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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Sources: Status information:


ISO 1101: 2004 As per: Jul. - 2006
ISO 2692 Doc.-no.: 11006646
ISO 5458 Author: I. Thomson
ISO 10578 and Change index: A
ISO 10579
1 Marking the toleranced element
Indication arrow 0.02 Tolerance frame
Toleranced Tolerance value
element
Tolerance symbol

3x not convex
Ø0.1 0.2 0.2/100
One-off specification Additional restriction of form
for several elements or the lenght of the tolerance zone

0.1

95
Toleranced element is Toleranced element is Toleranced element only
line or surface the axis of the middle plane applies to the dimensioned length 95

0.1 CZ

All round (section)


Common toleranced element (Common Zone CZ)
2 Datum indication Datum letter
B Datum frame
B Datum triangle
Datum element

A A-B A B C AB
Datum is an Datums are two Three datums with the Two datums A, B
element A common elements A-B sequence 1. A, 2. B, 3. C without any sequence

A A

Datum is a line Datum is the axis


or a surface or middle plane
Copyright ISO 16016
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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances
3 Form tolerances; Symbol, property and application examples
Application examples
Symbol/No./ Property
of toleranced element Drawing Tolerance Explanation
specification zone
1 Straightness The cylinder surface line
Toleranced element: may be uneven by maximum
0.1 0.1 mm.
surface line

t
In the direction of the arrow,
every surface line of the
cylinder must be between
two parallel straight lines at a
distance of t = 0.1 mm apart.
2 Straightness The extracted (actual) median
Ø0.1 line of the cylinder to which

Øt
Toleranced element:
the tolerance applies shall be
axis contained within a cylindrical
zone of diameter 0.1 mm.

3 Flatness The surface may be uneven


Toleranced element: by maximum 0.05 mm.
0.05 The toleranced surface must lie
surface
t

between two parallel planes at


a distance of t = 0.05 mm apart.

4 Roundness The conical envelope may be


Toleranced element: out-of-round by maximum
t

0.02 0.02 mm.


Peripheral line The toleranced peripheral line
of any axially vertical cross-
section must lie between two
concentric circles with a radial
distance of t = 0.02 mm apart.
5 Cylinder form The cylinder may be
Toleranced element: maximum 0.02 mm non-
0.05 cylindrical.
Cylinder envelope
t

The toleranced cylinder surface


surface must lie between two coaxial
cylinders that are at a distance
of t = 0.05 mm apart.

6 Line profile The toleranced profile must lie


Toleranced element: between two enveloping lines
0.08 whose distance from each other
Section line
Øt

is limited by circles of diameter


t = 0.08 mm. The mid-points of
these circles are located on the
geometrically ideal line.

7 Surface profile The toleranced surface must


Toleranced element: 0.03 lie between two enveloping
surfaces, whose distance from
surface section each other is limited by spheres
of diameter t = 0.03 mm. The
mid-points of these spheres are
located on the geometrically
Sphere Ø t ideal surface.
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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances
4 Positional tolerances; Symbol, property and application examples
Application examples
Symbol/No./ Property of
toleranced element Drawing Tolerance Explanation
specification zone
8 Parallelism Ø0.1 A The toleranced axis may be
Toleranced element: non-parallel to the reference axis
by a maximum of
axis

Øt
A Ø 0.1 mm.
Datum: axis The toleranced axis of the upper
hole must lie within a cylinder that
is located parallel to the reference
axis with Ø t = 0.1 mm.
9 Parallelism The toleranced surface may be
Toleranced element: 0,01 A non-parallel to the reference
surface by maximum 0.01 mm.
surface The toleranced surface must lie

t
Datum: surface between two planes parallel to the
reference surface at a distance of
A t=0.01 mm from one another.

10 The toleranced element may


Perpendicularity 0.08 A deviate from the right angle to
t the reference surface by a
Toleranced element: maximum of 0.08 mm.
surface The surface must lie between two
Datum: surface planes that are vertical to the
A reference surface A and are at a
distance of t = 0.08 mm.
11 Inclination The toleranced axis may deviate,
(angularity) with respect to the reference
surface, maximum in the range
Toleranced element: 0.1 A of 0.1 mm from the 60º angle.
axis The toleranced axis must lie
Datum: surface A between two planes that are
60° parallel to one another at a
distance of t = 0.1 mm, inclined at
the geometrically ideal angle of
60°.
12 Inclination The toleranced surface may
(angularity) deviate, with respect to the
reference surface, maximum in
Toleranced element: the range of 0.2 mm from the 30º
0.1 A
surface α angle.
Datum: surface A The toleranced surface must lie
between two planes that are
60° t parallel to one another at a
distance of t = 0.2 mm, inclined at
the geometrically ideal angle of
30°.
13 Inclination The toleranced surface may
(angularity) deviate, with respect to the
0.1 A reference axis, maximum in the
Toleranced element: α
range of 0.1 mm from the 75º
surface angle.
Datum: axis The toleranced surface must lie
between two planes that are parallel
75° A t to one another at a distance of
t = 0.1 mm, inclined at the
geometrically ideal angle of 75°.
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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/No./ Property Application examples


toleranced element/ Drawing Tolerance Explanation
Reference specification zone
14 Coaxiality Ø0.03 A The axis of the left cylinder must
(concentricity), be coaxial to the axis of the

