Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils 1750 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 120 Washington, DC 20006 Phone 202-783-7960 Fax 202-393-1367
Eighth Edition

Prepared by the Technical Committee of the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, Inc. Ed Campbell, Chairman Nick Baker Maury Bandurraga Maurice Belcher Carl Heckel Allan Hodgson Jan Hughes Tony Ingala Dan Lampert Earniie Louis Don McCaskill Gerald McNeill Mark Nugent Ed Paladini Judy Price Ram Reddy Joe Sharp Stan Smith Dennis Strayer Bob Wainwright Laura Waldinger First edition -- 1957 Second edition -- 1963 Third edition -- 1968 Fourth edition -- 1974 Fifth edition -- 1982 Sixth edition -- 1988 Seventh edition -- 1994 Eighth edition -- 1999 © 1999 by the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, Inc. Additional copies of this publication may be obtained upon request from the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, Inc., 1750 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20006.

This publication has been prepared to provide useful information to the public regarding the nutritive and functional values of fats in the diet, the composition of fats and answers to the most frequently asked questions about fats and oils. It is intended for use by consumers, nutritionists, dieticians, physicians, food technologists, food industry representatives, students, teachers, and others having an interest in dietary fats and oils. Additional detail may be found in the references listed at the end of the publication which are arranged in the order of topic discussion. A glossary is also provided. The Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, Inc. gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Judith Putnam, Economic Research Service, Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture for providing data on the availability (or disappearance) of fats and oils in foods and Ed Hunter, Ph.D., consultant, for his assistance in writing this publication.


Table of Contents
Preface ................................................................................................... i I. II. III. Importance of Fats .................................................................................1 What is a fat?..........................................................................................1 Chemical Composition of Fats...............................................................1 A. The Major Component – Triglycerides ...........................................1 B. The Minor Components ...................................................................2 1. Mono- and Diglycerides ..............................................................2 2. Free Fatty Acids...........................................................................2 3. Phosphatides ................................................................................2 4.Sterols ...........................................................................................2 5.Fatty Alcohols...............................................................................2 6.Tocopherols ..................................................................................2 7. Carotenoids and Chlorophyll.......................................................2 8.Vitamins .......................................................................................2 IV. Fatty Acids .............................................................................................3 A. General .............................................................................................3 B. Classification of Fatty Acids............................................................3 1. Saturated Fatty Acids ...................................................................3 2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids...............................................................3 3. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids ........................................................4 C. Isomerism of Unsaturated Fatty Acids.............................................4 I. Geometric Isomerism....................................................................4 2. Positional Isomerism....................................................................5 V. Nutritional Aspects of Fats and Oils ......................................................6 A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. VI. General .............................................................................................6 Metabolism of Fats and Oils ............................................................6 Essential Fatty Acids........................................................................6 Fat Level in the Diet.........................................................................7 Diet and Cardiovascular Disease .....................................................7 Diet and Cancer................................................................................9 Health Effects of Trans Fatty Acids from Hydrogenation .............11 Areas of Current Research Interest ................................................13 Nonallergenicity of Edible Oils .....................................................14 Biotechnology ................................................................................14 Fat Reduction in Foods ..................................................................15

Factors Affecting Physical Characteristics of Fats and Oils ................16 A. B. C. D. E. Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids ..........................................16 Length of carbon Chains in Fatty Acids.........................................17 Isomeric Forms of Fatty Acids.......................................................17 Molecular Configuration of Triglycerides .....................................17 Polymorphism of Fats ....................................................................18

..... F.................................. C........................................30 I.......... J...............................................29 4.. Reduced Fat.......19 Interesterification ........................................ Low Fat.... Autoxidation...18 Refining ............................................................................................................................. Hydrolysis of Fats ................................................. Reactions of Fats and Oils.................................... General............... E................................................................... H........................................................................................19 Hydrogenation .............................................29 1................................ Oxidation of Fats. Reactions during Heating and Cooking .......................21 Additives and Processing Aids ............................... Toppings..................................................................................................... Products Prepared from Fats and Oils...... E...............................................................................20 Emulsifiers ............................................30 X.....................................19 Fractionation (including Winterization)... B................... B............................ Conclusion ............................. Reduced Calorie Dressings ..........21 VIII..................... Oxidation at Higher Temperatures.19 Deodorization....20 Esterification ................................................29 3.......................................28 Hard Butters ..................................................................................................................................29 Dressings for Food ......................................................... D....................29 Butter........................ C...................23 1...............................VII.................................................30 XI......... General .........................................................23 A.............. Processing ........ K........................................................................................................25 Salad and Cooking Oils..............................................................23 B......... Lipids for Special Nutritional Applications .......................27 Shortenings (Baking and Frying Fats) .........18 A...28 Margarine and Spreads.........................................23 D...........32 References ....................................................... I......................... Mayonnaise and Salad Dressing .............................................................. and Fat Free Dressings....18 Degumming ................................................................. Coffee Whiteners...........30 H................ Trends in Fat Consumption.................................................................. F........40 iii .................................................................................................18 Bleaching ...........25 A...........23 2......................... D................................................ G.....................................33 Glossary .................. Polymerization of Fats ............................................ G.....................36 Common Test Methods and Related Terms..24 IX.....................29 2..................................................................... Confectioners’ Coatings and Other Formulated Foods.......23 C............................. Pourable-Type Dressings .........................................................

In addition to triglycerides.S. free fatty acids. are the “mixed” triglycerides in which two or three kinds of fatty acids are present in the molecule. Recent data from the U. When all of the fatty acids in a triglyceride are identical. and vegetable fats and oils. They provide the most concentrated source of energy of any foodstuff. Specialized vegetable oils of lesser availability in the U. II. are carriers for fat soluble vitamins. palm. fatty acids. When solid appearing they are referred to as “fats” and when liquid they are called “oils. poultry. safflower.S. Fats and oils are chemical units commonly called “triglycerides” resulting from the combination of one unit of glycerol with three units of fatty acids. and at normal room temperatures range in consistency from liquids to solids. Illustrations of typical simple and mixed triglyceride molecular structures are shown below. terpenes. They have lower densities than water. and other substances. it is termed a “simple” triglyceride. fat-soluble vitamins. the prostaglandins). palm kernel. nuts. canola. sterols. it also includes mono. The principal sources of fat in the diet are meats. supply essential fatty acids (which are precursors for important hormones. A knowledge of the chemical composition of fats and oils and the sources from which they are obtained is essential in understanding nutrition and biochemistry. however.and diglycerides. and sal. WHAT IS A FAT? Triglycerides are the predominant component of most food fats and oils.” The term “lipids” embraces a variety of chemical substances. The Major Component – Triglycerides A triglyceride is composed of glycerol and three fatty acids. dairy products. and other substances. Department of Agriculture (1) suggests that actual fat consumption currently is about 33% of total calories. cerebrosides. Most vegetables and fruits consumed as such contain only small amounts of fat. corn. Fats and oils are present in varying amounts in many foods. They are insoluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents. lard. sunflower. for salad and cooking oils. shortenings. fish. The minor components include mono. include rice bran. More detailed information on the use of some of these oils in specific products is provided in Section IX.S.and diglycerides. The more common forms. A. peanut. phosphatides. H 2 COO-C-R 1 (Fatty Acid 1 ) HCOO-C-R 1 (Fatty Acid 1 )   H 2 COO-C-R 1 (Fatty Acid 1 ) Simple Triglyceride H 2 COO-C-R 1 (Fatty Acid 1 )  HCOO-C-R 2 (Fatty Acid 2 )  H 2 COO-C-R 3 (Fatty Acid 3 ) Mixed Triglyceride 1 . fat-soluble vitamins. and serve to make foods more palatable. coconut. IMPORTANCE OF FATS The oils and fats most frequently used in the U. illipe. margarines. and beef tallow.Food Fats and Oils I. olive. III. phosphatides. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FATS Fats and oils are recognized as essential nutrients in both human and animal diets. fatty alcohols. fatty alcohols. shea nut. salad dressings and food ingredients include soybean. cottonseed. sterols. contribute greatly to the feeling of satiety after eating.

are a class of substances that contain the common steroid . Among tocopherols.and diesters of fatty acids and glycerol. combined with fatty acids. They are prepared commercially by the reaction of glycerol and triglycerides or by the esterification of glycerol and fatty acids. Vegetable oil sterols collectively are termed “phytosterols. Carotenoids and Chlorophyll Carotenoids are color materials occurring naturally in fats and oils. Mono. flavor. Phosphatides Phosphatides consist of alcohols (usually glycerol). and stability. naturally occurring in most vegetable fats. They are not present in appreciable amounts in animal fats. refining removes the phosphatides from the fat or oil. Mono. Lecithin and cephalin are common phosphatides found in edible fats. Most range in color from yellow to deep red. Tocopherols Tocopherols are important minor constituents of most vegetable fats. Fatty Alcohols Long chain alcohols are of little importance in most edible fats. Free Fatty Acids As the name suggests. 3. vitamin A is 2 R 1 -COO-CH 2  HO-CH 2  HO-CH 1 (or α)-Monoglyceride HO-CH 2  R 1 -COO-CH 2 (or β)-Monoglyceride HO-CH 2  R 2 -COO-CH 2 R 1 -COO-CH   R 2 -COO-CH 2 HO-CH   HO-CH 2 1. most fats and oils are not good sources of vitamins other than vitamin E.3-Diglyceride 2. The levels of free fatty acids are reduced in the refining process discussed in Section VII. The type and amount of vegetable oils sterols vary with the source of the oil. Chlorophyll is the green coloring matter of plants which plays an essential part in the photosynthetic process. there is a substantial difference biologically between those occurring in animal fats and those present in vegetable oils.2-Diglyceride R 1 -COO-CH 2 1. 6.and Diglycerides Mono. free fatty acids are the unattached fatty acids present in a fat. For example. phosphoric acid. 7. Some unrefined oils may contain as much as several percent free fatty acids. At times. 4.The fatty acids in a triglyceride define the properties of the molecule and are discussed in greater detail in Section IV. B. The Minor Components 1. They serve as antioxidants to retard rancidity and as sources of the essential nutrient vitamin E. Although sterols are found in both animal fats and vegetable oils. alpha-tocopherol has the highest vitamin E activity and the lowest antioxidant activity. and a nitrogen-containing compound. also referred to as steroid alcohols. 8. They are used frequently in foods as emulsifiers. They also occur naturally in very minor amounts in both animal fats and vegetable oils. A small amount esterified with fatty acids is present in waxes found in some vegetable oils. Cholesterol is the primary animal fat sterol and is only found in vegetable oils in trace amounts. The fatsoluble vitamins A and D sometimes are added to foods which contain fat because they serve as good carriers and are widely consumed. 5. There are four types of tocopherols varying in antioxidation and vitamin E activity. Sterols Sterols. nucleus plus an 8 to 10 carbon side chain and an alcohol group. the naturally occurring level of chlorophyll in oils may be sufficient for the oils to be tinged green. For all practical purposes. Tocopherols. Vitamins Generally speaking. These or other antioxidants may be added after processing to improve oxidative stability in finished products.and diglycerides are formed in the intestinal tract as a result of the normal digestion of triglycerides. may be partially removed by processing.” Sitosterol and stigmasterol are the best-known vegetable oil sterols. Larger quantities are found in some marine oils. Refined fats and oils ready for use as foods usually have a free fatty acid content of only a few hundredths of one percent. The levels of most of these color bodies are reduced during the normal processing of oils to give them acceptable color.and diglycerides are mono.

2. Those containing only single carbon-to-carbon bonds are termed “saturated” and are the least reactive chemically. is an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid. the carbons in a fatty acid chain are numbered consecutively from the end of the chain. Fatty acid isomers are discussed at greater length in subparagraph C of this section. unsaturated fatty acids are more reactive chemically than 3 Fatty acids occurring in edible fats and oils are classified according to their degree of saturation. When two fatty acids are identical except for the position of the double bond. 1. they are referred to as positional isomers.” In the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) system of nomenclature. found in certain vegetable oils. The terms “omega” or “n minus” refer to the position of the double bond of the fatty acid closest to the methyl end of the molecule. Both the physical and chemical characteristics of fats are influenced greatly by the kinds and proportions of the component fatty acids and the way in which these are positioned on the glycerol molecule. Unsaturated Fatty Acids. it is called “polyunsaturated. One hundred grams of fat or oil will yield approximately 95 grams of fatty acids. In oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). Similarly. This system is often used by biochemists to designate sites of enzyme reactivity or specificity. the carbon of the carboxyl group being considered as number 1. IV. Another system of nomenclature in use for unsaturated fatty acids is the “omega” or “n minus” classification. Alphalinolenic acid. is an omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid because its second double bond is 6 carbons from the methyl end of the molecule (i. The principal fat sources of the naturally occurring saturated fatty acids are included in the table. linoleic acid. Fatty acids containing one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds are termed “unsaturated. The predominant fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated carbon chains with an even number of carbon atoms and a single carboxyl group as illustrated in the general structural formula for a saturated fatty acid given below: CH 3 -(CH 2 ) x COOH Unsaturated carbon chain carboxyl group Edible oils also contain minor amounts of branched chain and cyclic acids. for example. a specific bond in a chain is identified by the lower number of the two carbons that it joins. oleic acid. The saturated fatty acids of practical interest are listed in Table I by carbon chain length and common name. .. Oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) is the fatty acid that occurs most frequently in nature. Decanoic and longer chain fatty acids are solids at normal room temperatures. By convention. B. and the vitamins A and D are included in the federal standard for Grade A milk. the double bond is between the ninth and tenth carbon atoms. is also an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid. is considered an omega-9 (or an n-9) fatty acid.” Some unsaturated fatty acids in food fats and oils are shown in Table II.included in the federal standard for margarine. Thus. A. common in vegetable oils. The melting point of saturated fatty acids increases with chain length. All but acetic acid occur naturally in fats.e. Saturated Fatty Acids. found in many fish oils.” If it contains more than one double bond. Eicosapentaenoic acid. which has its double bond 9 carbons from the methyl end. Because of the presence of double bonds. between carbons 12 and 13 from the carboxyl end). FATTY ACIDS General Saturated and unsaturated linkages are illustrated below: Triglycerides are comprised predominantly of fatty acids present in the form of esters of glycerol. Classification of Fatty Acids Saturated Bond Unsaturated Bond When the fatty acid contains one double bond it is called “monounsaturated. Also odd number straight chain acids are typically found in animal fats.

