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Internship Report

On
“Training and Development Program and Its
Consequences on Employee Performance”

Submitted To:
Mr. Swadip Bhattacharjee
Assistant Professor
Department of Management
University of Chittagong

Submitted By:
Mohammad Jewel
ID: 13302129
BBA 8th Semester
Department of Management
University of Chittagong

Date of Submission: December 2, 2018


Letter of Submission
December 2, 2018

To
Mr. Swadip Bhattacharjee
Assistant Professor
Department of Management
Faculty of Business Administration
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Subject: Submission of Internship Report

Dear Sir,

It is my pleasure to inform you that I have prepared my internship report at Independent


Apparels Ltd. I have also completed the internship report titled “Training and
Development program and its consequences on employee performance”. I have tried
my best to know about the garment industries “Training and Development program”
provided by the Independent Apparels Ltd, Chittagong. I have written this report based
on data and information I got. I concentrated my best effort to achieve the objectives of
the report and hope that my endeavor serves the purpose.

I shall be glad if you kindly accept this report and I am ready to explain anything to you
if you feel necessary.

Thank you.
Sincerely Yours,

………………………
Mohammad Jewel
ID: 13302129
BBA 8th Semester
Department of Management
University of Chittagong.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

To ready a final report like this is never the work of anyone alone. The contributions of
many different people, in their different ways, have made this possible. Sincere gratitude
is hereby extended to the following people who never ceased in helping until this report
is structured.
Thank God for the wisdom and perseverance that he has been bestowed upon me during
this internship.
I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Associate Professor Mr.Swadip
Bhattacharjee for the useful comments, remarks and engagement through the learning
process of this internship, I also grateful to my coordinator Professor A.K.M Tafzal
Haque and our honorable chairman Professor Md. Sahidur Rahman for making such
an internship program.
Furthermore, I would like to thank the participants (employees of Independent Apparel
Ltd) in my survey, who have willingly shared their precious time during the process of
answering the questionnaire. I would like to thank my internship supervisor Syed
Motinul Hoq, who have supported me throughout entire process, both by keeping me
harmonious and helping me putting pieces together. I will be grateful forever for my
friends also who give me support and help me very much.
I am grateful to my father and mother who have provided me through moral and
emotional support in my life. I am also grateful to my other family members and peer
group who have supported me along the way.

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Supervisor’s Declaration

This is to clarify, Mohammad Jewel, Id no: 13302129, Academic session:


2012-2013, a student of BBA program, Department Of Management, University
of Chittagong. He has completed 8 weeks internship program on “Training and
Development program and its consequences on employee performance” at
Independent Apparels Ltd, under my supervision which is fulfillment of partial
requirement of BBA program.

I, therefore, recommended this report to be accepted for completion of BBA


program.

………………………
( Signature )

Mr. Swadip Bhattacharjee


Assistant Professor
Department of Management
Faculty of Business Administration
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.

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Executive Summary

Independent Apparels Ltd. was established with a goal to be the leading name as the
most trusted trouser products manufacturing company. I have got a general idea about
the training and development program at this organization. I have conducted a survey on
this factory workers on topic of “the impact of training and development program on job
performance of employee”.

For prepared this report I have studied different books and journal related with training
and development and visited many websites to collect data related with this report. Both
the primary and secondary data have been collected, processed and analyzed for
preparing this report. This report basically focusing on the training and development
program and its impact on employee and my study was limited in that area.

Finally the report finds that the training and development program of the company in its
current position are not so significant which impact in the performance of employee. The
major areas of weakness require further investigation and remedial action by
management. Major weakness are come from the employee of the company and some
problems from workers. Here some suggestion are given such as: behavioral training,
motivational training, proper training schedule, deployed trainer etc can make the
company more profitable.

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Table of Contents
Chapter: 01...................................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 8

1.1 Introduction: ......................................................................................................................... 8

1.2 Objectives:............................................................................................................................. 8

1.3 Scope of the study:................................................................................................................ 8

1.4 Methodology of the study: ................................................................................................... 9

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................... 10

Chapter: 02................................................................................................................................ 11

ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................................. 11

2.1 Business Profile ................................................................................................................... 11

2.2 Factory & Address ............................................................................................................... 12

2.3 Strategic objectives: ............................................................................................................ 12

2.4 What They Do:..................................................................................................................... 12

2.5 Function of Independent Apparel Ltd: ................................................................................ 13

2.6 Brand description of independent apparel ltd:................................................................... 17

2.7 Vision Statement of Independent Apparels Limited ........................................................... 18

2.8 Mission Statement of Independent Apparels Limited ........................................................ 18

2.9 Values of Independent Apparels Limited ............................................................................ 19

2.10 Departments of Independent Apparels Limited ............................................................... 19

Chapter: 03 .................................................................................................................................... 25

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF HRM, TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT ................................. 25

3.1 Human Resource Management: ......................................................................................... 25

3.2 Human resource development: .......................................................................................... 25

3.3 Training and development: ................................................................................................. 26

3.4 Employee performance: ...................................................................................................... 27

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3.5 Human Resource Training And Development ..................................................................... 27

3.6 Employee Development Method ........................................................................................ 32

3.7 Career development ........................................................................................................... 33

3.8 Performance appraisal ........................................................................................................ 34

Chapter: 04.................................................................................................................................... 37

Findings, Analysis and Discussion (Effects on employee performance) ....................................... 37

4.1 Brief discussion about prevailing training program in Independent Apparels Ltd ............. 37

4.2 Achievement of Independent Apparels Ltd ........................................................................ 50

4.3 Findings & Analysis, Discussion on findings (Training and Development program and its
consequences on performance) ............................................................................................... 52

Chapter: 05.................................................................................................................................... 54

SWOT ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................ 54

5.1 Swot Analysis Of Independent Apperals Ltd ....................................................................... 54

Chapter: 06.................................................................................................................................... 56

Implications, Problems, Recommendations & Conclusion ........................................................... 56

6.1 Problems: ............................................................................................................................ 56

6.2 Recommendations: ............................................................................................................. 57

6.3 Conclusion: .......................................................................................................................... 58

Chapter: 07.................................................................................................................................... 59

Lessons from internship ................................................................................................................ 59

References:................................................................................................................................ 60

Appendix: .................................................................................................................................. 62

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Chapter: 01
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction:

Training is a process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency and effectiveness
to a particular work area by getting more knowledge and practices. There is no doubt that
organizations worldwide are striving for success and out-competing those in the same
industry. In order to do so, organizations have to obtain and utilize her human resources
effectively. Organizations need to be aware of face more realistically towards keeping
their human resources up-to-date. In so doing, managers need to pay special attention to
all the core functions of human resource management as this plays an important role in
different organizational, social and economically related areas among others that are
influential to the attainment of the organizational goals and thus organizations successful
continuation in the market. This study, therefore, goes on to discuss one of the core
functions of human resource which is training, employee performance, and how the
earlier affects the latter.

1.2 Objectives:

The objective of the study is to measure the impact of training and development program
on job performance of employee. The other objectives are as follows:

 Exploring the training program practice of Independent Apparel Ltd.


 Finding out the limitation of training program.
 Giving suggestion for improving training program of the factory.

1.3 Scope of the study:


The scope of the study is limited in only to Independent Apparel Ltd. The title of the
report is “impact of training & development program on job performance of employee”.
The report is made within the internship time that is six weeks. To fulfill up the BBA

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course, a student must have working a particular organization for six weeks. That’s why
I am trying to make a report on employee performance and training program which I
studied and practiced.

1.4 Methodology of the study:


This report has been prepared on the basis of experience gathered during the 6 weeks of
internship period starting from 18th September, 2018 to 31st October, 2018. For
preparing this report, I have undertaken group discussion, participated in some internal
training session and doing some internal survey. Then I collected data from some
workers and other employees. During the internship I have collected information and
data from the following sources which helped me to make the report. The source has
been divided into two parts such as:
 Primary sources
 Secondary sources

The collected data are analyzed and interpreted by the use of different types of strategical
tools and techniques to make the data and information more meaningful for the study.

