Publication date: October 2009


This survey was compiled for CBI by Searce Disclaimer CBI market information tools : http://www.cbi.eu/disclaimer

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Report summary
This survey profiles the EU market for domestic or household furniture both in finished and semi-finished form. The items covered are made of wood, metal, iron, plastic/synthetic material, glass, cane, osier, bamboo, other materials or a combination of different materials. Consumption The EU is the largest furniture market in the world. Total EU27 consumption was € 80.1 billion in 2008. Average consumption per capita was € 161, with Austria, Luxembourg and Scandinavian countries spending most on furniture. After strong increases in 2007, consumption decreased in 2008 due to the global economic slowdown. An average annual increase in consumption of 1.1% between 2004 and 2008, from € 76.8 billion, included falls in some of the more mature markets, but significant increases by other countries, particularly new Member States. The end of the house building boom coincided with the falling market in 2008. Kitchen furniture sales have developed strongly as this has become a more focal part of the home, and the changing use of the home, particularly the home office trend, has further stimulated sales. Media coverage of interior design and home improvement has also continued. Future value sales will be mainly driven by: • Growing importance of the home as a place to spend time and changing use of different spaces within the home. • The impact of technology within the home and the demand for more comfort. • The impact of fashion in interior design coupled with frequent replacement of furniture. • Multi-functional furniture items for small rooms, home office and for children’s rooms. • Small and practical furniture focused on singles and on young people living at home. Production In 2008, the turnover of almost 100,000 EU27 furniture manufacturers was valued at € 73.7 billion, of which an estimated 75% was wooden furniture. Between 2004 and 2008, EU furniture production increased by 0.9% per annum, but most countries experienced large decreases in 2008 as export markets disappeared in the wake of the global economic slowdown. Much EU production has been outsourced to other Member States in Eastern Europe, as well as to other countries, particularly in Asia, but Europe still accounts for over 37% of global production. Employment in the industry continues to fall, due to new technologies being introduced. Kitchen furniture and upholstered seating were the largest product groups in terms of production. The leading producer countries were Italy and Germany. Poland is increasingly important. Some major trends in EU production were: • More e-commerce throughout the supply chain. • Developments in market access outside of the EU. • Consideration of developing an eco-label. • More vertical integration, particularly up the supply chain. • Greater co-operation between producers and sharing of skills and expertise. • Growing importance of design at home and outsourcing of production. Trade channels Most furniture is supplied from manufacturers through importers/wholesalers or directly purchased by the large retailers. In 2008, there were 125,000 furniture retail outlets in the EU, with around 450,000 employees. Furniture retailing has become more diversified with many types of outlets, varying from those stocking a special style of furniture to those carrying a wide range of products with related accessories. Specialist furniture retailers represented 80% of total EU furniture sales. Small furniture shops are still strongly represented in Italy, Spain and the new Member States, whereas franchised, chain stores and buying groups are dominant in France, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands. Distribution is continuing to fragment, with a greater share increasingly being taken by nonspecialists e.g. DIY stores, hypermarkets and department stores. In addition, the Internet is starting to become more influential in purchasing decisions. There is already much downward price pressure on furniture retailers, and this trend further accentuates this situation.
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Imports The EU is the second largest importing region, after NAFTA (USA, Canada, Mexico). However, it is the largest when allowing for intra-EU imports, representing a total of 11.4 million tonnes valued at € 32.4 billion. Germany was the largest EU importing country and represented 21% of all EU imports by value (19% by volume). Between 2004 and 2008, EU27 domestic furniture imports increased by an average 2.4% in value and 1% in volume. Of the leading countries, Austria, Germany and the UK were below the average increase, the rest were above. Furniture parts, valued at € 11.4 billion, was the largest group of imports by value and volume. Upholstered seating was the next largest by value. It grew from € 4.6 to € 5.4 billion between 2004 and 2008. Other furniture was the next largest group, valued at € 4 billion, although this figure may be understated as no data was available for other metal or plastic furniture. These three groups represented two thirds of all imports. In 2008, 70% of EU imports came from other EU countries. The leading supplier to the EU was Germany (14%), closely followed by Italy and Poland. Extra-EU (excluding developing) countries reduced their exports to the EU by an annual average of 28% over the period and accounted for less than 4% of furniture supplies to the EU in 2008. This was partly explained by new countries joining the EU. In 2008, EU furniture imports from developing countries were 3.4 million tonnes, worth € 8.5 billion. Between 2004 and 2008, the share from developing countries in total EU furniture imports rose from 21% to 26% in value and from 24% to 30% in volume. 60% of rattan imports came from developing countries, and half of all non-upholstered seating. The significance of China continues to grow. In 2008, it accounted for € 4.6 billion of imports (14% of all imports and 55% of developing country imports by value), up by an annual average of 17% since 2004. In volume terms, it represented 18% of all imports or 2 million tonnes (59% of developing country imports), up by an annual average of 12% since 2004. Exports Between 2004 and 2008, EU exports increased by an annual average of 1.4% in value from € 32.7 to € 34.5 billion and by 0.9% in volume from 10.2 to 10.5 million tonnes. Much of this was due to significant increases particularly by Poland, Greece, Slovakia and Lithuania. Italy was the largest exporter, accounting for 22% of all EU exports. Three quarters of exports were intra-EU exports. Germany received 18% of these exports. The USA, Switzerland and Russia were the largest recipients outside of the EU. Furniture parts was clearly the largest product group, representing € 12.2 billion, or 36% of all exports by value in 2008, followed by upholstered seating exports. Opportunities for exporters from developing countries Changes in consumption patterns for furniture offer opportunities. The market for selfassembly furniture is growing in certain segments, but exporters also need to ensure that designs are innovative and take note of fashion changes in furniture. The increase in smaller homes is also an opportunity for DC exporters. The demand for smaller-sized furniture items also encourages good value products to be shipped from overseas. Solid woods are becoming more popular instead of veneers and laminates. Importers are looking for new types of solid wood, similar to light oak, cherry or darker woods. Bamboo has become a popular material especially in eco-design furniture, as it grows very quickly. Bamboo is sometimes combined with polystyrene and aluminium that can be recycled. There are good opportunities for such eco-design furniture concepts. Contemporary furniture styles now dominate the market. The emphasis is on quality, flexibility and value. However, it is important that the item retains its authenticity by using special woods, materials, designs, skills in terms of craftsmanship or in finish. New furniture items are also more in demand due to the growing use of technology in the home. This creates demand for new items such as kitchen cabinets and storage units.

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This CBI market survey profiles the domestic furniture market in the EU. The emphasis of this survey lies on those products, which are of importance to developing country suppliers. The role of and opportunities for developing countries are highlighted. This market survey discusses the following product groups: • Upholstered seating • Non-upholstered seating • Dining and living room furniture • Kitchen furniture • Bedroom furniture • Home office furniture • Other furniture • Furniture parts For detailed information on the selected product groups please consult Appendix A. More information about the EU can be found in Appendix B. CBI market surveys covering the market in specific EU countries, specific product(group)s or documents on market access requirements can be downloaded from the CBI website. For information on how to make optimal use of the CBI market surveys and other CBI market information, please consult ‘From survey to success - export guidelines’. All information can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.eu/marketinfo Go to ‘Search CBI database’ and select your market sector and the EU.

