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R. A.

STEIN Vibration of Pipes Containing Flowing Fluids1


Division Chief.
A numerical solution to the equation of motion that describes the behavior of an elas-
M. W. TOBRINER tically supported pipe of infinite length conveying an ideal pressurized fluid has been
Senior Engineer. developed, and a new interpretation of the effects produced by internal pressure forces is
presented. The effects of foundation modulus, flow velocity, and internal pressure on
Engineering Physics Section, the dynamic stability, frequency response, and wave-propagation characteristics of an
Battelle Memorial Institute, undamped system are discussed. The stability of the system is assured if the flow
Washington, D. C. velocity does not exceed a critical value. Internal pressure decreases the observed fre-
quency of the system while the presence of flow produces two effects: one increases and
the other decreases the oscillation frequency. The spatial wave form is shown to be
asymptotically symmetric with respect to an axis translating downstream at a constant
velocity. For large values of the foundation modulus, the behavior of the pipe is rep-
resented by a positively traveling wave packet of frequency equal to the natural fre-
quency of the spring-mass system with an envelope which is an unattenuated duplication
of the initial disturbance. Graphical examples of the numerical results for a 30-in-
dia steel pipe with a ^-in-thick wall are shown.

Introduction Results for damped systems will be the subject of a subsequent


paper.
L I HE STUDY on which this paper is based considered A theory for the dynamics of elastic pipes carrying flowing
the motion of a long continuous pipe completely filled with a fluid is of considerable interest in many fields. Flexural vibra-
pressurized flowing fluid and supported on an elastic foundation. tions of a pipe containing flowing fluid have direct application
In general when the pipe vibrates laterally, the fluid flow field to problems experienced in oil pipelines [ l ] 2 and in fuel lines of
is affected; conversely, the fluid interacts with the walls of the high-performance aircraft and missiles [2]. In addition, the
pipe and alters the vibrational characteristics of the system. I n theory may be applied, with slight alterations, to a wide variety
this study the fluid was considered to be an incompressible in- of physical problems. For example, the flow of a fluid through
viscid fluid flowing with a constant and uniform velocity profile a completely flexible pipe can be studied as a special case of zero
in a pipe of constant cross-sectional area. Consequently, the stiffness [3, 4]. T h e problem of a stiff moving wire or belt [5]
effects of pipe motion on the fluid are not accounted for while the can be described by the same general theory if pipe mass and
effects of fluid flow on the motion of the pipe are considered. fluid pressure are assumed to be zero. Similarly, the problem
T h e special case with no external damping was examined in de- of a moving string or chain [6-10] may be described by consider-
tail, and a new interpretation of the forces resulting from internal ing the pipe stiffness to be negligible and pipe mass and fluid
fluid pressure is presented. Numerical methods were employed pressure to be zero. The general theory describing the trans-
to obtain solutions for both damped and undamped systems. verse vibrations of a pipe filled with a flowing fluid may also be
used to study the problem of an empty pipe that is surrounded
by a fluid flowing parallel to the axis of the pipe [7, 11].
The vibration of a pipe containing flowing fluid may be thought
1
of as a problem within the large field of hydroelasticity. I n
Portions of this study were presented by R. A. Stein in partial the field of hydroelasticity, a solid body is examined with par-
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
in the Department of Engineering Mechanics, The Ohio State ticular emphasis placed upon the study of the influence of an
University, Dec. 1967. interacting fluid upon the state of the solid. Hydroelasticity is
Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division for publication closely associated with the science of aeroelasticit}'. T h e chief
(without presentation) in the JOTJBNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. distinction between the two fields is determined principally by
Discussion of this paper should be addressed to the Editorial the intended application and somewhat b y the nature of the
Department, ASME, United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th interacting fluid. A discussion of the science of hydroelasticity
Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, and will be accepted until January 20,
1971. Discussion received after the closing date will be returned. is contained in several publications [13, 14].
Manuscript received by ASME Applied Mechanics Division, May 1,
2
1969; final revision, March 26, 1970. Paper No. 70-APM-SSS. Numbers in brackets designate References at end of paper.

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This study was confined to an examination of the basic prob- wide variety of boundary conditions using the same power series
lem of the flexural vibrations of a pipe filled with an ideal fluid. technique as Ashley and Haviland. The experiments with
water showed reasonable agreement with theory. However,
the power series solution restricts Long's results to relatively low
Background flow velocities.
The problem of the transverse vibrations of a pipe containing The frequencies of finite beams subjected to various end condi-
a flowing fluid has been investigated previously by several au- tions were investigated by Handelman [20] who analyzed the
thors. These studies are discussed in chronological order. structure of the differential equations of motion without resort
In 1947 Goldenblatt [15] considered a pipeline divided di- to specific solutions.
ametrically into two sections with countercurrent equal velocity Heinrich [3] was the first author to include the effect of in-
flows in each section, neglecting the influence of fluid pressure. ternal pressure on the dynamic behavior of a pipe. However, his
Ashley and Haviland [1] attempted to describe vibrations of the solution to the problem considered only the special case of zero
Trans-Arabian pipeline by analyzing the dynamics of a simply stiffness.
supported pipe span using an approximate power series solution. The case of a simply supported span with an applied axial load
Feodos'yev [16] subsequently demonstrated that the equation of which depended upon the deformation a t the ends of the span
motion derived by these authors did not adequately describe was considered by Bolotin [21]. Chang and Shia [22], inde-
the governing inertial forces. He developed the more complete pendently of Heinrich, derived an equation of motion which
equation and solved it using the Galerkin method. Using accounted for internal pressure; they studied the cases of simply
Hamilton's principle, Housner derived [17] an equation of mo- supported and clamped ends as well as t h a t of an infinitely long
tion identical with Peodos'yev's and both authors concluded that pipe. They demonstrated that certain wavelengths can propa-
axial buckling will occur when the flow velocity exceeds a critical gate only in the direction of the flow velocity provided the ve-
value. Both Housner and Feodos'yev neglected the effects of locity is high enough.
fluid pressure. Benjamin [23] considered the effect of fluid flow on the motion
General equations for compressible fluids flowing in pipes of of a pipe fixed a t one end and free a t the other. The pipe was
nonuniform cross section were developed by Niordson [7]. He assumed to be divided into a series of articulated rigid zones.
considered in detail the case of a pipe vibrating as a beam and his He was the first worker to observe t h a t the motion of the pipe is
conclusions were essentially the same as Feodos'yev's and Hous- independent of fluid friction. Subsequent experiments [24]
ner's regarding stability. Long [18, 19] examined the problem showed substantial agreement with the theory for a system with
analytically and experimentally and developed solutions for a two degrees of freedom.

