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You are on page 1of 10

ISO 1101: 2004 As per: Jul. - 2006

ISO 2692 Doc.-no.: 11006646

ISO 5458 Author: I. Thomson

ISO 10578 and Change index: A

ISO 10579

1 Marking the toleranced element

Indication arrow 0.02 Tolerance frame

Toleranced Tolerance value

element

Tolerance symbol

3x not convex

Ø0.1 0.2 0.2/100

One-off specification Additional restriction of form

for several elements or the lenght of the tolerance zone

0.1

95

Toleranced element is Toleranced element is Toleranced element only

line or surface the axis of the middle plane applies to the dimensioned length 95

0.1 CZ

Common toleranced element (Common Zone CZ)

2 Datum indication Datum letter

B Datum frame

B Datum triangle

Datum element

A A-B A B C AB

Datum is an Datums are two Three datums with the Two datums A, B

element A common elements A-B sequence 1. A, 2. B, 3. C without any sequence

A A

or a surface or middle plane

Copyright ISO 16016

1 11006646_Rev. BA_Sep 2013 © Danfoss, 2013-09

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

3 Form tolerances; Symbol, property and application examples

Application examples

Symbol/No./ Property

of toleranced element Drawing Tolerance Explanation

specification zone

1 Straightness The cylinder surface line

Toleranced element: may be uneven by maximum

0.1 0.1 mm.

surface line

t

In the direction of the arrow,

every surface line of the

cylinder must be between

two parallel straight lines at a

distance of t = 0.1 mm apart.

2 Straightness The extracted (actual) median

Ø0.1 line of the cylinder to which

Øt

Toleranced element:

the tolerance applies shall be

axis contained within a cylindrical

zone of diameter 0.1 mm.

Toleranced element: by maximum 0.05 mm.

0.05 The toleranced surface must lie

surface

t

a distance of t = 0.05 mm apart.

Toleranced element: out-of-round by maximum

t

Peripheral line The toleranced peripheral line

of any axially vertical cross-

section must lie between two

concentric circles with a radial

distance of t = 0.02 mm apart.

5 Cylinder form The cylinder may be

Toleranced element: maximum 0.02 mm non-

0.05 cylindrical.

Cylinder envelope

t

surface must lie between two coaxial

cylinders that are at a distance

of t = 0.05 mm apart.

Toleranced element: between two enveloping lines

0.08 whose distance from each other

Section line

Øt

t = 0.08 mm. The mid-points of

these circles are located on the

geometrically ideal line.

Toleranced element: 0.03 lie between two enveloping

surfaces, whose distance from

surface section each other is limited by spheres

of diameter t = 0.03 mm. The

mid-points of these spheres are

located on the geometrically

Sphere Ø t ideal surface.

2 11006646_Rev. BA_Sep 2013 © Danfoss, 2013-09

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

4 Positional tolerances; Symbol, property and application examples

Application examples

Symbol/No./ Property of

toleranced element Drawing Tolerance Explanation

specification zone

8 Parallelism Ø0.1 A The toleranced axis may be

Toleranced element: non-parallel to the reference axis

by a maximum of

axis

Øt

A Ø 0.1 mm.

Datum: axis The toleranced axis of the upper

hole must lie within a cylinder that

is located parallel to the reference

axis with Ø t = 0.1 mm.

9 Parallelism The toleranced surface may be

Toleranced element: 0,01 A non-parallel to the reference

surface by maximum 0.01 mm.

surface The toleranced surface must lie

t

Datum: surface between two planes parallel to the

reference surface at a distance of

A t=0.01 mm from one another.

Perpendicularity 0.08 A deviate from the right angle to

t the reference surface by a

Toleranced element: maximum of 0.08 mm.

surface The surface must lie between two

Datum: surface planes that are vertical to the

A reference surface A and are at a

distance of t = 0.08 mm.

11 Inclination The toleranced axis may deviate,

(angularity) with respect to the reference

surface, maximum in the range

Toleranced element: 0.1 A of 0.1 mm from the 60º angle.

axis The toleranced axis must lie

Datum: surface A between two planes that are

60° parallel to one another at a

distance of t = 0.1 mm, inclined at

the geometrically ideal angle of

60°.