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Market size

Despite significant falls in the market values of the EU and NAFTA regions, global sales of domestic furniture broadly maintained their value due to increases elsewhere in the world. Global sales valued approximately € 220 billion in 2008, of which the EU was the largest area, accounting for € 80 billion or 36% of the global market. This was followed closely by the NAFTA zone (USA, Canada and Mexico) with combined sales of € 78 billion, Asia with € 50 billion and Latin America € 5 billion. Within Asia, China accounted for 45% and Japan accounted for 30% of sales. Brazil represented two thirds of all sales in Latin America. Per capita consumption of € 161 in the EU was lower than the NAFTA zone, which was closer to € 180. This compared with consumption in Latin America of approximately € 8 per capita. The EU figure hides wide differences between countries, ranging from € 301 in Austria to € 38 in Poland. 10% of the value (14% of the volume) of EU sales came from extra-EU imports. Global demand will increase further in 2009, despite the economic slowdown. This increase is primarily driven by increasing affluence in emrging markets in Asia and Latin America, but also by population increases, particularly in Asia. Growth should be even stronger in 2010 as the EU and NAFTA economies emerge from the global financial crisis. Table 1.1 EU consumption of domestic furniture 2004-2008, € million
2004 €m 2006 €m 2008 €M Ave annual % change
Population Consumption Households

Total 76,760 79,889 80,111 1.1 Germany 18,938 19,156 18,415 -0.7 Italy 13,394 13,499 13,356 -0.1 United Kingdom 10,259 10,865 10,553 0.7 France 8,575 9,016 9,641 3.0 Spain 5,951 6,430 6,346 1.6 Netherlands 3,502 3,706 3,625 0.9 Austria 2,308 2,439 2,502 2.0 Sweden 2,184 2,235 2,427 2.7 Belgium 2,011 2,166 2,198 2.2 Greece 1,399 1,462 1,520 2.1 Poland 1,280 1,318 1,460 3.3 Finland 1,083 1,244 1,389 6.4 Denmark 1,200 1,230 1,323 2.5 Portugal 1,219 1,250 1,223 0.1 Romania 740 830 987 7.5 Czech Republic 562 622 668 4.4 Ireland 549 625 584 1.5 Hungary 449 511 513 3.4 Bulgaria 264 302 344 6.8 Slovakia 175 190 212 4.9 Slovenia 171 190 204 4.5 Luxembourg 121 132 135 2.8 Lithuania 102 116 121 4.4 Estonia 93 108 111 4.5 Latvia 97 110 110 3.2 Cyprus 87 92 97 2.7 Malta 47 45 47 0.0 Source: Euromonitor, Mintel, National Trade Associations, Trade

per capita € 496.3 161 82.3 224 59.4 225 61.0 173 63.6 152 44.9 141 16.4 221 8.3 301 9.1 267 10.6 207 11.2 136 38.1 38 5.3 262 5.5 241 10.6 115 21.5 46 10.3 65 4.4 133 10.1 51 7.7 45 5.4 39 2.0 102 0.5 270 3.4 36 1.3 85 2.3 48 0.8 121 0.4 117 Estimates (2009)


(000’s) 206,303 39,122 26,400 26,750 27,045 15,600 7,091 3,410 4,279 4,502 3,800 13,865 2,452 2,548 3,730 6,820 4,574 1,430 4,260 2,360 2,045 750 195 1,320 627 930 250 148

Occupants per h/h 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.8 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.8 2.8 2.1 2.2 2.8 3.2 2.3 2.9 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.6 3.2 2.7

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the trend away from traditional dining suites continues. It is also underpinned by a higher priority to interior design here than elsewhere. whereas the French market has experienced above average growth over the period.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU The EU market for domestic furniture shrank by approximately 2% in 2008. Demand for furniture has been sustained by increasing living standards. Some homes combine living rooms with dining areas. their combined value was € 58. compared to the positive performance in 2007. Many dining rooms are now used as a workspace. The German and Italian markets were lower in 2008 than 2004. but it fell significantly in 2008. Changes in the use of the home (see later section on trends) will also have a significant impact on the type of products purchased in the future. sofas have become more comfortable and possess additional functions. but quality selfassembly functional dining room furniture at lower prices is improving. even though it may not have worn out. The Scandinavian countries have also performed well above the EU average. However in the longer term this group will benefit from delayed demand. It is the main place in the home for socialising and communication.eu/disclaimer Page 6 of 52 . Romania and Bulgaria. Slovakia was also growing strongly. movable arms and reclining features. The living room tends to be the most important room in the house for most people. over the review period between 2004 and 2008. For example with living room furniture. the UK.eu • www. Sofas are heavily used and a sometimes replaced when people prefer something new. in some homes.cbi. This is helped by the growing choice in types and styles of tables. Consumption by product group The economic downturn has affected the different product groups. The continuing strength of this part of the EU is underpinned by a strong design reputation in the manufacture of furniture. Lower levels of per capita consumption suggest that future growth opportunities will exist in many of these countries. media interest in home interiors and a wider choice of furniture styles on sale in a wider range of retail outlets. the dining table is returning as eating and entertaining at home have become more important. Italy. or 73% or the total. This has increased from € 4. particularly the Finnish market. This compared with a market value of € 57. primarily as this market was less exposed to the difficulties of 2008 than many other countries. In dining room furniture. This area has some of the highest per capita levels of consumption. as homes are getting smaller. France and Spain – dominated the EU market. Nevertheless.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. when the market value reached € 81. but those products in the mid- Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. a house-building boom around much of the EU. Leather is a popular material due to its durability. the market still registered an annual average increase in value of 1. Older consumers still prefer to eat at a table in a more formal way. However. depending on the type of people living in the home. Other uses are made of this space. Growth clusters The value of the 12 most recent new Member States was € 4. consumers have cut back on large value items such as sofas. as well as higher furniture prices. In 2008.7 billion.1 billion in 2004. Nevertheless. More technology in sofas and chairs includes holders for drinks and platforms for laptops.1%. representing over 74% of the EU27 total. The top five countries – Germany. particularly formal suites of a traditional style.1% of the total EU market.3% of the market.9 billion in 2008.1 billion in 2004 or 5. such as adjustable heights. or 6. Lower priced self-assembly tables (and chairs) tend to be more contemporary in style. Other homes combine the kitchen with the dining area. Dining has become more casual and families tend not to sit down together for formal meals. The market in Spain was also growing strongly up to 2007.cbi. Many purchases were made on credit and now consumers are unwilling or unable to take out credit. The largest increases were experienced in the newest countries. which is supported by local consumers here.3 billion.

4 billion. Other furniture also includes the home office segment. the category ‘other furniture’ is very broad and will include many items that are part of the other categories. consumers are using other tables or surfaces in the house rather than investing in a specific home office desk. many consumers are demanding some form of customisation in design to make it reflect their own style and design tastes. bedroom furniture was € 11. shelving units and furniture for storage. valued at € 80.5 billion. as it now fits any space. Men are also attracted by the number of hi-tech gadgets that are now found in many kitchens. ash. The kitchen has grown in importance. and other small pieces of occasional furniture such as side tables. no matter how restricting or unusual.eu • www. Some consumers have been buying individual kitchen cabinets.7 billion. However. as the kitchen is an important room. the bedroom has become the main living area. alder. ‘upholstered seating’ is a product group which in consumer terms is usually part of living room furniture. Alternatively. while dining room furniture has been decreasing. New designs in home office furniture are more compatible with other furniture within the home.cbi. Low sideboards are becoming fashionable again in some households. This is partly due to an increase in the number of men who like to cook.1 billion was broken down. as storage space has to be maximised.eu/disclaimer Page 7 of 52 . as it is less likely to be on public view at home. as well as open. what constitutes ‘other furniture’ will vary from country to country. Upholstered furniture was valued at € 21. but also because of their storage capabilities. while others buy freestanding units because of their flexibility. It is where they communicate with their friends. Nevertheless. cherry or tulip. Shelving has become more intelligent. Bedroom furniture is largely a replacement market. In the bedroom a similar trend is occurring as in other rooms in the house. It has developed both horizontally and vertically. Consumers will trade down on this sort of furniture. However for younger people. In addition.cbi. maple. landings and bathrooms. kitchen furniture was valued at € 17.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. See the individual country reports for further detail. consumers will trade down in difficult economic times. Furniture in the kitchen has to be well designed. There is more demand for freestanding items because of their flexibility. It is a room where high expenditures can be involved. which makes a statement about the homeowner’s lifestyle. The bedroom provides a relaxing environment as well as a place to sleep. Here. Some countries combine figures for living room and dining room furniture. These figures hide wide differences between countries in terms of the relative size of each product group. It is not directly linked to the fortunes of the housing market. Individual items such as bedside tables or small wardrobes are being purchased rather than larger investments in entire suites. A similar principle applies to bathroom furniture. kitchen furniture has suffered due to the fall in the housing market and lack of consumer confidence in spending large sums of money. Most have a TV and a computer in their bedroom. It is changing from the place where meals are prepared to a more sociable room. including oak. dining and living room furniture was € 20.6 billion. sometimes as design statements. pine. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. More men are becoming interested in kitchen design. Future changes will see a closer integration of the bedroom and bathroom as the importance of this as a private space increases.1 shows how the EU market. After years of strong growth. Many young people also eat in their bedroom. Broadly speaking the markets for upholstered furniture and kitchen furniture have been increasing.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU market made of natural wood are demanded in a variety of woods. Other furniture includes furniture in halls. This has slowed but continues to grow as the number of people working from home increases. for example.9 billion and other furniture was valued at € 8. some choose to wait and buy a complete new kitchen suite. Consumers prefer to delay making a purchase rather than trade down. Figure 1. where individual cabinets continue to be purchased rather than making an investment in a new bathroom suite. birch. In addition.

Using an EU average figure will hide important differences between countries. 1. At the other end of the age spectrum. Consumers are prepared to hold onto old. damaged or worn out furniture for some time. It is used widely in the trade. Moving home is one of the main triggers for purchasing new furniture.9% Ki tchen 21. while middle-aged consumers are more likely to purchase more expensive furniture. the differences Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. The following Table 1. It highlights the differences between men and women. As consumers have stopped moving home. the presence of children in a home and their age will determine whether there will be demand for children’s bedroom furniture. • Demographic segmentation The composition of a household is usually a good indicator of the type of furniture that is purchased. there are much fewer first time buyers coming to the market. The downturn has also affected the housing market across Europe. In particular.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Figure 1. % value.1 EU domestic furniture consumption by product group. This is a bouyant segment as it changes more frequently than furniture in adult bedrooms. Two other forms of segmentation are illustrated here to highlight the benefit of looking more closely at different consumer types.2 illustrates the importance of demographic segmentation in the UK.eu • www. with more traditional or classic design styles.2 Market segmentation The most commonly used means of segmenting the market is by room. Each country has its own demographic characteristics. These consumers usually own no furniture and normally represent the group that purchases most new furniture. Furniture is one of the product groups that consumers find easiest to defer if their budgets are restricted. The bright spot is that as this downturn has now lasted for over one year. 2008 Other 10.cbi.7% Bedroom 14.7% Source: Eurostat (2009) Market outlook The downturn in this market experienced in 2008 will deteriorate further in 2009 as the global economic downturn has had a major impact on consumer confidence and spending power.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. For example. but not indefinately. This should mean that once the economic recovery is more certain that sales should return quite strongly. retired people are less interested in replacing furniture.eu/disclaimer Page 8 of 52 .8% Di ning & Livi ng 25. young couples will more likely buy contemporary but lower priced furniture. partly because furniture retailers tend to present furniture ranges in the context of where they will be used by building ‘room sets’ so that consumers will more easily visualise how the item of furniture will appear.9% Uphol stered 26.cbi. Other demographic variables are also strong indicators of furniture demand. This form of segmentation is best used on a country by country basis. In addition. this source of purchase has disappeared. there will be demand building up.

stone. using natural woods. as described in this chapter. They are ranged from classic to modern and some of them show combinations of styles. aged 35+. Furniture styles are usually classified as follows. using the finest wood. o Minimalist – minimal expression. also known as designer furniture. solid and neutral colours. Asian and African. polished. exotic materials. textures. wide variety of materials. % Clever storage that maximises space All Male Female 16-34 years 35-64 years 62 53 71 52 68 Built-in lighting in units & over worktops 42 39 45 38 45 Made from natural materials (eg wood. The key groups that prefer kitchen furniture made from natural materials are ABC1s aged 35+. ABC1 households with children. quite sophisticated and based on the latest trends. colonial. skilled manual workers. while people who live in the countryside may have a preference for rustic styles. D=18% of the population. o Rustic – inspired by the country. straight lines. simple and practical forms.2 Features important when choosing a new kitchen in the UK. engraved. E=10% of the population. product of interpreting what is happening in the world. 2009. straight lines. This helps manufacturers to determine the best prospects for different kitchen types.eu • www. Hence the key demographic groups for clever storage and for built-in lighting in units are women. C2=21% of the population. WiFi. non-western. senior and middle management. and photographic examples of some of these styles can be seen at the end of this section: o Classical – inspired by traditional decoration. multifunctional. For example. exotic. You may expect older consumers to have a greater preference for traditional or classic designs of furniture. unemployed or otherwise dependent on the state. granite) 34 33 34 28 37 Units with built-in stroage organisers 33 28 39 25 38 Units with built-in entertainment (TV.cbi. functional. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. often ostentatious.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. professional. junior management and non-manual workers. panelled.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU between age groups. much use of pine. with little treatment or elaboration. without accessories. Simple and unaffected style. combinations of materials. large scale. you may expect that younger consumers may be more interested in modern furniture. only the essential. much metal and glass. and the differences between different social classes in terms of the features which are important when choosing a new kitchen. C1=28% of the population. highly decorated. ceramic and other materials. DVD) 11 11 11 14 9 ABC1s* 65 44 37 34 10 C2DEs 56 39 27 32 12 Source: Mintel (2009) * AB=23% of population. Table 1. • Segmentation by style of furniture The above consumer groups also have preferences for different styles of furniture. o Avant guard – representing the latest fashion. colourful. carved. o High-tech – free style. rococco. Photographs The photographs on the following pages show the different kinds of interiors typical to each furniture style. natural wood as well as natural fibres. semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers. special refinements by the craftsman making it.cbi. o Ethnic – oriental. o Modern – simple. o Natural – basic forms. rounded corners and edges. great diversity in forms.eu/disclaimer Page 9 of 52 . exhuberant.

Colonial style (Textile couch with leather chair & pouf) 4.cbi. Country style (Dark wooden kitchen in bright open living) 6.eu/disclaimer Page 10 of 52 . Classic style (Couch mixed with metal table & leather chair) 2. Country-romantic style (Whitewash/Upholstered seats & wicker chairs) 5.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 1. Contemporary style (Children’s favourite colour with fantasy prints) Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.eu • www.cbi.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Colonial style (Dark wooden bed & cabinet and white pouf) 3.

cbi. Contemporary – Modern style (Open structure and open shelving) 11. Contemporary style (Open living space) 10. Contemporary style (Multi-functional chairs in fashionable colours) 9.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Contemporary style (Dark wooden bed with subtle decorations) 8.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 7.eu • www. Modern style (Integrated furniture and integrated woods) Photo courtesy: Imm/Cosmit/Shutterstock Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.cbi.eu/disclaimer Page 11 of 52 . Modern style (Home cinema with flexible relaxing couch) 12.

They see it as part of their role as a host when entertaining friends. furniture retailers identify which of their products meet the eco-friendly criteria. However. People are choosing to combine their bathroom and bedroom space into a single private zone for relaxation rather than just for sleeping. Eco-friendly furniture continues to grow Eco-friendly furniture is in demand in all sectors. They are also attracted to furnishings with technical refinements. While there have been various minitrends involving other colours. Renewable raw materials and the possibility of recycling the materials used are important purchase criteria for a growing number of consumers. This includes more entertaining at home. Merging of living areas The trend in the main living area of combining cooking. especially upholstered furniture is becoming more feminine overall. Colour and styling White remains the dominant and most preferred colour. Men showing more interest Traditionally it has been women that have expressed more interest in home furnishings. men are showing more interest in cooking. This can range from simple changing tastes for particular furniture designs to more fundamental lifestyle changes that determine the type of furniture that is required in homes. In some cases. as consumers move away from harder and colder. Many wall cabinets also have a softer and relaxed feel with more rounded corners. Much lighting is now built into some pieces of furniture. Rounded shapes confirm the desire for people to enjoy a more cosy and relaxed feel. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. partly the increasing importance of the home. and partly economic as people choose to spend more time at home for cost reasons.cbi. while much is freestanding to offer a contrast to other furniture items. both in the kitchen and in the living room. In addition. eating and living has been developing for some time.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. As well as the increased demand for furniture from sustainable forest sources. In some countries there are eco-labels on specific furniture items made from sustainable sources.eu • www.eu/disclaimer Page 12 of 52 . They think that it is more responsible to extend the life of products. environmental concerns are discouraging some consumers from replacing furniture. This trend of merging living areas can be seen with home office space being shared with either living room or dining room space. particularly those that cannot be recycled. More recently. or just for bathing. but there is also more aesthetic reasons. Styles are constantly changing and for 2009 baroque ornamentation as the design is upholstery materials is the trendsetting style.cbi. Bamboo is becoming more popular as a material due to this trend. much of which can be re-made in individualised styles. white continues to be the most popular. there is also increased demand for recycled furniture. This has been a result of a number of factors. That is changing.3 Trends A wide range of factors are impacting on how demand for domestic furniture is changing. particularly for seating. as it can be moved round to meet shifting needs. This desire for flexibility and the blurring of divisions between room spaces boosts the demand for freestanding furniture. Consumers now expect better function but want furniture to look more comfortable and inviting.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 1. This is also reflected in the growing importance of lighting to create moods specific to different parts of the home. partly because there are increasing numbers of men living alone who now have to make decisions on interior design. More feminine furniture shapes Much furniture. as a contrast. purely functional designs. this trend has extended to the bedroom and bathroom areas. rahter than purchasing new furniture. Part of this desire is practical. Many pieces such as cupboards and tables are already comfortable in a number of different room environments.