7 Coconut oil Decanoic Capric 10 31.9 Butterfat Hexanoic Caproic 6 -3. which also contains about 10% of linoleic acid.6 Most fats and oils Eicosanoic Arachidic 20 75.4 Butterfat. Of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. three.0 Peanut oil *A number of saturated odd and even chain acids are present in trace quantities in many fats and oils. arachidonic. linolenic. linoleic. If the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the carbon chain. as shown by the following diagrams. If the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. Arachidonic acid is found in small amounts in lard. TABLE 1 SATURATED FATTY ACIDS Systematic Common No. there is a further increase in certain types of chemical reactivity.2 Coconut oil Tetradecanoic Myristic 14 54. and six double bonds are of most interest. eicosapentaenoic. This reactivity increases as the number of double bonds increases. Geometric Isomerism. Isomerism of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Isomers are two or more substances composed of the same elements combined in the same proportions but differing in molecular structure.4 Butterfat Octanoic Caprylic 8 16.are saturated fatty acids. C.9 Most fats and oils Octadecanoic Stearic 18 69. of Melting Typical Fat Source Name Name Carbon Atoms* Point °C Ethanoic Acetic 2 --Butanoic Butyric 4 -7.6 Coconut oil Dodecanoic Lauric 12 44. and docosahexaenoic acids containing respectively two. Fish oils contain large quantities of a variety of longer chain fatty acids having three or more double bonds including eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Although double bonds normally occur in a nonconjugated position. For example. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. the arrangement is called cis. Conversion of cis isomers to corresponding trans isomers result in an increase in melting points as shown in Table II. they can occur in a conjugated position (alternating with a single bond) as illustrated below: Conjugat ed Non -co njugat ed With the bonds in a conjugated position.” Vegetable oils are the principal sources of linoleic and linolenic acids. Part C. four.4 Peanut oil Docosanoic Behenic 22 80. The nutritional importance of these fatty acids is discussed in Section V. The two important types of isomerism among fatty acids are (1) geometric and (2) positional. fats are much more subject to oxidation and polymerization when bonds are in the conjugated position. “Essential Fatty Acids. five. the arrangement is called trans. 1. coconut oil Hexadecanoic Palmitic 16 62. 3. Unsaturated fatty acids can exist in either the cis or trans form depending on the configuration of the hydrogen atoms attached to 4 the carbon atoms joined by the double bonds. .

17-Eicosapentaenoic 5 20 Some fish oils 13-Docosenoic Erucic 1 22 33.12. A comparison of cis and trans molecular arrangements. cis isomers are those naturally occurring in food fats and oils. In this case.4 Rapeseed oil 4. Elaidic and oleic acids are geometric isomers.11. cis trans TABLE II SOME UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD FATS AND OILS Systematic Name Typical Fat Source 9-Decenoic Butterfat 9-Dodecenoic Butterfat 9-Tetradecenoic Butterfat 9-Hexadecenoic Some fish oils.14. Generally speaking. the double bond is in the trans configuration and in the latter.13. canola oil 9-Eicosenoic Gadoleic 1 20 Some fish oils 5. beef fat 9-Octadecenoic Most fats and oils 9-Octadecenoic* Partially hydrogenated oils 11-Octadecenoic* Vaccenic 1 18 44 Butterfat 9.5 16. the location of the double bond differs among the isomers. in the former.7.7 such as cows. Positional Isomerism. Trans isomers occur naturally in ruminant animals 5 Common Name Caproleic Lauroleic Myristoleic Palmitoleic Oleic Elaidic No. 2.3 43. in the cis configuration.12-Octadecadienoic Linoleic 2 18 -6. of Double Bonds 1 1 1 1 1 1 No.11. of Carbon Atoms 10 12 14 16 18 18 Melting Point °C 18.8 Soybean oil.Diagram I.16.14-Eicosatetraenoic Arachidonic 4 20 -49.15-Octadecatrienoic Linolenic 3 18 -12. sheep and goats and also result from the partial hydrogenation of fats and oils.10.5 Lard 5.8.8. .19-Docosahexaenoic 6 22 Some fish oils *All double bonds are in the cis configuration except for elaidic acid and vaccenic acid which are trans.5 Most vegetable oils 9.

monounsaturated. 12. certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. however. While the . is cis-6-octadecenoic acid and a positional isomer of oleic acid. Now linoleic and linolenic acids are termed “essential” because they cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplied in the diet. cannot be made by the body and must be supplied in the diet. Trans-trans dienes. 6 and 9 from the methyl end of the molecule) on the carbon chain. The establishment of the common pathway for the metabolic oxidation and the energy derived. linoleic and arachidonic. For example. such as linoleic acid. over 10 carbons long) are of relatively equal caloric value. linoleic and linolenic. In calorie deficient situations. whether coming from the 6 diet or from endogenous sources. In the intestinal wall. The body can make saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids by modifying other fatty acids or by de novo synthesis from carbohydrate and protein. Most dietary fats are 95-100% absorbed. Shifts in the location of double bonds in the fatty acid chains as well as cis-trans isomerization may occur during hydrogenation. is trans-11octadecenoic acid and is both a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid. Metabolism of Fats and Oils In the intestinal tract. with two double bonds. The number of positional and geometric isomers increases with the number of double bonds. which is a minor acid in tallow and butterfat. appreciable amounts of dietary carbohydrate and some protein are converted to fat. The requirement for these essential fatty acids has been demonstrated clearly in infants. thromboxanes. There the fatty acids and the monoglycerides are absorbed into the cell and the bile acid is retained in the intestines. can be synthesized by the body from dietary linoleic acid. The amount of fat stored depends on the caloric balance of the whole organism. dietary triglycerides are hydrolyzed to 2-monoglycerides and free fatty acids. C. These digestion products. double bonds in the cis configuration and in specific positions (carbons 9 and 12 or 9. cis-trans. V. are transported in the blood as lipoproteins. Excess calories. Fat is mobilized from adipose tissue into the blood as free fatty acids. Fats are vital to a palatable and well-rounded diet and provide the essential fatty acids.Petroselinic acid. cis-9-octadecenoic acid. or polyunsaturated and whether the double bonds are cis or trans. Consequently. carbohydrate. Some fatty foods are sources of fat-soluble vitamins. and 15 from the carboxyl carbon atom or carbons 6 and 9 or 3. explains this equivalence in caloric value. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FATS AND OILS A. Fats are a major source of energy which supply about 9 calories per gram. fats together with carbohydrates spare protein and improve growth rates.. The triglycerides are stored in the adipose tissue until they are needed as a source of calories. The oxidation of free fatty acids is a major source of energy for the body. together with bile salts.e. The dietary fatty acids that can function as essential fatty acids must have a particular chemical structure. Linolenic acid is also a precursor of a special group of prostaglandins. or protein. transcis. and the ingestion of fat improves the absorption of these vitamins regardless of their source. The predominant dietary fats (i. General Fats are a principal and essential constituent of the human diet along with carbohydrates and proteins. namely. and trans-trans. the monoglycerides and free fatty acids are recombined to form triglycerides. The position of the double bonds affects the melting point of the fatty acid to a limited extent. Vaccenic acid. These form a complex with blood proteins and are distributed throughout the organism. If the fatty acids have a chain length of ten or fewer carbon atoms. Arachidonic acid. however. and prostacyclins which are important in the regulation of widely diverse physiological processes. aggregate and move to the intestinal cell membrane. Essential Fatty Acids Experimental work in the 1930’s in animals and humans demonstrated that certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. the following four geometric isomers are possible: cis-cis. regardless of whether a fatty acid is saturated. are essential for growth and good skin and hair quality. these acids are transported via the portal vein to the liver where they are metabolized rapidly. B. Arachidonic acid is considered an essential fatty acid because it is an essential component of membranes and a precursor of a group of hormone-like compounds called eicosanoids including prostaglandins. are stored as fat. are present in only trace amounts in partially hydrogenated fats and thus are insignificant in the human food supply. Proteins and carbohydrates each supply about 4 calories per gram. which is present in parsleyseed oil. These triglycerides. However. regardless of whether they are in the form of fat. Triglycerides containing fatty acids having a chain length of more than ten carbon atoms are transported via the lymphatic system.

6 pounds per person per year (see Table X). Americans increased their consumption of total visible fat from 52. For many reasons. Dietary guidelines were first issued by the American Heart Association in the early 1970s in an attempt to educate Americans as to the importance of a healthful diet. spreads and processed foods. whereas invisible fats are those that are naturally occurring in foods such as meats and dairy products. D.” Visible fats are those added to the diet in foods such as salad dressings. This apparent paradox of increasing amounts of fat consumed per day while decreasing the percentage of fat calories is explained by the fact that while daily fat consumption has been increasing recently. However. if these data are expressed as a percentage of total calories consumed. Fat Level in the Diet Fats in the diet are often referred to as “visible” or “invisible. is the single leading cause of death in America resulting in 481. Cardiovascular diseases are chronic degenerative diseases of complex etiology that often are associated with aging. fat intake from visible and invisible sources would appear to have decreased from about 43% to about 33% of calories.S. According to the Economic Research Service of USDA. according to the American Heart Association (AHA). It has been estimated that wastage of deep frying fats used in the food service sector may be as high as 50% (5). the requirement for humans has been estimated to be 0. E. the Food and Nutrition Board has not established an RDA for omega-3 or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. which include heart attack and stroke. larger food portions being 7 consumed. between 1970 and 1997. Diet and Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases. the gradual blocking of arteries with deposits of lipids. In 1990 these guidelines first included recommended limitations for fat consumption which remained unchanged in a 1995 update (6) of the guidelines. These include positive family .5% of calories. The most predominant form of cardiovascular disease is coronary heart disease or CHD (commonly referred to as “heart attack”) which. and increased soft drink and alcoholic beverage intake (4).S. In the case of linolenic acid. the amount of dietary linoleic acid necessary to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency in several animal species and also in humans is 1 to 2% of dietary calories. total caloric intake has been increasing at a greater rate (4). This increased level of calorie intake will reduce the calculated percentage of calories from fat even though actual fat consumption has not gone down. may be overestimated. 3% of calories as linoleic acid is considered to be a more satisfactory minimum intake. The Committee on Diet and Health of the Food and Nutrition Board (3) has recommended that the average population intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (primarily linoleic acid) remain at the current level of about 7% of calories and that individual intakes not exceed 10% of calories because of lack of information about the long-term consequences of a higher intake. for much of the general population. therefore.287 deaths in 1995 (7). the relatively small changes in fat intake during this time period reflect the difficulty on a national scale in achieving dietary goals such as reducing fat intake. The dietary trend of increased caloric consumption is thought to be the result of increased carbohydrate intake. smooth muscle cells. or cooking. contributes to most deaths from cardiovascular disease. trimming. Department of Agriculture in conjunction with the U. A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been identified from epidemiological studies. more eating occasions. particularly fat. food component estimates from food “disappearance” data. The U. The latter method may overstate actual consumption estimates because food disappearance data do not account for foods wasted or discarded and lost to spoilage.minimum requirement has not been determined for adults. On the other hand. especially because essential fatty acid deficiency has been observed exclusively in patients with medical problems affecting fat intake or absorption. Department of Health and Human Services later developed Dietary Guidelines for Americans in 1980. The current American diet provides at least the minimum essential fatty acid requirement.6 to 65. According to the Food and Nutrition Board’s Recommended Dietary Allowances (2). and connective tissue. there is no doubt that they are essential nutrients. Fat intake is generally measured by two methods: (1) surveys of individuals recalling the amounts of foods consumed over a specific time period and (2) “consumption” estimates from food disappearance data as calculated from available sources. The accuracy of dietary recall data is also difficult to ensure due to errors of memory in recalling foods eaten previously. The guidelines for fat call for a total fat intake of no more than 30% of calories with a saturated fatty acid intake of no more than 10% of calories. are the leading causes of death in the United States. Although these dietary guidelines for fat have been established for over 20 years. Atherosclerosis.

Since diet can affect serum cholesterol and since heart attack risk increases with increasing serum cholesterol levels. population through dietary change. the American Heart Association. These diet modifications include reducing consumption of total fat. corn. diet). The second approach attempts to identify individuals at high risk of developing heart disease and to provide them with diet and/or drug therapy. and physical activity. There is currently disagreement among health authorities on whether unsaturated fatty acids in the American diet should be reduced in favor of complex carbohydrates. Office of the Surgeon General. elevated serum cholesterol. canola) and polyunsaturated (e. Although these risk factors have been associated statistically with the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease. it is uncertain whether diet or exercise related modifications of LDL or HDL levels will affect development of coronary heart disease. Some studies have found that diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease LDL cholesterol while maintaining HDL cholesterol levels (11.g. Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that polyunsaturates lower LDL and total cholesterol. some health advisory organizations (e.12). age. In 1993. monounsaturated. The most significant of the few additional recommendations included adding age (>45 years in men and >55 years in women) as a risk factor for CHD. The three major categories of dietary fatty acids (saturated. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in concert with the NCEP guidelines endorses selective cholesterol screening of children older than two years of age whose parents have a history of CHD (10). and HDL cholesterol in different ways. Lung. the National Institutes of Health. male sex.history of cardiovascular disease. high levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with protection against coronary heart disease. and elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased coronary heart disease risk. The specific saturated fatty acids palmitic (the principal saturated fatty acid in the U. and the National Academy of Sciences) have recommended diet modification to achieve lower serum cholesterol levels in the general population. a second Adult Treatment Panel updated the earlier guidelines and recommendations for cholesterol management (9). On the other hand. In general.. The panel’s 8 recommendations were very similar to previous guidelines. Predictive equations have been developed and applied.. and Blood Institute.S. Other work has suggested that the effect of consuming polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat is similar and results in a decrease in both LDL and HDL cholesterol (13).. In 1987 guidelines were established by the Adult Treatment Panel. myristic and lauric acids are considered to be cholesterol raising. LDL. genetics. which embodied two approaches for a coordinated strategy for reducing coronary risk (8). One factor that has been related to increased levels of HDL cholesterol is regular exercise. The levels of total cholesterol and the LDL and HDL fractions in the blood are influenced by a combination of factors. to increase public and health professional awareness regarding the importance of lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels. Long-term studies are currently in progress to address these questions. and excessive stress. However. may also affect blood lipid levels and the development of . carbohydrates. physical inactivity. including age. Monounsaturated (e. Studies have shown that dietary components other than fats and oils. The first is a “population” approach. The largest portion of total cholesterol is in the LDL fraction. sex. cigarette smoking. whereas stearic acid and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (6 to 10 carbon atoms) have been considered to be neutral with respect to effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Diet and exercise are factors which individuals can modify and thus have been a basis for recommendations to reduce risk factors for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease. Researchers now recognize that total serum cholesterol is distributed largely between two general classes of lipoprotein carriers. National Institutes of Health. and cholesterol. sunflower. no cause and effect relationships have been established. soybean) fatty acids are cholesterol lowering when they replace significant levels of saturated fatty acids in the diet. hypertension (high blood pressure). diet. low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). saturated fat. which attempts to lower serum cholesterol levels of the entire U.g. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) was established in the mid-1980s by the National Heart. diets high in saturated fatty acids increase total as well as LDL and HDL cholesterol levels compared to diets low in saturated fatty acids.S. The panel confirmed that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol should continue to be the primary target of cholesterol lowering efforts. obesity. and polyunsaturated) appear to influence total. However. This interest has continued to the present time.g. the AAP does not recommend restrictions in fat intake in children younger than two years of age. fiber and trace minerals. including proteins. olive. During the 1950s considerable interest began to develop concerning a possible relationship between dietary fat and the incidence of coronary heart disease. diabetes.