Primary Sources:

The Primary Sources of Data include the following:


1. Direct conversation with the responsible representatives of the HR department of the
Independent Apparel Ltd.
2. I used a questionnaire for collecting data from the workers and employees.
3. Practical experience gained from different assignments during internship period
assigned by the company representative like- Performance Management System,
Training and Development .

Secondary Sources:

The secondary sources of data include as under-


1. Written document of the HR department of Independent Apparel Ltd.

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2. Profiles of the company.
3. Hard copy of Training file.
4. Website of the www.independentapparels.com

1.5 Limitations Of The Study


I tried my best to collect maximum information from But this report is not free from
short faults. While preparing this report, I faced some problems. These problems are
mentioned below -
 The study was limited to only one organization Independent Apparel Ltd.
 Most of the workers are less responsive of giving proper information.
 Some data could not be collected for their confidential documents but shown to
me and make clear about the procedure.
 HR Officials have immense pressure of work.

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Chapter: 02
ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW
Independent Apparels Ltd
(An 100% Export Oriented Company)
(Manufacturer & Exporter of Hi-fashion Garments)

Independent Apparels Ltd. was established in 1995 with a goal to be the leading name
as the most trusted trouser products manufacturing company. Now they are one of the
leading manufacturer & exporter and their products are appreciated worldwide in terms
of design and quality.

2.1 Business Profile


Factory Name : Independent Apparels LTD.
FACTORY ADDRESS : 21/27, BAIZID BOSTAMI ROAD, NASIRABAD
I/A
CHITTAGONG, BANGLADESH
CEO : S.M.ABU TAYYAB
TEL : 88-031-682504, 681678
FAX : 880-31-682829
MOBILE : 01711762915
E-MAIL : info@independentbd.net,abu@independentbd.net
WEB : : www.independentapparels.com
USA ADDRESS : INDEPENDENT APPARELS INC.
87-79, 168TH STREET
JAMICA. NY11432.
PHONE +17184756470

CONTACT PERSON : S.M. ALAM

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2.2 Factory & Address
Factory : Independent Apparels Ltd
NATURE OF BUSINESS : 100% Export Oriented Readymade Garments
PRODUCTION RANGE : Starter, Russel, Danskin, Hind, Family Dollar,
Layer, Proplayer, Tapout, Euro Soccer
WALMART FACTORY : 28040823
ID
BUYERS NAME : IFG Corporation
YARN SOURCE : Hongkong, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh
FACTORY AREA : 72628 SQFT
PRODUCTION : 200000 Pcs per mongth.
CAPACITY

2.3 Strategic objectives:


Exceeding customer expectation: Cater to client’s requirements with utmost
importance and execution that safeguards their interests

 Quality Assurance :Producing quality garments forms a core value for our
management practices
 They believe in providing a Better working condition to their work force before
delivering the highest quality service to their customer.

2.4 What They Do:


 Manufacturing:
They have well developed infrastructure for manufacturing quality garments. In
house production and finishing facility provides confidence and gives greater
product satisfaction.
 Quality Assurance:
Quality is an essential business philosophy. Quality control is done at all stages
from raw materials till shipping. They ensure consistently good quality
merchandise at all times.

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 On Time Delivery
They are highly committed to on times deliveries. A time and Action Plan is
strictly followed, to ensure consignments leave on time.

2.5 Function of Independent Apparel Ltd:

Spreading and
Sampling Fabric Store
Merchandising Cutting
Department Department
Department

Finishing &
Sweing Quality Assurance Maintenance
Packaging
Department Department Department
Department

Finance and
HR/Admin
Accounts
department
Department

Figure 01: Function of Independent Apparel Ltd:

Merchandising:
It is a vital process that involves planning, developing, executing and dispatching the
order (product) to the buyer. The company have good merchandising department which
comprises guiding and supervising for the successful processing of an order. The
marketing merchandising associate with development of product, costing and ordering,
and it has direct contact with the buyer. Product merchandising is carried out in its unit
and involves all the responsibilities starting from sourcing to finishing.

Sampling department function:


The sampling department coordinates with the merchandising and production
department. It carried out to foresee finished product appearance and fit when produced

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in bulk and to confirm whether there are any inconsistencies in the pattern according to
the buyer’s specification

Fabric store department functions:


This department’s function consists of three sub-departments

1. Fabric sourcing:

It engaged in deciding where and how the fabrics have to be procured. It works in
conjunction with the merchandising department and looks after the delivery of the
required garments within the scheduled time and cost.

2. Purchasing:

The main difference between the sourcing and purchasing department is that the
sourcing section works for sourcing the fabrics alone whereas the nature of the work
of the purchasing department comprises sourcing of accessories and trims as well.

3. Quality inspection department:

The main function of this department is the Identification and analysis of fabric
defects using various standard methods and selection of fabric according to AQL
(accepted quality level)

Spreading and Cutting section function:


The cutting department normally receives the order from the production manager
who has approved the cutting order to cut a given quantity of product styles. The
cutting order sheet contains the following information:

 Sampling average, weight and averages of other trims


 Measurement sheet.
 Design of the product
 Fabric request sheet
 Marker planning – length of lay, etc., size ratio and colors in which the patterns
are to be cut.

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Sewing department function:

Sewing section is the main department for garments manufacturing. When all the
garments are complete to cut in the cutting section, all of these cutting parts are sending
to sewing department for making garment. In this section different cutting parts are
joining together with the help of different types of sewing machine, threads and needle.
To complete the perfect garment easily and timely Floor in-charge always maintains a
working procedure in this factory.

Quality assurance & finishing department function:

For the assurance of quality of garments there are inline quality inspection, inline quality
audit and end line quality audit and table inspection. After completing table inspection
quality passed garments are sending to the finishing department. This department
engaged with thread removing, quality check, ironing or processing, garments
measurement, poly, level attached and packing etc.

Maintenance department function:

The main operations of the department are following:


1. Inspection of sewing machines and other machinery in the factory, repairing and up
gradation.
2. Maintaining and ensuring continuous power supply in the factory.
3. Maintaining proper water supply, compressors, boilers etc.
4. Planning, design and implement any kind of expansion of the factory.
5. Supply purified water for factory using and washing plant.
6. Maintain WHO standard PH value for ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant).
7. Purchase of new machinery.
8. Issuing of different spare parts and accessories according to the production
requirement.
9. Housekeeping.
10. New constructions, paintings, and furnishing of the factory.

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Finance and accounting department:

The finance department is responsible for managing all the financial administrative
affairs of this company and has a very important influence on many of the policy and
commercial decisions taken by management The financing of a company’s operations
require precise timely planning and control in order to ensure that adequate funds and
credits are available when needed. Apart from the money to pay suppliers, salaries,
expenses, funds have to be on hand to finance stocks of raw materials and finished
goods.

HR/Admin department functions:

It facilitates the most effective utilization of human resource to achieve the objectives of
both the garment factory and the employee. The human resource function serves to make
sure that the company mission, vision, values or guiding principles, company metrics and
factors that keep the company guided toward success. This department functions are
given below:

Organization Talent &


Development Performance
& Desion Management
Succession &
Facilitation &
Career
Training
Planning

complaiance Employee
Engagement &
Process & Employee
System Relation

Recruitment
Selection
HR/Admin HR strategy &
Department Planning
On-boarding

Figure 02: HR/Admin department functions

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2.6 Brand description of independent apparel ltd:

Brand Description of respective logo


list country
Starter A premium athletic brand
established in 1971, Starter
pioneered the fusion of sports
clothing with popular culture by
forging partnerships with the
major pro basketball, football,
baseball, hockey and college
leagues.
Russell On march 3, 1902, Russell
Athletic was found by 26-years
old Benjamin Russell as the
Russell manufacturing Company
in alexander city.