It is also very important as an information source and a communication medium for design ideas. This will extend to the type of decoration used and type of furniture required. 18% had not bought online. Although funds are limited for many people. The way in which the Internet is used is changing. A further 20% said they browsed and bought instore.cbi. For example. Emergence of speciality rooms As the home has become more important and an increasing number of activities are carried out within the home. some rooms are being used as speciality rooms. Furniture has increasingly higher specifications at lower prices. Other ideas would be to re-upholster a chair or changing a small but central feature such as a coffee table. door knobs and handles. In the UK for example. Media influence deepens The powerful role of the media in determining interior design and furniture choice has extended into most new Member States. Despite the fact that this boom has ended and less people are moving home. a room may be converted into a technology centre based on computers and games.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Trading up Despite the economic downturn. Many consumers want to be more involved in the design process to express their own individuality. This is particularly the case for high value items such as fitted kitchens or bedrooms. Alternatively. as well as premium worktop surfaces contribute to pushing up transaction values.cbi. Some examples of this trend include changing door frames. Many consumers choose to postpone a purchase rather than purchase an inferior item. while just 3% said they browsed instore and then bought online. either for playing or watching sport.eu/disclaimer Page 13 of 52 . Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. whereas 21% said they browsed online then bought instore. Any enthusiast with a particular hobby can design a room to adapt to their special interest. This is a powerful illustration of just how important the Internet has become for furniture purchasing.eu • www. consumers are becoming more demanding. More use of professional designers Consumers are increasingly involving professional designers to help them choose furniture. the aspiration for living in a nice home remains strong. Media coverage of home design was in part fuelled by the property boom. For example. Music is another important basis for theming a room. 26% of Internet users say they browsed furniture online and then bought it online. or make some other change to the room as a way of refreshing its look without high expenditure. They are not afraid to also ask for professional advice.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Consumers want important pieces of furniture to be a reflection of their own individual taste and are prepared to pay extra for quality. This trend is also boosted by the growing number of 45-64 year olds who tend to prefer to purchase on the basis of quality rather than price. in kitchens interior fittings and lighting. if the person is a very enthusiastic TV viewer he will convert a room into a home cinema. or it could be a sports room. Greater use of the Internet Furniture is now one of the most widely purchased household goods online. Improvements in the recession If a consumer is unable to buy a new piece of furniture. some may choose to adapt an existing piece. but they are also being used to help with other aspects of interior design. There has been a subtle shift in emphasis to focusing on getting the best value out of improving your home on a limited budget. This will tend to reflect the interests of the main homeowner. the influence of the media continues. This might include offering advice as to the best combination of other furnishings and decorations that might fit well with a particular dining table or sofa that the consumer likes.

eu/disclaimer Page 14 of 52 . good packaging. enabling cost efficiencies. such as cabinets.Although some lifestyle changes are gradual. + The eco-trend will provide opportunities for those exporters that are able to demonstrate that their products come from sustainable forest sources. storage units and small tables. kitchen furniture and occasional pieces of furniture. EU buyers are not always loyal to particular overseas suppliers. However. Retailers need to be able to call on their supplier/s to deliver these products immediately. similar to light oak. but a threat to another. exporters should seek opportunities in market niches.eu • www. However the growth in the 45-64 age group will stimulate opportunities for higher quality furniture items that offer excellent value as well as good quality. which creates high immediate demand. + While there is still demand for co-ordinated suites of furniture. and after-sales service are taken for granted now by all major buyers. + More opportunities will be found for modern styles of seating.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Fast delivery (according to sample). the pace of change and globalisation will mean that these parts of the EU will catch up with Western and Northern EU countries quite soon. . basic furniture styles. + Solid woods are becoming more popular instead of veneers and laminates. In particular. otherwise the opportunity would be lost. They also want to express their individualism over the design of their home. as consumers look for flexibility in how a room is used and arranged.4 Opportunities and threats The leading trends tend to come from Western Europe.The ageing population will bring short term opportunities in specific product categories. and also from not being able to change the specification on a product at short notice.A threat comes from being unable to meet very short delivery times. This is good in terms of ease of transportation for exporters. + The large immigrant and now native population in most western EU countries are interested in some of the styles and designs of furniture they were familiar with from their countries of origin. and opportunities still exist here for more traditional. enabling exporters to have time to adapt to the changes in demand that result from them. a significant part of the market has to respond to the short term whims of what is fashionable. + Changes in consumption patterns for furniture offer opportunities to exporters from developing countries. + The increase in smaller homes is also an opportunity for DC exporters. a particular item of furniture may be featured on a home interest programme. Equally any of these trends can be an opportunity for one exporter. The markets in eastern EU countries are not as sophisticated yet. This has made the furniture market increasingly diversified in terms of the different styles available. In a mature market with growing supplies from Eastern Europe and China. The market for self-assembly furniture is growing in certain segments. cherry or darker woods. The outcome of this analysis will depend on the specific situation of each exporter. In most EU countries.cbi. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. there are sizeable sub-segments in many countries for oriental or African furniture styles in terms of living and eating arrangements. Bamboo is sometimes combined with polystyrene and aluminium that can be recycled.cbi. The demand for smaller-sized furniture items also encourages good value products to be shipped from overseas. but more broadly the over 65 age group spends less on furniture so there will be less opportunities in the longer term. For example. there is a long-term shift from traditional to contemporary style furniture. . more growth will come from freestanding pieces. + Bamboo has become a popular material in contemporary style furniture but also in ecodesign furniture. as bamboo grows very quickly. There is a good opportunity for such ecodesign furniture concepts. Here there is less competition and they can offer added value by furniture that is unique to their country.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 1. so you may lose out to a supplier from your own country or neighbouring country. but exporters also need to ensure that designs are innovative and take note of fashion changes in furniture. . Importers are looking for new types of solid wood.

csilmilano. • At an EU level.ueanet.cbi.com .formed in 2006 featuring seven UEA members. The latest information on trends in home interior styles and furniture can be found at the sites of the International Furniture Fair in Italy . Mintel . • • • • • • Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. figures for apparent consumption can be calculated by adding import and production figures and subtracting exports.cbi. The European Federation of Furniture Retailers .with particular focus on kitchen and bathroom furniture.com .eurostat.also features information.efic.eu/enterprise/furniture/index_en.http://www.http://www. The main sources are Csil.eu . while a very good source of pan-European information on furniture can be found at the portal http://www.has a section on the furniture industry.http://www.msi-reports. the European Furniture Manufacturers Federation (UEA) http://www.http://www.occasionally publishes market information.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 1.asp .eu/enterprise/forest_based/furniture_en.europa.fena-furniture.http://epp.worldfurnitureconfederation.com.cosmit. Further information on furniture specific to forest-based industries appears on the same website http://ec.worldfurnitureonline.htm .5 Useful sources See CBI market surveys covering the market in individual EU countries for contact details on important sources in each country.ec.eu/en/index. Although Eurostat . Euromonitor http://www. The European Union website .furniture.euromonitor.com.europa. A new organisation called the European Furniture Industry Confederation .http://www.eu • www.com or http://www. The World Furniture Confederation .eu.mintel.http://ec.http://www.and at the more trendfollowing fair in Germany .europa.does not provide information on consumption.de.imm-cologne. the Furniture Industry Research Institute in Milan http://www.it .eu/disclaimer Page 15 of 52 .com provides information on the industry.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.eu .html. Information is available from commercial research companies. sometimes at a cost.com .and MSI Reports http://www.

