Asavari- S R m P d S' - S' n d P m g R S Raga Bhairavi is a very melodious but a serious raga and is sung during the early hours of the

morning. This raga uses all Komal notes and stands apart from other ragas in one important way: its use of all 12 swaras of an octave. Since this raga uses all Komal notes, it is the most popular one for female voices. Also since aroha and avaroha use all seven notes, this is a sampoorna-sampoorna raga. Being sampoorna, this raga can be rendered with expansion in all three octaves of the musical scale and played with various taals (rhythm) with full effect. Some expert vocalists use shudha re which brings additional charm. When shudha re (rishabs) is used, this raga is called Sindhu Bhairavi in Hindustani classical music. Nowadays while rendering Sindhu Bhairavi, classical artists use both rishabs (Re, re) and dhaivats (Dha, dha). There are various shades of raga Bhairavi where some shudha swaras are used. Hence it is better to call all these shades as Mishra Bhairavi. Note that the Carnatic raga Sindhu Bhairavi is the equivalent of the Hindustani classical raga Bhairavi. In Carnatic classical, there is a raga called Bhairavi for which there is no equivalent raga in Hindustani classical music. Very confusing, isn't it? Raga Bhairavi is rendered at the conclusion of Hindustani classical concerts, signaling the end of the concert. Raga Bhairavi derives its name from one of the eight forms of Hindu Goddesses (Devis) and is fanatically appreciated by Indian classical music lovers. Raga Bhairavi is derived from the 8th Carnatic Melakarta, Hanumatodi. Aroha and avaroha notes and other attributes of Raga Bhairavi are as follows: Aroha: SA re ga MA PA dha ni SA Avaroha: SA ni dha PA MA ga re SA (Note that raga Bhairavi has all Komal swaras both in aroha and avaroha (excluding MA). SA in bold letters indicates the note from Taar Saptaka or third octave. SA with normal letter is from medium octave. Raga Bhairavi belongs to Bhairavi Thata. Thata is the parent scale of a given raga from which it is derived. Jaati: Sampoorna-Sampoorna (meaning 7 notes each in aroha and avaroha, excluding one of the SAs) Aroha: SA re ga ma PA dha ni SA Avaroha: SA ni dha PA ma ga re SA Vaadi: MA Samvaadi: SA Varjya Swaras: RE, GA, MA(sharp),DHA, NI Pakkad or Bandishi: MA re, SA re SA, dhs ni SA

In any raga, Vaadi is the most important note and Samvaadi is the next most important note. Every raga has its own rules for Vaadi and Samvaadi. Vaadi is the most dominating note in any given raga that is frequently used in the rendition of a given raga. Pakkad or bandishi are the most dominating notes of a given raga. The 5 varjya or vivadi swaras mentioned above are sometimes used judiciously by some experts while rendering Bhairavi, which brings melody to the raga. So whenever varjya swaras are used, then this raga is called Mishra Bhairavi. Please refer to my earlier article 'Flute: Raga Shivranjani' for the detailed meaning of the words used for the rules of the ragas in classical music. Note that in Hindi films (along with raga Pahadi), the maximum number of songs are composed using raga Bhairavi as the base. From the Hindustani classical music books, the following are some of the properties of raga Bhairavi. In poorvanga (initial phase) the notes SA ni SA re ga MA ga re SA are used. In the next phase after poorvanga, the following notes are played: Ga MA dha PA, dha PA MA PA MA ga, MA ga re SA. In this phase sometimes re and PA are omitted while using only ni SA ga MA dha PA. In uttaranga (final phase) the notes ga MA dha ni SA are used. Since Bhairavi is a sampoorna raga, the straight runs of SA re ga MA PA dha ni SA are frequently used by classical players. Note that raga Malkauns is a subset of raga Bhairavi. Please refer to my earlier article 'Flute: Raga Malkauns'. Along with this article, I have attached 2 audio files with my flute renderings. In the first audio file, I first played 7 notes of aroha and avaroha for raga Bhairavi twice. Thereafter, I played the notes of raga Bhairavi in free form (mukta swaras) using different combinations and then in between I have played my principal tune of raga Bhairavi and ended the raga with this principal tune. At the end of five minutes of playing, I played a tune based on raga Bhairavi, which was a famous Geeta Dutt bhajan “Mat ja, mat ja, mat ja jogi”. Please refer to the musical notes explained below. In the second audio file, I played a tune of the song “ Mere ai dil bataa” from the film, Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje of 1955 and the tune is based on raga Bhairavi. In audio file 2, I have added an echo effect. Since both the tunes in my audio files are based on the same raga Bhairavi, they have the same bandishi. While listening to the tunes a few times, you can easily see that they sound similar. This will help you to remember the bandishi of raga 'Bhairavi'. Once you memorize the bandishi, next time you will be able to identify the raga of a tune that is based on raga Bhairavi.