Danskin Danskin, Inc. is a leading maker


and marketer of women's athletic
and fitness wear. The company
sells clothing to be worn during
dance and exercise, and also
offers hosiery.
Hind Since Hind was founded in 1974
the brand has been dedicated to
creating industry-leading
performance products designed
with the individual sport athlete
in mind
Family In 1958, a 21-year-old
Dollar entrepreneur with an interest in
merchandising became intrigued

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with the idea of operating a low-
overhead, self-service retail store
Tapout was founded by Charles
Tapout Lewis, Jr. and Gary Fields in
1997.
It is one of the largest sportswear
manufacturers in the United
States, and one of the biggest in
the world.

2.7 Vision Statement of Independent Apparels Limited

To create a truly global brand that provides growth opportunities for the company and its
employees, whilst achieving its goal of becoming the number one value fashion retailer
across the South Asia.

2.8 Mission Statement of Independent Apparels Limited


1. To perform the leading role in the field of international development consulting
industry in Asia.
2. To achieve joint growth of the organization and the staff.
3. To manufacture world class products of outstanding quality that give our
customers a competitive advantage through superior products and value so that
we can make every customer smile.
4. To encourage people’s ownership, empowerment and work under team structure.
5. To attain highest level of efficiency, honesty and integrity.
6. To be a market leader in the field of value retailing.
7. To provide fashionable products at affordable prices.
8. To be innovative, cost-effective and globally competitive.
9. To exceed our customers’ expectations.
10. To provide opportunities of growth for our employees.

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2.9 Values of Independent Apparels Limited
1. Customers’ satisfaction and delight.
2. Superior quality of performance.
3. Concern for the environment and the community.
4. Passion for excellence.
5. Fair to all level of employees.
6. Availability of a safe workplace and promotion of healthy work habits.
7. Constant focus and development of the product being offered.
8. Commitment towards staff training & development.
9. Encouraging open work culture.

2.10 Departments of Independent Apparels Limited

Departments

Commercial & IT
Production Merchandising
Accounts HR & Compliance

Cutting
Finance Payable Recruitment Auto CAD

Sewing Finance Receivable Training

Engeneering
Quality Payroll Compensation Policy

Finishing Working
Financial statement
Environment

Store

Figure 03: Departments of Independent Apparels Limited

1. Production

The Independent apparel industry transforms fabrics produced by textile manufacturers


into clothing and accessories. The production department of Independent Apparels Ltd is

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consisted mostly of production workers who perform the cutting and sewing functions in
an assembly line.

Cutting section function:

The cutting department normally receives the order from the production manager who
has approved the cutting order to cut a given quantity of product styles. The cutting order
sheet contains the following information:

• Sampling average, weight and averages of other trims, Measurement sheet.


• Design of the product
• Fabric request sheet
Marker planning – length of lay, etc., size ratio and colors in which the patterns are to be
cut.

2. Sewing:

After receiving the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are
joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn as per buyer’s
requirement.

Sewing section is the most important department of Independent Apparels limited.


Sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the
garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of
assembling operations.

3. Quality:

For the assurance of quality of garments there are inline quality inspection, inline quality
audit and end line quality audit and table inspection. After completing table inspection
quality passed garments are sent to the finishing department.

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4. Finishing:

For Independent Apparels Ltd finishing room is the last step of garment manufacturing
or assembling the operations. After making complete stitched garments by sewing
section, these are passed in finishing department for ironing, folding, thread removing,
level attached, poly packing, cartooning to get attractive appearance. All types of
garments finishing activities are done here.

5. Store:

The fabric and accessories store department is centralized in this company. All the
fabrics and accessories come to this unit from the supplier are audited here first and kept
until it is distributed to other units. For an export oriented and bulk production of
garment industry like Independent Apparels Limited, it is essential to maintain a well-
organized & well equipped inventory system. The main responsibility of this department
is to store all the raw materials necessary to produce garments. Store keeper follows a
strong and appropriate working procedure. Ours is a five storied building.

6. Commercial & Merchandising:

It is a vital process of the company that involves planning, developing, executing and
dispatching the order (product) to the buyer. The company has a good merchandising
department which comprises guiding and supervising for the successful processing of an
order. The merchandising department is associated with development of product, costing
and ordering. It also has a direct contact with the buyer. Product merchandising is carried
out in its unit and involves all the responsibilities starting from sourcing to finishing.

7. Accounts:

The functions of the accounting and finance department in any business organization can
get a little confusing. Entrepreneurs tend to think and move quickly. By examining our
bird’s eye views on Accounts department of Independent Apparels we have summarized
the functions of this department in these categories.

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i) Finance Payable (money out)
In order to maintain great relationships with suppliers making sure that everyone gets
paid on time is a vital here. The role of the accounting department includes keeping an
eye on opportunities to save money, for example, determining if there are discounts or
incentives available for paying certain vendors more quickly.

ii) Finance Receivable and Revenue Tracking (money in)


A critical duty of the accounting department is to account for and track receivables,
including outstanding invoices and any required collection actions. The responsibility
here includes assuring that customers pay invoices on time, so a system of friendly
reminders is crucial.

iii) Payroll
Payroll is a critical function of the accounting department and includes making sure all
employees are paid accurately and timely.

iv) Reporting and Financial Statements


Financial reports are made so that it can be used for budgeting, forecasting and other
decision making processes. In addition, these and other reports are needed to
communicate with buyers, auditors and other professionals.

8. IT department:

CAD section:
The CAD department is accountable for the following functions:
 Determining cutting average for costing.
 Making the most efficient cutting marker.
 Development and alteration of patterns.
 Development of size set patterns by grading.
 Digitizing the patterns.

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9. Engineering section:
The engineering department continuously try to effectively and efficiently utilize
software technologies, machine tools, scientific concepts, and human resources in order
to solve problems, produce on time at the optimum output level to satisfy customer
demands. It is used to increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness of operations by the
products strategies like high-volume production, long-runs and minimal variations.

10. Human Resource department:


Human resources strategies play a key role in the development of a textile enterprise like
Independent, both in day-to-day activities and long-term objectives. HR is responsible
for enhancing the capacity of the sales department in negotiation and contract
management, motivating staff through benefits programs and creating conditions that
facilitate technological advancement. Usually this department includes the functions
mentioned below:

i) Recruitment

Here the HR function focuses on recruiting suitable skilled manpower for the production
as well as other departments. Personnel in these areas are crucial to the productivity,
performance and bottom line of this company. Mass recruiting are done here as many
other garments factory in Bangladesh.

ii) Training

Human resources personnel develop programs to train workers to adapt to new


technology that improves safety measures in a changing garment market. Fire safety,
Emergency safety, PPE and many more (19 in total) training are provided for the worker
of this factory as per the compliance requirements.

iii) Compensation Policy

The human resources department has established a salary and compensation policy to
encourage existing workforce to stay and attract qualified candidates to the firm.

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iv) Work Environment

This department also ensure a favorable working environment by implementing safety


and security measures, such as having fire alarms, first aid and monitoring systems in
place. It establish a professional working environment as well as spell out job
descriptions to avoid confusion.

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Chapter: 03
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF HRM, TRAINING &
DEVELOPMENT

3.1 Human Resource Management:

Human resource management is the way organizations manage their staff and help them
to develop (McCourt & Eldridge 2003, 2) in order to be able to execute organizations’
missions and goals successfully.
“Human resource management (HRM) innovation concerns new HRM ideas and
practices that strive to add value to HRM and organizational performance” (Leede &
Looise, 2005).
Human resource is one of the most important resource of an organization employees
supply the talent skills, creativity, exert effort and leadership that contribute the level of
performance of the organization (Khan & Taher, 2018).
HRM defines as “planning, organizing, directing, controlling of procurement,
development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human
resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are achieved”
(Flippo, 1984).
Human resource management is the part of the organization that concerned with the
people (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2011).
Human resource management is the process of acquiring, training, appraising and
compensating employees, and of attending to their labor relations, health and safety, and
fairness concerns (Dessler, 2014).