074 1. of which approximately € 200 billion was domestic furniture as defined in this survey. Canada and Mexico accounted for 26% of global production. a lower proportion than in 2007.976 22.866 1. Domestic furniture production in Latin America was valued at approximately € 4.658 14.135 4.7 France 6.160 4.923 73.521 -7.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.759 6. four are American and one is from Oceania.858 15.948 4.940 14.397 8.5 Belgium 1. € million 2004 value 2006 value 2008 value Number of companies 2006 131.7 Finland 876 889 1.4 Hungary 682 830 821 4.943 2.893 78.643 6.896 0.eu • www.5 Czech Republic 1. Out of them.255 14.385 19.963 2.745 1.009 3.151 348 491 1.452 3. Within this.499 123.862 1.949 28.0 Lithuania 289 347 440 11.1 Production Size of production Global production of furniture was valued at over € 270 billion in 2008.799 8.642 25.629 7.911 6.3% was from Oceania and 0.342 6. The Asia zone was the fastest growing area.8% of production. Japan accounted for a further 20% of all Asian production.432 15.878 18. 1.870 3.214 2. 2004-2008.073 74. seven are Asian.832 3.7% was made in Africa. Other non-EU European countries accounted for 2.5 billion or 2.895 2.5 Source: National Statistics Offices.398 805 3. 13 countries are European.eu/disclaimer Page 16 of 52 .3 Cyprus 78 81 76 -0. This region is declining in importance in its share of global production.148 -0.608 6.1 Bulgaria 191 225 256 7.8 Slovakia 593 656 693 4.4 Spain 6.220 6.268 1.476 547 39 420 100 Number of employees 2006 999.164 571 281 1.935 10.143 6.683 85.734 17.cbi.094 1.434 1. two thirds of which was made in Brazil.0 Germany 13.947 1.8 Estonia 235 256 287 5.1 Ireland 334 340 345 0.6 Austria 1.190 2. Table 2.1 EU production of domestic furniture.cbi.6 Latvia 121 140 109 -2.047 1. China (55% of all Asian production or 15% of global production) continued to grow while the EU and NAFTA regions contracted in 2008.7 Slovenia 676 826 814 4.670 133.001 13.801 0.3 Romania 969 1.8 United Kingdom 8.241 8.211 11. Eurostat (2009) Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.727 0. Trade Associations.426 10. The NAFTA area covering the USA.6 Greece 667 755 889 7.8 The Netherlands 1.155 119.9 Italy 14.708 -0.4 Sweden 1.880 8.986 13.4 Poland 3.021 18. The top 25 furniture-producing countries accounted for 90% of world production.5 Denmark 1.4 Portugal 969 968 843 -3.014 1.434 4.905 0. It now accounts for approximately 28% of global production.326 72.999 3.512 12.186 3.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 2 2.034 31. but still the largest furniture producing region in the world by some distance.842 -1.200 5.218 150 993 500 Average % change in value 04–08 Total EU 71.858 2. and has now overtaken the NAFTA area in terms of production value.603 39.837 108.203 1.6 Luxembourg 89 91 88 -0. The EU27 accounted for 37% of global production.674 6.204 11.3% of global production.930 6.6 Malta 41 37 30 -7.181 1. This was dominated by the USA (23% of global production).

cbi. In 2008. kitchen furniture represented the largest production segment.eu/disclaimer Page 17 of 52 .eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.4% Source: Eurostat (2009) A larger proportion of furniture parts were produced in the new Member States. Figure 2.cbi.1.1% Other 9. followed by upholstered seating. this is estimated to be the similar in size to the value of kitchen furniture production. Lithuania. upholstered seating and rattan furniture. Although Eurostat has not provided information on upholstered furniture. despite being a small country. The share of production accounted for by furniture parts has decreased in 2008. the share of production accounted for by bedroom and dining and living room furniture was also marginally down. Italy. The composition of furniture production is changing. There have been changes in the composition of production over the period. Spain. indicating a higher proportion of finished products and more outsourcing of parts. compared to less than 12% in 2004. The top five producing countries (Italy.8% Bedroom 12. All the major furniture producing countries faced the crisis and the recession by contracting their production.5% Upholst ered 21.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU The negative trend in 2008 was due to a dramatic decline in the production of furniture in almost all the EU27 Member States. Much of this can be explained by the large decrease experienced by the UK furniture industry. as kitchen furniture accounts for an increasing proportion of production.6% Nonupholstered 5. of which approximately 80% was exported within the EU. Germany and Poland were the largest exporters. the EU industry still managed to register a small positive increase in value between 2004 and 2008. as % of total value Part s 17. as highlighted in Figure 2. France and the UK) represented 68% of total EU production value in 2008. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.4% Di ning and li ving 11. was the fastest growing producer.1 Production of furniture in the EU 2008. The crisis generated a weak global demand that resulted in less production and exports for the EU27 furniture manufacturers. Despite the strong contraction in 2008. compared to almost 71% in 2004.2% Kitc hen 22.eu • www. Although the production value of all types has increased since 2004. The overall trend is explained by the continuing growth of the furniture industries in Eastern Europe. The 12 new Member States accounted for over 14% of EU production value in 2008. Significant parts of German and Italy production have been outsourced there. the European Furniture Manufacturers Association requested additional measures from the EU and national governments to support the industry during the financial crisis. as a result of a further fall in production of between 20% and 50% in the first quarter of 2009. with the exception of furniture parts.0% Rat tan 0. Other key points include the fact that 40% of all production was exported. This grouping was not immune from the global economic slowdown and many of these countries experienced decreases in 2008. Germany. In June 2009.

outsourcing of design is not taking place to the same extent. Bavaria and Baden-Württemburg. Île-de-France and Normandy) and the southern Rhône-Alpes region. although the rate of growth in imports from China is slowing down. 2. Outsourcing Outsourcing has been a feature of EU furniture producers for a number of years. it is considered that the existence of a robust set of standards to which furniture producers must comply. the overall picture has been a transfer to China and some other developing countries. One third of manufacturers allow their customers to order goods electronically. Developments in the supply chain The furniture trade is increasingly globalised and new distribution systems are taking this into account. Two thirds of all companies now procure products electronically.cbi. These relate primarily to strength. This is increasingly the central value of a business. This trend has continued. Catalonia. Most French suppliers are located in the northern regions (West/Vendée/Brittany. Although it is likely to show a small recovery in 2010.cbi. There is an increasing trend of companies using the same software platforms. In Germany the main areas are North Rhine-Westphalia. Manufacturers are also making more serious efforts to protect their designs from copying. In Italy two thirds of furniture suppliers are in the Lombardy and Pesaro regions. rather than growth strategies. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. and taking legal measures to minimise design theft. Three quarter of all companies use computer-aided design. The preference would be for a label that applies to all types of furniture. All indications are that 2009 will also be another year of contracting production. Basque and Murcia regions. but less than 30% use computer-aided production.2 Trends The EU furniture industry has experienced its worst year in recent history. this is not a universal generalisation. durability and safety. More standardisation Standards continue to be developed and improved for the production of furniture. although small firms lag behind the larger ones. This reflects increasing costs in China and a strengthening of the Chinese currency. while manufacturers of metal or plastic furniture (or composite furniture of a number of materials) would be disadvantaged as a consequence. particularly in Asia.eu/disclaimer Page 18 of 52 .eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. or with producers with different skills. Design developments As outsourcing of production continues with manufacturers finding partnerships with other producers in lower cost economies. Spanish furniture suppliers are mostly concentrated in the Valencia. as well as some other notable areas such as Brazil. the engine of growth for the global industry will continue to shift to Asia. this will also provide a point of competitive advantage to those non-EU producers that do not adhere to such robust standards. but the practicalities of this have yet to be worked out. as well as improving levels of quality and competitiveness from other countries. As well as the issue of quality and public safety.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU The furniture industry is concentrated in one or a few particular areas in each country.eu • www. The difficulty has been in the fact that an eco-label would most readily lend itself to wooden furniture. Many of the trends apparent in the EU are increasingly based on survival strategies. Consumers pay for innovation and good design. However. Development of eco-label There has been some discussions within the EU industry about an EU eco-label for furniture due to the high levels of consumer interest in sustainably produced furniture. While there has been a transfer of some production from some of the more developed Western EU Member States to newer Member States in the east.