breast. Thus. more research is needed to establish whether there is a relationship to thrombotic risk and to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. and in both sexes. However.g. In contrast to the effects of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. there appears to be no direct evidence that dietary long-chain saturated fatty acids. higher triglycerides. Frequently the time period between exposures or mutations and appearance of cancer is very . some recent work suggests that substantial reductions in energy from fat could be detrimental to certain individuals. There is current scientific interest in whether atherosclerosis (including elevated serum cholesterol levels) is related to thrombotic risk. In men and women. however. ageadjusted death rate from cardiovascular diseases (considered as a whole) decreased about 22% (7). some reports indicate that the diet also may influence Lp(a) levels (14. have a high proportion of LDL particles whose size is relatively large (approximately 270 angstroms in diameter). and obesity. by 5-15%. the mortality from coronary heart disease decreased 29% during this period (7). The three most common sites of fatal cancer in men are lung. The AHA believes the three most important dietary risk factors for atherogenesis are saturated fat. which it believes could reduce average blood cholesterol levels in the U. Lipoprotein(a). In particular. in all races. the U. immune conditions and inherited mutations). recognition and increased public awareness of major risk factors (cigarette smoking. If the blockage of the artery is complete. F. has been suggested by some researchers to be a risk factor for CHD due to its high serum levels in many heart attack victims who otherwise have no obvious risk factors. saturated fat and cholesterol. the actual precipitating event of a heart attack is frequently thrombosis.S. cancers at these top three sites account for about half of all cancer fatalities. Cancer is caused by both external factors (e. chemicals. are thrombogenic to humans. Diet and Cancer Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. and viruses) and internal factors (e. radiation. Lp(a) levels are thought to be largely controlled by genetic factors. and elevated serum cholesterol) and more effective treatment of heart disease have probably played roles. from fish oils) have antithrombotic effects. Causal factors may act together or sequentially to initiate or promote carcinogenesis.S. The remaining population has LDL particles that are somewhat smaller (approximately 250 angstroms in diameter). exceeded only by heart disease. and colo-rectal. an abundance of smaller size LDL particles has been associated with increased CHD risk.atherosclerosis. and colo-rectal. 15). a particle similar to low density lipoprotein (LDL). The American Cancer Society predicted that about 564.800 Americans would die of cancer in 1998 (18). Although some epidemiological evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids may play a role in thrombotic events. Specifically. Additional research will be necessary to clarify the uncertainties. or Lp(a). it can result in death. progressive narrowing of an artery that gradually reduces blood flow. Specific reasons for decreasing mortality due to cardiovascular disease are not known. With regard to how specific dietary fatty acids might affect thrombotic tendency. The American Heart Association (AHA) has taken the position that dietary factors influence the risk of CHD (17). and the appropriateness of specific dietary recommendations for the general population is not agreed upon. In women.g. such as stearic acid. The AHA encourages carbohydrate intake be increased to replace those calories lost through reductions in fat intake. it has been demonstrated that polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (e. a possible relationship between diet (particularly fats) and coronary heart disease remains uncertain. The mechanisms of these effects appear to involve the metabolism of compounds related to eicosanoids. If the spread is not controlled. Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells..S. prostate. cholesterol. hypertension.. a heart attack or stroke may result. higher levels of 9 intermediate density lipoproteins.g. The larger LDL is characterized as Phenotype A and the smaller LDL as Phenotype B. has been observed in all decades of life. Although LDL Phenotypes A and B are thought to be determined by genetics only. The decline in heart disease mortality in the U. Recent research has revealed that LDL particle size may influence one’s susceptibility to CHD (16). nutritionists emphasize moderation in the consumption of fat as well as other nutrients. and an increased risk of CHD. During the period 1984 to 1994. While atherosclerosis is the slow. the three most common sites are lung. It has been determined that approximately 67% of men and 80% of women in the U.. A trend of considerable interest to epidemiologists and other health professionals is the continuing decline in the death rate from cardiovascular diseases.S. the formation of a blood clot that can lodge in an artery blocking blood flow. In the meantime. Phenotype B has been shown to be particularly atherogenic and is associated with lower HDL levels. The AHA has established a two-step dietary guidance program designed to reduce total fat.

largely because of changes in lung cancer rates. the national cancer death rate fell 2. Many cancers related to dietary factors or to sunlight exposure are also felt to be preventable. for a given level of fat in the diet. Laboratory animal studies on diet and cancer have dealt largely with the response of chemicallyinduced or transplanted tumors to increased calories from extra fat in the diet. found no significant association between diets high in fat and breast cancer (19). The declines in mortality were greater in men than in women. exposure to sunlight. vitamins A and C) may help reduce the risk of some cancers. According to the American Cancer Society (18). for the majority of Americans who do not use tobacco. Some of these studies have suggested that dietary calories and type of fat consumed may be related to cancer incidence. dietary choices and physical activity become important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. from fish oils) suppress cancer formation. however. but at this time there is no direct evidence for protective effects in humans. On a positive note. Vitamins A and C are abundant in many fruits and vegetables. greatly increases the chances of successful treatment.) Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in antioxidant vitamins (in particular. A recent study of approximately 90. Thus. Similarly. appears to be unique among fatty acids because low levels in the diet produce significant cancer protection. certain types of cancer may be related more closely to excessive calorie intake than to any specific nutrient. and prostate in men.. Overall. There is less epidemiological evidence regarding vitamin E. Risk factors contributing to cancer development include cigarette smoking.S. Further research is needed to establish dietary levels of antioxidants that are both safe and effective. although mortality rates remain higher in African-Americans. Early detection of cancer. All cancers caused by cigarette smoking and heavy use of alcohol are considered preventable. however. The existence. for instance through regular screening examinations. incidence of breast and colon cancer have been correlated with variations in diet. and carcinogenesis is still unclear. colon-rectum.S. no relationship has been found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer in humans (21). there are no similar types of markers to indicate a cancer may be developing. between 1991 and 1995. see section H. animals may develop a higher incidence of cancer 10 when the fat is unsaturated. monounsaturated. especially fat intake. These studies do not prove cause and effect. The American Cancer Society has suggested (18) from existing scientific evidence that about onethird of the cancer deaths that occur in the U. Another third is due to cigarette smoking. Some studies suggest that a high level of dietary fat may act as a promoter of carcinogenesis rather than as an initiator of tumors.6%. A promoter is a compound that by itself is not carcinogenic but which enhances the ability of a carcinogen to produce cancer. Such studies are called epidemiological studies. recent studies have shown that conjugated linoleic acid. Although animal studies have suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase tumor growth. Available scientific evidence also does not support a relationship between trans fatty acids and risk of cancer at any of the major cancer sites. there is no evidence of a causal relationship between macronutrients in the diet and cancer. Areas of Current Research Interest. greater in young patients than in older patients. colonrectum. and greater in AfricanAmericans that in Caucasians. such as low intake of dietary fiber or high intake of fat. (For further discussion of conjugated linoleic acid. and gynecologic sites in women. found primarily in lipids from ruminant animals. Most of the decline was attributed to decreases in mortality from cancers of the lung. Some scientific studies have reported associations between dietary factors. certain dietary patterns. A recent assessment of currently available data suggests that specific saturated. fat unsaturation. or polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect cancer risk (20).g. Unlike heart disease in which blood cholesterol levels serve as an indictor of risk. laboratory and animal data support its anticarcinogenic activity. each year are due to dietary factors. However. They assess the existence of relationships between factors. exposure to radioactive materials or specific chemicals. and breast. and the appearance of cancer at certain sites. often 10 years or longer. particularly with breast and colon cancer. For example. Evidence also indicates that although genetics are a factor in the development of cancer. Also in developed countries. a causal role for dietary factors has not been firmly established. . there is also interest in whether individual types of fatty acids can affect cancer risk. Vitamin E is an antioxidant vitamin found principally in vegetable oil products.long. studies in animals have found that omega-3 fatty acids (e. such as diet and development of diseases like cancer. Oleic acid and saturated fatty acids have not been found to have any specific effects on carcinogenesis. In addition to interest in effects of the total amount of fat in the diet.000 women in the U. Other animal studies have indicated that moderate caloric restriction may result in lower cancer incidence and. of a direct relationship between caloric content. This effect seems to be independent of other dietary fatty acids. and family history.

S. Traces of trans isomers may also be formed when 11 nonhydrogenated oils are deodorized under certain conditions (e. The American Cancer Society believes that cancer risk can be reduced by an overall dietary pattern that includes a high proportion of plant foods (fruits. population to be 5. Current partially hydrogenated restaurant and food service frying oils typically contain about 10-35% trans isomers. Many dietary factors can affect cancer risk: types of foods. and beans). prolonged heating at high temperatures). and a balance of caloric intake and physical activity. The degree of hydrogenation. beef. Tub margarines and spreads (on a product basis) typically contain trans fatty acid levels up to 16%.heredity does not explain all cancer occurrences. Hydrogenation also results in the conversion of some cis double bonds to the trans configuration (see Part IV. dairy products. pressure. food preparation methods. and other high-fat foods. Overall. Using data from the USDA’s Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. which is believed to reduce the risk of cancers of the rectum and colon.3 g/day. grains. Examples of enhanced stability provided by hydrogenation include increased shelf life of commercial snack foods and prolonged frying stability of food service deep frying fats. Small amounts of trans fatty acids occur naturally in foods such as milk.S.. This estimate is considered to be relevant to the present day because few changes have occurred in the U. Plant foods contain fiber. The ISEO’s estimate was based on a comprehensive analysis of products made from partially hydrogenated fats and oils that were available for consumption. They also are rich in antioxidant vitamins. Health Effects of Trans Fatty Acids from Hydrogenation Hydrogenation is the process of chemically adding hydrogen gas to a liquid fat in the presence of a catalyst. G. portion sizes. and physical activity modify the risk of cancer at all stages of its development. Allison.S. determines the physical and chemical properties of the hydrogenated oil or fat. vegetables. and duration) of the hydrogenation processing. shortenings. USDA has estimated that up to 20% of the trans fatty acids in the American diet are from ruminant sources (22). Isomerism of Unsaturated Fatty Acids) and in the formation of cis or trans positional isomers in which one or more double bonds has migrated to a new position in the fatty acid chain. Widespread use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in the U. temperature. in the area of diet and cancer. whereas stick margarines typically have trans fatty acid levels around 15-22%. et al (23) estimated the mean intake of trans fatty acids by the U. and overall caloric balance. minerals. thereby increasing the degree of saturation of the fat. catalyst. Studies concerning health effects of trans fatty acids have focused primarily on their levels in the U. The hydrogenation process is very important to the food industry to achieve desired stability and physical properties in such food products as margarines. frying fats. The principal isomeric fatty acids of interest have been trans fatty acids rather than positional isomers of cis fatty acids. double bonds) in its fatty acids. More recent concerns about trans isomers acting physiologically like saturated fatty acids has encouraged the industry to pursue reduced levels of trans isomers in many food products.g. food variety.S. The levels and types of these isomeric fatty acids formed depend on the type of oil and conditions (e.e. cheese. diet since around 1989 that would have modified appreciably the estimate. Section C.S. This process converts some of the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids in the fat molecules to single bonds. Behavioral factors such as tobacco use. and specialty fats. Availability estimates do not represent actual consumption but rather indicate what could be consumed on average. limited amounts of meat.g. butter. The Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils (ISEO) has reported an estimate of trans fatty acids available for consumption in the U. diet for 1989 to be about 8 g/person/day (22). diet and their effects on parameters related to coronary heart disease risk. which is substantially lower than the ISEO’s . Trans isomers were a principal objective in solid shortening and margarine products of the 1950s and 1960s because of their ability to contribute higher melting properties while maintaining an unsaturated character. the total number of double bonds which are converted. and tallow as a result of biohydrogenation in ruminants. that is. during the past six or seven decades has raised questions about possible adverse consequences of consuming the isomeric fatty acids present in these products. dietary choices. a significant challenge is relating promising data from animal and cell culture studies to the prevention of cancer in humans. and phytochemicals that may play a role in reducing cancer risk.. Adopting healthful diet and exercise practices at any stage of life can promote health and likely reduce cancer risk. An oil that has been “partially” hydrogenated often retains a significant degree of unsaturation (i. An example of a desired physical property is the semi-solid consistency at refrigerator and room temperatures of margarines and spreads..