-Nomenclature*
A = cross-sectional area of pipe, ft2 q = net lateral load per unit z*(X, a>) = Fourier transform of z{x, to),
length, lbf/ft, equation (13) fps, equation (19)
b = — [EI/(mP + m f ) ] ' / - , time Q = shear force, lbf, equation (11) a = {mFV2 + pA)/EI,{t-"
r = quantity defined by equation
constant, sec - 1 , equation /3- = 2mFV/EI, sec/ft 3
(25), f t -
(47b) 7 = (mp + mP)/EI, sec 2 /ft 4
?•' = coordinate in cross-sectional
E = modulus of elasticity, lbf/ft 2 6 = angle between vertical and
plane, ft, Fig. 1
f{x) = initial pipe displacement, ft, R = local radius of curvature of radius of curvature, rad,
equation (17a) pipe, ft, Fig. 1 Fig.l
/*(X) = exponential Fourier transform R{ = inside pipe radius, ft di = angle defined by equation (27),
of f{x), ft2, equation (21) R0 = outside pipe radius, ft rad
Fr' = resultant pressure force in s = arc length on pipe wall, ft, 82 = angle defined by equation
(•'-direction, lbf, Fig. 1 Fig.l (28), rad
Fe = resultant pressure in z-direc- s' = arc length of neutral axis, ft, X = wave number or Fourier trans-
tion, lbf Fig.l form variable, f t - 1
g{x) = initial pipe velocity distribu- >S = maximum stress in pipe wall, Xmin = {K/EI)1/', wave number of
tion, fps, equation (176) lbf/ft 2 , equation (52) slowest positive wave, f t " 1
t = time, sec fi = angle defined by equation
g*(\) = exponential Fourier transform
V = flow velocity, fps (26), rad
of g{x), ft 2 /sec, equation
Vc = critical flow velocity defined p = po/EI, sec/ft 4
(22)
by equation (42), fps po = damping coefficient, lbf sec/
7 = 7 [ft 4 Rf. area moment Vp = co/X = wave velocity, fps ft2
4 V* = bL, fps, equation (47c)
of pipe about principle axis, pp = fluid density, slug/ft 3
x = axial distance from origin, ft
ft4 pF = pipe wall material density,
X = x/2L = dimensionless axial
k = K/EI, ft~ 4 slug/ft 3
distance, equation (51a)
K = foundation modulus, lbf/ft 2 Ax = axial distance from translating T = dimensionless time, equation
axis of symmetry, ft (51a)
I — arc length, ft, Fig. 1
y = coordinate in cross-sectional <f> = angle defined by equation
L = initial shape factor, ft, equa-
plane, ft, Fig. 1 (29), rad
tion (30)
z{x) = lateral deflection of neutral co = angular frequency of oscilla-
mF = pFA = fluid mass per unit
axis at position x, ft, Fig. 1 tion or Laplace transform
length, slug/ft «o = initial displacement of posi- variable, rad/sec
mP = pPir[Ro2 — Rf} = pipe mass tion x = 0, ft Wo = [K /{mp + mP)}l/* = angular
per unit length, slug/ft Az = amplitude difference at ± A s , frequency, rad/sec, equa-
M = bending moment, ft-lbf, equa- ft, equation (44) tion (47a)
tion (12) z{x, co) = Laplace transform of z{x), fps, fl = dimensionless frequency,
p = internal fluid pressure, lbf/ft 2 equation (20) equation (51c)