3.2 Human resource development:


Human resource development is the integration of individual, career and organization
development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and
fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the
organization (Pace, Smith & Mills 1991, 6)
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develop
their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. HRD is one of the
most significant opportunities that employees seek when they consider you as an

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employer. The ability, and encouragement, to continue to develop their skills help you
to retain and motivate employees.
The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the
most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can
accomplish their work goals in service to customers (Susan M. Heathfield, October 29,
2018)

3.3 Training and development:


According to Griffin, “Training usually refers to the teaching operational or technical
employee how to do the teaching operational or technical employees how to do the job
for which they are hired.”

Every organization needs well-adjusted, trained, and experienced people to perform its
activities. Training involves changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behavior
This involves training and development of workforces and managers (Briscoe 1995:
83). Training and development are often used to close the gap between current
performances and expected future performance. Training and development falls under
HRD function which has been argued to be an important function of HRM (Weil &
Woodall 2005). Amongst the functions activities of this function is the Identification of
the needs for training and development and selecting methods and programs suitable for
these needs, plan how to implement them and finally evaluating their outcome results
(McCourt & Eldridge 2003, 237)
Guest (1987) argues that policies are necessary to ensure that employee performance is
evaluated, which in turn ensures that the appropriate training and development take
place. With the help of the performance appraisal reports and findings, the organization
can be able to identify development needs. However, individuals themselves can help to
indicate the areas requiring improvement as a result of the issues raised in the
performance appraisal process and their career path needs.
Human resource management regards training and development as a function concerned
with organizational activity aimed at bettering the job performance of individuals and
groups in organizational settings. Training and development can be described as "an
educational process which involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of
attitude and gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees"
(QURESHI, 2016)

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Organizational Development is a process that “strives to build the capacity to achieve
and sustain a new desired state that benefits the organization or community and the
world around them.” (The Organizational Development Network website)

Figure 04: Training and Development process

3.4 Employee performance:


Employee performance is defined as the outcome or contribution of employees to make
them attain goals (Herbert, John & Lee 2000) while performance may be used to define
what an organization has accomplished with respect to the process, results, relevance.
Afshan et al. (2012) define performance as the achievement of specific tasks measured
against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.
Employee performance can be manifested in improvement in production, easiness in
using the new technology, highly motivated workers market.

3.5 Human Resource Training And Development


Training and development falls under HRD function which has been argued to be an
important function of HRM (Weil & Woodall 2005).

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 Training

As one of the major functions within HRM, training has for long been recognized and
thus attracted great research attention by academic writers (see e.g. Gordon 1992,
Beardwell, Holden & Claydon 2004). This has yielded into a variety of definitions of
training. For example, Gordon (1992, 235) defines training as the planned and
systematic modification of behavior through learning events, activities and programs
which result in the participants achieving the levels of knowledge, skills, competencies
and abilities to carry out their work effectively.
It is worth nothing that, as researchers continue with their quest into the training
research area, they also continue their arguments into its importance. Some of these
researchers argue that the recognition of the importance of training in recent years has
been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and the relative success of
organizations where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized
(Beardwell et al. 2004). Related to the above, Beardwell et al. (2004) add that
technological developments and organizational change have gradually led some
employers to the realization that success relies on the skills and abilities of their
employees, thus a need for considerable and continuous investment in training and
development.

 Benefits of training
The main purpose of training is to acquire and improve knowledge, skills and attitudes
towards work related tasks. It is one of the most important potential motivators which
can lead to both short-term and long-term benefits for individuals and organizations.
There are so many benefits associated with training. Cole (2001) summarizes these
benefits as below:
1) High morale – employees who receive training have increased confidence and
motivations;
2) Lower cost of production – training eliminates risks because trained personnel are
able to make better and economic use of material and equipment thereby reducing and
avoiding waste;
3) Lower turnover – training brings a sense of security at the workplace which in turn
reduces labor turnover and absenteeism is avoided;

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4) Change management – training helps to manage change by increasing the
understanding and involvement of employees in the change process and also provides
the skills and abilities needed to adjust to new situations;
5) Provide recognition, enhanced responsibility and the possibility of increased pay and
promotion.
6) Help to improve the availability and quality of staff.

 HR training needs
According to Wognum (2001, 408), training and development needs may occur at three
organizational levels namely; (1) strategic level where needs are determined by top
management while considering organizations goals, mission, strategy and problems,
which need to be resolved or fixed (2) tactical level where needs are determined with
middle management while considering developments needs to the coordination and
cooperation between organization units and (3) operational level where needs are
determined with lower executive management and other employees while considering
problems related to operations such as performance problems of individual workers and
departments in subject. In order to enable an organization formulate human resource
training and development goals that will enable both formal and informal human
resource training and development methods and programmes create a workforce that
enables effectiveness and competitiveness, it is worth giving consideration to, providing
proper coordination as well as proper incorporation of the needs within the three levels
The first issue is to identify the needs relevant to the organizations objectives.
According to Wognum (2001) and Torrington et al. (2005), there are three categories of
identifying training and development needs. These include: resolving problems, this
focuses on workers’ performance, improving certain working practices, this focuses on
improvement regardless of the performance problems and changing or renewing the
organization situation, which may arise because of innovations or changes in strategy.
The above are summarized in Table 1 below. It is worth putting in mind that during the
identification of training needs, there is need to create, develop, maintain and improve
any systems relevant in contributing to the availability of people with required skills.
Moreover, training programmes should be designed to carter for the different needs.
Further still, the training programme, content and the trainees' chosen depend on the
objectives of the training programme (Milkovic & Bordereau 2003)

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 Types of Training:
The major types of training that organizations provide are given below:

Types Includes

General Communication skills, computer systems application and programming, customer


service, executive development, management skills and development, personal
growth, sales, supervisory skills, and technological skills and knowledge.

Special Basic life/work skills, creativity, customer education, diversity/cultural awareness,


remedial writing, managing change, leadership, product knowledge, public
speaking/presentation skills, safety, ethics, sexual harassment, team building,
wellness, and others

Figure 05: Types of training

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 Training Methods

Many different types of training methods are available. For the most part, however, we
can classify them as on-the-job or off-the-job training. We have summarized the more
popular training methods below:

Training Approach

On The Job Off The Job

Training Training

 Apprenticeships  Simulations

 Job Rotation  Brain Storming

 Experience  Conference & Seminar

 Multiple Management  Special Course

 Internship  Vestibule Training

 Committee Assignment  Multimedia Learning

Figure 06: Training approach

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 Training Process

There are four steps in the training process. These are as follows:

 In the first, needs analysis step, to identify the specific knowledge and skills the
job requires, and compare these with the prospective trainees’ knowledge and
skills.
 In the second, instructional design step, to formulate specific, measurable
knowledge and performance training objectives, review possible training program
content, and estimate a budget for the training program.
 The third step is to implement the program, by actually training the targeted
employee group using methods such as on-the-job or online training.
 Finally, in an evaluation step, to assess the program’s success (or failure ).

3.6 Employee Development Method


Some development of an individual’s abilities can take place on the job. Three popular
methods of on-the-job techniques (job rotation, assistant-to positions, and committee
assignments), and three off-the-job methods (lecture courses and seminars, simulation
exercises, and adventure or outdoor training).

 Job Rotation

Job Rotation means moving employees horizontally or vertically to expand their skills,
knowledge, or abilities. Job rotation can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical rotation
is nothing more than promoting a worker into a new position.

 Assistant-to Positions:

Employees with demonstrated potential sometimes work under a seasoned and


successful manager, often in different areas of the organization. Working as staff
assistants, or in some cases, serving on special boards, these individuals perform many
duties under the watchful eye of a supportive coach.

 Committee Assignment:

Committee assignments can allow the employee to share in decision making, to learn by
watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems. Temporary

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committees often act as a taskforce to delve into a particular problem, ascertain
alternative solutions, and recommend a solution.