12 Inclination The toleranced surface may

(angularity) deviate, with respect to the

reference surface, maximum in

Toleranced element: the range of 0.2 mm from the 30º

0.1 A

surface α angle.

Datum: surface A The toleranced surface must lie

between two planes that are

60° t parallel to one another at a

distance of t = 0.2 mm, inclined at

the geometrically ideal angle of

30°.

13 Inclination The toleranced surface may

(angularity) deviate, with respect to the

0.1 A reference axis, maximum in the

Toleranced element: α

range of 0.1 mm from the 75º

surface angle.

Datum: axis The toleranced surface must lie

between two planes that are parallel

75° A t to one another at a distance of

t = 0.1 mm, inclined at the

geometrically ideal angle of 75°.

3 11006646_Rev. BA_Sep 2013 © Danfoss, 2013-09

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

toleranced element/ Drawing Tolerance Explanation

Reference specification zone

14 Coaxiality Ø0.03 A The axis of the left cylinder must

(concentricity), be coaxial to the axis of the

Øt

right cylinder within the range

Toleranced element: of Ø0.03.

axis The toleranced axis must lie within

Datum: axis a cylinder that is coaxial to the

reference cylinder of Ø0.03.

A

15 Symmetry, The middle plane of the groove

0.08 A relative to the middle plane of

Toleranced element:

the part must be symmetrical

middle plane within 0.08 mm.

t

Datum: middle The toleranced middle plane of the

plane groove must lie within two parallel

planes, have a distance of t = 0.08

mm and be symmetrical to the

A reference middle plane.

16 Concentric In case of rotation about the

run-out, reference axis A-B, a concentric

Toleranced

0.1 A-B run-out deviation of 0.1 mm

Radial deviation surface Measurement

about the reference axis A-B is

t

plane

Peripheral line the maximum permissible value.

Datum: common In case of rotation around the

axis reference axis A-B, the toleranced

peripheral line of every cross-

section of the middle cylinder must

A B lie between two concentric circles

with a radial distance of t=0.1 mm.

Toleranced element: 0.02 A cylinder reference axis A, the toleranced

circumference of every

Circumference measurement cylinder must

Datum: axis lie between the two planes

perpendicular to the reference

A t axis at a distance of t=0.02 mm to

each other.

18 Total run-out, In case of multiple rotation

Toleranced element: 0.1 A-B about the reference axis A-B with

displacement of the measurement

cylindrical body plane parallel to the reference axis,

surface all the points of the toleranced

Datum: common cylinder body surface must lie

between coaxial cylinders at a

t

axis

A B distance of t=0.1 mm apart.

run-out, around the reference axis A and

0.1 A t displacement of the measurement

Toleranced element: point vertical to the reference axis,

Plane surface all the points of the toleranced

Datum: axis plane surface must lie between two

A parallel planes at a distance of

t=0.1 mm apart.

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

toleranced element/ Drawing Tolerance Explanation

Datum specification zone

20 Position The toleranced intersection

Toleranced element: 2x point must lie within a circle

Ø0.5 of diameter t=0.5 mm, whose

points t = Ø0.5 mid-point is located at the

Datum: 2 points to geometrically ideal location

one another (determined by the framed

dimensions).

50

70 60

4x must lie within a cylinder of

Toleranced element:

Ø0.5 A B diameter t=0.5 mm, whose

axes t = Ø0.5

axis is located normal to the

A

Datum: contact reference surface B (primary)

surface (primary), and at the theoretically exact

axis (secondary) location of the hole being

considered with respect to the

axis of the centering projection

B A (secondary)

Toleranced element: 18 36 51 may deviate by a maximum

18 of 0.2 mm from their ideal

surface 3

position.

Datum: surface Each of the 3 ring surfaces must

lie between 2 parallel planes at

a distance of t-0.2 mm, which

3x are located at a geometrically

ideal location (marked by

0.2 t = 0.2 framed dimensions)

Ø0.2 P t = Ø0.2 of Ø0.2 mm for the length that

with additional

is after the symbol P applies

projected tolerance from the workpiece surface in

P 30

zone.