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Li and DiMaggio [2] studied the motion of a simply supported
pipe, neglecting internal pressure, and substantiated the results
of Niordson using a digital computer to calculate the eigenvalues
of the problem. The motion of deep-water drill strings was
analyzed by Graham, Frost, and Wilhoit [25], b u t the cross
derivative term in the equation of motion was eliminated in
solving the equation.
Roth [26] derived, in general terms, the equations of motion
for pipe flow including the effects of lateral and axial deflections,
damping and restoring forces resulting from the foundation,
compressibility of the fluid, variable pipe cross section, and time-
dependent internal pressure and flow velocity. A rigorous
solution was developed for the case of an infinitely long pipe of
constant cross section with incompressible fluid, neglecting axial
deflections. For the case of constant internal pressure, the
presence of damping was shown to have a deleterious effect on
system stability.
Movchan [27], using Liapunov's method, developed stability
criteria for a simply supported pipe without assuming a space-
time separable solution. He showed that Feodos'yev's critical
velocity result was exact. Dodds and Runyan [28] experimen- Fig. 1 Force diagram resulting from infernal fluid pressure
tally confirmed the predictions of Housner concerning the effects
of flow velocity on vibration frequency and stability for a simply
supported pipe.
ds' = RcW. (3)
Gregory and Paidoussis studied theoretically [29] and experi-
mentally [30] the oscillations of a cantilevered pipe having one Substituting (3) and (2) and integrating (1) around the pipe
fixed and one free end. They presented a mathematical argu- perimeter, c, gives,
ment supporting Benjamin's earlier observation that fluid fric-
tion does not enter the problem. The effect of viscous damping dFr> pr'dy
pdy + (4)
by the foundation was shown to have a destabilizing effect. ds 7 R '
Nemat-Nasser, Prasad, and Herrmann [31] studied a canti-
levered continuous pipe conveying fluid at constant velocity and The first integral of (4) is identically zero and the second in-
demonstrated that the Galerkin method, using a two-term ap- tegral, by the Green theorem, is — (pA/R). Hence,
proximation, may lead to erroneous results. pA
dFV
In a recent paper Naguleswaran and Williams [32] developed (5)
ds' ' R '
exact solutions for the natural frequency, axial distribution of
phase and modal envelopes of pinned-pinned, fixed-fixed, and The component of dFr> acting in the ^-direction is
pinned-fixed pipes. The effects of internal pressure and axial
applied tension were considered. They compared their results dF, = cos 9dFr>. (6)
with those of Galerkin, Rayleigh-Ritz, and Fourier series solu-
tions to the same problems. The physical systems studied did The arc length, ds', may be related to the coordinate x by the
not include an elastic foundation. The authors showed that the following relation:
two-term Galerkin and Rayleigh-Ritz solutions provide good dx
estimates of frequency and phase. Their experimental results —— = cos o. (7)
ds
are in agreement with theoretical results at low flow rates, b u t
reveal the difficulty of predicting the critical flow velocit}'. Combining equations (5)-(7) gives
I n the following sections of this paper the applicable equation
of motion and its solution are developed for an infinitely long pipe dF, _ _pA
(8)
containing a flowing fluid resting on an elastic foundation with dx ~~ R '
external damping. The derivation of the effect of internal pres-
sure is unique, while the equation of motion has been developed The radius of curvature may be deduced from the equation which
previously bjr other authors. The solution for the motion of the describes the position of the neutral axis:
pipe just described, treating it as a beam, has not been previously
/dz\ 'A
reported. (9)
R ~ dx 2 1 + \dx)

Development and Application of the Equation of Motion Making the common approximation for small deflections, i.e.,
dz
Equation of Motion — « 1, gives the following result:
dx
Fig. 1 is useful in formulating the effect of internal pressure on
the motion of the pipe. The component of pressure force in dF, d*z
(10)
the r'-direction acting on the area element dlds is given by dx dx2

Hence, the effect of internal pressure is to create a force in the


<%—{%) = pdy. (1)
z-direction which tends to increase the lateral deflection.
Generally this term has been considered to result from a static
The length ds depends on the distance from the center of curva- axial compressive load of magnitude pA acting on the pipe wall.
ture, As just shown, however, the term actually arises because the
radial component of the pressure is acting over a larger area on
ds = (R + r')dd, (2)
the tensile side of the neutral axis than on the compressive side.
and If the tube ends are closed, and the hydrostatic pressure is

908 / D E C E M B E R 1970 Transactions of the AS ME

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// J I / / / / / / I
Fig. 2 Forces acting on pipe element

thereby transmitted to the pipe, then it can be shown t h a t the All these coefficients are real and positive provided flow is in the
two pressure terms would exactly cancel one another and there positive direction. The initial conditions which determine the
would be no net effect of internal pressure. motion of the pipe are
On the basis of Fig. 2, the remaining forces on the pipe element
may be determined. Assuming that the pipe behaves as a z(x, 0) = /Or) (17a)
simple beam with its deflection described by the neutral axis, and
then the equilibrium equations for small deflections are
dz{x, 0)
9(x). (176)
Q = (11) dt

The foregoing equation of motion including the effects of internal


Wz pressure, i.e., equation (16), but without the last two terms, has
M = -EI (12)
d.r2 been previously developed, for example in references [3 and 22].
However, the effect of pressure on the coefficient a = {mFV'i +
and pA)/EI has been reinterpreted and the inclusion of the forces
associated with external damping and an elastic foundation
5(3
= -5. (13)
dx
General Solution of Equation
with q representing the sum of all the lateral forces acting on
the pipe wall, including inertia forces acting on the fluid element The solution of the equation of motion for an infinitely long-
and transmitted to the pipe wall, inertia forces acting directly on pipe may be developed by taking the exponential Fourier trans-
the pipe, internal pressure forces, and external damping and re- form in space (denoted by starred quantities) of the Laplace
storing forces. I t is assumed that the end conditions on the transform in time (denoted by barred quantities) of equation
pipe are such that no axial tensile load results from the internal (16). Performing the Laplace transform over equation (16)
pressure of the fluid. Furthermore, it is assumed that the fluid yields
flow is steady, uniform, and at constant pressure (both in time
dlz d2z dz
and in space).
—, + a —, + /Sco — + 7">2z + puz + kz
Therefore ax* dx2 dx

d2z d2z d2z dz = 0 ^y™ + yaf{x) + yg(x) + pf(x). (IS)


-8 = m'ir* m
' dP + ' ™+P
bP
A
^r, d.c2 + p>to + Kz
- (14) dx

Performing the exponential Fourier transform over equation


The leading term of (14) represents the acceleration of the fluid
(18) results in
element in the z-direction and is given by the total derivative of
the curve z(x, t) which describes the fluid path: (Tco + P - ij8Xy*(X) + Yg*(A)
z*(\,w) (19)
2 2 2
X4 — a\2 — i(3Xw + YCO2 + pu + k
dH _ /dx\ dj-2•z 2dx _&z_ d ^ dz dz
dt2 ~ \dt) dx~' " d l dxdt dt2 dx +
dP' The following definitions apply:
2
dz bx 1 ("°
For a constant axial flow velocity, — = V and —- = 0. Com- Z*{\,U)=-~-TJ z{x, u)e,}-xdx
(20)
,>
' dt dt2
bining these conditions with equations (11)-(15) gives the final
differential equation describing the motion of the tube z(x,u) = I z{x,t)t>-*'t dt (21)
d4z d2z „ d22 d2z dz
+ a + + + P + k (16)
^ ^ ^ t tw V * = °-
/*(X)= : /(K)e iXx dx (22a)
T h e coefficients a, (3, y, p, and k are defined in the Nomenclature. (ZTT) 1 /' J _

Journal of Applied Mechanics DECEMBER 1970 / 909

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1.0 1.0 Frequency Response. Fig. 8 compares the oscillation of the
If „ point x = 0 for a moderately large foundation modulus (K =
z/z 0

0.0
1 /
A ,
/°-l
z/z0

0.0
8.7 X 103 lbf-in. 2 /ft 4 ) and for a hard foundation modulus (K =
2.07 X 10' lb f -in. 2 /it 4 ). The internal pressure is zero and the
flow velocity is 100 fps. The approximate observed frequencies
for these two cases a r e / = 0.24 cps a n d / = 18.0 cps, respectively.
•/ lA- These values agree approximately with the frequency a>o that is
-1.0 1/ -1.0 V= 1000 ft/sec
calculated from equation (47). co3 = [K/(mF + m P )] 1 / 2 represents
- V = 3 0 0 ft/sec the angular frequency of those waves whose wave number, X, is
zero (i.e., infinite wavelength). Hence, for low values of flow
P = 1.86 x 10 4 l b f / f t 2 velocities and internal pressure, the short wavelengths do not
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f - i n 2 / f . 4
significantly influence the observed frequency response and the
Po = 0
x = 0
effects of flow velocity are not pronounced.
However, as flow velocity and pressure are increased, then-
effects become important even for large values of the foundation
modulus. Fig. 9 demonstrates the effect of flow velocity on the
system response for a fixed pressure (p = 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 ) and
a hard foundation modulus (K = 2.07 X 10' lb f -in. 2 /ft 4 ). As
shown, the increased flow velocity severely alters the form of the
oscillation.
Wave Propagation. The previous discussion is centered on the
time response of the point x = 0. In this section the wave
V = 2 0 0 0 ft/sec ,0L- V = 2 5 0 0 ft/sec form of the entire pipe is considered to illustrate the character-
Fig. 9 Pipe displacement for hard foundation with pressurized fluid istics of the wave propagation as influenced by flow velocity,
flowing at different velocities internal pressure, and foundation modulus.
Fig. 10 shows the spatial wave form at various instances for a

t = 0.05 sec

..-/l VY.
t = 0.05 sec

t =0.15 sec

I = 0.15 sec
V.= 0 , p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f l 2 , p0 = 0

t = 0 . 2 5 sec

t = 0.25 sec

t= 0 . 5 0 0 sec t = 0 . 5 0 sec

t = 1.00 sec •• 1 . 0 sec

K = 0
K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f - i n 2 / f t 4 K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b , - i n 2 / f t 4
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f - i n . 2 / f t 4 K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f - i n . 2 / f t 4
Fig. 10 Displacement profile for pipe with unpressurized static fluid Fig. 11 Displacement profiles for pipe with pressurized static fluid w i t h
with various foundation moduli various foundation moduli

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The dependence of the wave velocity, Vp, (and therefore the
frequency co = \VP) on the flow velocity is apparent from Fig.
3. For any given wave number X the wave velocity and fre-
quency of the positively traveling component increases with in-
creasing flow velocity to a point where the wave velocity corre-
sponding to Xrain equals the flow velocity. Thereafter, certain
of the wave numbers have decreasing frequency and wave ve-
locity as the flow velocity is further increased while the fre-
quency and velocity of other components increase continuously.
The effect of the flow velocity on the negatively traveling com-
ponents is to continuously decrease their negative velocity over
the full range of flow velocity up to the critical flow velocity.
According to equation (41), the phase velocity of any given
wavelength is symmetric with respect to an axis that is traveling
in the positive direction with a velocity of mFV/(mP + mP).
T h a t is, to an observer translating at this speed, the waves cor-
responding to any given wave number would appear to be
traveling to the right and left with equal velocities. This im-
(rTlpfTlir) _
Vvc=- * plies that the straight line whose slope is mF/(mF + mP) in Fig.
1
° mp+mp 3 is an axis of symmetry. Therefore, it could be surmised that
the spatial distribution of waves should always be symmetric
about this translating axis if the initial disturbance is symmet-
ric about the origin. However, because the assumed form of the
solution, i.e., equation (39), does not satisfy the boundary condi-
tions in the limit that x tends to co ( this conclusion is not valid.
Fig. 3 Wave velocity versus flow velocity In general, the exact solutions given by equation (24) must be
investigated to determine the symmetry properties of the wave
forms. For the case of an undamped system, p = 0, using
7<UJ 2 iSXco - X4 + a X 2 - 7c 0. (40) equation (24) it is possible to construct an expression which
represents the difference in amplitude Az of the resultant com-
From this equation it can be seen t h a t for each wavelength there posite wave at equal distances, Ax, up and downstream of an
is an associated vibration frequency. Because there are no end
B m ,V
constraints to provide boundary conditions, all wavelengths are
axis translating at the speed — = ' . The result is
permissible and the observed frequency will be the cumulative
effect resulting from an integration over all wavelengths present. 27 lnF -\- mP
In general, the dominant wavelengths will depend on the spatial
Az = [z(x + Ax) - Z(X - Ax)}x = m/2y
distribution of the initial disturbance as well as the propagation
characteristics of the Fourier components of this distribution. = fa r 2e~ X2L2
L\ sin t(r/y)1/'sin \Axd(L\)
The effect of flow velocity on the velocity of wave propagation TT'A 7V* L J0
may be determined by solving equation (40) for the quantity (44)
V, = co/X: For zero damping, the quantity r reduces to