Note that in the following notations, the bold letters indicate that the note is from tar saptak or the third octave and normal letters indicate that the notes are from madhya saptaka or medium octave. Notes written in lower case indicate Komal swaras and notes written in upper case indicate shudh swaras. The notes of the principal tune played in the first audio file are based on SA as Black One of the medium scale of the harmonium: Dha ni, SA ga re, SA re ni SA The notes played at the end of five minutes of the first audio file based on the song “Mat ja, mat ja, mat ja jogi” are based on SA as Black One of the medium scale of the harmonium: SA re MA ga, MA ni dha ni SA dha ni re SA Mat ja Mat ja Mat ja Jogi The notes of the mukhda of the song “Mere ai dil bata” of the second audio file are based on SA as Black One of the medium scale of the harmonium: SA ga PA dha MA PA PA dha dha SA ni SA dha ni PA Mere Ai Dil Bata Mere Ai Dil Bata From the above you can check for yourself that while composing the above tunes, the notes from aroha and avaroha of raga Bhairavi were used. In audio file 1 except for the principal and secondary tune, I have played my own (self-composed) notes from raga Bhairavi. It is interesting to note that most of the songs of the first Raj Kapoor Film 'Barsaat' (1949) with music composed by Shankar-Jaikishen were based on raga Bhairavi. This film was a super hit due to its great melodious music, which changed the whole style of music composition thereafter. In fact, the most favorite raga of the very famous duo Shankar-Jaikishen was raga Bhairavi. Some famous Hindi film songs based on raga Bhairavi: 1) Kaise avoon jamuna ke tir (Film: Devta) 2) Laga chunri me daag (Film: Dil Hi To Hai) 3) Jyot se jyot jagate chalo (Film: Sant Gyaneshwar) 4) Tu ganga ki maujme (Film: Baiju Bawra) 5) Do hanso ka joda (Film: Ganga Jamuna) 6) Barsaat me, ham se mile tum (Film: Barsaat) 7) Mera joota hai japani (Film: Shri 420) 8) Ai mere dil kahin (Film: Daag) 9) Suno choti si gudiya ki (Film: Seema) 10) Tera jaana (Film: Anari)

11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24)

Mori cham cham baje (Film: Ghunghat) Chali gori peeke (Film: Parineeta) Main piya teri (Film: Basant Bahar) Dil ka khilona haye toot gaya (Film: Goonj Oothi Shehnai) Jiya jale jaan jale (Film: Dil Se) Kaise samjhavoon (Film: Sooraj) Bhor bhayi panghat pe (Film: Satyam Shivam Sundaram) Awaara hoon (Film: Awaara) Ramaiyya vastavaiyya (Film: Shri 420) Kisi ne apana, bana ke mujh ko (Film: Patita) Saaware Saaware (Film: Anuradha) Jab dil hi toot gaya (Film: Shah Jahan by Saigal) Jo tum todo piya (Film: Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje) Mere ai dil bata (Film: Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje)