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# Given:

f’c = 28 MPa

fy = 420 MPa

φ = 0.9

β = 0.85

Es = 200000 MPa

D’ = 50 mm

d = 250 mm

b = 200 mm

*Use 50 mm cover

*Use 10 mm Ø stirrups

At End 1:

## 𝜔 = 1.4 (𝐷𝐿) = 1.4(11.88) = 16.632𝑘𝑁/𝑚

Total Factored Load = 19.898 kPa

## Clear span = 4.0 – 0.4 = 3.6 m

Uniform Load acting on Beam = 19.898 kPa (3.5m) + 16.632 kN/m= 86.275 kN/m
1 2 1
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜔𝐿 = (86.275)(3.62 ) = 139.7655 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
8 8
139.7655
𝑀𝑛 = = 155.295 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9

End spans:

Midspan:

## (0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑥 = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.02125)(200)(250) = 1062.5𝑚𝑚2
1 𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜌𝑓𝑦Ф𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 𝑓 ′ 𝑐
1 0.02125𝑥420
𝑀𝑢 = (0.02125)(420)(0.9)(200)(2502 )(1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 28
𝑀𝑢 = 81.5801 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
81.5801 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
𝑀𝑛 = = 90.6446 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9
100.9418 kN m > 90.6446 kN m Therefore it’s a doubly reinforcement

## Doubly Reinforced beam

𝑀𝑛1 = 90.6446 𝑘𝑁 𝑚

## 𝐴𝑠1 = 1062.5 𝑚𝑚2

𝑀𝑛2 = 100.9418 − 90.6446 = 10.2972 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
From 𝑀𝑛2 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦(𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )
𝑀𝑛2 10.2972𝑥10𝑒6
𝐴𝑠2 = ′
= = 122.5857𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑦(𝑑 − 𝑑 ) 420(250 − 50)
Check if compression steel yields, when Ey < Es’ where:
𝑓𝑦 420
𝐸𝑦 = = = 0.00210
𝐸𝑠 200000
0.003 𝐸𝑠′ 0.003(𝑐 − 𝑑′ )
= ∶ 𝐸𝑠 ′ =
𝑐 𝑐 − 𝑑′ 𝑐
𝑎
Solving for c: 𝑐=𝛽

From
𝑎 2𝑀𝑛1
𝑀𝑛1 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − ) : 𝑎 = 2𝑑 − = 93.7497 𝑚𝑚
2 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦
93.7497
Therefore 𝑐= = 110.2938
0.85

Therefore,
0.003(110.2938 − 50)
𝐸𝑠 ′ = = 0.00164
110.2938
Ey > Es’ therefore, compression steel doesn’t yield.
𝐸𝑠 ′ 0.00164
𝑓𝑠 ′ = (𝑓𝑦) = (420) = 328 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝐸𝑦 0.00210
𝑀𝑛2 10.2972𝑥10𝑒6
𝐴𝑠 ′ = ′
= = 156.9695 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠′(𝑑 − 𝑑 ) 328(250 − 50)
𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠1 + 𝐴𝑠2 = 1062.5 + 156.9695 = 1219.4695𝑚𝑚2
For compression reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2
𝐴𝑠′ 156.9695
𝑁= = = 0.4996
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 2 pc.

For spacing:
200 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 2(20)
𝑆= = 40 𝑚𝑚
1
For tension reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2
𝐴𝑠 1219.4695
𝑁= = = 3.8817
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 4 pcs.

For spacing:
200 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 2(20)
𝑆= = 40 𝑚𝑚
1
At Midspan:

Midspan:

## 𝑀𝑢 = 139.7655 𝑘𝑁 𝑚 (0.35) = 48.9179𝑘𝑁 𝑚

48.9179
𝑀𝑛 = = 54.3532 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9

## (0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑥 = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.02125)(200)(250) = 1062.5𝑚𝑚2
1 𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜌𝑓𝑦Ф𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 𝑓 ′ 𝑐
1 0.02125𝑥420
𝑀𝑢 = (0.02125)(420)(0.9)(200)(2502 )(1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 28
𝑀𝑢 = 81.5801 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
81.5801 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
𝑀𝑛 = = 90.6446 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9
54.3532 < 90.6446 kN m Therefore it’s a singly reinforcement
𝑀𝑢 48.9178 𝑥 10𝑒6
𝑅𝑛 = 2
= = 4.3482 𝑀𝑃𝑎
∅𝑏𝑑 0.9 𝑥 200 𝑥 (250)2

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]
𝑓𝑦 0.85 𝑓𝑐′

## (0.85) (28) 2 𝑥 4.3482

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]= 0.01152
420 0.85 𝑥 28

## 1.4 √𝑓𝑐′ 1.4 √28

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑜𝑟 = 𝑜𝑟
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦 420 4 𝑥 420
= 0.00333 or 0.00315 Therefore, use 0.00333
(0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
When ρmin < ρ <ρmax Therefore, use 0.01152 for As

## 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.01152)(200)(250) = 576𝑚𝑚2

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 + 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф + 2𝑥𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 50 + 10 + 2𝑥10 = 80𝑚𝑚

## For tension reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2

𝐴𝑠 576
𝑁= = = 1.8335
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 2 pcs.

For spacing:
200 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 2(20)
𝑆= = 40 𝑚𝑚
1
At End 2:

## 𝜔 = 1.4 (𝐷𝐿) = 1.4(11.88) = 16.632𝑘𝑁/𝑚

Total Factored Load = 19.898 kPa

## Clear span = 4.0 – 0.4 = 3.6 m

Uniform Load acting on Beam = 19.898 kPa (3.5m) + 16.632 kN/m= 86.275 kN/m
1 2 1
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜔𝐿 = (86.275)(3.62 ) = 139.7655 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
8 8
139.7655
𝑀𝑛 = = 155.295 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9

End spans:

## 𝑀𝑛 = 155.295 𝑘𝑁 𝑚 (0.65) = 100.9418𝑘𝑁 𝑚

Assuming single reinforcement

## (0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑥 = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.02125)(200)(250) = 1062.5𝑚𝑚2
1 𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜌𝑓𝑦Ф𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 𝑓 ′ 𝑐
1 0.02125𝑥420
𝑀𝑢 = (0.02125)(420)(0.9)(200)(2502 )(1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 28
𝑀𝑢 = 81.5801 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
81.5801 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
𝑀𝑛 = = 90.6446 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9
100.9418 kN m > 90.6446 kN m Therefore it’s a doubly reinforcement

## Doubly Reinforced beam

𝑀𝑛1 = 90.6446 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
𝐴𝑠1 = 1062.5 𝑚𝑚2
𝑀𝑛2 = 100.9418 − 90.6446 = 10.2972 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
From 𝑀𝑛2 = 𝐴𝑠2 𝑓𝑦(𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )
𝑀𝑛2 10.2972𝑥10𝑒6
𝐴𝑠2 = ′
= = 122.5857𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑦(𝑑 − 𝑑 ) 420(250 − 50)
Check if compression steel yields, when Ey < Es’ where:
𝑓𝑦 420
𝐸𝑦 = = = 0.00210
𝐸𝑠 200000
0.003 𝐸𝑠′ ′
0.003(𝑐 − 𝑑′ )
= ∶ 𝐸𝑠 =
𝑐 𝑐 − 𝑑′ 𝑐
𝑎
Solving for c: 𝑐=
𝛽

From
𝑎 2𝑀𝑛1
𝑀𝑛1 = 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − ) : 𝑎 = 2𝑑 − = 93.7497 𝑚𝑚
2 𝐴𝑠1 𝑓𝑦
93.7497
Therefore 𝑐= 0.85
= 110.2938

Therefore,
0.003(110.2938 − 50)
𝐸𝑠 ′ = = 0.00164
110.2938
Ey > Es’ therefore, compression steel doesn’t yield.
𝐸𝑠 ′ 0.00164
𝑓𝑠 ′ = (𝑓𝑦) = (420) = 328 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝐸𝑦 0.00210
𝑀𝑛2 10.2972𝑥10𝑒6
𝐴𝑠 ′ = ′
= = 156.9695 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠′(𝑑 − 𝑑 ) 328(250 − 50)
𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠1 + 𝐴𝑠2 = 1062.5 + 156.9695 = 1219.4695𝑚𝑚2
For compression reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2
𝐴𝑠′ 156.9695
𝑁= = = 0.4996
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 2 pc.

For spacing:
200 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 2(20)
𝑆= = 40 𝑚𝑚
1
For tension reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2
𝐴𝑠 1219.4695
𝑁= = = 3.8817
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 4 pcs.

## Checking the spacing:

200 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 2(20)
𝑆= = 40 𝑚𝑚
1
Given:

f’c = 28 MPa

fy = 420 MPa

φ = 0.9

β = 0.85

Es = 200000 MPa

D’ = 50 mm

d = 250 mm

b = 250 mm

*Use 50 mm cover

*Use 10 mm Ø stirrups

At End 1:

## Uniform Load acting on Beam = 19.898 kPa (3.5m) = 69.643 kN/m

1 2 1
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜔𝐿 = (69.643)(3.62 ) = 112.8217 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
8 8
112.8217
𝑀𝑛 = = 125.3574 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9

End spans:

## 𝑀𝑢 = 112.8217 𝑘𝑁 𝑚 (0.65) = 73.3341𝑘𝑁 𝑚

73.3341
𝑀𝑛 = = 81.4823 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9
Assuming single reinforcement

## (0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28)
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑥 0.02125
420
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.02125)(250)(250) = 1328.125𝑚𝑚2
1 𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜌𝑓𝑦Ф𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 𝑓 ′ 𝑐
1 0.02125𝑥420
𝑀𝑢 = (0.02125)(420)(0.9)(250)(2502 )(1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 28
𝑀𝑢 = 101.9751 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
81.4823 kN m < 101.9751 kN m Therefore it’s a singly reinforcement
𝑀𝑢 73.3341 𝑥 10𝑒6
𝑅𝑛 = 2
= = 5.2149 𝑀𝑃𝑎
∅𝑏𝑑 0.9 𝑥 250 𝑥 (250)2