Available data from short-term studies involving rabbits.4 g/d. This is a small percentage compared to saturated fatty acids. The results were that the high and moderate trans fatty acid diets increased total and LDL cholesterol compared to the oleic acid diet but reduced total and LDL cholesterol compared to the high saturated fatty acid diet. et al. Most of these studies focus on the development of atherosclerosis and on the effects of trans fatty acids on serum cholesterol levels. Prior to 1990. A major study involving 14 Western European countries was conducted by the TNO Institute of the Netherlands assessing trans fatty acid intake using compositional data developed during the study and available national food consumption data (26).2 g/d in Portugal to 6. Four recent comprehensive reports have addressed possible health effects of trans fatty acids. Most of the studies on health effects of trans fatty acids conducted during the 1970s and 1980s found no significant associations between trans fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease. cholesterol-lowering) fatty acids. Furthermore. Judd. has continued to decrease during the past 25-30 years (32).availability estimate of 8 g/person/day. (30) have conducted a follow-up study to address limitations noted in previous studies. but not the moderate trans diet resulted in a minor reduction in HDL cholesterol. recent epidemiological studies have reported that trans fatty acids have a positive association with CHD risk (31). although extreme consumers may experience higher risk. and high saturated fatty acids. Estimates of trans fatty acid levels in the U. which contribute 12-14% of energy intake (24. Compared to the control diet. the lack of a dose response relationship between trans fatty acid intake and heart attack risk and the inconsistency of study results. A British Nutrition Foundation Task Force (33) concluded that “the risk attributable to the current low intake of trans fatty acids (4-6 g/person/day) which accounts for 2% of dietary energy in the UK appears to be small. a period in which the availability for consumption of trans fatty acids has remained relatively constant (22). A follow-up study by these investigators using a somewhat lower level of dietary trans fatty acids (7. The results of these studies stimulated a major U.. high stearic acid. The report concluded that there is little evidence in animals or humans that trans fatty acids influence growth.S.e.S. there were numerous reviews and studies on the nutritional and biological effects of trans fatty acids.2% energy as lauric. Above all it must be remembered that epidemiological studies do not show cause and effect and are simply indicators of where clinical studies may be needed. the mortality from CHD in the U. Other 12 dietary treatments included high oleic acid. it is unclear whether the responses reported reflect the addition of trans fatty acids to the diets or the reduction in dietary unsaturated (i. and monkeys have demonstrated that trans fatty acids in the presence of adequate essential fatty acids did not produce atherosclerosis.” A report by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) (24) emphasized that since trans fatty acids are often substituted for unsaturated fatty acids in experimental diets. Another ILSI report (34) addressed whether dietary trans fatty acids compromise fetal and infant early development.6% energy) and moderate (3. or gross aspects of fetal development.7% energy) reported that dietary trans acids raised total and LDL cholesterol and lowered HDL cholesterol compared to a high linoleic acid diet but not compared to a high stearic acid diet.S. The stearic acid diet had no effect on LDL cholesterol but lowered HDL cholesterol. diet by various investigators have indicated that trans acids contribute only about 2 to 4% of total energy. smaller than expected by the investigators. moderate trans. However.7 g/d in Iceland.0% energy) raised total and LDL cholesterol and lowered HDL cholesterol in human subjects compared to a high oleic acid diet. Trans fatty acid intake ranged from 1. these findings were challenged in 1990 by a Dutch study (27) which indicated that a diet high in trans fatty acids (11.8% energy) levels of trans acids compared with high oleic acid (16. Generally these studies indicated that trans fatty acids were not uniquely atherogenic nor did they raise total cholesterol compared to cis fatty acids. On the other hand. clinical trial which examined the health effects of both high (6. Scientists have also performed numerous studies using animal models to investigate the health effects of trans fatty acids. hamsters. myristic and palmitic acids) levels (28). A high carbohydrate diet was included as a control to assess if direct addition of trans fatty acids to the diet has an independent cholesterol raising effect. high trans. The high trans diet.7% energy) and high saturated fatty acid (16. Lp(a) levels were not affected by the trans diets compared to the oleic diet when all subjects were considered collectively (29). The overall mean of trans fatty acid intake was 2. the trans fatty acid diets raised total and LDL cholesterol to about the same extent as the high saturated diet but they had no effect on HDL cholesterol. pigs. An ASCN/AIN Task Force on Trans Fatty acids (25) . reproduction. There are a number of limitations of these studies including the difficulty of measuring trans fatty acid intake through the use of food frequency intake questionnaires. 25).

concluded that “compared to saturated fatty acids. Ip and Marshall noted that epidemiologic evidence shows only slight to negligible impact of fat intake in general on breast cancer risk and no strong evidence that intake of trans fatty acids is related to increased risk. Recent studies involving rabbits (46) or hamsters (47) indicated that incorporation of CLA into the diets suppressed total and LDL-cholesterol and also atherosclerosis. recent comprehensive reviews of the literature indicate that trans fatty acids at their current level of intake are a safe component of the diet. trans fats lower total and LDL cholesterol when substituted for animal fats and vegetable oils high in saturated fatty acids. The availability for consumption of CLA in the U. CLA appears to be a unique anticarcinogen because it is a naturally occurring substance found primarily in food products derived from animal sources.” The Task Force recommended that data be obtained on the intake of trans fatty acids. diet at a much lower level compared to saturates (24% versus 12-14% of energy). diet provides a smaller proportion of trans fatty acids and the data on their biological effects are limited. will simultaneously reduce their intake of saturated as well as trans fatty acids. In summary. A Finnish study utilized . CLA isomers are found primarily in lipids originating from ruminant animals (beef. in the future CLA could be a useful additive for animal feeds. In contrast to the amount of literature on trans fatty acids in relation to coronary heart disease. and their mode of action appeared to be due to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption during the digestive process (50). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism of CLA to inhibit cancer and atherosclerosis. Sitosterols were found to be serum cholesterol lowering agents in the 1950s. At relatively high levels of intake. dairy.9 mg/g fat (37). trans fats increase total and LDL cholesterol. However. they pose less of a health concern than do saturated fatty acids.S. 49). pigs. the issue of trans fatty acids is less significant because the U. In addition to its anticarcinogenic properties.6 to 0. Hydrogenated oils are used mainly as a substitute for more highly saturated vegetable oils and for animal fats containing both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. mechanism of action. Most other naturally occurring substances that have been demonstrated to have anticarcinogenic activity are of plant origin. With respect to breast cancer. and lamb) and are reported to range from about 3 to 11 mg/g fat (36). When substituted for unhydrogenated oils high in unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore. Fats from nonruminants (pork and chicken) and vegetable oils contain lower amounts of CLA ranging from 0. and rodents. Pigs fed CLA also showed improved feed efficiency (weight gain per unit weight of food consumed) and improved immune systems compared to controls. In addition. Another area of recent research interest is in the possibility of using dietary intake of certain plant sterols. has received considerable attention in recent years because these isomers appear to have both 13 anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties and may affect body composition. their biological effects. trans fatty acids appear to raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol. and relation to disease that are comparable to those for saturated fatty acids. Consumers lowering their fat intake to 30 percent of calories.S. relatively few investigators have studied trans fatty acids with respect to cancer.S. there is no evidence indicating that intake of trans fatty acids is related to increased risk of either colon cancer or prostate cancer.S. Recent studies with humans have examined the serum cholesterol lowering ability of sterol esters incorporated into margarines. to help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. has been estimated to be on the order of several hundred milligrams per day (38). as recommended in the U. Inhibition of tumor development in animals has been seen with CLA at concentrations as low as 0. Human studies on body composition effects are underway at this time. Ip and Marshall (35) published a comprehensive review of more than 30 reports addressing this issue. dietary CLA is able to affect body composition (48. Areas of Current Research Interest A group of isomers of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid.1% in the diet. Dietary Guidelines for Healthy Americans (6). Since trans fatty acids appear to raise total and LDL cholesterol levels to about the same extent as saturates but are present in the U. the available scientific evidence does not support a relationship between trans fatty acids and risk of cancer at any of the major cancer sites. CLA differs from linoleic acid by the position and geometric configuration of one of its double bonds. such as sitosterol. Overall. CLA appears to be antiatherogenic as well.5% CLA have been found to decrease body fat content and increase lean body mass in several species including poultry. Animal studies have indicated that CLA reduces the incidence of tumors induced by carcinogens such as dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene (39-45). CLA is also unique because it is a fatty acid mixture and anticancer efficacy is expressed at concentrations close to human consumption levels. H. Diets supplemented with 0. Thus. collectively termed “conjugated linoleic acid” (CLA).

Food products containing refined edible oils as ingredients are also nonallergenic unless the food products contain other sources of protein. This study. insufficient testing has been done to ensure that all cold pressed oils can be safely consumed by sensitive individuals. but there are conflicting views and inadequate scientific evidence regarding their 14 allergenicity. For example.S. and not all allergenic foods have the same tolerance level. cosmetic and agricultural sectors. may be cooked in peanut oil. For example. a common allergenic food ingredient. altered maturation periods. Also many reports do not indicate if the oils were cold pressed or not. and herbicides. J. which may not remove all protein. a margarine containing sitostanol esters from wood pulp was introduced commercially in Finland. Restaurants and food service facilities should therefore exercise caution in cooking techniques and be able to readily identify not only the oils used but also a complete list of all foods cooked in the oil. pending regulatory approval. A second study used esters of sitosterol that were extracted from soybean oil and incorporated into margarine. I. This success has stimulated proposals to launch the product in the U. Nonallergenicity of Edible Oils Food allergies are caused by the protein components of food. Currently researchers and seed developers are placing more emphasis on improving “output” quality traits which affect what the plant produces. The majority of well-designed and performed scientific studies indicate that refined oils are safe for the food-allergic population to consume (53). Of those reports that have been scientifically recorded. many investigators did not perform tests to confirm an allergic response from the oil in question nor were analyses conducted to determine if protein was present in the oil. insects. therefore such tolerance levels in humans have not been established. stressful weather conditions. the sensitivities of food allergic individuals may vary widely. Refined edible oils therefore do not cause allergic reactions because they do not contain allergenic protein. Both the sitosterol based and sitostanol based margarines are expected to be introduced in the U. in 1999. There is also a lack of scientific data to determine the levels of proteins needed to cause an allergic reaction. and compared their cholesterol lowering effect directly with that of sitostanol esters. foods containing peanuts. Agricultural applications to food crops have resulted in improved “input” agronomic traits. mechanical or “cold press” extraction is occasionally used. The goal of biotechnology is to develop new or modified plants or animals with desirable characteristics. and both the soybean sterols and the sitostanols were equally effective compared to the control diet (52). An example of this .S. Many reports alleging edible oil allergenicity have been testimonial in nature. however.6 g sitostanol/day. While the vast majority of oils found in the US are refined by processes which remove virtually all protein. Some edible oils may be extracted and processed by procedures that do not remove all protein present. An allergic reaction experienced as a result of eating this food may be mistakenly blamed on the oil. and European markets. a hydrogenated sitosterol obtained from a wood pulp byproduct. Also foods containing inherent allergens may be cooked in edible oils resulting in traces of the allergenic protein being left behind in the oil. there are usually alternate explanations for these reactions.S. Furthermore. The earliest applications of this technology have been in the pharmaceutical. using normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. The vast preponderance of edible oils consumed in the US are highly refined and processed to the extent that allergenic proteins are not present in detectable amounts. discussed in section VII Processing) which removes virtually all protein from the oil. Such traits include higher production yields. The product proved to be very popular and initially demand outstripped supply.9-2. Edible oils in the U. fed in margarine to mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects at levels ranging from 1. a commercial margarine containing sitosterol esters obtained from soybean oil has been developed for the U. These cold pressed oils are rarely used domestically and are usually found only in health food or gourmet food stores. found a reduction of 813% of plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels. and resistance to disease.S. In 1995. which affect how the plants grow. undergo extensive processing (sometimes referred to as “fully refined”. At the same time. most lack evidence that edible oils were indeed the causative agent or were even ingested. in mid-1999. While some consumers are convinced they are allergic to edible oils. Studies using cold pressed soybean oil have shown it to be safe. A mean reduction in plasma serum cholesterol of 10% was observed after one year (51).sitostanol esters. It includes both hybridization and genetic modification of plants and animals. Biotechnology Biotechnology has been defined broadly as the commercial application of biological processes. Edible oils have been blamed for causing allergic reactions in people.

and involves removing. or adding genes to a living organism. industrial production of fatty acids. reduced calories or bioavailability. It is therefore important for consumers to understand the many benefits of biotechnology and that the application of genetic engineering technology to foods will render them safe. improved extraction of oil from oilseeds through enzyme technology.S. For example. historical fatty acid profiles for source oil identification will become less useful. appear to be improving. The future looks bright particularly for the emergence of new oilseed varieties that will have improved agronomic characteristics. drugs). high linoleic flaxseed oil. U. Labeling of such foods or food additives is not required unless the nutrient composition is significantly altered.S. creation of specific fatty acid profiles for particular food applications.S.. The most recognized examples in the U. Genetic engineering is a specific application of biotechnology. Transgenic soybeans and corn are expected to be about 50% of the U. All indications are that worldwide acreage will continue to expand at a rapid pace for the next several years. K. and nutritious.S. The United States is the leader in agricultural applications of genetically engineered crops representing 64% of the total global acreage devoted to transgenic crops in 1997. which states that foods derived from new genetically engineered plant varieties will be regulated essentially the same as foods created by conventional means.. and improved processing methods. As new varieties of oilseeds are developed to incorporate specific fatty acid components. Fat Reduction in Foods Americans have been advised during the past two decades by many health organizations. high and midoleic sunflower. The most popular crops as a percent of total global acreage planted to transgenic crops are the following: soybeans (40%). and Department of Health and Human Services. Europeans have been less willing to embrace biotechnology due to concerns regarding the safety of genetically modified foods. consumers appear to have accepted biotechnology and recognize its potential benefits (e. The age of biotechnology is here with a vast array of improved plant varieties already commercially available. This technique is also called recombinant DNA technology. to reduce total dietary fat intake to less than 30% of calories and . and cotton which is resistant to the bollworm. While U. have been very rapid. Other applications may include increased oil yield. more functional. corn which is resistant to the European corn borer.g. from an agricultural trade standpoint. about 31.S. tobacco (13%).S.application is the custom designing of nutrient profiles of food crops for improved nutrition and reduced allergenic properties. and creative “functional” foods for the population at large or for medical purposes. or unique issues have been posed which should be communicated to consumers. corn (25%). and high stearate canola. Argentina with 11%. low linolenic/low saturate soybeans. gene splicing. New plant varieties that result from genetic engineering are referred to as transgenic plants. allergenic proteins have been introduced into the new food. Department of Agriculture. foods. and canola (10%).S. transgenic herbicide resistant soybeans after being first introduced commercially in 1996 on 1 million acres were planted on about 25 million acres in 1998. or genetic modification. and it occupied about 16 million acres in 1998. Canada with 10% and Australia and Mexico with about 1% each (54). including the Office of the Surgeon General. Genetically modified insect resistant corn was also commercially introduced in 1996. followed by 15 China with 14%. The prospects for resolution of these differences between Europe and the U. and functionality in foods and food ingredients as well as in industrial products. This position has caused much anxiety between Europe and the U. total planted acreage for these crops in 1999. In the U. American Heart Association. A challenge for food manufacturers will be how to identify these food components through food labeling. Exciting opportunities for edible oil crop nutrient content and functionality improvement include reduction in saturated fatty acid content. The more notable biotechnology applications within the oilseed industry include herbicide tolerant soybeans and canola. the Food and Drug Administration has principal regulatory responsibility for approving the introduction of foods and food additives from transgenic plants into the marketplace. modifying. While almost 7 million acres were planted internationally to transgenic crops in 1996.S. are herbicide resistant soybeans. improved oxidative stability resulting in a reduced need for hydrogenation. high oleic canola. low linolenic canola. high laurate canola. Global plantings of transgenic crops are also increasing at very rapid rates. The agency has maintained a biotechnology policy since 1992. The acceptance and utilization of these and other transgenic food crops in the U. cotton (11%). The European Union requires foods containing genetically altered components to be labeled as such and has been very slow in approving new genetically modified plant varieties as imports. nutrient profiles.5 million acres were planted in 1997 (54).

In response to consumer demand of recent years. and triunsaturated as illustrated below. Sucrose fatty acid esters (SFEs) are similar to SPEs however. High intake of total and saturated fat has been associated with increased risk of obesity and coronary heart disease. As a result.000 new low fat foods have entered the marketplace annually bearing nutrient content claims of lowered fat (55). sauces. di-.180 in 1998. moisture and textural stability to a wide variety of foods including puddings. Public Health Service to promote health and prevention of disease. These materials are derived from a variety of protein sources including eggs. Since 1990 an average of over 1. olestra is not absorbed or metabolized by the body. the length of the carbon chains. That goal was quickly met by 1995. One of the primary methods employed by the food industry in creating newer food products containing less fat has been the use of fat replacers or fat substitutes.405 products in 1997 and 1. Digestible carbohydrates such as modified starches and dextrins provide 4 calories per gram. VI. however. Fat replacers are generally classified into three basic categories: fat-based. thereby reducing caloric value. triglycerides can be classified as mono-. In 1996 the introduction of new low fat foods reached a peak at 2.076 products. milk. cheese baked goods.saturated fat intake to less than 10% of calories. medium and long chain fatty acids. soy and wheat gluten. A. The technology used in the development of these fat replacers allows key sensory and physical attributes and functional characteristics of affected foods to be maintained. FACTORS AFFECTING PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FATS AND OILS The physical characteristics of a fat or oil are dependent upon the degree of unsaturation. a program of the U.S. Olestra is currently approved by FDA as a frying medium for savory snacks but has the potential to be included in frying oils and shortenings. They are primarily used to reduce the amount of fat available for absorption. They are used in frozen dairy desserts. A number of carbohydrates including gums. the same as provided by conventional fats. Structured lipids are triglycerides which may be made from a variety of combinations of short. they are partially or fully absorbed thus providing up to 9 calories per gram to the diet. Because of its large molecular size. • Carbohydrate-based fat replacers. Generally these proteins undergo a process called microparticulation in which they are sheared under heat into very small particles to impart similar mouthfeel and texture as conventional fats. starches. the most common example of which is olestra. and the type and extent of processing. Since 1996. soups. recommended food manufacturers double the availability of lower fat food products from 1990 to the year 2000. bakery goods. whey. Salatrim is an example of a structured lipid which is partially metabolized thus providing only about 5 calories per gram energy. sauces and salad dressings and may provide only 1-4 calories per gram depending on the water level incorporated into them. the isomeric forms of the fatty acids. thus it contributes no calories to the diet. 16 . their molecular size is smaller. molecular configuration. Healthy People 2000. Protein-based fat replacers. These categories and the most important examples within them are discussed below: • Fat-based substitutes. pectins and cellulose have been used for many years as thickening agents to add bulk. food manufacturers have developed a wide variety of reduced fat food products utilizing fat substitutes as a primary method of fat reduction. salad dressings and frozen desserts. introductions of new reduced or low fat products have declined to 1. Sucrose fatty acid polyesters (SPEs) are mixtures of compounds called esters made by combining sucrose esters and fatty acids. protein-based and carbohydrate-based. while nondigestible complex carbohydrates provide virtually no calories. Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids • Food fats and oils are made up of triglyceride molecules which may contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Depending on the type of fatty acids combined in the molecule. SFEs are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in a wide variety of foods and as components of coatings used to retard spoilage of fruits.

On the other hand. The degree of unsaturation of a fat. stearic. which contains almost 90% saturated fatty acids but with a high proportion of relatively short chain low melting fatty acids. A typical semi-solid household shortening made from partially hydrogenated soybean oil may have an iodine value of about 90-95. A mixture of several triglycerides has a lower melting point than would be predicted for the mixture based on the melting points of the individual components. typically has an iodine value of about 30. 17 The molecular configuration of triglycerides can also affect the properties of a fat or oil. but many are of low molecular weight. In the case of cocoa butter. Melting points of fats will vary in their sharpness depending on the number of different chemical entities which are present. however. It is the presence of isomeric fatty acids in many vegetable shortenings and margarines that contributes substantially to the semisolid form of these products. the palmitic. For example. just slightly below body temperature. as is typical of lard and most vegetable shortenings. It is not necessarily true.e.Generally speaking. Iodine value is the number of grams of iodine which will react with the double bonds in 100 grams of fat and may be calculated from the fatty acid composition obtained by gas chromatography. butterfat. such as oleic acid also have relatively low melting points (Table II). For example. the number of double bonds present. Isomeric Forms of Fatty Acids For a given fatty acid chain length. B. Thus. This explains why coconut oil. Some of the higher molecular weight unsaturated fatty acids. Length of Carbon Chains in Fatty Acids C. which has a much lower level of unsaturated fatty acids than most shortenings made from partially hydrogenated soybean oil. Thus. The presence of these forms give cocoa butter its sharp melting point. normally is expressed in terms of the iodine value of the fat. Oleic acid is liquid at temperatures considerably below room temperature. most with longer chains. D. the melting point also increases (Table I). and oleic acids are combined in two predominant triglyceride forms. saturated fatty acids will have higher melting points than those that are unsaturated The melting points of unsaturated fatty acids are profoundly affected by position and conformation of the double bonds. Thus. fats that are liquid at room temperature tend to be more unsaturated than those that appear to be solid. Molecular Configuration of Triglycerides As the chain length of the saturated fatty acid increases. The melting properties of triglycerides are related to those of their fatty acids. The average iodine value of unhydrogenated soybean oil is generally in the 125-140 range. . i. The way cocoa butter melts is one of the reasons for the pleasant eating quality of chocolate. is a clear liquid at 80°F in contrast to lard which contains only about 37% saturates. hence this oil melts at or near room temperature. that all fats which are liquid at room temperature are high in unsaturated fatty acids. is semi-solid at 80ºF. will have a broad melting range. a short chain saturated fatty acid such as butyric acid has a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids with longer chains. A mixture of triglycerides.. Monoglycerides and diglycerides have higher melting points than triglycerides with a similar fatty acid composition. the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid and its geometric isomer elaidic acid have different melting points. A typical food service salad and cooking oil made from partially hydrogenated soybean oil may have an iodine value of about 105-120. coconut oil has a high level of saturates. the physical state of the fat does not necessarily indicate the amount of unsaturation. whereas elaidic acid is solid even at temperatures above room temperature. The mixture will also have a broader melting range than any of its components. A simple triglyceride will have a sharp melting point. the presence of different geometric isomers of fatty acids influences the physical characteristics of the fat.

Soybean oil is the most common oil to be degummed. Polymorphism of Fats Solidified fats exhibit polymorphism. depending on the manner in which the molecules orient themselves in the solid state. Because of its high volatility. the phospholipids are often recovered and further processed to yield a variety of lecithin products.g.E. The rate of transformation and the extent to which it proceeds are governed by the molecular composition and configuration of the fat. the shortening or margarine must be in a crystalline form called “beta-prime” (a lower melting polymorph). coarse. Crude fats and oils contain varying but relatively small amounts of naturally occurring non-glyceride materials that are removed through a series of processing steps. and stability. fats containing diverse assortments of molecules (such as rearranged lard) tend to remain indefinitely in lower melting crystal forms. The crystal forms of fats can transform from lower melting to successively higher melting modifications.e. whereas fats containing a relatively limited assortment of molecules (such as soybean stearine) transform readily to higher melting crystal forms. soybean oil) may be degummed prior to refining to remove the majority of those phospholipid compounds. no hexane residue remains in the finished oil after processing. In this process the oil is extracted from the oilseed by hexane (a light petroleum fraction) and the hexane is then separated from the oil. Similarly. Refining The process of refining (sometimes referred to as “alkali refining”) generally is performed on vegetable oils to reduce the free fatty acid content and to remove . It is agreed by most nutritionists and food technologists that the modern processing of edible fats and oils is the single factor most responsible for upgrading the quality of the fat consumed in the U.S. and the temperature and duration of storage. Animal fats are generally heat rendered from animal tissues to separate them from protein and other naturally occurring materials. A. B. i. Shortenings and margarines are smooth and creamy because of the inclusion of beta-prime fats. Beta-prime crystal formation is promoted in a soybean oil product through inclusion of beta-prime promoting fats such as hydrogenated cottonseed or palm oils. The fats and oils obtained directly from rendering or from the extraction of the oilseeds are termed “crude” fats and oils.. The crystal form of the fat has a marked effect on the melting point and the performance of the fat in the various applications in which it is utilized. meat fats may contain some free fatty acids. Processing is carried out in such a way as to control retention of these substances. The process generally involves treating the crude oil with a limited amount of water to hydrate the phosphatides and make them separable by centrifugation. free fatty acids.. Beta-prime is a smooth. Vegetable fats are obtained by the extraction or the expression of the oil from the oilseed source. recovered. C. Tocopherols. cold or hot expression methods were used. Degumming Food fats and oils are derived from oilseed and animal sources. These methods have been replaced with solvent extraction or pre-press/solvent extraction methods which give a better oil yield. Food technologists apply controlled polymorphic crystal formation in the preparation of household shortenings and margarines. water. Partial hydrogenation is employed frequently to improve the stability of fats and oils and to provide increased usefulness by imparting a semi-solid consistency to the fat for many food applications. It should be pointed out. Partially hydrogenated soybean oil tends to crystallize in the “beta” crystal form (a higher melting polymorph). Rendering may be either with dry heat or with steam. they can exist in several different crystalline forms. PROCESSING General Historically. These products are predominantly partially hydrogenated soybean oil. For example. VII. Mechanical and thermal agitation during processing and storage at elevated temperatures tend to accelerate the rate of crystal transformation. however. crude soybean oil may contain small amounts of protein. that not all of the nonglyceride materials are undesirable elements. perform the important function of protecting the oils from oxidation and provide vitamin E. 18 Crude oils having relatively high levels of phosphatides (e. for example. small. In general. and phosphatides which must be removed through subsequent processing to produce the desired shortening and oil products. grainy crystal. Rendering and processing of meat fats is conducted in USDA inspected plants. and protein which must be removed. diet today. crystallization conditions. fine crystal whereas beta is a large. and reused. functionality. In order to obtain desired product plasticity.

A similar process called dewaxing is utilized to clarify oils containing trace amounts of clouding constituents. Hydrogenation of fats has developed as a result of the need to (1) convert liquid oils to the semi-solid form for greater utility in certain food uses and (2) increase the oxidative and thermal stability of the fat or oil.. Most phosphatides and mucilaginous substances are soluble in the oil only in an anhydrous form and upon hydration with the caustic or other refining solution are readily separated. and to make the most efficient use of the steam. sufficient tocopherols remain in the finished oils after deodorization to provide stability. G. The usual method of bleaching is by adsorption of the color producing substances on an adsorbent material. D. is the adsorbent material that has been used most extensively. colors and odors in fats and oils.other gross impurities such as phosphatides. Solvent fractionation is practiced commercially to produce hard butters. Deodorization does not have any significant effect upon the fatty acid composition of most fats or oils. Fractionation is the removal of solids by controlled crystallization and separation techniques involving the use of solvents or dry processing. to avoid undue hydrolysis of the fat. and some salad oils from a wide array of edible oils. 19 . Anhydrous silica gel and activated carbon also are used as bleaching adsorbents to a limited extent. sometimes called bentonite. Bleaching F. steam stripped) to remove free fatty acids. Normally. bleaching is accomplished after the oil has been refined. Pressing is a fractionation process sometimes used to separate liquid oils from solid fat. Oils low in phosphatide content (palm and coconut) may be physically refined (i. The term winterization was originally applied decades ago when cottonseed oil was subjected to winter temperatures to accomplish this process. Hydrogenation is the only practical way to impart these properties. Hydrogenation Hydrogenation is the process by which hydrogen is added directly to points of unsaturation in the fatty acids. It relies upon the differences in melting points and triglyceride solubility to separate the oil fractions. After alkali refining. Solvent fractionation is the term used to describe a process for the crystallization of a desired fraction from a mixture of triglycerides dissolved in a suitable solvent. Acid-activated bleaching earth or clay. Normally this process is accomplished after refining and bleaching. This process presses the liquid oil from the solid fraction by hydraulic pressure or vacuum filtration. Dry fractionation encompasses both winterization and pressing techniques and is the most widely practiced form of fractionation. Deodorization is carried out under vacuum to facilitate the removal of the volatile substances. In the case of vegetable oils. Winterization is a process whereby material is crystallized and removed from the oil by filtration to avoid clouding of the liquid fraction at cooler temperatures. The deodorization of fats and oils is simply a removal of the relatively volatile components from the fat or oil using steam. because this processing imparts the desired stability and other properties to many edible oil products. This process is used commercially to produce hard butters and specialty fats from oils such as palm and palm kernel.e. This substance consists primarily of hydrated aluminum silicate. By far the most important and widespread method of refining is the treatment of the fat or oil with an alkali solution. The level of unsaturated fatty acids present in some oils such as soybean oil is reduced in order for the oils to have functional properties in many food applications. colors and odors to fats and oils and the triglycerides. This is feasible because of the great differences in volatility between the substances that give flavors. Winterization processes using temperature to control crystallization are continued today on several oils. the fat or oil is water-washed to remove residual soap. Fractions may be selectively crystallized at different temperatures after which the fractions are separated and the solvent removed. Hydrogenation is an extremely important process as far as our food supply is concerned. Fractionation (Including Winterization) The term “bleaching” refers to the process for removing color producing substances and for further purifying the fat or oil. specialty oils. proteinaceous. This results in a large reduction of free fatty acids through their conversion into water-soluble soaps. E. Deodorization Deodorization is a vacuum steam distillation process for the purpose of removing trace constituents that give rise to undesirable flavors. and mucilaginous substances.

The hydrogenation conditions can be varied by the manufacturer to meet certain physical and chemical characteristics desired in the finished product. Biological hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurs in some animal organisms. Under these conditions. When oils are more fully hydrogenated. In the reverse process. and oils can be reacted with edible alcohols to produce useful food ingredients that include many of the emulsifiers listed in the following section. This process. hydrogen gas is reacted with oil at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. This conversion also affects trans fatty acids eliminating them from fully hydrogenated fats. The catalyst most widely used is nickel supported on an inert carrier which is removed from the fat after the hydrogenation processing is completed. ordinary lard becomes somewhat softer than desirable. fats. At slightly above normal room temperature. particularly in ruminants. The rearrangement process does not change the degree of unsaturation or the isomeric state of the fatty acids as they transfer in their entirety from one position to another. Both positional and geometric (trans) isomers are formed to some extent during hydrogenation. it becomes somewhat firmer than is desirable. referred to as interesterification. I. and at temperatures slightly lower. In an alternative esterification process. If the hydrogenation of cottonseed or soybean oil. This is achieved through selection of the proper temperature. Other conditions permit the rearrangement process to direct the fatty acid distribution to an extent that allows further modification of shortening properties to be obtained. many of the carbon to carbon double bonds are converted to single bonds increasing the level of saturation. If an oil is hydrogenated completely. Using the foregoing esterification processes.In the process of hydrogenation. the carbon to carbon double bonds are eliminated completely and the resulting product is a hard brittle solid at room temperature. are examples of esters. Carried to completion. Molecularly rearranged lard shortenings have a satisfactory consistency over a much wider temperature range. these esters are hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids. and triglycerides. . and starting oils. called alcoholysis. This accounts for the presence of some trans isomers that occur in the tissues and milk of ruminants. the amounts depending on the conditions employed. pressure. the gaseous hydrogen reacts with the double bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids as illustrated below: H. As hydrogenation progresses. Under some conditions the fatty acids are distributed in a more random manner than they were present originally. is accomplished by catalytic methods at relatively low temperature. time.and diglycerides. esterification. for example. These partially hydrogenated oils are typically used to produce institutional cooking oils. Triglycerides. there is generally a gradual increase in the melting point of the fat or oil. catalyst. edible acids. liquid shortenings and liquid margarines. the predominant constituents of fats and oils. fats are hydrolyzed initially to diglycerides and monoglycerides which are also esters. Interesterification The hydrogenation process is easily controlled and can be stopped at any desired point. Further hydrogenation can produce soft but solid appearing fats which still contain appreciable amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and are used in solid shortenings and margarines. 20 Another process used by oil processors permits a rearrangement or a redistribution of the fatty acids on the glycerol fragment of the molecule. is stopped after only a small amount of hydrogenation has taken place. an alcohol such as glycerol is reacted with fat or oil to produce esters such as mono. the oils remain liquid. fatty acids are present in nature in the form of esters and are consumed as such. an alcohol such as glycerol is reacted with an acid such as a fatty acid to form an ester such as mono-. di-. Esterification For the most part. When consumed and digested. Lard in its natural state possesses a very narrow temperature range over which it has good consistency for practical use in the kitchen. This process permits further tailoring of triglyceride properties to achieve the required steep melting curves. The predominant commercial application for interesterification in the US is the production of specialty fats for the confectionery and vegetable dairy industries.

This insures quality maintenance from time of production to time of consumption. When addition provides a technical effect in the end-use product. provide emulsion stability. Some emulsifiers also provide valuable functional attributes in addition to emulsification. dough conditioner. solubilization. and sausage. stabilizer Processed Food Margarine Bread and rolls Peanut butter Chocolate Margarine Batters (cake) Confectionery coating Sugar syrup Icings and cake batters Lecithin Lactylated mono-diglycerides Polyglycerol esters Sucrose fatty acid esters Sodium steroyl lactylate (SSL) Calcium steroyl lactylate (CSL) Bakery products Bread and rolls K. Emulsifiers Many foods are processed and/or consumed as emulsions.J. icings. These include aeration. the material added is considered a direct additive. handling. hydration. mode of addition. Additives and Processing Aids Manufacturers may add low levels of approved food additives to fats and oils to protect their quality in processing. mayonnaise. which are dispersions of immiscible liquids such as water and oil. crystal modification.g. starch and protein complexing. 21 . and dispersion. TABLE III EMULSIFIERS AND THEIR FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS IN PROCESSED FOODS Emulsifier Mono-diglycerides Characteristic Emulsification of water in oil Anti-staling or softening Prevention of oil separation Viscosity control and wetting Anti-spattering and anti-sticking Aeration Gloss enhancement Crystallization promoter Aeration Emulsification Emulsification Aeration. storage. Emulsifiers must be sanctioned for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). and shipping of finished products. Lack of stability results in separation of the oil and water phases. milk. Typical examples of industry practice are listed in Table IV. Typical examples of emulsifiers and the characteristics they impart to food are listed in Table III. e. ice cream. Such usage must comply with FDA regulations governing levels. This agency provides guidelines for industry usage as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) or regulated food additives. and product labeling. Emulsifiers. either present naturally in one or more of the ingredients or added separately..

Use of processing aids also must comply with federal regulations which specify good manufacturing practices and acceptable residual levels. shipping. and deodorization Neutralization with base. filtration. the material added is considered to be a processing aid.Table IV SOME DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES USED IN FATS AND OILS Additive Effect Provided Tocopherols Antioxidant. retards oxidative rancidity Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) Carotene (pro-vitamin A) Methyl silicone (dimethylpolysiloxane) Diacetyl Lecithin Citric acid Phosphoric acid Color additive. inhibit metal-catalyzed oxidative breakdown effects are listed in Table V. metal chelators Crystallization media for fractionation of fats and oils Oxygen replacement Crystallization modification Adsorbent Fractionation aid. When addition is made to achieve a technical effect during processing. or storage and followed by removal or reduction to an insignificant level. or water washing Solvent stripping and deodorization Diffusion None Filtration Washing and centrifugation . filtration. enhances color of finished foods Inhibits oxidation tendency and foaming of fats and oils during frying Provides buttery odor and flavor to fats and oils Water scavenger to prevent lipolytic rancidity Metal chelating agents. wetting agent 22 Filtration Filtration Water or acid neutralization. Typical examples of processing aids and provided TABLE V SOME PROCESSING AIDS USED IN MANUFACTURING EDIBLE FATS AND OILS Aid Effect Mode of Removal Sodium hydroxide Refining aid Acid neutralization Carbon/clay (diatomaceous earth) Nickel Sodium methoxide Phosphoric acid Citric acid Acetone Hexane Isopropanol Nitrogen Polyglycerol esters Silica hydrogel Sodium lauryl sulfate Bleaching aid Hydrogenation catalyst Rearrangement catalyst Refining acids.

fats are hydrolyzed by enzymes (lipases).” Some fats resist this change to a remarkable extent while others are more susceptible depending on the degree of unsaturation. may be helpful in measuring the degree of oxidative rancidity in the fat.” Ordinarily. With aqueous sodium hydroxide.e. Fats and oils often are treated with chelating agents such as citric acid (see Tables IV and V) to inactivate heavy metals. there is a marked increase in viscosity. it is believed that polymers in fats and oils arise by formation of either carbon to carbon bonds or oxygen bridges between molecules. Thus. Of particular interest in the food field is the process of oxidation induced by air at room temperature referred to as “autoxidation.VIII. Expert tasters are able to detect the development of rancidity in its early stages. Initially. for example. it is apparent from the flavor and odor of the oil. oxidative reactions which occur at higher temperatures may not follow precisely the same routes and mechanisms as the reactions at room temperatures. Polymerization of Fats 1. It is a common practice in the industry to protect fats and oils from oxidation to preserve their acceptable flavor and shelf life. When the hydrolysis is carried to completion with water in the presence of an acid catalyst. a lack of growth by the animal could be due to its unwillingness to consume the diet. Oxidation at Higher Temperatures. The peroxide value determination. and triglycerides will hydrolyze to yield glycerol and fatty acids. 2. In autoxidation. Frequently. The stability of a fat or oil may be predicted to some degree by the oxidative stability index (OSI). the presence of antioxidants. palm fruit. REACTIONS OF FATS AND OILS Hydrolysis of Fats Like other esters. the greater will be its susceptibility to oxidative rancidity. Autoxidation. Although the rate of oxidation is greatly accelerated at higher temperatures. so enzymatic hydrolysis is unlikely in refined fats and oils. peroxides are formed which in turn break down to hydrocarbons. When rancidity has progressed significantly. or corn oil are less stable than predominantly saturated oils such as coconut oil. Any residues of these lipolytic enzymes present in some crude fats and oils are deactivated by the temperatures used in oil processing. It has been found that oxidatively abused fats can complicate nutritional and biochemical studies in 23 All commonly used fats and particularly those high in polyunsaturated fatty acids tend to form some larger molecules known broadly as polymers when heated under extreme conditions of temperature and time. cottonseed. Under normal processing and cooking conditions polymers are formed in insignificant quantities. When an appreciable amount of polymer is present. ketones. A. Heavy metals present at low levels in fats and oils can promote autoxidation. increases the rate of oxidation. di-. Lypolytic enzymes are present in some edible oil sources (i. Oxidation of Fats animals because they can affect food consumption under ad libitum feeding conditions and reduce the vitamin content of the food. and other factors. The more unsaturated the fat or oil. oxygen reacts with unsaturated fatty acids. If the diet has become unpalatable due to excessive oxidation of the fat component and is not accepted by the animal. .and diglycerides and fatty acids. Methylsilicone often is added to institutional frying fats and oils to reduce oxidation tendency and foaming at elevated temperatures. Although the polymerization process is not understood completely. B. differences in the stability of fats and oils often become more apparent when the fats are used for frying or slow baking. and smaller amounts of epoxides and alcohols. coconut). the experimental results might be attributed unwittingly to the type of fat or other nutrient being studied rather than to the condition of the ration. this is a slow process which occurs only to a limited degree. C. Also oxidative stability has been increased in many of the oils developed through biotechnological engineering. the mono-. The result of the autoxidation of fats and oils is the development of objectionable flavors and odors characteristic of the condition known as “oxidative rancidity. In the digestive tracts of humans and animals and in bacteria.. Partial hydrolysis of triglycerides will yield mono. The presence of light. Predominantly unsaturated oils such as soybean. glycerol and the sodium salts of the component fatty acids (soaps) are obtained. Knowing the oxidative condition of unsaturated fats is extremely important in biochemical and nutritional studies with animals. aldehydes. Animal studies have shown that any polymers that may be present in a fat or oil are absorbed poorly from the intestinal tract and are excreted as such in the feces. Thus. glycerides can be hydrolyzed readily. partial hydrogenation is employed in the processing of liquid vegetable oil to increase the stability of the oil. if used judiciously.

the smoke. which may be reflected as a decrease in iodine value of the fat and an increase in free fatty acids.” “flash. when frying high fat foods such as chicken. (2) the fat tends to smoke excessively. it is often necessary to replenish the fryer with fresh fat. et al.05%. if a consumer wishes to save the fat or oil after cooking. some fat from the food will be rendered and blend with the frying fat and some frying fat will be absorbed by the food. The fire point is the temperature at which the volatile products will support continued combustion. Since absorption of fat by the fried food may be extensive. such as in restaurants or food processing establishments. and duration. This is why most household fat and oil products for cooking carry a warning statement on their labels about potential fire hazards. flash and fire points. some substances are formed in small amounts that when isolated and fed at concentrated levels can be shown to be toxic to laboratory animals. If. 620º. the heat should be reduced. It is important to note that all oils will burn if overheated. saturate the unsaturated fatty acids. Allow the covered frying container to cool. although the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids will change due to some polymerization of unsaturated fatty acids. The continuous generation of smoke from a frying pan or deep fryer is a good indication that the fat is being overheated and could ignite if high heating continues. extinguish the fire by covering the pan immediately with a lid or by spraying it only with an appropriate fire extinguisher. careful attention must be given to all frying operations. It is the usual practice to discard frying fat when (1) prolonged frying causes excessive foaming of the hot fat. effect on its smoke. For typical fats with a free fatty acid content of about 0. depends on the frying conditions. The temperature at which the fat smokes freely is usually somewhat higher. The practical significance of these observations was defined more clearly in a twoyear animal feeding study by Nolen et al (57). Frying conditions do not. and 670º F. In this manner the fatty acid composition of the frying fat will change as frying progresses. The composition of a frying fat also may be affected by the kind of food being fried. 24 . also have reviewed the nutritional aspects of heated fats (58). Most containers for cooking oils are not designed to withstand the high temperatures reached by the oil during cooking. flash and free points. Clark. Other studies. When heating fat. and fire points are around 420º. Under these unrealistic conditions. The flash point is the temperature at which the volatile products are evolved at such a rate that they are capable of being ignited but not capable of supporting combustion. hydrolysis) which can occur particularly during deep fat frying. however. Under no circumstances should burning fat be dumped into a kitchen sink or sprayed with water. have exposed the foods to exaggerated conditions that are unrealistic and not indicative of actual use conditions. flash. the contents of the frying pan do ignite. have lower smoke. however. usually from prolonged frying with low fat turnover. Reactions during Heating and Cooking Glycerides are subject to chemical reactions (oxidation.” and “fire points” of a fatty material are standard measures of its thermal stability when heated in contact with air. The “smoke.D. Any or all of these qualities associated with the fat can decrease the quality of the fried food. do not leave the pan unattended. The smoke point is the temperature at which smoke is first detected in a laboratory apparatus protected from drafts and provided with special illumination. however. aeration. respectively. For additional details see Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products (56). Accordingly used oil freshened with new oil will show an increased smoke. or fire points. If smoke is observed during a frying operation. Oils containing fatty acids of low molecular weight such as coconut oil. Furthermore. and fire points than other animal or vegetable fats of comparable free fatty acid content. Oils subjected to extended use will have increased free fatty acid content resulting in a lowering of the smoke. polymerization. This work showed that animals consuming used typical frying fats as the sole source of fat in the diet throughout their life span thrived equally as well as control animals consuming the same fat that had not been subjected to frying conditions. principally the temperature. the hot fat or oil should never be poured back into its original container. The extent of these reactions. This replacement with fresh fat tends to dilute overall compositional changes of the fat during prolonged frying. The degree of unsaturation of an oil has little. flash. Accordingly. For example. Considerable work has been done studying the effects of elevated temperatures on the composition and biological qualities of edible fats and oils. Do not attempt to remove a burning pan of oil from the stove. if any. Pouring hot oil into such containers could result in breakage or melting of the container and possible burns to the user. flash. however. or (3) an undesirable flavor or dark color develops. Much of this work has been done with temperatures and other conditions which simulated those experienced in commercial deep frying operations.

A. It also should be recognized that the table does not include invisible fats.g. restaurants. Invisible fats are those that have not been isolated from the animal tissues. and avocado. fish.g. The data given in Table VI include both retail and commercial availability of each fat or oil. diet. The typical fatty acid composition of the principal vegetable oils and animal fats used for food purposes in the U.. margarines. dairy products. and are used in such products as shortening. sal.g. margarine. is given in Table VII.IX. salad and cooking oils. However. 25 . Visible fats are defined for statistical reporting purposes as those that have been isolated from animal tissues. for foods in which a fat or oil is not the predominant ingredient (e. The ingredient statement of a packaged food product lists the source oils (along with all other ingredients) which are or may be present in the product. PRODUCTS AND OILS General PREPARED FROM FATS A wide variety of products based on edible fats and oils is available to the consuming public.g. poultry. Many of these products also are sold in commercial quantities to food processors.. oilseeds. Genetically modified oils of the future will likely have customized fatty acid composition to meet specific applications. spreads. These comprise the remaining 57% of the fat available for consumption in the U. French.. baked products or snack foods) and for which a manufacturer may wish to substitute one oil for another depending on commodity prices and availability. linolenic) depending on the end use of the oil. the actual source oil used must be shown on the product label. and are consumed as part of the animal tissues or the vegetables in the diet. or vegetable sources. salad dressing. eggs. and institutions. shea nut. These fats and oils comprise about 43% of the total fat available for consumption in the U. illipe..g. bakeries. and other foods (see Table X). and salad oil. and confectioners’ coatings are some of the widely available products that are based entirely on fats and oils or contain fat or oil as a principal ingredient. shortening. The contribution of the major sources of visible fat or oil consumed in this country and the amount of each available for consumption in various food products are provided in Table VI. mayonnaise. Dietary fats have been categorized as “visible” and “invisible” sources of fat. Italian. Current FDA labeling regulations state that if a fat or oil is the predominant ingredient of a food product (e. diet. or margarine)... All ingredients are listed in descending order of predominance. Shortenings. almond.S. but available in some products include rice bran. palmitic) or less polyunsaturates (e. oilseeds.S. snack food manufacturers. oleic acid) to reduce the need for hydrogenation as a stabilizing process. those consumed as part of meat. butter. and other specialty salad dressings. i.S. the manufacturer is permitted to list the alternative oils that may be present.e. salad and cooking oil.S. Other genetically modified oils have less saturates (e. or vegetable sources. The typical fatty acid composition of oils derived from biotechnological means generally tend to be higher in monounsaturates (e. Several vegetable oils of lesser importance in the U.

699 -79 D ----70/71 2.877 319 595 497 D 221 129 90 194 143 ---- Meat Fats Edible Tallow Lard Total Vegetable 5 and Meat Fats 496 509 730 328 498 277 335 266 -154 4 -95 4 -39 4 -33 4 --- --- --- --- 508 1.693 -589 438 --129 -95/96 5..669 11.S.908 14.TABLE VI FATS AND OILS USED IN FOOD (million pounds) Shortening Source Oils: Fiscal Year Vegetable Oils Soybean Canola Corn Cottonseed Palm Coconut Peanut Sunflower 3 3 (Baking and Frying Fats) 70/71 2.666 -217 27 ----90/91 1. safflower) in product categories Source: Economic Research Service of the U.610 -624 555 291 338 119 79 1 80/81 2.077 -D 2 Margarine 70/71 1.280 6.226 -383 382 --105 -90/91 4. Department of Agriculture 26 .702 -82 218 D ---- 90/91 10.g.366 1 2 3 4 5 May include other edible uses besides shortening. avoiding disclosures . margarine.317 211 434 235 --D -70/71 5. and salad and cooking oil D .603 1.811 -195 D ----95/96 1.402 5.599 4. Data on usage in specific product categories unavailable Includes lard and edible tallow.Withheld to avoid disclosing figures for individual companies.491 14.811 3. Components do not add to totals due to rounding.090 -304 272 D ---- 95/96 4.224 5.222 6.722 -1.022 2.780 -403 805 160 220 181 -- Totals 80/81 8.143 777 98 169 129 166 95/96 11.793 5.792 2.288 -202 479 --156 -- Salad and Cooking Oil 80/81 4.168 1.675 -D 132 215 ---- 90/91 4.612 740 415 501 314 341 297 3.381 -188 64 ----80/81 1.197 9. and not including minor oils (e.

bleached. canola and olive oil also are used.S. bleached. much of which includes 27 biotechnology applications. These newer oils include high oleic canola. soybean and sunflower oils. Advanced plant breeding technology. safflower. deodorized. Component fatty acids may not add to 100% due to rounding. sunflower. When soybean oil is processed into salad and cooking oil intended for household use. mid oleic sunflower oil. peanut. 2 3 4 Peanut oil typically contains C22:0 plus C24:0 at 4-5% of total fatty acids. Beef tallow typically contains C15:0 plus C17:0 at about 2% and C14:1 plus C17:1 at about 2% of total fatty acids.g. and linola oil. low linolenic canola and soybean oils. and sometimes dewaxed or lightly hydrogenated and winterized. Fatty acids (designated as number of carbon atoms: number of double bonds) occurring in trace amounts are excluded. and deodorized oil often is suitable. a refined.1 (% of total fatty acids) PALMITOLEIC ARACHIDIC LINOLENIC 18:3 7 1 1 1 10 1 2 2 3 2 1 10 3 1 1 GADOLEIC | | CAPRYLIC MYRISTIC PALMITIC SATURATED | | MONOUNSATURATED Oil or Fat Soybean oil Corn oil Cottonseed oil Palm oil Peanut oil Olive oil Canola oil Safflower oil Sunflower oil Mid oleic sunflower oil Coconut oil Palm kernel oil Cocoa butter Butterfat Lard Beef tallow4 3 2 4:0 6:0 8:0 10:0 12:0 14:0 16:0 11 11 22 45 11 13 4 7 7 4 18:0 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 2 5 5 3 3 34 12 14 19 20:0 16:1 18:1 24 28 19 40 48 20:1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 71 62 13 19 65 6 15 1 8 3 6 4 3 47 48 3 18 16 11 2 3 9 8 26 27 26 24 1 2 3 4 34 29 44 43 4 2 1 1 Fatty acid composition data determined by gas-liquid chromatography and provided by member companies of the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils. This is because under the usual conditions of handling (e. although cottonseed.Table VII TYPICAL FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE PRINCIPAL VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL FATS AND OILS IN THE U. safflower. B. Soybean and corn oil are the principal oils sold in this form. has resulted in a wide variety of new oils that may be used as salad and cooking oils.. Salad and Cooking Oils Salad and cooking oils are prepared from vegetable oils that are refined. Butterfat typically contains C15:0 plus C17:0 at about 3% of total fatty acids. Inc. the LINOLEIC 18:2 54 58 54 10 32 10 22 78 68 26 BUTYRIC CAPROIC STEARIC LAURIC CAPRIC OLEIC POLYUNSATURATED .

Many types of vegetable oils including soybean. C. but are usually made from a blend of two or more hydrogenated fats. As a result the manufacturers of household vegetable shortenings have provided such products containing a polyunsaturated fatty acid range of 3-15%.. The conditions and extent of hydrogenation may be varied for each source oil to achieve the characteristics desired. Thus. in the manufacture of hydrogenated shortenings. . For many years. Lard is sometimes used in commercial applications such as in the baking of pastry and bread. They are used primarily in confectionery and vegetable dairy applications and are generally characterized by a steep melting profile. They are derived from fats like illipe or kokum and fractions of shea. in restaurants). interesterification and fractionation. These products also have been used in some commercial baking and frying applications. Shortenings (Baking and Frying Fats) Shortenings are fats used in the preparation of many foods. such as creamy consistency and good storage stability. corn. They exhibit an extremely limited compatibility with cocoa butter. sunflower. They are highly compatible with cocoa butter. These lightly hydrogenated shortenings usually have polyunsaturated fatty acid contents ranging from 25-50%. Cocoa Butter Equivalents have physicochemical characteristics similar to cocoa butter. considerable flexibility is possible providing a wide choice of finished product characteristics.) Hydrogenated shortenings may be made from a single hydrogenated fat. Liquid shortenings have become increasingly popular among food service facilities over the past two decades due to their desired pourability in replenishing deep fat fryers. lard and other animal fats were the principal edible fats used in shortenings in this country.oil is not reused for cooking) and storage. 2. Hard Butters The term hard butter describes a collection of specialty fats that are designed to either replace or extend cocoa butter (cocoa butter alternatives) and/or butterfat. Mixtures of animal and vegetable fats frequently are hydrogenated to some extent to obtain the physical characteristics desired. Table VIII FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF TYPICAL HOUSEHOLD AND FOOD SERVICE SHORTENINGS Type of Shortening All vegetable fat Animal/vegetable fat blend Monounsaturated 45-65 45-51 % of Total Fatty Acids Polyunsaturated 3-15 3-10 Saturated 22-30 30-50 D. On the other hand. hydrogenation or blending with other oils usually is desirable to improve stability. palm. For example.S. partially hydrogenated cottonseed or palm oil may be blended with partially hydrogenated soybean oil for improved performance properties. Research findings of the past 30 years have suggested the advisability of increasing the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Cocoa Butter Substitutes are predominantly lauric based and may involve processing techniques like hydrogenation. if the oil is intended for use as a cooking oil for applications involving prolonged and repeated heating (e. a by-product of the cotton industry. or sal. Because they impart a “short” or tender quality to baked goods. The composition ranges given for both types of shortening are based on information available for products in broad distribution in the U. Lard and other animal fats and mixtures of animal and vegetable fats also are used in shortening. they are called shortenings. cottonseed. and palm can be used in shortening products. Cocoa butter alternative fats are often placed into one of three categories: 28 1. (See Table VI.g. but during the last third of the nineteenth century they were replaced by cottonseed oil. Table VIII gives the ranges in fatty acid composition for typical household and food service shortening products made from all vegetable fat or from animal/vegetable fat blends. the linolenic acid naturally present in the oil is not highly susceptible to oxidation which might produce undesirable odors and flavors in the oil.

spices.all vegetable 30-55 12-35 . a single hydrogenated fat or a blend of liquid unhydrogenated oil interesterified with a fully saturated fat.4% arachidonic acid.3. liquid and spray forms. vinegar. and other soluble milk solids. Mayonnaise and salad dressing are emulsified.. SPREADS AND BUTTER FAT % of Total Fatty Acids Product Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Stick margarine . G. TABLE IX FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF FATS AND OILS IN TYPICAL MARGARINES. however.g. French). They may be formulated from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. The data for saturated fatty acids include the contributions of C4. The butterfat in the product serves as a plastic matrix enclosing an aqueous phase consisting of water.53.) that have been subjected to partial hydrogenation or a combination of the former and fractionation. cottonseed.0% of the weight of the product. C6. Butterfat. and C10 saturated fatty acids. depending upon the product. salt. and other ingredients complete these products. sugar. Dressings for Food 1. E. seasoning. citric acid. however. seasonings. There is a great variety of products available of varying compositions with a wide range in their oil content. casein. respectively. vinegar and oil) or the emulsified viscous type (e. spices. sugar. semi29 solid fatty foods that by federal regulation must contain not less than 65% and 30% vegetable oil. “diet” margarines and spreads may contain 0-80% fat. tub. flavoring and coloring materials and Vitamins A and D. C8. salt is added at levels from 1.2-0. minerals. lemon or lime juice. the vast preponderance of such products are made from vegetable oils. A federal standard for French dressing requires a vegetable oil content of not less than 35%. like other fats and oils. Some other ingredients that may be used in the preparation of the pourable dressings are salt. These solids usually constitute about 1% of the weight of the butter. which represent about 10% of total fatty acids.g. Butter Butter must contain not less than 80% by weight of butterfat. The fatty acid composition for typical butterfat is given in Tables VII and IX. Italian.all vegetable 30-50 25-45 Butterfat2 25-33 1-4 1 2 Saturated 15-21 29-40 10-19 63-70 Spreads are margarine-like products containing less than 80% fat.. 2. lemon juice. soybean. (Currently the average fat content is 54%. The current interest to reduce caloric intake as a means of weight control has resulted in the introduction of a wide variety . and acidifying agents. Butter is an important source of vitamin A. 3. Margarine and Spreads Margarine and spreads are prepared by blending fats and/or oils with other ingredients such as water and/or milk products. but is characterized by the fact that a substantial portion of the fatty acids are relatively short chain saturated acids. French and Roquefort types are representative of this class. Frequently. emulsifiers. Pourable-Type Dressings. etc. is comprised of triglycerides. blends of two or more hydrogenated fats. Margarine and spreads are available in stick. They can tolerate as much as 25% cocoa butter. The pourable dressings may be two phase (e. such as vinegar. The fat in margarine and spreads may be prepared from a wide variety of fat combinations and may be the result of several processes. suitable edible proteins. Margarine must contain at least 80% fat by federal regulation. and to a lesser extent. Cocoa Butter Replacers are formulated from nonlauric fats (palm.) Butterfat contains about 0. Mayonnaise and Salad Dressing. The more common preparations used include blends of hydrogenated fat(s) and unhydrogenated oils(s). Reduced Calorie Dressings.animal & vegetable 46-52 9-19 Tub Type spreads1 . of vitamin D. Table IX provides the range in fatty acid composition for various types of margarine and spread products currently available in the retail market. Salt. F. and dried whole eggs or egg yolks.

Lipids for Special Nutritional Applications In recent years special lipids referred to as “medium chain triglycerides” (MCT) containing C6 to C10 saturated fatty acids have been used in particular clinical applications. Total 30 per capita fat consumption increased 5.3 pounds during the same time period. Cocoa butter. Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake per capita increased 15% from 1970 to 1994 (27 g/person/day vs.” Other dressings containing less than 0. and hydrogenated coconut oil are used extensively because of their physical characteristics. palm kernel oil. and “other” foods such as coffee whiteners.5 pounds) to 1997 (55. poultry and fish from 42. contained in foods added to the diet) has increased by 16. Certain modifications of MCTs are soluble in both oil and water systems and are metabolized more rapidly than conventional fats and oils.. Lin et al (59). and saturated fatty acid intake decreased by about 15% (61 g/person/day in 1970 vs.” H. X.1 pounds in 1970 vs. During this same time period the per capita consumption of visible fats (i. as well as confectioners’ coatings for soft cakes and candy. coffee whiteners. TRENDS IN FAT CONSUMPTION The trends of food fat consumption (availability) in the U. This increase is probably the result of greater consumption of fried foods in food service establishments and increased use of salad oils on salads consumed both away from and at home. which have been reduced in fat content. 23% and 52% during the same time period.3 pounds in 1997) (Table X). This dietary trend reflects the substitution of vegetable fats for animal fats over the past three decades. In accordance with regulatory standards. Other MCT applications include their use as rapidly available energy sources for patients with intestinal resection or short bowel syndrome and for premature infants.S. and Fat Free Dressings. and party dips. These changes are also reflected in the levels of specific fatty acids in the diet. Whereas conventional fats and oils are absorbed slowly and transported via the lymphatic system.e. . While this trend clearly shows a significant reduction in overall dietary fat. and Other Formulated Foods Vegetable fats are used in a variety of convenience foods such as nondairy toppings. 31 g/person/day).of products containing fewer or no calories. Coffee Whiteners. MCTs are absorbed relatively quickly and transported via the portal system.5% of calories from fat whereas foods eaten away-from-home contributed 37. USDA. The per capita increase in visible fat consumption has been largely the result of increased salad and cooking oil consumption. Baking and frying fats (shortening) experienced a modest increase in per capita consumption of almost 21% between 1970 and 1997. Confectioners Coatings. since 1970 are summarized in Table X. 10. By 1995 foods eaten at home contributed only 31. MCTs have become the standard lipid used in the treatment of various fat malabsorption syndromes.4 pounds) compared to a 27% decrease in animal fats consumption (14. 1998). it indicates away-from-home foods have shown smaller reductions in fat compared to at-home meals. selecting leaner red meat cuts. Reduced Fat.5 gram fat per serving may be described as “fat free” or “containing no fat. In order to satisfy consumer demand for reduced fat foods. and consuming more fish and poultry which contain relatively lower amounts of fat. Toppings. Fats from margarines and spreads. MCTs may be combined in varying proportions with corn oil. dressings containing 3 grams or less fat per serving may be described as “low fat”.6% of calories from fat.8 pounds. or safflower oil. This is thought to be the result of consumers reducing red meat intake. naturally occurring in foods) decreased by 9. “Reduced” calorie products contain at least 25% fewer calories than the conventional products and are achieved primarily by substituting carbohydrates and water for fat. 52 g/person/day in 1994) (ERS. Most of the decline in invisible fats consumption has been attributable to a decrease in fat consumed in meat. I. vegetable fats experienced a 44% increase in per capita consumption from 1970 (38.0 pounds while that of invisible fats (i. found that in 1977-78 fat from both home and away-from-home foods provided 41% of calories consumed. The increasing consumption of foods away from the home is significantly affecting the intake of certain nutrients. soybean oil.2 pounds over the period 1970 to 1994. Low Fat. butter.. monounsaturated fatty acid intake experienced little change. the food industry has developed a wide array of dressings. Because of their unique ability to pass through the intestinal epithelium directly into the portal system. Among visible fats in the diet. particularly fat. In certain liquid formula diets and intravenous fluids.e.8 to 31. confections and non-dairy toppings have all experienced respective reductions in per capita consumption of 21%. 4. whereas a dressing containing 25% less fat than the conventional dressing may be declared as “reduced fat.