r = X2[X2 - (a - 0 7 4 7 ) ] + k. (45)
I t is required t h a t the quantity Az be identically zero for all { and
Ax if a symmetric wave is to develop about this translating axis.
I t is apparent t h a t the integral of equation (44) is not zero except
in the trivial case that /3 = 0, t h a t is, if the flow velocity is zero.

(0 (41) However, for nonzero B, as time increases the integral approaches


zero asymptotically. I t can be shown that equation (44) con-
verges to a limit that is-less than the following expression:
Fig. 3 is a plot of phase velocity versus flow velocity; both
velocities are normalized by the critical flow velocity, given by Az I [4/ir1/'] sin [o)„t + t a n " 1 bt]
expression (38) stated as an equality (46)
[" V / mP \ pA
[1 + bV]l/*
v;: [2(KEI) •A _ pA][(mF + mP)/mFmP]. (42) \_V* \mF + mPJ + mFVV*

Fig. 3 was constructed using mF/mP = 1.0, but the labels on the The constants «o, b, and V* are defined as follows:

- MM1,
curve are shown for the general case.
K \V«
The wave number, X, is a parameter of the curve. There (47a)
exists a wave number, X = Xmm = (K/EI)1^ (represented by the
inner envelope of the figure), such that for X § Xinin the waves EI
corresponding to the positive roots of equation (41) all have b = —A( VA (476)
wave velocities greater than that for X = Xmi„. Hence, the L1 \mF + mPJ
slowest positively traveling wave will have a wavelength equal to and
= (EI/K)1/*, provided the negative roots of equation (41) V* = bL.

are less than zero. As shown in the figure, the negative roots of As t becomes large, the expression for Az/zo approaches zero
equation (41) will result in some slower positively traveling asymptotically, indicating that the wave form tends toward
components if the flow velocity satisfies the inequality given by spatial symmetry with respect to an axis translating with a speed
of mFV/(mF + mP). I t is also apparent from equations (44)
— > [mP/(mF + mP)]1/2. (43) and (45) t h a t the absolute magnitude of Az at a given time will
' r. vary approximately inversely with the value of fc1/2 = (K/EI)1^1,

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X = 4.0
n = 1815
u)0= 112.9 rad/sec .
V • 200 fl/sec /
x ' +100 (1 . /
K = 2.0736 x l 0 7 l b f - i n 2 / l l 4 A \
P = 1.86 x I0 4 lb f /ll 2 j ( 1 1
1 11 / \ 7X—s— i i
4 a ^"^A/ I6 i 1 120 24 28\ / \/3£>^—
a,
36 4C

Vis ' " o l —-

Fig. 4 Oscillation of downstream point for large foundation modulus

mFviPVi
pA . Fig. 4 is a plot of equation (50) for X = 4.0 (x = 100 ft) and
provided ( a — ; 8 2 / 4 Y ) = fi = 18.15 (K = 2.07 X 10' lb f -in 2 /ft 4 , V = 200 fps). These
+ — is not too large.
T h a t is, a high value of the{mFfoundation
+ mP)EI modulus
EI K decreases the values -were chosen so that this approximate solution covild be com-
scale of the asymmetry of the wave propagation if the pressure pared with the computed results of the exact solution. The enve-
and flow velocity are moderate. The rate of approach to sym- lope of the oscillations shown in Fig. 4 is given by the two nonoscil-
metric propagation depends on the initial shape factor L, through latoiy terms of equations (49) or (50). The exponential term has
the parameter b. the predominant influence on the envelope and if it is com-
I t is of interest to investigate the behavior of the pipe in the pared with the initial shape of the disturbance at I = 0 (i.e.,
limit that the foundation modulus becomes large. The following z — zae~x2/4L'*) it is apparent that it represents a translation of
informal argument is employed to develop a description for large the initial wave form downstream at a velocity | 8 / 2 Y = mFV'/
foundation moduli. I n equation (24) it can be seen that the (mF -4- nip). . T h e frequency of oscillation is approximately co0.
integrands are decreasing functions of X by virtue of the char- Therefore, in the limit of very large foundation modulus, the
acter of the assumed initial wave form, i.e., /*(X) ~ e~x2L*. deformation behavior of the pipe may be represented by a con-
Hence, to any degree of accuracy required, the integrals may be stant-velocity translating wave packet with frequency Wo =
approximated by integrating over a finite range of X. For ex- [K/(viF -+- mP)]1'', the envelope of which is an unattenuated
ample, the computer calculations which covered the range duplication of the initial disturbance. At upstream locations
— 3 < XL < 3 agreed to four significant figures with those inte- (i.e., for negative x) this conclusion does not hold. I n fact, for
grations covering the range — 4 < XL < 4. Thus, if k = K/EI the example cited, 0 = 18.15, the value of z(X, r)/z0 a t X =
is greater than the order of X4 ^ (3/L) 4 , the expression for r — 4.0 is always less than the order of e_ ( _ 4 ) 2
given by equation (45) may be approximated by neglecting the
terms involving X4. The term involving X2 may be dropped if Computer Studies for Case of Zero Damping

pA Numerical solutions to equation (24) were obtained using a


mptripV
(a - P'/4y) digital computer. The basic input parameters to the program
(mF + mP)EI EI were the flow velocity, V; the internal pressure, p; the fluid and
is less than the order of (3/L) 2 . These approximations result in pipe densities, pF and pP; the foundation modulus, K; the modulus
of elasticity, E; the inside and outside pipe radii; and the param-
r ~ fc. (48) eter L which describes the initial disturbance.
With r — k and p = 0, equation (24) may be integrated exactly The value of L, the initial shape factor, was chosen to give a
to give reasonable value of the maximum stress in the wall for a de-

(ft"*)2
4£2 '1 + P
flection of Zo/ffio = 0.01 with no internal pressure. T h e maxi-
mum stress in the pipe is given by

47co„L2 J) ElioZo
S = (52)
2L1 '
±yo>0TJ
sin < t a n ' Wo«>. (49) Using R0 = 15.0 in., E = 30 X 106 psi, and S = 1500 psi, results
£ ft \ in the value L — 12.5 ft. Table 1 summarizes these and other
x1 derived parameters used in the study. The largest foundation
2T / modulus corresponds to a value typical of crushed gravel, and the
For convenience, this expression may be rewritten in terms of
pipe and fluid properties are typical of steel and water.
three dimensionless quantities X, T, and 0

-lr-x)i h [2(T - X
+
Za
Table 1 Inpurparameters for computer studies
£2
X sin { tan + fir . (50) V = flow velocity 0-2900 fps
_2(T - X)_ p internal pressure 0-7200 lbt/ft 2
K foundation modulus 0-2 X 107 lb f in.'Vft4
The dimensionless quantities are defined as follows: E elastic modulus 3 X 10' lbf/in. 2
Pp pipe density 15.20 slug/ft 3
X = x/2L, (51a) pF fluid density 1.86 slug/ft 3
R„ = pipe outside radius 15.00 in.
Ri = pipe inside radius 14.75 in.
(516) L initial shape factor 12.50 ft
\m,P + mF/ \ 2 L ,
A cross-sectional pipe area 4.7465 ft 2
uid mF = mass per unit length (fluid) 8.828 slug/ft
nip — mass per unit length (pipe) 2.466 slug/ft
4Af.*^,T
f_^_YAf!!^±^-'V^V (5)
a / Tf \ 'A / ^ .1 \ /r\
n= ^ =2 (51c) I = area moment of pipe cross section
about principal axis 0.1246 ft4
\mP + mF) \ mF )\V)

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1.0

,K = 0 K= 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f - i n 2 / f t 4
z/z0 / K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f - i n 2 / f t 4

0.0
2 3
I, sec

V = 100 ft/sec
p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f t 2
Po= °
x = 0

X = 7.7 x 10'

0.0

t, sec

Fig. 7 Pipe displacement for soft and zero foundation with pressurized
Fig. 5 Pipe displacement for soft and zero foundation with unpressurized flowing fluid
flowing fluid

i.O

z/z0

o.o
t, sec

V = 100 ft/sec
p = 0

x =0

K = 2 < I07lbf-in2/fl"

Fig. 8 Pipe displacement for moderate and hard foundation with


unpressurized flowing fluid

(42)], while for K = 7.7 X 102 lb t in. 2 /ft 4 , the behavior is stable.
The critical velocity for this latter case is calculated to be Ve ~
236 fps; hence, for a flow velocity of 100 fps, the stability criterion
is satisfied.
Fig. 6 shows the motion of the pipe having a stationary load,
7 = 0, but pressurized to 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 = 129 psi for two
^K = 7.7x I 0 2 l b , - i n 2 / f t 4
values of the foundation modulus. For K = 0 the system is un-
4 6 stable as predicted by equation (42). For K = 7.7 X 102 l b r
t, sec in. 2 /ft 4 the critical velocity is Ve = 100 fps; hence, the system is
Fig. 6 Pipe displacement for soft and zero foundation with pressurized obviously stable for V = 0. The curve for K = 0 is nonoscilla-
static fluid tory, as might be expected in that the pressurization would lead
to a pure buckling mode of instability when the flow velocity is
zero. I t should be remembered that the pipe ends are assumed
A few examples of the numerical results are presented in the to be unconstrained in this analysis and the pressure is exerted
following discussion to illustrate the effects of flow velocity, by frictionless pistons acting on the fluid alone.
pressure, and foundation modulus on the stability and wave- Fig. 7 illustrates the combined effects of pressurization and
propagation characteristics of an undamped pipe. flow velocity on the behavior of the system. The motion of the
Stability. Fig. 5 presents the effect of the foundation modulus point x = 0 is unstable for K = 0 as expected. For K = 7.7 X
on the stability of the system. The oscillations at x = 0 for a 102 lbt-in.Vft 4 , the critical velocity is Vc = 100 fps, which is
soft foundation modulus, K = 7.7 X 102 lb f in.Vft 4 , and for a equal to the flow velocity in the example. Therefore, the motion
zero foundation modulus are shown. The internal pressure is is marginally stable, neither growing nor diminishing with time.
zero and the flow velocity is 100 fps. With K = 0, the oscilla- A slightly higher value of flow velocity would lead to unstable
tion is unstable as predicted by the stability criterion [equation vibrations.

Journal of Applied Mechanics DECEMBER 1970 / 913

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1.0 1.0 Frequency Response. Fig. 8 compares the oscillation of the
If „ point x = 0 for a moderately large foundation modulus (K =
z/z 0

0.0
1 /
A ,
/°-l
z/z0

0.0
8.7 X 103 lbf-in. 2 /ft 4 ) and for a hard foundation modulus (K =
2.07 X 10' lb f -in. 2 /it 4 ). The internal pressure is zero and the
flow velocity is 100 fps. The approximate observed frequencies
for these two cases a r e / = 0.24 cps a n d / = 18.0 cps, respectively.
•/ lA- These values agree approximately with the frequency a>o that is
-1.0 1/ -1.0 V= 1000 ft/sec
calculated from equation (47). co3 = [K/(mF + m P )] 1 / 2 represents
- V = 3 0 0 ft/sec the angular frequency of those waves whose wave number, X, is
zero (i.e., infinite wavelength). Hence, for low values of flow
P = 1.86 x 10 4 l b f / f t 2 velocities and internal pressure, the short wavelengths do not
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f - i n 2 / f . 4
significantly influence the observed frequency response and the
Po = 0
x = 0
effects of flow velocity are not pronounced.
However, as flow velocity and pressure are increased, then-
effects become important even for large values of the foundation
modulus. Fig. 9 demonstrates the effect of flow velocity on the
system response for a fixed pressure (p = 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 ) and
a hard foundation modulus (K = 2.07 X 10' lb f -in. 2 /ft 4 ). As
shown, the increased flow velocity severely alters the form of the
oscillation.
Wave Propagation. The previous discussion is centered on the
time response of the point x = 0. In this section the wave
V = 2 0 0 0 ft/sec ,0L- V = 2 5 0 0 ft/sec form of the entire pipe is considered to illustrate the character-
Fig. 9 Pipe displacement for hard foundation with pressurized fluid istics of the wave propagation as influenced by flow velocity,
flowing at different velocities internal pressure, and foundation modulus.
Fig. 10 shows the spatial wave form at various instances for a

t = 0.05 sec

..-/l VY.
t = 0.05 sec

t =0.15 sec

I = 0.15 sec
V.= 0 , p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f l 2 , p0 = 0

t = 0 . 2 5 sec

t = 0.25 sec

t= 0 . 5 0 0 sec t = 0 . 5 0 sec

t = 1.00 sec •• 1 . 0 sec

K = 0
K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b f - i n 2 / f t 4 K = 7.7 x I 0 2 l b , - i n 2 / f t 4
K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f - i n . 2 / f t 4 K = 2.0736 x I 0 7 l b f - i n . 2 / f t 4
Fig. 10 Displacement profile for pipe with unpressurized static fluid Fig. 11 Displacement profiles for pipe with pressurized static fluid w i t h
with various foundation moduli various foundation moduli

914 / DECEMBER 1 970 Transactions of the AS ME

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z/z0 • 1.0

-
-x = , 0 ° f t
z/z0
t = 0 . 0 5 sec AAAAAAAA-
\AAAAAI 1MM1 AAA AAA'AAA A

ffllyfffllr
0.0
_. J /

"1III 1"
™wwyw\
t, sec
-1.0
= 0.15 sec
V = 2 0 0 ft/sec
p = 1.86 x I 0 4 l b f / f t 2
K = 2.0736 x I07|b,-in.2/ft4
V= 100 ft/sec, p = 0 , p0-- 0
1.0
Pa ' °
t = 0.25 sec
z/z 0
x = -100 ft
0.0 --WWWWWWWWWWWVVV
0.7 1.0 1.3
t, sec

I = 0.50 sec
Fig. 13 Propagation of disturbance at downstream and upstream loca-
tions for hard foundation

I = 1.0 sec
N
--iv" ^*^ ?*===r- .'—-
^-^J- z/z0
._.-. -
x = 3 0 0 ft
0
x, ft 6.0 8.0 10.0 £
0.2 0.4
t, sec
-
K = 77xl02lbf-in2/ft4
K - 87x!03lbf-in.2/ft4 V = 88.5 ft/sec
K = 2,0736 x I0 7 lb,-in 2 /ft 4 4
p = 1.86 x I 0 l b f / f t
z

Fig. 12 Displacement profiles for pipe with unpressurized flowing fluid K = 7.7335 x I 0 2 l b f - i n z / f t 4
with various foundation moduli 1.0 Po-- 0

z/z 0

range of foundation moduli, with zero flow velocity and internal


0.0
pressure. The curves for K = 0 and K = 7.7 X 102 lbf-in. 2 /ft 4
are nearly identical and have a relatively low frequency com-
pared with the result for a hard foundation modulus (K = 2.07 X
107 lb(-in. 2 /ft 4 ). The amplitudes for the lower values of K are
more severely attenuated as time increases. This behavior is
Fig. 14 Downstream response for soft foundation
predicted by equation (49), i.e., the solution for large K. For
V = 0 (i.e., /3 = 0), equation (49) results in

z(x, t)/Zo = e -*V4£» cos [K/(mF + mp)\^n. (53)