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]
𝑓𝑦 0.85 𝑓𝑐′

## (0.85) (28) 2 𝑥 5.2149

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]= 0.01419
420 0.85 𝑥 28

## 1.4 √𝑓𝑐′ 1.4 √28

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑜𝑟 = 𝑜𝑟
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦 420 4 𝑥 420
= 0.00333 or 0.00315 Therefore, use 0.00333
(0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
When ρmin < ρ <ρmax Therefore, use 0.01419 for As

## 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.01419)(250)(250) = 886.875𝑚𝑚2

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 + 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф + 2𝑥𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 50 + 10 + 2𝑥10 = 80𝑚𝑚

## For tension reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2

𝐴𝑠 886.875
𝑁= = = 2.8230
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 3 pcs.

For spacing:
250 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 3(20)
𝑆= = 35 𝑚𝑚
2
At Midspan:

Midspan:

## 𝑀𝑢 = 112.8217 𝑘𝑁 𝑚 (0.35) = 39.4876𝑘𝑁 𝑚

39.4876
𝑀𝑛 = = 43.8751 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9

## (0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑥 = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.02125)(250)(250) = 1328.125𝑚𝑚2
1 𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜌𝑓𝑦Ф𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 𝑓 ′ 𝑐
1 0.02125𝑥420
𝑀𝑢 = (0.02125)(420)(0.9)(250)(2502 )(1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 28
𝑀𝑢 = 101.9751 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
43.8751 kN m < 101.9751 kN m Therefore it’s a singly reinforcement

𝑀𝑢 43.8751 𝑥 10𝑒6
𝑅𝑛 = 2
= = 3.1200 𝑀𝑃𝑎
∅𝑏𝑑 0.9 𝑥 250 𝑥 (250)2

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]
𝑓𝑦 0.85 𝑓𝑐′

## (0.85) (28) 2 𝑥 3.1200

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]= 0.00799
420 0.85 𝑥 28

## 1.4 √𝑓𝑐′ 1.4 √28

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑜𝑟 = 𝑜𝑟
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦 420 4 𝑥 420
= 0.00333 or 0.00315 Therefore, use 0.00333
(0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
When ρmin < ρ <ρmax Therefore, use 0.00799 for As

## 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.00799)(250)(250) = 499.375𝑚𝑚2

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 + 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф + 2𝑥𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 50 + 10 + 2𝑥10 = 80𝑚𝑚

## For tension reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2

𝐴𝑠 499.375
𝑁= = = 1.5896
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 2 pcs.

For spacing:
250 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 2(20)
𝑆= = 45 𝑚𝑚
1
At End 2:

End spans:

## 𝑀𝑢 = 112.8217 𝑘𝑁 𝑚 (0.65) = 73.3341𝑘𝑁 𝑚

73.3341
𝑀𝑛 = = 81.4823 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
0.9
Assuming single reinforcement
(0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28)
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑥 0.02125
420
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.02125)(250)(250) = 1328.125𝑚𝑚2
1 𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑢 = 𝜌𝑓𝑦Ф𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 𝑓 ′ 𝑐
1 0.02125𝑥420
𝑀𝑢 = (0.02125)(420)(0.9)(250)(2502 )(1 − 𝑥 )
1.7 28
𝑀𝑢 = 101.9751 𝑘𝑁 𝑚
81.4823 kN m < 101.9751 kN m Therefore it’s a singly reinforcement
𝑀𝑢 73.3341 𝑥 10𝑒6
𝑅𝑛 = = = 5.2149 𝑀𝑃𝑎
∅𝑏𝑑2 0.9 𝑥 250 𝑥 (250)2

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]
𝑓𝑦 0.85 𝑓𝑐′

## (0.85) (28) 2 𝑥 5.2149

𝜌= × [1 − √1 − ]= 0.01419
420 0.85 𝑥 28

## 1.4 √𝑓𝑐′ 1.4 √28

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑜𝑟 = 𝑜𝑟
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦 420 4 𝑥 420
= 0.00333 or 0.00315 Therefore, use 0.00333
(0.75)(0.85)𝛽1 𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ×
𝑓𝑦 600 + 𝑓𝑦
(0.75)(0.85)(0.85)(28) 600
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × = 0.02125
420 600 + 420
When ρmin < ρ <ρmax Therefore, use 0.01419 for As

## 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑1 = (0.01419)(250)(250) = 886.875𝑚𝑚2

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 + 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф + 2𝑥𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑢𝑝Ф
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 50 + 10 + 2𝑥10 = 80𝑚𝑚
For tension reinforcement *using 20mm bars Ad= 100π mm2
𝐴𝑠 886.875
𝑁= = = 2.8230
𝐴𝑑 100𝜋
Say 3 pcs.

For spacing:
250 − 2(50) − 2(10) − 3(20)
𝑆= = 35 𝑚𝑚
2