Turkey and Japan. While barriers in the area of sanitary and phytosanitary measures have been a focus point for the EU for some time. they will need to look elsewhere. As well as being able to talk directly to consumers. There may be design styles unique to your country that can provide you with a point of competitive advantage in relation to other exporters. Their geographical proximity makes them interesting to EU manufacturers. it enables manufacturers to control more of the supply chain and better plan their production requirements. there have been important developments in cooperation with the European Commission to improve EU furniture manufacturers access to key export markets. electronic data management and new approaches for distribution. This helps in the overall competitiveness of the industry. Opportunities can also be found by identifying small or medium-sized producers who wish to maintain their independence in an increasingly competitive international market. This also relates to your ability to work with a range of different materials. cooperation with other companies. EU consumers are demanding more sophisticated furniture designs. rather than lowest price is generating opportunities for the supply of higher quality products.eu/disclaimer Page 19 of 52 .cbi.3 + Opportunities and threats While DC exporters have in many cases found opportunities in the lower market segments. Larger EU companies are more likely to be the best contacts for this. the needs of small and medium sized enterprises in relation to the increasingly important topic of access to raw materials when accessing neighbouring markets is also on the agenda. If you are technologically competetant. as well as encouraging innovation. outsourcing. You face threats from new Member States who have their own established furniture industries and also possess a cost base well below the EU average. Other non-EU European countries are also a threat. + + + + - Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Market access developments While access to the EU for furniture importers is relatively liberal. skills and competencies development. 2. The key areas for sharing are new product development.cbi.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Opportunities exist for those exporters from developing countries who are able to supply products from sustainable sources. Trade barriers have already been removed in markets such as Argentina. You will be just one of a number of exporters wishing to engage in the EU market. but the process continues to develop and expand. They will be interested in forming relationships with good companies who are willing to engage to supply parts or components rather than finished products. Sharing best practices The EU industry continues to cooperate more fully and across a broader range of topics. All EU producers acknowledge the implications of the consumer trend to more environmentally friendly furniture. This could be a significant disadvantage in your ability to engage in the EU market. Manufacturers as retailers This is already a well-established practice in many countries. EU manufacturers will prefer to work with those developing country suppliers who have the technical infrastructure to integrate their systems and procedures with their own. but try to ensure that you offer something more than this to potential EU partners. DC exporters should have the confidence to attempt to supply higher market segments. you will be better-placed to take advantage of opportunities. This requires that producers may need to afford to invest in capital-intensive equipment. If their existing sources are not able to supply the correct materials. Outsourcing is largely driven by the desire to reduce costs.eu • www. consumer demand for best value. For example. They will also be interested in your design expertise. Outsourcing continues to offer opportunities for developing country exporters.

htm.4 • Useful sources The European Furniture Manufacturers Association .cbi. while a very good source of pan-European information on furniture can be found at the portal http://www.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Production data can also be found at the various National Statistical Offices within the European Union. There are also some links to other issues affecting the industry.cbi. representing 65% of the sector at European level including Italy and Germany the two main producers. The detail provided on furniture production varies for each country.furniture. economic conditions.com provides information on the industry. It reports on business. Names and addresses of interesting players in EU furniture production are provided in the individual country reports. The European Union website also provides an overview of the furniture industry.eu/disclaimer Page 20 of 52 .eurostat.based in Milan. Slovakia and Turkey. Spain.http://www.europa.ueanet.htm. Italy produces regular reports on production in the furniture industry. Belgium.is based in Brussels.efic.eu • www.http://www.europa. Portugal.com . It occasionally provides production statistics via a quarterly newsletter.eu/enterprise/furniture/index_en. See http://epp.eu .eu. See http://ec. both in the EU and worldwide. trade and services’ and under ‘data’ follow the links to access the database on ‘statistics for the production of manufactured goods’.com consists of 16 members representing the leading furniture-producing countries in the world.worldfurnitureconfederation. The United Nations Statistics Division provides links to all National Statistics worldwide http://unstats. Denmark.is the main umbrella organisation representing the interests of the furniture industry in the EU.iafpalliance. issues on production efficiency etc. such as production standards. Links to the main national furniture associations and selected trade press are also provided.com .eu and select ‘industry. marketing and design trends. The European Furniture Industry Confederation (EFIC) .http://www.un. Production data can be found on the website of the European Union. The World Furniture Confederation . The data is based on information provided by the various National Statistical Offices. Information from this source has to be paid for.org/unsd/methods/inter-natlinks/sd_natstat.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 2. These members have split from the UEA and wish to press for anti-dumping regulations against cheap furniture imports.csilmilano. • • • • • • • • Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. The International Alliance of Furnishing Publications (IAFP) – http://www.ec. The Furniture Industry Research Institute .http://www.

1 Trade channels for market entry Trade channels The route from manufacturer to consumer in the furniture trade is complex and varied. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. There are variations on this. • Non-specialists include department stores. and they are either organised in the form of large chain stores or buying groups (this tends to be most common in northern Europe).CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 3 3. This is an increasing trend. This channel represents about 20% of furniture retail sales in the EU. As Figure 3. Consequently the main distribution flows in the EU tend to be from manufacturer to importer to retailer to consumer. Spain and Portugal). eliminating part of the distribution chain. and non-specialist distribution where furniture is just one of a wide range of products handled by the companies in question. Do-It-Yourself (DIY) stores or hypermarkets.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.1 shows.eu • www. mail order. They buy from specialised intermediaries.cbi.eu/disclaimer Page 21 of 52 . through their own intermediaries or direct from manufacturers.cbi. there is a clear distinction between specialist distribution where the product is handled by intermediaries and furniture retailers. or independent (usually predominant in southern European countries such as Italy. particularly where large retailers such as IKEA ship direct from manufacturers. Although furniture is increasingly supplied in formats designed to improve the efficiency of handling and distribution. the sheer size of many furniture items makes them unsuited to multiple handling. • Specialists represent approximately 80% of the distribution of furniture in the EU markets.

importers are the best channels. there are selling agents. Those importers who are not exclusively tied to a brand manufacturer usually buy and sell the goods.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Trade channels For exporters in developing countries.cbi. They do not buy or sell on their own account. They work on a contract and commission basis for one or more manufacturers. Buying Groups Buying groups prefer to minimise the cost of middlemen by purchasing directly from a supplier whenever possible. who were losing part of their business. Many importers sell directly to specialist retailers and department stores through permanent exhibition centres.eu • www. In the target country. to operate on a regional basis or in a more product-specific manner. These independent companies negotiate and settle business on the instructions of their principals and act as intermediaries between buyer and seller. Often the buying agent has his office in the supplying country.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. take care of import/export procedures and hold items in stock. the physical distribution of furniture can be a constraint. The trend of bigger retailers and buying groups going outside the traditional distribution system has caused wholesalers to reconsider their position in the distribution structure. They usually specialise but often carry a wide variety of products. which also are (specialised) independent companies. If an agent builds up his own stock. They have a good knowledge of the market and provide the safest and most effective method of distribution for exporters from developing countries. Exporters need to appreciate the hurdles which have to be overcome in order to be accepted by certain types of customers. knows the trends and can supply considerable information and guidance to the overseas manufacturer. Some importers also act as wholesalers. you could either expand your business with your importer or consider supplying direct from your own warehouse. You company will increasingly be required to undergo regular inspections or audits to satisfy your customer that you continue to meet their standards. The larger the organisation you are dealing with. he is in fact functioning as a wholesaler or distributor.cbi. Wholesalers Wholesalers often supply independent or specialist furniture shops and play a major role in the supply of furniture. This is particularly important as environmental considerations are important in the furniture trade. use of materials and quality requirements. The following other channels are good alternative distribution channels for exporters: Agents In your own country. whether they are wholesalers or retailers. The development of a successful working relationship between manufacturer and importer can lead to a high level of cooperation with regard to appropriate designs for the market. The importer has contacts in the local market. while others have their own sales staff that visit retailers on a regular basis and take orders. although competition is avoided.eu/disclaimer Page 22 of 52 . Once sales of your product(s) have developed. Some of them sell from stock in order to meet their clients' short-term demand. it is necessary to undergo a process to become accepted as an approved supplier. new trends. which is on a consignment basis. This has encouraged wholesalers. the more likely this will be the case. When exporting furniture for the first time. This channel is used for large-scale requirements. Importers By buying on his own account the importer takes title to the goods and is responsible for their onward sale and distribution in his country and/or in other EU markets. In many cases. They work on a commission basis and represent one or more larger manufacturers/suppliers/retailers. where direct dealing Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. It is often not enough just to present your product to become accepted. there are buying agents. which can be set up for you by a specialised logistics company in the EU.