Øt
right cylinder within the range
Toleranced element: of Ø0.03.
axis The toleranced axis must lie within
Datum: axis a cylinder that is coaxial to the
reference cylinder of Ø0.03.
A
15 Symmetry, The middle plane of the groove
0.08 A relative to the middle plane of
Toleranced element:
the part must be symmetrical
middle plane within 0.08 mm.

t
Datum: middle The toleranced middle plane of the
plane groove must lie within two parallel
planes, have a distance of t = 0.08
mm and be symmetrical to the
A reference middle plane.
16 Concentric In case of rotation about the
run-out, reference axis A-B, a concentric
Toleranced
0.1 A-B run-out deviation of 0.1 mm
Radial deviation surface Measurement
about the reference axis A-B is
t

plane
Peripheral line the maximum permissible value.
Datum: common In case of rotation around the
axis reference axis A-B, the toleranced
peripheral line of every cross-
section of the middle cylinder must
A B lie between two concentric circles
with a radial distance of t=0.1 mm.

17 Axial run-out, Measurement In case of rotation around the


Toleranced element: 0.02 A cylinder reference axis A, the toleranced
circumference of every
Circumference measurement cylinder must
Datum: axis lie between the two planes
perpendicular to the reference
A t axis at a distance of t=0.02 mm to
each other.
18 Total run-out, In case of multiple rotation
Toleranced element: 0.1 A-B about the reference axis A-B with
displacement of the measurement
cylindrical body plane parallel to the reference axis,
surface all the points of the toleranced
Datum: common cylinder body surface must lie
between coaxial cylinders at a
t

axis
A B distance of t=0.1 mm apart.

19 Total axial In case of multiple rotation


run-out, around the reference axis A and
0.1 A t displacement of the measurement
Toleranced element: point vertical to the reference axis,
Plane surface all the points of the toleranced
Datum: axis plane surface must lie between two
A parallel planes at a distance of
t=0.1 mm apart.

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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/No./ Property Application examples


toleranced element/ Drawing Tolerance Explanation
Datum specification zone
20 Position The toleranced intersection
Toleranced element: 2x point must lie within a circle
Ø0.5 of diameter t=0.5 mm, whose
points t = Ø0.5 mid-point is located at the
Datum: 2 points to geometrically ideal location
one another (determined by the framed
dimensions).
50
70 60

21 Position Every axis of the 4 holes


4x must lie within a cylinder of
Toleranced element:
Ø0.5 A B diameter t=0.5 mm, whose
axes t = Ø0.5
axis is located normal to the
A
Datum: contact reference surface B (primary)
surface (primary), and at the theoretically exact
axis (secondary) location of the hole being
considered with respect to the
axis of the centering projection
B A (secondary)

22 Position The 3 toleranced surfaces


Toleranced element: 18 36 51 may deviate by a maximum
18 of 0.2 mm from their ideal
surface 3
position.
Datum: surface Each of the 3 ring surfaces must
lie between 2 parallel planes at
a distance of t-0.2 mm, which
3x are located at a geometrically
ideal location (marked by
0.2 t = 0.2 framed dimensions)

23 Position The entered position tolerance


Ø0.2 P t = Ø0.2 of Ø0.2 mm for the length that
with additional
is after the symbol P applies
projected tolerance from the workpiece surface in
P 30

zone.
30

P the direction of the relevant


Toleranced element: counter-piece (projected
Projection of the tolerance zone).
axis

24 Position Every axis of the 2 holes


2x must lie within a cylinder of
with additional Workpiece
Ø0.2 M A diameter t=0.2 mm, whose axis
maximum material Gauge
is located at the theoretically
principal. exact location of the hole being
M Toleranced element: A considered, with respect to the
20 20

axes axis of the central hole. The


maximum-material condition
Datum: axis applies for the positioning
tolerance (see section 6.