 Lecture Courses and Seminars:

Traditional forms of instruction revolve around formal lecture courses and seminars.
These help individuals acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical
abilities. Many organizations offer these inhouse, through outside vendors, or both.

 Simulation Exercises:

Simulation means any artificial environment that attempts to closely mirror an actual
condition. The more widely used simulation exercises include case studies, decision
games, and role plays. The advantages of simulation exercises are the opportunities to
“create an environment” similar to real situations managers face, without high costs for
poor outcomes.

 Adventure or Outdoor Training

A trend in employee development has been the use of adventure (sometimes referred to
as outdoor, wilderness, or survival) training. The primary focus of such training is to
teach trainees the importance of working together, or coming together as a team. This
could be white-water rafting, mountain climbing, paintball games, or surviving a week
on a sailing adventure. The purpose of such training is to see how employees react to the
difficulties that nature presents to them.

3.7 Career development


Career means the sequence of employment positions that a person has held over his or
her life. Career development programs are designed to assist employees in advancing
their work lives. The focus of career development is to provide the necessary information
and assessment in helping employees realize their career goals.

The current global business environment makes the overseas assignment a vital
component in developing top-level executives. It is vital for the organization to make the
overseas assignment part of a career development program.

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In the absence of such a developmental program, two negative consequences often occur.
First, the recently returned manager who is largely ignored or underutilized becomes
frustrated and leaves the organization. Second, when overseas returnees are regularly
underutilized or leave out of frustration, other potential expatriates become reluctant to
accept overseas posts, inhibiting the organization’s staffing ability.

3.8 Performance appraisal


Performance appraisal means evaluating an employee's current and/or past performance
relative to his or her performance standards. Stripped to its essentials, performance
appraisal involves:

 Setting work standards


 Assessing the employee’s actual performance relative to those standards, and
 Providing feedback to the employee with the aim to motivating his or her to
eliminate performance deficiencies or to continue to perform above par.
 Performance Appraisal Process

The appraisal process evaluates employee performance by measuring progress toward


goals. The process is given below:

1. Establish performance standards with employees:

The appraisal process begins with establishment of performance standards in accordance


with the organization’s strategic goals. These should evolve out of the company’s
strategic direction—and, more specifically, the job analysis and the job description.
These performance standards should also be clear and objective enough to be understood
and measured.

2. Communicate expectations:

Once performance standards are established, it is necessary to communicate these


expectations; employees should not have to guess what is expected of them. Too many

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jobs have vague performance standards, and the problem is compounded when these
standards are set in isolation and without employee input. Communication is a two way
street: mere information transfer from supervisor to employee is not successful
communication.

3. Measure actual performance:

The third step in the appraisal process is performance measurement. To determine what
actual performance is, we need information about it. We should be concerned with how
we measure and what we measure. Four common sources of information frequently used
by managers address how to measure actual performance:

 Personal Observation
 Statistical Reports
 Oral Reports and
 Written Reports

Each has its strengths and weaknesses; however, a combination of them increases both
the number of input sources and the probability of receiving reliable information.

4. Compare actual performance with standards:

The fourth step in the appraisal process is the comparison of actual performance with
standards. This step notes deviations between standard performance and actual
performance. The performance appraisal form should include a list and explanation of
the performance standards. It should also include an explanation of the different levels of
performance and their degree of acceptability against the performance standard. This
provides a valuable feedback tool as the manager moves on the next step, discussing the
appraisal.

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5. Discuss the appraisal with the employee:

One of the most challenging tasks facing appraisers is to present an accurate assessment
to the employee. Appraising performance may touch on one of the most emotionally
charged activities—evaluation of another individual’s contribution and ability. The
impression that employees receive about their assessment has a strong impact on their
self-esteem and, importantly, on their subsequent performance. Conveying good news is
considerably easier for both the appraiser and the employee than conveying bad news. In
this context, the appraisal discussion can have negative as well as positive motivational
consequences.

6. If necessary, initiate corrective action:

The final step in the appraisal is the identification of corrective action where necessary.
Corrective action can be of two types:

 Immediate and deals predominantly with symptoms, and


 Basic and delves into causes
 Immediate corrective action is often described as “putting out fires,” whereas
basic corrective action touches the source of deviation and seeks to adjust the
difference permanently. Immediate action corrects problems such as mistakes in
procedures and faulty training and gets the employee back on track right away.
Basic corrective action asks how and why performance deviated from the
expected performance standard and provides training or employee development
activities to improve performance.

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Chapter: 04
FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION (EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEE
PERFORMANCE)

This chapter presents the analysis and discussion of the findings to the study. The data is
presented in form of Tables and Charts. Where data could not be quantified, it is
explained. Presentation of findings has been organized in accordance with the study
objectives.

4.1 Brief discussion about prevailing training program in Independent


Apparels Ltd

1. Environmental Health and Safety Training (EHS)

This training is provided to the workers of cutting, sewing, finishing & quality section. It
covers the health & safety issues of workers. Some of the basic features that are
discussed in this training are like everyone has to keep their working area neat and clean,
the canteen should be properly used and kept neat & clean. Then Fire extinguisher, Hose
pipe box, and First aid box should be kept free and ready to be used. And Personal
protective equipment such as eye guard, needle guard, rubber mat etc. should be used
carefully. This training also increases the awareness on reducing the wastage of drinking
water and discourages Smoking and eating betel leaves in workplace.

2. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

This training discusses about the importance of using several personal protective
equipment that helps workers to be safe in using the machineries. Here everyone is told
to carry his or her own ID card, to wear face mask mandatorily, to keep the scissors
knotted with a rope, to attach the needle guard with machine. It also discusses the
necessity of using hand gloves and rubber matt on machine’s footboard.

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3. Orientation Course of new workers

This training briefs newly recruited workers on several policy of the company. These
policies are discussed below:-

 Worker Recruitment Policy:

No worker is appointed below 18 years.

Workers are recruited on the basis of merit & ability.

 Leave Policy:

There are six types of leave for the workers.

1. Weekly Leave: one day in every week.

2. Casual Leave: Ten days in a year with full salary, has to be consumed within
31st December of every year.

3. Sickness /Medical leaves:

A worker can have 14 day medical leave in case of sickness. the wage benefit and
bonus will remain the same at that time. The leave will only be counted in case of
sickness. And a medical certificate from a registered doctor must be given as an
evidence by the worker to the HR manager with an application for the leave to be
granted.

4. Festival leave:

Minimum 11 days leave are granted for major religious and nonreligious festival like
Eid ul Fitr, Eid ul Adha, Bangla new year, Durga puja , Buddha purnima etc. The
leave will be granted with wage and bonus benefit

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5. Regular leave:

A worker can enjoy 10 days leave a year. He or she will be eligible for the leave from the
first day of the work. Regular leave will not be more than 10 days.

6. Yearly leave:

One day leave is granted for per 18 work day. it means a worker gets one day leave for
18 days of work. For 208 work days in a year(excluding the leaves) the number of days
will be granted for yearly leave is:

(208/18=11.556 or 12 days)

The worker can get the wages for the number of days leave.

 Working Hour Policy:

The normal working time is eight hours per day from 8 am to 5 pm with one hour
break. A worker can have only two hours overtime opportunity per day.

 Over Time Calculation Policy: Workers are given overtime work facility. A
worker can work overtime 8 hour a week. And not more than two hours a day.
The wage for the overtime hour will be double from the regular work hour. The
pay rate for work hour is :

(Basic/208)×2×Hour over time

 Bonus Policy:

i) Festive bonus:

There are two festival bonus on the Eid-UL- Fitr and Eid- UL-Azha for the Muslim and
one for the Hindus in Durga Puja. The amount of the bonus is actually equal to one
month salary. This is generally given before they get the leave. The condition for getting

39
this bonus is that, the worker need to work for the company at least 1 year r the age of
working in GHL has to be 1 year.

ii) Bonus on attendance:

The GHL also give its worker one extra bonus. That is attendance bonus. This bonus is
given to worker at the end of the month with the salary. With basic salary a small amount
of attendance bonus is given if the worker properly attend to the work during whole
month

4. Refreshers Training

The content of this training is same as the Orientation Course of new workers training.
The key difference is it is for the existing workers while the previous one is for new
workers. Factory rules & regulations, working hours and worker’s facilities related
policies are also discussed in this training.