7 31. Direct use.4 26.7 1.5 1.2 11.8 60.0 57.5 8. cocoa.2 2.0 1.4 2.9 2.1 1. Fats deliberately discarded not accounted for in these data Source: Economic Research Service U.6 13. Nuts. animal/vegetable blends).6 9.8 1.3 3.2 37.6 Invisible Fats (naturally occuring)7 Dairy Products (excluding butter) Eggs Meat.3 9.9 22.6 56.0 ------------ ------------ ------------ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Components may not add to totals due to rounding.8 1.8 63.1 54.8 3.e.1 3.4 10.7 2.5 66.4 1993 3.7 55.9 15.9 55.5 1. Fish Fruits and Vegerables Legumes.9 2.6 7.2 68.7 30.3 14.3 26.3 1.9 52.0 2.6 11.6 2.6 1975 3.2 24. Includes confections.S. coffee whiteners.3 55.5 7.9 1996 3.6 3. Poultry.5 2.1 10.6 1980 3.3 14.7 4.0 2.2 1.2 5.4 20.7 3.0 8.9 0.1 26.8 1.8 15.2 9.4 128.2 1. Includes indirect use of edible tallow and lard (I.7 15.7 65.3 15.4 125.2 25.2 123.6 3.8 1.6 1.2 15.8 57.7 70.4 65.9 49.9 1.9 23.2 21.2 1994 3.6 -17.0 2.6 2.2 49.6 1.1 61.4 9.5 42.8 2.4 12.6 11.8 41.7 2.3 1. tea and spices.7 22.9 28.0 131.8 14.6 1995 3.7 1.2 1985 3.3 4.4 64.3 Lard4 Edible Tallow4.7 65.6 1.1 62.1 39.6 55.3 44.1 26.0 61.4 2.3 50.3 4.9 8..8 61.1 4. Soy Grains Miscellaneous8 (Total Fat Content) Animal Source Vegetable Source Total Invisible Fats Total Visible and Invisible Fats and Oils9 15.7 31.9 2.5 11.3 1.3 4.1 15.4 1992 3. Includes chocolate.1 38.4 2.5 26.7 10.2 1.8 8.3 1.8 1.5 22.7 11.6 130.9 37.9 7.4 129.3 71. Data for direct use of edible tallow not available prior to 1979.3 55.4 11.9 3.5 52.7 117.8 8.9 1.5 12.7 122.2 1.2 -17.7 8.8 2.7 2.8 1.7 3.9 2.3 4.7 1.9 3.1 48.6 1.5 59.4 22.8 8.6 30.6 3.7 65.4 24.9 2.6 33.8 67.8 2.1 4.3 126.3 2.7 2.7 53.4 57.4 22.8 10.8 1.3 3. Department of Agriculture 31 .1 1.9 64.8 66.8 1991 3.7 2.3 1990 3. coffee.0 10.8 2.5 1.9 15.8 1.0 51.4 27.TABLE X CONSUMPTION (AVAILABILITY) OF VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE FATS (1970-1997)1 (pounds per person) Sources by Food Group Visible Fats (added fats) Butter2 Margarine and Spreads2.3 2. Data for invisible fat not available after 1994.9 9. and non-dairy toppings.6 61.0 22.2 4.3 6.3 8.6 11.8 1997 3.5 Baking and Frying Fats (shortening) Salad and Cooking Oils Other6 (Total Fat Content) Animal Source Vegetable Source Total Visible Fats 1970 4. Fat Content.0 17.9 2.1 18.0 49.

1 32. 1 DAY. FAT. TABLE XI NUTRIENT INTAKES: MEAN PERCENTAGES OF CALORIES FROM PROTEIN..6 Females: 20 and over 36. Concurrently. Inc.5 52.Percent of calories -----------------------------------Males: 20 and over 33. CONCLUSION This booklet has reviewed a broad scope of topics including the importance of dietary fat as an essential nutrient and the usage of fats and oils in a variety of food products.1 1 Total population surveyed = 5. 138.2 6.1 12. the report shows that in 1966 only one-third of the visible fat available was from animal origin while two-thirds was from vegetable origin.2 11. Prices.8 33.Data presented in Agricultural Economic Report No. the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils. As a service to the professional communities. 32 .2 12. AND CARBOHYDRATE. In contrast to this.4 32. In 1997 this trend continued further and vegetable oils now contribute about 95% of the visible fat available for consumption (see Table X).6 12. “Food Consumption. Since around 1940 animal fats have gone from a very predominant to a very subordinate position as far as their contribution to the visible fat portion of the diet is concerned. The amount of fat actually consumed currently is about 33% of total calories (see Table XI). 19961 Percentage Sex and age of Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated (years) population Protein fat fatty acids fatty acids fatty acids Carbohydrate Percent --------------------------------------.188 individuals. vegetable oils have advanced from a very subordinate to a very dominant position.8 15. Here again.7 11. Source: reference (1) XI.” July 1968. Expenditures.8 6. the data are based upon the quantity of fats and oils available for consumption by the civilian population.5 6.2 10. intends to revise this publication as needed to keep the information as current and useful as possible. showed that on a per capita basis about twothirds of the visible fat available in 1940 was from animal origin and about one-third from vegetable origin.9 52.00 15. BY SEX AND AGE.6 49.7 All Individuals 100.9 15. Much research continues on the role of dietary fat in relation to health.

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The configuration of two adjacent carbon atoms with dual linkage between the carbons. The process that removes phosphatide compounds from crude oils prior to refining. odor and color. green coloring agent vital to a plant’s photosynthesis process which is removed from vegetable oils through bleaching and refining processes. The process of subjecting oil to high temperatures in the presence of a vacuum to remove trace volatile components that may affect flavor. drugs and other products. cream centers. It is generally the last step in the refining process. Polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibiting pairs of unsaturated carbons not separated by at least one saturated carbon. The addition of antioxidants to fats or foods containing them retards rancidity and increases stability and shelf life. A material which accelerates a chemical reaction without becoming part of the reaction products. The oil product obtained from the initial extraction. A broad range of fats used in the formulation of sweet goods such as candy bars. A natural. The term applied to a geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms comprising the double bond are on the same side of the carbon chain. bakery product coatings. The use of living organisms or other biological systems to develop food. generally through the use of an adsorbent clay material. The ester resulting from the chemical combination of glycerol and two fatty acids. The purification process to remove color bodies and residual impurities from refining. 36 Bleaching Biotechnology Catalyst Cholesterol Chlorophyll Cis Complex triglyceride Confectionery fat Conjugated fatty acids Crude oil Degumming Deodorization Diglyceride Double bond . and granola bars. A triglyceride where one or two fatty acid structures differ from the third fatty acid.Glossary Antioxidant A substance that slows or interferes with the reaction of a fat or oil with oxygen. A fat-soluble sterol found primarily in animal cells important in physiological processes. crushing or expelling of an animal or vegetable source.

Emulsifier Compounds having the ability to alter the surface properties of the materials they contact. A generic term used primarily in the confectionery industry to describe a class of fats with physical characteristics similar to those of cocoa butter or dairy butter. higher solid fat content and longer shelf life without rancidity in fatcontaining products. This process results in higher melt points. The fatty acids in a fat which are not chemically bound to glycerol molecules. The chemical reaction product of an alcohol and an acid. will ignite for a period of at least five seconds. when heated under prescribed conditions. Products containing hydrogenated fats include “heavy duty” frying fats for restaurant use. solid shortenings and solid margarines. (2) naturally occurring color bodies such as chlorophyll (bleach). The temperature at which an oil sample. The temperature at which an oil sample. The process of separating fats and oils by differences in melt points or volatility. Ester Esterification Fat Fatty Acid Fully refined oil Fire point Flash point Fractionation Free fatty acids Fully hydrogenated Geometric isomer Hard butter Hydrogenation 37 . Emulsifiers are often used to disperse immiscible liquids such as water and oil or fats in products such as mayonnaise. An isomer differing because of the structural location of certain elements. flavor and odor (deodorize). The process of chemically combining an alcohol and an acid resulting in the formation of an ester. will flash when a flame is passed over the surface of the oil. hydrogen and oxygen which is the fundamental unit within a triglyceride fat molecule. when heated under prescribed conditions. A chemical unit composed of a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms ending with a reactive group consisting of carbon. Esters of fatty acids and glycerol which are normally solid at room temperature. The term used to describe an oil which has been subjected to extensive processing methods to remove: (1) free fatty acids and other gross impurities (refine). and (3) volatile trace components which may affect color. The term describing a fat or oil which has been hydrogenated to the extent that the resultant product is solid at room temperature. The process of adding hydrogen atoms to the carbon-to-carbon double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids. ice cream and salad dressings.

phosphatides and fatty acids. positional or cyclic. The process of rearranging the fatty acids in triglyceride molecules. Oils containing 40-50% lauric acids (C-12) in combination with other relatively low molecular weight fatty acids. 38 Iodine value Isomer Lauric oils Lecithin Lipid Lipoprotein Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) Monoglyceride Monounsaturated Non-conjugated fatty acids Oil Oleate Olein Olean (olestra) Oxidation . The liquid fraction of oil remaining when an oil is cooled. It is used principally in confectionery fats and spreads to maintain solid fat content at ambient temperatures while lowering the melting point. A fatty acid containing only one pair of carbon – carbon double bonds. The reaction of oxygen with a fat or oil resulting in the development of rancidity. Coconut and palm kernel oils are principal examples. e. It is determined by measuring the amount of iodine which reacts with a natural or processed fat under prescribed conditions.and triglycerides. A sucrose fatty acid polyester used as a substitute for dietary fat which is not digested or absorbed by the body. Triglycerides containing fatty acid chains of 6-10 carbon atoms which are readily absorbed by the body. sterols. A mixture of naturally occurring phosphatides which has emulsifying. Commonly referenced as a preparation containing oleic acid as the principal ingredient.g. a principal source of which is crude soybean oil. The ester resulting from the combination of glycerol and one fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibiting pairs of carbons separated by at least one saturated carbon atom. Esters of fatty acids and glycerol which normally are liquid at room temperature.Hydrolysis Interesterification The chemical reaction of fat with water to form glycerol and free fatty acids. An ester or salt of oleic acid. Any of the class of proteins that contain a lipid combined with a simple protein. An expression of the degree of unsaturation of a fat. di. Compounds containing the same elements in the same proportions which can exist in more than one structural form. A broad spectrum of fat and fat-like compounds including mono-. geometric. wetting and antioxidant properties.

The process of creating a solid crystal structure in a fat or oil product resulting in a smooth appearance and firm consistency. The solid fat product created by fractionation. hydrated gums. beta and beta prime. oil and other impurities. 39 Peroxides Phosphatide Plasticize Polymerize Polymorphism Polyunsaturated Positional isomer Refine Saponification Saturated Shortening Simple triglyceride Soap Soap stock Stearine Stearic acid Sterol Tocopherol . The bonding of similar molecules into long chains or branched structures. identified as alpha. It may carry other additives such as flavorings. An isomer differing in the location of a double bond. The product resulting from the treatment of fat with an alkali. The chemical reaction between a fat or oil and an alkaline compound creating glycerol and soap. synonymous with phospholipid. A fatty acid containing no carbon-carbon double bonds.Partially hydrogenated The term used to describe an oil which has been lightly to moderately hydrogenated to shift the melting point to a higher temperature range and increase the stability of the oil. The property of a fat molecules to exist in multiple crystalline structures.. Partially hydrogenated oils remain liquid and are used in a wide variety of food applications. The intermediate compounds formed during the oxidation of lipids which may react further to form the compounds that can cause rancidity. The chemical combination of an alcohol (typically glycerol) with phosphoric acid and a nitrogen compound. bakery products)in which it is used.g. A fat product that incorporates tenderness in the food (e. A saturated 18-carbon free fatty acid. The process of removing impurities from crude oil by way of treatment with alkali solution (chemical) or steam stripping (physical). an 8-10-carbon side chain and an alcohol group. A compound made up of the sterol nucleus. A fatty acid containing more than one pair of carbon-carbon double bonds. A triglyceride comprised of three identical fatty acids. water. The aqueous byproduct from the chemical refining operation that is comprised of soap. colors. A naturally occurring antioxidant found in many vegetable oils. emulsifiers and preservatives.

the more stable the product is to oxidation. Triglyceride Unsaturated Wax Winterize COMMON TEST METHODS AND RELATED TERMS Cold test Color. The chemical combination of a long chain alcohol and fatty acids. The temperature at which a solid fat softens to the point where it will flow and drop out of a specially designed container.Trans A geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where hydrogens attached to the carbons comprising the double bond are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. Provides an index or indication of the proportions of crystallized and molten fat at a given series of temperature checkpoints. The chemical combination product of glycerol and three fatty acids. Determined by measuring the change in volume that occurs when a solid fat partially melts to liquid at the temperature of interest. A sensory description experienced in taste testing of a fat or oil. The process of separating the solid fraction (stearine) from the liquid fraction (olein) of an oil by cooling and filtering. The higher the index number. The carbon-hydrogen make-up of a fatty acid describing a shortage of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. 40 Flavor Free fatty acid (FFA) Melting point (MP) Oil stability index (OSI) Peroxide value (PV) Solid fat index (SFI) Solid fat content (SFC) . An accelerated rancidity test that measures the rate of oxidation of a fat or oil and is expressed as an index number. The dropping point is an indication of the chemical and crystalline nature of the solid fat. The temperature at which a fat changes from solid to liquid within the specific parameters of the test. The determination of the extent of fat or oil oxidation by measuring the amount of peroxides present. Lovibond Dropping point The determination in time that an oil remains free of visible solids when immersed in a 32ºF ice-water bath. The amount of free fatty acids present in an oil as determined by simple titration. A bland or neutral flavor is generally desirable. at a given temperature. An analytical method used to quantify the visual color of an oil in units of red and yellow. This method replaces the Active Oxygen Method (AOM). A measure of the crystallized fat content measured by magnetic resonance (NMR) at a series of temperature checkpoints.

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