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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

5. Reference elements: Marking according to DIN ISO 5459 and application examples
Examples
Symbol und
Benennung Drawing Type Explanation
specification
A1

Datum point × Point-form, contact, locating


or measurement point
Contact point
Resting point

Ø4 Contact
A1 surface
Plane-form contact or
Datum surface
locating surface

Line-form contact or locating


Datum line
× × × Contact surface.
line

The element marked with


6 Additional symbols an E is subject to a fit.
Form variations may not
Ø30h6 E

exceed the dimensions of the


Ø40

envelope.
For elements that are
E Envelope
marked with E , the
Dimensional dimension tolerances apply
tolerance range independently of one
Tolerancing per ISO 8015 another.
Maximum In the case of an element
material condition marked with an M , the
– for toleranced Ø0.2 M A tolerance value may be
element, See no. 24 for exceeded by the amount
M – for datum Ø0.2 A M
an example that is not exploited by the
element, dimensional tolerance.
Ø0.2 M A M
– for both The component is checked
elements using a gage.

Theoretically See no. 11, 12, Dimension without tolerance


50 30 13, 20, 21, 22, when positional tolerance is
exact dimension 24 for examples specified.
50

P 90
Projected See no. 24 for Tolerance zone extends
P tolerance zone an example 90 mm into the counter-part.

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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances
7 Datums
7.1 Examples of functionally correct datums and datum systems
Drawing specification Datum examples

B Mating surface, joint surface A and B of


the parts to be joined.
Holes for screws must be perpendicular to
the mating surfaces.
A

Common axis A – B
A B Corresponding to the bearing seats of
a shaft.
Wheel seats, spigots etc. must run
concentrically with reference to the
common axis of the bearing seats.
C Contact surface (fixed bearing) C

A Thread axis A
The screw head must be perpendicular to
the thread axis.

B
Center planes A and B for symmetrical
parts, mate when reversed.
Parts to be joined are mirror images.

Edges, surfaces A and B


Datum surfaces A and B are identical on
A each mating part, deviations act in the
opposite direction.
B

Hole axis A
– for hole pattern sub-system,
– for pipe flange
Hole A mates with the hole in the counter-
A part.

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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

8 Workpiece Positional Deviations


Workpiece Variation / Cause Workpiece Variation / Cause
1 Skewed housing. 8 Skewed and non-
Angularity and aligned holes.
Perpendicularity error. Holes not coaxial.

2 Twisted plane. 9 Tilted flange joint


Unevenness and surface.
parallelism error with Axial run-out with respect
reference to the to the bearing seat
supporting surface.

OR
3 Shaft with wobbling 10 Hole pattern
end face. displaced.
Axial run-out with respect Positional error with
to the bearing seat. reference to the central
hole.


4 Shaft with skewed 11 Slot displaced.
bearing seats. Symmetry error with
reference to the shaft axis.

Coaxial- and straightness
deviation of the bearing
seat.
5 Impacting wheel seat. 12 Skewed stud screw.
Radial run-out with Perpendicularity error
reference to the bearing (positional error) of the
seats. thread with reference
to the contact
surface.

6 Eccentric, badly 13 Skewed key groove.
supporting shaft seat. Symmetry
Overall concentricity deviation with
deviation with reference to the
reference to the shaft axis.
bearing seats.

7 Bent shaft. 14 Imbalanced wheel.


coaxial deviation of the Concentricity deviation
bearing seats, straightness and axial run-out with
deviation from the reference to the hub.
common
axis.
OR
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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Symbols for geometrical characteristics


Tolerances Characteristics Symbol Datum needed Subclause
Straightness no 18.1

Flatness no 18.2

Roundness no 18.3
Form
Cylindricity no 18.4

Profile any line no 18.5

Profile any surface no 18.7

Parallelism yes 18.9

Perpendicularity yes 18.10

Orientation Angularity yes 18.11

Profile any line yes 18.6

Profile any surface yes 18.8

Position yes or no 18.12

Concentricity (for centre points) yes 18.13

Coaxiality (for axes) yes 18.13


Location
Symmetry yes 18.14

Profile any line yes 18.6

Profile any surface yes 18.8

Circular run-out yes 18.15


Run-out
Total run-out yes 18.16

Ref: ISO 1101

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Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Additional symbols
Description Symbol Reference

Toleranced feature indication Clause 7

A A
Datum feature indication Clause 9 and ISO 5459

Ø2
Datum target indication ISO 5459
A1

Theoretically exact dimension 50 Clause 11

Projected tolerance zone P Clause 13 and ISO 10578

Maximum material requirement M Clause 14 and ISO 2692

Least material requirement L Clause 15 and ISO 2692

Free state condition (non-rigid parts) F Clause 16 and ISO 10579

All around (profile) Subclause 10.1

Envelope requirement E ISO 8015


Common zone CZ Subclause 8.5
Minor diameter LD Subclause 10.2
Major diameter MD Subclause 10.2
Pitch diameter PD Subclause 10.2
Line element LE Subclause 18.9.4
Not convex NC Subclause 6.3
Any cross-section ACS Subclause 18.13.1
Ref: ISO 1101
Former Practice: Not for new documents

common zone
0,2 0,1
0,2

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