E elastic modulus 3 X 10' lbf/in. 2
Pp pipe density 15.20 slug/ft 3
X = x/2L, (51a) pF fluid density 1.86 slug/ft 3
R„ = pipe outside radius 15.00 in.
Ri = pipe inside radius 14.75 in.
(516) L initial shape factor 12.50 ft
\m,P + mF/ \ 2 L ,
A crosssectional pipe area 4.7465 ft 2
uid mF = mass per unit length (fluid) 8.828 slug/ft
nip — mass per unit length (pipe) 2.466 slug/ft
4Af.*^,T
f_^_YAf!!^±^'V^V (5)
a / Tf \ 'A / ^ .1 \ /r\
n= ^ =2 (51c) I = area moment of pipe cross section
about principal axis 0.1246 ft4
\mP + mF) \ mF )\V)
,K = 0 K= 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f  i n 2 / f t 4
z/z0 / K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f  i n 2 / f t 4
0.0
2 3
I, sec
V = 100 ft/sec
p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f t 2
Po= °
x = 0
X = 7.7 x 10'
0.0
t, sec
Fig. 7 Pipe displacement for soft and zero foundation with pressurized
Fig. 5 Pipe displacement for soft and zero foundation with unpressurized flowing fluid
flowing fluid
i.O
z/z0
o.o
t, sec
V = 100 ft/sec
p = 0
x =0
K = 2 < I07lbfin2/fl"
(42)], while for K = 7.7 X 102 lb t in. 2 /ft 4 , the behavior is stable.
The critical velocity for this latter case is calculated to be Ve ~
236 fps; hence, for a flow velocity of 100 fps, the stability criterion
is satisfied.
Fig. 6 shows the motion of the pipe having a stationary load,
7 = 0, but pressurized to 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 = 129 psi for two
^K = 7.7x I 0 2 l b ,  i n 2 / f t 4
values of the foundation modulus. For K = 0 the system is un
4 6 stable as predicted by equation (42). For K = 7.7 X 102 l b r
t, sec in. 2 /ft 4 the critical velocity is Ve = 100 fps; hence, the system is
Fig. 6 Pipe displacement for soft and zero foundation with pressurized obviously stable for V = 0. The curve for K = 0 is nonoscilla
static fluid tory, as might be expected in that the pressurization would lead
to a pure buckling mode of instability when the flow velocity is
zero. I t should be remembered that the pipe ends are assumed
A few examples of the numerical results are presented in the to be unconstrained in this analysis and the pressure is exerted
following discussion to illustrate the effects of flow velocity, by frictionless pistons acting on the fluid alone.
pressure, and foundation modulus on the stability and wave Fig. 7 illustrates the combined effects of pressurization and
propagation characteristics of an undamped pipe. flow velocity on the behavior of the system. The motion of the
Stability. Fig. 5 presents the effect of the foundation modulus point x = 0 is unstable for K = 0 as expected. For K = 7.7 X
on the stability of the system. The oscillations at x = 0 for a 102 lbtin.Vft 4 , the critical velocity is Vc = 100 fps, which is
soft foundation modulus, K = 7.7 X 102 lb f in.Vft 4 , and for a equal to the flow velocity in the example. Therefore, the motion
zero foundation modulus are shown. The internal pressure is is marginally stable, neither growing nor diminishing with time.
zero and the flow velocity is 100 fps. With K = 0, the oscilla A slightly higher value of flow velocity would lead to unstable
tion is unstable as predicted by the stability criterion [equation vibrations.
0.0
1 /
A ,
/°l
z/z0
0.0
8.7 X 103 lbfin. 2 /ft 4 ) and for a hard foundation modulus (K =
2.07 X 10' lb f in. 2 /it 4 ). The internal pressure is zero and the
flow velocity is 100 fps. The approximate observed frequencies
for these two cases a r e / = 0.24 cps a n d / = 18.0 cps, respectively.
•/ lA These values agree approximately with the frequency a>o that is
1.0 1/ 1.0 V= 1000 ft/sec
calculated from equation (47). co3 = [K/(mF + m P )] 1 / 2 represents
 V = 3 0 0 ft/sec the angular frequency of those waves whose wave number, X, is
zero (i.e., infinite wavelength). Hence, for low values of flow
P = 1.86 x 10 4 l b f / f t 2 velocities and internal pressure, the short wavelengths do not
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f  i n 2 / f . 4
significantly influence the observed frequency response and the
Po = 0
x = 0
effects of flow velocity are not pronounced.
However, as flow velocity and pressure are increased, then
effects become important even for large values of the foundation
modulus. Fig. 9 demonstrates the effect of flow velocity on the
system response for a fixed pressure (p = 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 ) and
a hard foundation modulus (K = 2.07 X 10' lb f in. 2 /ft 4 ). As
shown, the increased flow velocity severely alters the form of the
oscillation.
Wave Propagation. The previous discussion is centered on the
time response of the point x = 0. In this section the wave
V = 2 0 0 0 ft/sec ,0L V = 2 5 0 0 ft/sec form of the entire pipe is considered to illustrate the character
Fig. 9 Pipe displacement for hard foundation with pressurized fluid istics of the wave propagation as influenced by flow velocity,
flowing at different velocities internal pressure, and foundation modulus.
Fig. 10 shows the spatial wave form at various instances for a
t = 0.05 sec
../l VY.
t = 0.05 sec
t =0.15 sec
I = 0.15 sec
V.= 0 , p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f l 2 , p0 = 0
t = 0 . 2 5 sec
t = 0.25 sec
t= 0 . 5 0 0 sec t = 0 . 5 0 sec
K = 0
K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f  i n 2 / f t 4 K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b ,  i n 2 / f t 4
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f  i n . 2 / f t 4 K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f  i n . 2 / f t 4
Fig. 10 Displacement profile for pipe with unpressurized static fluid Fig. 11 Displacement profiles for pipe with pressurized static fluid w i t h
with various foundation moduli various foundation moduli

x = , 0 ° f t
z/z0
t = 0 . 0 5 sec AAAAAAAA
\AAAAAI 1MM1 AAA AAA'AAA A
ffllyfffllr
0.0
_. J /
"1III 1"
™wwyw\
t, sec
1.0
= 0.15 sec
V = 2 0 0 ft/sec
p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f t 2
K = 2.0736 x I07b,in.2/ft4
V= 100 ft/sec, p = 0 , p0 0
1.0
Pa ' °
t = 0.25 sec
z/z 0
x = 100 ft
0.0 WWWWWWWWWWWVVV
0.7 1.0 1.3
t, sec
I = 0.50 sec
Fig. 13 Propagation of disturbance at downstream and upstream loca
tions for hard foundation
I = 1.0 sec
N
iv" ^*^ ?*===r .'—
^^J z/z0
._.. 
x = 3 0 0 ft
0
x, ft 6.0 8.0 10.0 £
0.2 0.4
t, sec

K = 77xl02lbfin2/ft4
K  87x!03lbfin.2/ft4 V = 88.5 ft/sec
K = 2,0736 x I0 7 lb,in 2 /ft 4 4
p = 1.86 x I 0 l b f / f t
z
Fig. 12 Displacement profiles for pipe with unpressurized flowing fluid K = 7.7335 x I 0 2 l b f  i n z / f t 4
with various foundation moduli 1.0 Po 0
z/z 0