30

Toleranced element: counter-piece (projected

Projection of the tolerance zone).

axis

2x must lie within a cylinder of

with additional Workpiece

Ø0.2 M A diameter t=0.2 mm, whose axis

maximum material Gauge

is located at the theoretically

principal. exact location of the hole being

M Toleranced element: A considered, with respect to the

20 20

maximum-material condition

Datum: axis applies for the positioning

tolerance (see section 6.

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

5. Reference elements: Marking according to DIN ISO 5459 and application examples

Examples

Symbol und

Benennung Drawing Type Explanation

specification

A1

or measurement point

Contact point

Resting point

Ø4 Contact

A1 surface

Plane-form contact or

Datum surface

locating surface

Datum line

× × × Contact surface.

line

6 Additional symbols an E is subject to a fit.

Form variations may not

Ø30h6 E

Ø40

envelope.

For elements that are

E Envelope

marked with E , the

Dimensional dimension tolerances apply

tolerance range independently of one

Tolerancing per ISO 8015 another.

Maximum In the case of an element

material condition marked with an M , the

– for toleranced Ø0.2 M A tolerance value may be

element, See no. 24 for exceeded by the amount

M – for datum Ø0.2 A M

an example that is not exploited by the

element, dimensional tolerance.

Ø0.2 M A M

– for both The component is checked

elements using a gage.

50 30 13, 20, 21, 22, when positional tolerance is

exact dimension 24 for examples specified.

50

P 90

Projected See no. 24 for Tolerance zone extends

P tolerance zone an example 90 mm into the counter-part.

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

7 Datums

7.1 Examples of functionally correct datums and datum systems

Drawing specification Datum examples

the parts to be joined.

Holes for screws must be perpendicular to

the mating surfaces.

A

Common axis A – B

A B Corresponding to the bearing seats of

a shaft.

Wheel seats, spigots etc. must run

concentrically with reference to the

common axis of the bearing seats.

C Contact surface (fixed bearing) C

A Thread axis A

The screw head must be perpendicular to

the thread axis.

B

Center planes A and B for symmetrical

parts, mate when reversed.

Parts to be joined are mirror images.

Datum surfaces A and B are identical on

A each mating part, deviations act in the

opposite direction.

B

Hole axis A

– for hole pattern sub-system,

– for pipe flange

Hole A mates with the hole in the counter-

A part.

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Workpiece Variation / Cause Workpiece Variation / Cause

1 Skewed housing. 8 Skewed and non-

Angularity and aligned holes.

Perpendicularity error. Holes not coaxial.

Unevenness and surface.

parallelism error with Axial run-out with respect

reference to the to the bearing seat

supporting surface.

OR

3 Shaft with wobbling 10 Hole pattern

end face. displaced.

Axial run-out with respect Positional error with

to the bearing seat. reference to the central

hole.

4 Shaft with skewed 11 Slot displaced.

bearing seats. Symmetry error with

reference to the shaft axis.

Coaxial- and straightness

deviation of the bearing

seat.

5 Impacting wheel seat. 12 Skewed stud screw.

Radial run-out with Perpendicularity error

reference to the bearing (positional error) of the

seats. thread with reference

to the contact

surface.

6 Eccentric, badly 13 Skewed key groove.

supporting shaft seat. Symmetry

Overall concentricity deviation with

deviation with reference to the

reference to the shaft axis.

bearing seats.

coaxial deviation of the Concentricity deviation

bearing seats, straightness and axial run-out with

deviation from the reference to the hub.

common

axis.

OR

8 11006646_Rev. BA_Sep 2013 © Danfoss, 2013-09

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Tolerances Characteristics Symbol Datum needed Subclause

Straightness no 18.1

Flatness no 18.2

Roundness no 18.3

Form

Cylindricity no 18.4

Location

Symmetry yes 18.14

Run-out

Total run-out yes 18.16

Summary: Geometrical Tolerances

Additional symbols

Description Symbol Reference

A A

Datum feature indication Clause 9 and ISO 5459

Ø2

Datum target indication ISO 5459

A1

Common zone CZ Subclause 8.5

Minor diameter LD Subclause 10.2

Major diameter MD Subclause 10.2

Pitch diameter PD Subclause 10.2

Line element LE Subclause 18.9.4

Not convex NC Subclause 6.3

Any cross-section ACS Subclause 18.13.1

Ref: ISO 1101

Former Practice: Not for new documents

common zone

0,2 0,1

0,2

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