5. Machine Safety Training

The training starts with the slogan “Company’s property is our trust”. The machine
safety training provides some guidelines on how to use the machine safely. Such as
before starting the machine it should be checked whether the machine is situated on a flat
platform. It should be checked whether any electrical disruption is in the machine.
Clearing session of machine should be conducted three times a day, i.e. before starting
the work, after lunch, & before leaving the factory. The training also tells to check the
fuel level of the machine, to check whether all parts are attached with the machine, to
keep the oil tank neat and clean and to avoid wearing tightly fitted clothes.

6. Accident Root Cause Analysis

It discusses about the root causes of accident & the preventive measures of those
accidents. Sometimes the needle bends with the fabrics which can cause accident, so it

40
should be carefully handled. While using scissors it can get lost in the fabrics. So scissors
should be knotted with a rope.

7. Root Cause Analysis (Primary disease)

This training is conducted by a certified doctor. The causes and preventions of fever and
diarrhea are analyzed and discussed in this training session. The company has a strong
medical practitioner team which works whole day for primary treatment of workers.

8. Waste Management and Disposal training

It is done to motivate the labor to keep the waste in right place, so that the environment
can get clean. It is done by the Environment Safety Committee (EES). Some of the
issues that are discussed during the training is as follows:

 The elements that useless/waste need to identify


 Separate drum needs to use for different types of waste
 The drum need to be marked and labeled with the name. For example-
Polythene, Cone, Tube, Broken Bulbs, Sharp broken metals, rejected cloths,
Waste papers etc.
 The waste needed to drop on the right drum by watching their labels and based
on the label they need to be packed into separate bags. All this disposal is need
done in present of the respective management body
 The waste needed to be taken out of the factory by the fixed person with proper
gate pass.

9.Training for Security Guard

This training is provided to the security guard of the company. The trainees are briefed in
three specific area. These are:- Every guest and unknown individual’s identity should be
verified before entering into the factory. No worker should be allowed to leave the

41
factory without showing a valid pass. All entrance of the factory needs to be checked at
the end of office hour.

10. Fire Training:

It is one of the important training program in the whole training process. At this time the
worker are given some idea about the fire rescue and safety program. It helps the
employee the idea about what to do if a sudden fire occurs. This training is held twice in
a month.

During the training program, on a sudden day the fire alarm will give siren of the fire,
this is done to let the worker practical situation. All of the process is done without the
acknowledgment of the worker.

After listening the fire alarm the worker will come to the downstairs, the condition of
this situation is that they need to be calm and don’t get hurry. They have to come done in
a row holding the railing of the stairs.

After coming down, they needs take a few rows. After that the fire safety manager gives
some speech to the workers about-

 What they did


 What was their mistake during this session
 About the fire extinguisher
 Types of extinguisher
 How to use the extinguisher etc.

All of the date, name of the workers, time and some picture should be attached in a
registered book. These documents are needed to give the buyer at the time of inspection.

42
Figure 07: Picture of how to use fire extinguisher

There are three types of extinguishers. These are following:

Name Image usage


ABC Dry Powder  Ordinary solid
combustibles
 Flammable liquids
and gases
 Energized electrical
equipment
CO2  Equipment such as
computers, or
generators
(‘electrical’ fires)
 Some flammable
liquids, such as
petrol, diesel, and
paint

43
Foam Extinguisher  Equipment such as
computers, or
generators
(‘electrical’ fires)
 Some flammable
liquids, such as
petrol, diesel, and
paint

Figure 08: Types of extinguishers

This are the fire extinguishing equipments and below there is list of others equipments
that are needed to rescue in can of fire. This equipment helps the first aid team and also
the firemen on that spot where easy access can’t be made. So it is the duty of the fire
manager to keep the maintenance of the right equipment in the right place.

SI. No Equipment Name Quantity

01. Fire Helmet 03 Pcs

02. Fire Gasmask 02 Pcs

03. Fire Boot 01(Pair)

04. Hand Gloves 02(Pairs)

05. Fire Blanket 01 Pcs

06. Fire Hook 02 Pcs

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07. Fire Bitter 03 Pcs

08. Stretcher 02 Pcs

09. Fire Dress 02(Sets)

10. Torch Light Nill

11. Lock Cutter 02 Pcs

12. Belcha 01 Pcs

13. Fire Axe(Small) Nill

14. Fire Basket 04 Pcs

15. Fire Basket Steel Stand 01 Pc

Figure 09: List of the fire extinguishing equipments

11. Top level Management Training

This training is conducted for the employees of top level management. In this training,
the basic management policies are discussed. The discussion covers the following things.
Top level managers should not discriminatively behave with the workers. They should
consider educational qualification, experience and skills while hiring workers. They
should respect the workers and create a harassment free working environment. They
should follow payment policy of National Labor Law in case of workers salary, wages
and other compensation facilities. Workers should be given notice one month prior to
termination and one month salary or gratuity whichever is higher. No workers should be

45
forced against their will to work. Every worker should be provided bonus and leave
facilities according to the policy.

12. Mid-Level Management Training

Mid-level management training is conducted for the employees like supervisors of


different sections (e.g. cutting, sewing, finishing etc.). This training suggests supervisors
to create awareness among the workers about safety issues & ensure their participations
in safety related training. It also tells them that no worker should be forced to work
against their will and every worker can express their complaints through the suggestion
box. The training also suggests to verify the workers identity, to verify the age of
workers through different documents during the recruitment and to inform the workers
about the rules & facilities provided by the company.

13. First Aid Training

First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with
care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote
recovery. It is important for every factory to maintain the first aid facility for the
workers.

In Independent Apparel Ltd there is also a first aid facility for the worker. Here in each
of its floor the First Aid Box is kept on a fixed place. Now only this, the factory maintain
a First Aider Team whose task is to give the patience first aid care so that no, fatal injury
will not happened.

This is the training which provides guidelines on how to response in a situation where
any individual is suffering from a sudden illness or injury.

Such as:

 Primary treatment for wounded or scratched area.

 Primary treatment for sudden bleeding from nose.

46
 Primary treatment for bleeding from wounded spot.

 Primary treatment for serious bleeding.

 Treatment when got shocked by electricity.

 Usage of Bandage.

14. AIDS Awareness

The AIDS awareness training is conducted by a certified doctor. This training basically
discusses about the definition, causes, symptoms & complications, and misconceptions
about AIDS. This training also discusses about the preventive measures of AIDS.

15. Health and Safety Training for Pregnant Women

This training is also conducted by a certified doctor. Maternity training provides


guidelines on how to keep oneself neat and clean, move in daily life and also time tables
of taking medicine during the pregnancy period.

16. Emergency Response Drill

The “Emergency Response Drill” training briefs about how to response on emergency
situations. The discussion area of this training covers the following matters. One should
roll around on the ground if the body catches fire. To use ABC (dry powder)
extinguisher if the waste fabrics catches fire, CO2 extinguisher in case of fire in
electrical equipment and foam extinguisher if fire catches through oil. They are provided
these training related:

 To check the steam pressure of boiler regularly and to clean the area immediately
after oil spill.
 To take shelter in a safe place (e.g. under strong table, desk or pillar) while
earthquake, storm or flood occur.

47
 To take safety shower for five minutes if the detergent powder spreads on the
sensitive organs of the body like eyes, nose & face.