Propagation of Initial Disturbance. I t is interesting to examine
Thus, as K is increased, the frequency increases and the degree the response of the pipe at positions far removed from the initial
of attenuation (diffusion of the initial wave form) decreases. disturbance.
Fig. 11 demonstrates the effect of increased internal pressure Fig. 13 is a plot of the oscillation of the pipe at locations 100-f t
(p = 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 = 129 psi) when the flow velocity is upstream and downstream of the origin for a flow velocity of
zero. The results are not significantly different from those 200 fps, an internal pressure of 1.86 X 104 lbf/ft 2 , and a hard
obtained for zero internal pressure. foundation modulus of K = 2.07 X 107 lb f -in. 2 /ft 4 . This
Fig. 12 presents similar results for the case of nonzero flow figure should be compared with Fig. 4, which is a plot of the
velocity. A definite asymmetry with respect to the origin has approximate solution for large K [i.e., equation (49)] using the
been introduced for a flow velocity of 100 fps. As discussed same parameters. Both figures indicate t h a t the envelope of
previously, the wave form becomes symmetric with respect to the wave packet propagates downstream with a velocity of about
mFV 154 fps which, for the present example, agrees closely with the
an axis translating at a velocity of /3/2y = as time theoretical velocity of propagation of the axis of symmetry, V =
mF + nip /S/27 = 156.3 fps. For smaller values of K, the wave forms are
increases. For this example, the translation speed is 71.5 fps. highly asymmetric and the initial disturbance is diffused more
As can be seen in Fig. 12, the symmetry has not developed for rapidly over the entire pipe length, the result being that neither
the lower values of the foundation modulus, but as K increases a well-defined wave packet nor an axis of symmetry develops
the symmetry begins to emerge, the degree of symmetry being within the time shown. This point is illustrated by Fig. 14
an increasing function of K, as discussed earlier. The effect of which shows the oscillations at downstream distances of 300 ft
imposing internal pressure is not shown, but the calculated re- and 1000 ft for a moderate value of the foundation modulus,
sults for p = 1.86 X 10 4 lbf/ft 2 are not significantly different K = 7.735 X 102 lbt-in.Vft 4 .
from those shown for p — 0.

Journal of Applied Mechanics DECEMBER 1 9 7 0 / 915

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Conclusions 12 Bolotin, V. V., Nonconservative Problems of the Theory of
Mastic Stability, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, 1963, pp. 242-
The dynamic stability of an undamped elastically supported 247.
pipe conveying a pressurized fluid is assured if the flow velocity 13 Flax, A. H., "Aero and Hydroelasticity," Structural Mechanics,
does n o t exceed the critical flow velocity given by V02 = Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Naval Structural Mechanics,
Pergamon Press, 1960, pp. 285-326.
[2{KEI)'/2 - pA][(mF + mP)/mFmp\. If the foundation 14 Heller, S. R., and Abramson, H. N., "Hydroelasticity, a New
modulus, K, is zero, any finite values of internal pressure and/or Naval Science," Structural Mechanics, Proceedings of the First Sym-
flow velocity will result in an unstable system. For large values posium on Naval Structural Mechanics, Pergamon Press, 1960, pp.
of foundation modulus and moderate values of pressure and 326-333.
15 Goldenblatt, I. I., "Modern Problems of Vibrations and Re-
flow velocity, the frequency of oscillation may be determined sistance in Engineering Construction," Stroezdat, 1947.
approximately by w0 = [K/{mF + mp)V''\ which is the fre- 16 Feodos'yev, V. P., "Vibrations and Stability of a Pipe When a
quency for waves of infinite length, X = 0. Internal pressure Liquid Flows Through It," Inzhencrnyi Sbornik, Vol. 10, 1951, pp.
gives rise to an effect that is similar to that of an axial conrpressive 169-170.
load which, in the absence of flow, tends to decrease the response 17 Housner, G. W., "Bending Vibrations of a Pipe Line Con-
taining Flowing Fluid," JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS, Vol. 19,
frequency. The presence of fluid velocity results in two effects: TRANS. ASME, Vol. 74, 1952, pp. 205-208.
an apparent axial compressive load which decreases frequency 18 Long, R. H., Jr., "Transverse Vibration of a Tube Containing
and a translation of the wave train which tends to increase Flowing Fluid," dissertation to Yale University School of Engineer-
frequency. ing, 1954.
19 Long, R. H., Jr., "Experimental and Theoretical Study of
I t has been demonstrated that all waves are asymptotically Transverse Vibration of a Tube Containing Flowing Fluid," JOURNAL
symmetric with respect to a translating axis whose velocity is OF APPLIED MECHANICS, Vol. 22, TRANS. ASME, Vol. 77, 1955, pp.
VmF/(mF + nip). For large values of the foundation modulus, 65-68.
the behavior of the pipe may be represented by a positive trans- 20 Handelman, G. H., "A Note on the Transverse Vibration of a
Tube Containing Flowing Fluid," Quarterly of Applied Mathematics,
lating wave packet of frequency OJ0, with an envelope t h a t is an
Vol. 13, No. 3, 1955.
unattenuated duplication of the initial disturbance. 21 Bolotin, V. V., "End Deformations of Flexible Pipelines,''
Trudy Moskovskogo Energeticheskogo InstiUda, No. 19, 1956, pp.
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2 Li, T., and DiMaggio, O. D., "Vibration of a Propellant Line 23 Benjamin, T. B., "Dynamics of a System of Articulated Pipes
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