Leolux ‘design centres’. Most stores have a design corner for tailor made furniture. The main advantage is that these items can be made according to their own design. instead of purchasing ready-made articles. creating a total interior concept.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU with well-known suppliers is essential. The specialist trade accounts for about 80% of all distribution Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Classic Choice). but it is an alternative route to the market. Other terms used You will hear many other terms used for various actors in the supply and distribution chain for furniture. staff training and advice on legal and business issues. A licensee describes someone who has bought the rights to sell a particular brand in a particular sales area. Some buying groups operate in a number of different EU countries. they look for low-cost sources that can produce furniture on a made-to-order basis. These local manufacturers can offer good opportunities to DC exporters in some cases. making some manufacturers uncompetitive (especially in labour-intensive production lines).g. quality and colour specification. colonial. contemporary to ultra-modern. Some recent distribution chain issues of relevance to exporters are: • Vertical integration by manufacturers Here manufacturers sell direct to consumers via their own stores. They are a threat to retailers. Retailers As shown in Figure 3. Local suppliers Faced with rapidly rising production costs. Here. where all retailers specialise in furniture. provision of marketing intelligence and use of the buying group’s brand name. which sells the complete furniture range of one brand and is meant to enhance the brand image. New furniture ranges can be combined with all sorts of accessories. For an exporter it is important to be aware of this concept. bedroom or bathroom.cbi. removing the need for retailers. Sometimes they offer warehouse facilities to their members. Sofa Workshop Direct. and are growing in importance in the EU. See Chapter 3 of the CBI Export Guidelines for more information on the selection of the most suitable channel for your own situation. Portugal and Belgium. Nowadays.eu • www. they have the necessary buying power to obtain greater discounts from suppliers. the structure of furniture distribution can be broadly divided as follows: • Specialist distribution. For example.1.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Like importers. Buying groups are common in the furniture trade. As a group.cbi. FOC (Factory Outlet Centre) schemes are being built closer to major cities and there is no clear definition of the goods that can be sold in these centres. One example is the single brand or flagship store (e. giving the store a sense of continual change. • Store attractiveness and regular change by retailers With the growing influence of fashion in furniture. Garant and Europa Moebel) and Spain (Grupo Ventura and ACEM). Factory outlets are an example of vertical integration established by manufacturers/suppliers to sell ‘out of date articles’ from unsold stock direct to consumers.eu/disclaimer Page 23 of 52 . distributor is a term used to describe a person. The objective of the buying group is to make it possible for its members to deal with the growing power of large furniture chain stores and discounters. shop interiors appeal more to consumer target groups and can range from classic. even at importer level. manufacturers are increasingly assuming the role of importers. These groups act as purchasing agents for their individual members (smaller furniture retailers) and financial intermediaries between producers and retailers. particularly in Germany (Begros. or in sub-sectors such as kitchen. furniture stores now change their ranges more frequently. especially in Italy. It may be in the form of partial supply. These are added to the local manufacturers’ own portfolio and help their own market profile. Other advantages include credit card rates. Ligne Roset. He should try to make a link here when introducing his products. organisation or outlet that has been appointed by a particular brand manufacturer to sell or resell that brand.

Specialist shops must know the latest trends in fashion. This share is forecast to rise in the future. more competition from non-specialists and discounters and cheap imports. Organised retailers are the large chain stores (eg IKEA. lighting or household Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Non-specialist distribution refers to outlets that mainly sell other items. rattan farmers) to be as short as possible. Large interior shopping malls of 10. while independent shops with small showrooms are typical in Italy. Specialists can be organised or independent. Conforama etc). In this case. there is better control over production and communication lines are short. More space has also led furniture retailers to diversify into other related areas such as household goods. Furniture retailing has become more diversified with many types of outlets. there were approximately 125. France and Germany.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU • in the major EU markets. kitchen etc. • Independent specialists In most EU Member States. This concentration in outlets has coincided with an increase in the size of outlets. A shopping mall houses a mix of smaller and medium sized stores. varying from those stocking a special style of furniture to those carrying a wide range of products with related accessories. but an increasing number are now international. more common in southern EU and new Member States. Because of volume discounts from their suppliers. most buyers prefer the lines between manufacturer and the source of raw material (e. buying from all over the world.g.cbi. Chain stores are well represented in the UK. Specialist retailers Despite the dominance of IKEA.eu/disclaimer Page 24 of 52 .000 furniture retail outlets in the EU. reducing the risk of discrepancies between buyers' requirements and final product. most specialist shops have to cope with issues such as more demanding consumers. and also sell those contemporary products. Although the total retail floor space dedicated to selling furniture has increased. bedroom. understand how that affects furniture design. the Netherlands. hypermarkets. Spain and the new Member States. The expansion in retail space has been helped by the suitability of furniture to out-of-town locations. Belgium. Sales through furniture chain stores represent about 25% of furniture sales in the EU. In the country of origin. The broad trend has seen independent outlets suffering at the expense of larger chain stores. furniture sales networks are modern.). eg department stores. Retailing varies by product (e. they can offer items at low-medium prices. In 2008.eu • www. This accounts for about 20% of sales in the major EU countries. • Furniture boulevards In central and northern EU countries. Many chains are national. Large chains such as IKEA have their own purchasing staff. franchised stores or concept stores.g. furniture retailing in the EU is still quite regionalised.000 m² or more are located in out-oftown shopping centres. bedroom specialists.cbi. but also include furniture. Nowadays. small shops are still well represented. mail order companies etc. kitchen specialists) and by country. well-structured and very efficient.000 employees. the number of outlets selling furniture is decreasing.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Chain stores with large showrooms are prevalent in middle and northern EU countries. In order to differentiate. with around 450. Independent retailers are smaller shops. which consumers often purchase on impulse. Many of these are affiliated to buying groups. these specialists continually seek new sources to develop their own exclusive collections and change their ranges more frequently (more than twice a year). which specialise in furniture (dining and living. There are three keys types of specialist retailer: • Chain stores These specialist stores are usually part of a national or international chain store or franchised operation under the same name and central management. Most chain stores have standardised product ranges and are located on the high street or at out-of-town shopping centres. Specialist stores need to offer added value by giving good advice and service to consumers.

eu/disclaimer Page 25 of 52 . which until recently was primarily used as a means of comparing prices. Metro and Aldi (Germany) and DIY chains have furniture manufactured in low cost countries. Some large retail organisations e. especially if they are paying significant amounts of money. driven by consumers wanting more choice in the places where they can buy furniture.cbi.000 m² on three floors. They are now extending the concept to include DIY in a new project at Westpoort near Amsterdam. but not so important for sales of product at the higher end of the market.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU goods. Consumers still prefer to go to a retailer to see and try items of furniture. Although department stores are nonspecialists in that they also sell a wide range of other products. A further two are planned in Germany. Non-specialist retailers Furniture sales by non-specialist outlets are increasing. • DIY stores. but also due to the buying power of some large operators that are able to offer good value furniture at attractive prices. suppliers pressurise retailers to order earlier and in large quantities. • Retailers versus suppliers The increasingly concentrated retail sector has strengthened its position. With a total sales area of 62.eu • www. All other activities generate costs. Department stores in other countries include Galleries Lafayette (France). Profit margins have been under severe pressure due to increased competition in this sector and increased expectations from consumers about product quality and after-sales service. which also carry some furniture. Large retailers source directly from any country at very low prices. Large furniture boulevards have existed in the Netherlands for over ten years. The first furnishings boulevard in France. John Lewis (the UK). successful pricing is a key topic in the market entry strategy. Price is the first point of comparison in evaluating your product against the competition. hypermarkets and discounters They have had a major influence on the increased price competition in the whole market. This has had a negative impact on suppliers. The main types of non-specialist retailers are: • Department stores This channel is very important in the furniture trade. pricing is the only area of the strategy that generates revenues for exporters.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. They have furniture departments and concessions (shop-in-shop) in their stores. Most of these stores are linked to a buying group or to a chain store operation. Coin (Italy) and Bijenkorf (the Netherlands). The same principle applies to the Internet. However. smaller EU manufacturers. direct sales through this medium are forecast to become more significant in the future. They tend to stock limited ranges of lower cost furniture but their impact on the market in terms of polarising between low and high market product is important.2 Price structure When entering the target markets. many department stores are in fact very specialised because of their long experience in the market. with discounters selling at low prices. to increase their profit margins. Mail order and the Internet Mail order has been important as a sales channel for ready-to-assemble furniture. This is a situation from which some smaller suppliers and developing country exporters could benefit. In addition. and importers who are being squeezed out in some cases. opened in 2006. Kaufhof (141) and the Spanish El Corte Inglés (68) in particular are leaders in the EU. The German Karstadt (91 stores). Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Carréfour (France).g. In fact. Suppliers compete by offering their own discount policies to different retailers (or buying groups). Domus Paris. 130 brands from the international furnishings trade are represented. These developments have created some mistrust between retailers and suppliers. 3. including their own brand.cbi.