17. Rescue Policy

A staff member who discovers an emergency, in this scenario a fire, or who is alerted to
a fire, shall carry out the following:

a) activate the internal warning and communications system, if provided

b) ensure the immediate safety of anyone within the vicinity of the fire/smoke

c) take measures to ensure that fire brigade is notified

NOTE: The fire service should be informed of all incidents of fire or suspicion
of fire (for example, smell of smoke).
d) attempt to extinguish the fire is safe to so using a single fire extinguisher, and if not,
close the room door to reduce fire and smoke spread

e) take measures to ensure that the emergency coordinator, area emergency officer or
any emergency response team members are notified.

Besides mentioned above, this training basically briefs about the rescue techniques in
emergency situations. It provides guidelines for the rescuer like the rescuer should use
ladder, to check each and every corner of the factory whether anyone is left and rescue
first if anyone found fainted.

There are two ways to rescue. These are:

Ways for 1 rescuer:

 Human attach

 Pick on back

 Fireman’s lift

 Fireman’s scroll

 Cradle

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 Removable downstairs

Ways for 2 rescuers:

2 hands, 3 hands, 4 hands sitting positions.

18. Safety training

There are so many issues where the safety of the workers are related. These are sewing
section, cutting section, ironing, leveling, chemical section etc. By which any of the
worker can easily get injured. So if the workers can get aware earlier and know about
their work place risk it can easily reduce the risk. That is the safety training is given to
the worker.

The safety committee consists of 50% of labors and 50% of workers. The valid time a
safety committee is 2 years. There is a condition in safety committee is that, the member
can not be above 12. But the number varies on the total number of workers in the factory.
Below a short chart is given about the number:

Worker Range No. of Employer & Labor Total Committee Member

50-500 3+3 6

501-1000 4+4 8

1001-3000 5+5 10

3001-Above 6+6 12

Table 04: Manpower of Safety committee

As the committee is consist of labor, so it is important to give them some training. The
safety committee is given the training about:

 What can be the risk of the worker during the working time
 What are the risky areas
 How to identify the risk

49
 What to in the risky zone
 How to make aware the worker about the risk of their job
 How to motivate the worker using safety instrument
 How to check the instruments, whether it is fit or not
 How to identify the level of risk
 Is the working environment is safe for the worker
 How to identify the risk of fire source
 Identify the jobs which are more risky
 How to do report if an risky area is found

19. Lay out training

It is actually related to the production. The lay out training is given to the workers. It is
done by the chief designer. This training is given when new orders have come. Actually
after getting every order the lay out need to be changed a little or more. It depends on the
products and the buyers order actually.

So after changing the lay out the workers get the idea and instructions from the designer
how to make the product. This training is given on section wise such as- cutting, sewing,
packing etc.

4.2 Achievement of Independent Apparels Ltd


The factory has achieved Gold Certificate of Compliance that is WRAP “B” level
certificate. It is a one-year certificate that is awarded to a facility that has demonstrated
full compliance with all WRAP principles during the first audit, or in subsequent audits.
The “B” level certification is equal to WRAP’s current compliance certification.

50
Figure 10: Gold certificate of compliance (WRAP)

Figure 11: Alliance (Revised Cap Closing Verification Visit Summary)

51
The Independent Apparels Ltd has also achieved Alliance For Bangladesh Workers
Safety. It has been passed the Revised Cap Closing Verification Visit Summary. The
Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety (Alliance) is a legally binding, five-year
commitment to improve safety in Bangladeshi ready-made garment (RMG) factories.
The Alliance holds each member and their factories accountable to operate workplaces
that are safe and effective in ensuring building and fire safety.

4.3 Findings & Analysis, Discussion on findings (Training and


Development program and its consequences on performance)
To find out either there is positive relation between training and development program
and employee performance or there is no positive relationship among them, it made a
questionnaire and collected data from workers and employees of Independent Apparel
Ltd. It has done by help of SPSS software. By input questionnaire on SPSS it has been
found these result:

4.4 Hypothesis:

The required hypothesis for the analysis are given below:

 Null Hypothesis:

H0: There is no significance difference between Training & Development and Worker’s
Performance.

Which means that Training & Development doesn’t considerably effect on the Worker’s
Performance.

 Alternative hypothesis:

H1: There is significance difference between Training & Development and Worker’s
Performance.

Which means that Training & Development has considerable effects on the Worker’s
Performance.

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Results:
 Correlation

In correlation we found that the value of r is 0.214. There is a low degree but positive
correlation between Training and Development and Worker’s Performance that means,
there is a little tendency for more efficient Training and development activities will lead
to high performance level. Further we added as the result of correlation coefficient is
r=0.214, there is week association but a positive relationship between Training and
Development and Worker’s Performance.

The calculation of correlation result is attached in appendix part of table no-1.

 Coefficient of determination

We found that 4.6% points fall in the regression line. This means that a poor fit with our
model, it means 4.6% variations in dependent variable Y are explained by the
independent variables present in our model.

The calculation is attached in appendix part table no-2.

ANOVA:

In the ANOVA table it is shows that there is no significant difference between means
since p-value .184 is a lot more than 0.05 , so this result indicates that there is no
satisfactory difference between Training and Performance. So we can reject the
alternative hypothesis. So we can say that Training and Development activities don’t
have considerable effect on the organization’s worker’s Performance.

The regression equation is, Y= bx + a

Y= 0.259x+1.113

The calculations of ANOVA are attached in appendix part table no-3.

53
Chapter: 05
SWOT ANALYSIS

5.1 Swot Analysis Of Independent Apperals Ltd


 Strength:

 It uses different types of modern equipment like metal detector machine.


 As number of employees in Independent Apparels is 1500, it is easy to manage
the workers.
 For painting purpose it doesn’t use any outsourcer.
 It provides training to its employee effectively. In case of fire within 2 minutes
1500 employee can gather in assembly area. It has been made possible because of
the training.
 ALLIENCE

 Weakness:

 As there is less manpower in HR department, one person has to perform different


work beyond their routine work.
 Workers and mid level managers are not provided motivational training. So in
some cases they are less efficient to their work.
 Independent Apparels is not producing raw materials which increase cost of the
product.

 Opportunities:

 Knitting sector is rising strongly which is a great opportunity for Independent


Apparels as its main product is knit.
 Good reputation of its product quality in outside world will increase more option
of export.

 Threat:

 In China, India and Cambodia new market are emerging.

54
 Political unrest situation of the country can hamper order from foreign country.
 New payroll policy of workers of garments industry is now a great threat for
Independent Apparels.

•Modern equipment •Less manpower


•Easy to manage •Lack of
workers motivational
•Effectively trained training
to workers •Cost of raw
• WRAP certified materials

Strength Weeknes

Opportunity Threat
• Emerge of new
• Growth of knitting market
sector • political unrest
• Goodwil about
product quality • new payroll policy

Figure 12: SWOT analysis

55
Chapter: 06
Implications, Problems, Recommendations & Conclusion

6.1 Problems:

Actually it did not found so much problems there, but it is not free from problems at all. I
found some problems which are following:

They fail to identify the specific needs of learners and for learners to own
their own development needs
Training session (time) is a main factor, schedule do not properly maintained,
that means Constraints of time for preparation and participation in learning
events.
Workers do not disclose their opinion willingly, they are afraid of giving real
information about factory
Workers are less responsive
Less engagement of workers in training session
Training officer are less than necessary
Do not have motivational training program
Lack of availability of resources for training
Absence of behavioral training
Do not have Performance Appraisal system
Less interaction between top and mid level management
Objectives set by trainers, rather than the learners

56
6.2 Recommendations:

Some suggestions are following which will help to achieve the goals of Independent
Apparel Ltd. As I was practiced training and development program that prevailed in the
organization, the HR admin gave me an assignment related with their training and
development program and to make some suggestion for them. It came easy to me when I
made report because my job almost done because of that assignment. Here are some
suggestions respectively:

 Appropriate behavior and attitude increase the efficiency of both workers and
mid-level managers. So behavioral training should be arranged.
 Worker level employees should be given training on motivational aspect.
Monthly performance appraisal should be given to the workers.
 Feedback should be taken from the workers through short quiz.
 Motivational and Leadership training should be arranged for mid and top level
managers.

• Meeting should be arranged between top-level & mid-level managers to increase


the interaction among them which will help to know the real situation of workers
to the top level management.

• Proper documentation should also be maintained about the outcomes of the


meetings.

• Mid-level employees should be recognized or awarded as per their performance


on yearly basis. It will motivate them on respectively works.

• Deployed proper Trainer for training program


• Proper training schedule should use for the training program
• Increasing the consciousness of benefit of training among the workers and
employees
• Exploring the reason that reduce the employee productivity
• Training objectives should set according to learner not by trainer.

57
6.3 Conclusion:
The importance of training and development in the corporate world has been highlighted
in the previous literature. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of training
on employee performance within Independent Apparel Ltd. Moreover, sub goals are
developed to facilitate a clear achievement of the purpose of the study. These include (1)
what training programs exist in Independent Apparel Ltd, (2) Finding out the limitation
of training program and (3) Giving suggestion for improving training program of the
factory. The sample of the study is based on Independent Apparel Ltd.

The findings reported in this study suggest that training and development have a low
impact on the performance of employees with regards to their jobs. This result is not
broadly consistent with prior management literature on training and development. In
order to gain more specific knowledge of training and development from the company,
different questions are presented to the respondents and thus examined. The results from
the questions on employee participation in training and selection for training indicate that
this company have good, not better and perhaps little clear policies regarding training
and development.

58
Chapter: 07
LESSONS FROM INTERNSHIP

I. I have learned a lot of practical knowledge about professional life. When I gone
there I found different environment which is very much concentric about
assigned work that means every worker have to work according to their routine
work. The employees of the office have to work more than routine work. They
were very much pressure of work.
II. I have learned about many kinds of training and development program
III. I have got divers experience like production department, cutting department, HR
department.
IV. I have seen top level managers, HR managers and executives how they works of
their individual department, which is really needed for me as a management
student.
V. I have gathered information about the real impact on training and development
program and its consequences on employee performance
VI. Visited in the floor was very much interesting.
VII. Working environment at office learned me much.
VIII. How to be a punctual at job that is learned from this internship program
IX. How could be polite with peers that is learned by this program
X. After all I gathered huge experienced about professional life.

59
References:
Afshan, S., Sobia, I., Kamran, A. & Nasir, M. 2012. Impact of training on employee
performance: a study of telecommunication sector in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of
Contemporary Research in Business 4, 6.

Briscoe, D.R. 1995. International Human Resource Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Cole, G.A. 2002. Personnel and human resource management, 5th Ed. Continuum London:
York Publishers.

Dessler, G. (2014). Human Resource Management (12 th ed.). (S. yagan, Ed.) New
Jersey, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Flippo, E. B. (1984). Personnel Management (6th ed.). US: McGraw-Hill Inc

Harvey, M. 2002. Human Resource Management in Africa: Alice’s Adventures in


Wonderland. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 13,7, 1119 – 1145.

Kenney et al, (1992) Management Made East. 1st Ed. South Carolina: Omron
Publishers

Khan, D. A., & Taher, D. A. (2018). Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations (5th
ed.). Dhaka: Abir Publications.
Landy, F. W. 1985. The psychology of work behavior 3rd Ed. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
Leede, J. D., & Looise, J. K. (2005). Innovation and HRM: Towards an Integrated
Framework.
Lipsey, R. G 1989, Introduction to Positive Economics. 7th Ed. London, Weindnfeld &
Nicholson.

McCourt, W. & Derek, E. 2003. Global Human Resource Management: Managing People in
Developing and Transitional Countries. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Pace, W. R., Phillip, S. C. & Gordon, M. E. 1991. Human Resource Development: The Field.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Purcell, J., Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S., Rayton, B. & Swart, J. 2003. Understanding the People
and Performance Link: Unlocking the Black-Box. Research Report, CIPD, London.

Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2012). Management (11th ed.). UK: Pearson Education Limited.

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Weil, A., &Woodall, J. 2005. HRD in France: the corporate perspective. Journal of European
Industrial Training, 29,7, 529–540

Wognum, A. A. M. 2001. Vertical Integration of HRD Policy within Companies. Human


Resource Development International 4,3, 407–421.

Wright, P. & Geroy, D. G. 2001. Changing the mindset: the training myth and the need for
word-class performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management 12,4, 586–
600.

Leede, J. D., & Looise, J. K. (2005). Innovation and HRM: Towards an Integrated Framework.

Ahuja, K. 2006. Personnel management. 3rd Ed. New Delhi. India. Kalyani publishers.

http://practicehrm.blogspot.com/2009/10/introduction-to-training-and.html

https://www.mbaskool.com

http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-
Modules/BS/BS704_Multivariable/BS704_Multivariable5.html

https://towardsdatascience.com/coefficient-of-determination-r-squared-explained-
db32700d924e

https://www.slideshare.net/kvsingh83/wrap-6998846

http://www.bangladeshworkersafety.org/who-we-are/about-the-alliance

https://rapidbi.com/six-big-problems-with-training-and-development

https://unilearning.uow.edu.au/report/4bi1.html

https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/67401/THESIS.pdf?sequence=1

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Appendix:

Correlations

Correlations

TRAINING PERFORMANCE

Pearson Correlation 1 .214

TRAINING Sig. (2-tailed) .184

N 40 40
Pearson Correlation .214 1

PERFORMANCE Sig. (2-tailed) .184

N 40 40

REGRESSION
/MISSING LISTWISE
/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA
/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)
/NOORIGIN
/DEPENDENT PERFORMANCE
/METHOD=ENTER TRAINING.

62
Regression
a
Variables Entered/Removed

Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method


b
1 TRAINING . Enter

a. Dependent Variable: PERFORMANCE


b. All requested variables entered.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the


Estimate
a
1 .214 .046 .021 .20997

a. Predictors: (Constant), TRAINING

ANOVAa

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.

Regression .081 1 .081 1.829 .184b

Residual 1.675 38 .044


1

Total 1.756 39

a. Dependent Variable: PERFORMANCE


b. Predictors: (Constant), TRAINING

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized t Sig.


Coefficients

B Std. Error Beta

(Constant) 1.113 .280 3.971 .000


1
TRAINING .259 .192 .214 1.352 .184

a. Dependent Variable: PERFORMANCE

Questionnaire
Section A: General Information

1. What is your position? ....................................


2. What is your gender?
(a) Female
(b) Male
3. How long have you worked for here

63
(a) Less than 1 year

(b) 1-5 years

(c) 6- 10years

(d) More than 10 years

4. Have you undergone the following training conducted at this garments? Tick

Appropriately:

Training Title Yes No


Environmental Health & Safety(EHS)
Personal Protective Equipment(PPE)
Orientation course of new workers
Machine Safety Training
Waste management & disposal training
First Aid Training
Emergency Response Drill

Section B: Effectiveness of training and development

5. How will you rate the quality of the training programs for which you have Participated?

Poor Average Good Very Good Excellent

6. The training received is relevant to your work?

Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly


Disagree Disagree

7. In your opinion, do you think training has helped improve your job performance?

Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly


Disagree Disagree

8. Would you require further training for motivation towards performance improvement to enable you contribute to
increased productivity?

64
a) Yes ( ) b) No ( )
If ―yes to the question above, please provide reasons as to why below:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. What problems do you face with regard to training and development within your
Organization ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
10. Please specify any ways you think training and development in your organization can be improved.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Section C: Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Indicate how the various customer management trainings has affected your performance based on the sets
target KPIs on a scale of 1 to 5 where 5-Exceptional, 4-Exceed Expectation, 3-Good, 2-Inconsistent and 1-
Poor. (Put an X where applicable)

Before Training After Training

Training 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Program
Absenteeism

Productivity

Safety
Awareness
On Time
Delivery

65