there is also a wide variation around these averages. sometimes a discount is given to buyers and freight is prepaid. Margins at retail level Due to the variety in product types. where little input is required from sales staff (e. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Key issues on price structure • The trade channels with typical mark-ups of each channel and retail category. For example. Another factor is the location of the retailer. margins have been under pressure and have fallen. the retailer will ask for a low margin e.1. 70%. In this case.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.eu • www.cbi. On the other hand. margin maintenance is vital along with cost control. the nature of the product and the handling involved. as they are now easier to compare because of the Euro. carry a wide range and have many sales staff. design. • Discount structure and credit terms offered by local competitors. For example. it is important to keep control and avoid too large a difference between prices in each target market. Large retailers exert further pressure on prices and margins in the trade channels by purchasing in substantial quantities. ranging between 15-25% depending on the EU country. • The most ‘reasonable’ or ‘tactical’ price level according to some of your local contacts in the field (agents. the level of demand. packaging. price is less important.g. Successful retailers have the right balance between cost control. the type of store. importers maintain a fairly close control over recommended retail prices.g. Actual margins can vary widely around these averages depending on the exclusivity of the product. import duties. good retail margins and good buying. but oversupply and the growing success of furniture discounters has distorted the situation. In several EU countries. IKEA). An exporter from a developing country would be better off by concentrating on the exclusiveness of his product e. store managers). The same applies to RTA furniture. because they often buy direct from manufacturers and have outlets at out-of-town shopping centres.g. introducing original styles of furniture that meet the function. This means that their landed cost is the FOB (Free on Board) plus transport to his warehouse and insurance and possible import duty. Markups as low as 15% and as high as 60% have been recorded. Once prices have been agreed and the target markets are set. so it is vulnerable to economic downturns.eu/disclaimer Page 26 of 52 . marketing and promotion etc. • Additional costs for product adaptation. will most likely have a higher margin e. In principle. The importer/wholesaler mark-ups average between 2530%. Nevertheless. For retailers it is important not to erode the margin too much when making price promotions.see the price calculation example in Table 3. Try to avoid being regarded as another cheap supplier from a developing country. Margins In the price-competitive furniture market. which are delivered for the first time.cbi. anti dumping levies and VAT level. this has led to some stores being declared bankrupt. which need more display space. incoterms. Margins at importer/wholesale level Wholesalers and importers base their costing on a Cost Including Freight (CIF) base. size and comfort needs of a specific target group. On the other hand. In the case of trial orders. • Retail prices of competitors’ products in your target market. other exporters from your country. This includes value-added tax (VAT). the typical mark-up for retailers averages between 80100% .CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Furniture is usually considered to be a non-essential purchase. margins for luxury furniture. All of this is also reflected in a higher margin. which is another reason why margins can also be under pressure. Depending on the circumstances. high street chain stores are often in expensive places. margins of department stores or large retailers such as Fly are lower. • The production costs. 100%.g.

transport. packaging. handling.g.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU So try to look carefully at your costing before making your quote to importers. high 35%) Importer's/wholesaler's selling price Retailer's mark up (e. banking) Landed cost or CIF price Importer's/wholesalers mark up (e. promotion.g. low 80%.Consumer price 25 25 9 59 21 80 3 17 100 20 120 96 216 41 257 2. wood certification and 15% for unsold stock) Direct labour cost (incl.g.4 of CBI’s ‘Your guide to market research. To get a good idea as to how they operate.6. own profit). high 10%) Agent's selling price Import duties* (furniture parts 2. housing.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. based on a CIF price of 100 for an item of furniture when sold through an importer to a retailer.publishes a directory of European importers of all types. The following Table 3. own profit e.fena-furniture. hypermarkets.eu • www. sample shipments) Cost price Mark-up (overhead costs incl.1 indicates the effect of low and high margins on the final consumer price. Instead you may try to find importers who operate in the medium to high range part of the market. low: 20%.cbi. discounters etc.g.g. • The European Federation of Furniture Retailers represents the interests of furniture retailers in Europe.g. low – not through agent.com. personnel. This may prove not to be an interesting channel for you. An Indian company called Exim Infotek http://www. where 5.importersnet. supplying specialist independent retailers. 3.g. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. it is recommended you talk to other people you know who have looked into exporting furniture to the EU.eximinfo.5 * If the GSP tariff is applicable for your country. which is estimated at 35%. buying groups or department stores. The final consumer prices can be compared with the price level of similar items of competitors. If the same item is sold through an agent on to an importer and retailer the CIF price is 110. Please note that the breakdown of the cost price by material.com. • You can find names of importers from the International Directory of Importers.g. Part 2: Your research practice’ for more general information on pricing. See also the CBI market surveys covering the market in individual EU countries and Chapter 6. selling and general expenses. design costs) Other cost (e. especially if they supply the low end of the market e. the import duty can be reduced to zero.g.com . covering overhead costs (e. high 100%) Net selling price VAT (e.3 Useful sources It is useful to contact specific operators in each of the distribution channels.7%) Other costs (e. See http://www. You can visit its website at http://www. insurance. or to find advice.1 Calculation of final consumer price Low Material cost (incl.cbi.eu/disclaimer Page 27 of 52 .600 furniture and home furnishings importers are listed. 19% in the Netherlands) Final consumer or retail price Ratio Cost price . direct labour and other cost is purely for the purposes of illustration here: Table 3.6 High 25 25 9 59 21 80 10 90 3 17 110 38 148 148 296 56 352 3. In this example an imaginary mark-up is set. 35%) Export price (FOB) Agent's mark up (e. The typical average commission rate for an agent is usually 10-15% of sales.

csilmilano. This compares the distribution structures in different European countries as well as providing a list of furniture distributors. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.eu/disclaimer Page 28 of 52 .cbi.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.cbi.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU • • • The Furniture Industry Research Institute .has published a report called Furniture Distribution in Europe. Chambers of Commerce. Names and contact details for the major players in each of these distribution channels can be found in the CBI market surveys covering the market in individual EU countries.com . There is a charge for this report.eu • www.http://www. Agents or trade representatives can be found through local trade associations. fashion centres and trade directories.

eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.3 There was a mixed picture for domestic furniture imports into the EU over the review period. Not all transactions are registered. As a consequence. this represented 11. 4. they must be treated with extreme caution and are only intended to give an indication of trade flows in the international domestic furniture market.531 6. Intra-EU trade accounted for 70% of the value and 67% of the volume of imports. These increases in imports can only partially be attributed to increased demand in the EU.587 1.352 22. particularly intra-EU trade such as those by smaller countries and transactions from non-EU sources.471 11.397 Average annual % change in value 2.390 18. Consequently.100 10. As well as indicating the growing importance of imports in the market. Eurostat does not provide figures in the other furniture category for metal or plastic furniture in either 2006 or 2008.cbi. In 2008.229 8. but there has been a mixed picture in production in the EU as a result of competition from lower-priced imports. 2004-2008.4 million tonnes valued at € 32.4 4. but rose further in volume.9 -27. it also indicated increases in prices over the period.659 381 3. and therefore more precisely presented in these statistics.754 2. Eurostat bases its statistics on information from the Customs and EU companies that is given on a voluntary basis.818 2008 value volume 32. However.1 EU imports of domestic furniture. Between 2004 and 2008. figures for trade between the EU and the rest of the world (extra-EU) are accurately registered. 4. € million / 1.998 6.652 1. Developing countries represented over 26% of all imports by value and 30% by volume.cbi. For the purposes of this survey. It is broken down into eight separate product groups. of which from Intra-EU Extra-EU Developing countries Source: Eurostat (2009) 29.eu • www.255 7.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 4 Trade: imports and exports Trade statistics in this chapter are taken from Eurostat. intra-EU trade tends to be understated.708 4.173 20. domestic production increased at an average of 0. which are of potentially greater interest and opportunity for developing country exporters.657 2006 value volume 30.2 EU imports per product group This sector is diverse. only the French. Nevertheless. Note. up from 64% of value and 60% of volume in 2004. market sizes have been increasing at a lower rate than imports.4 billion. Italian and Spanish markets grew at rates above the EU average (see country reports for more detail).151 10. we have highlighted five of these groups. despite significant falls in 2008. partly due to the size of the groups.9% per annum in value. Table 4.437 7. Of the major countries. On the other hand. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.000 tonnes 2004 value volume Total EU. compared with under 21% by value and 24% by volume in 2004.856 798 2. More increases came from developing country trade.eu/disclaimer Page 29 of 52 .472 6.818 2.8 8.4% average annual increase in value and a 1% average annual increase in volume since 2004. The absence of these figures will understate the overall market performance. but also from increased intra-EU trade. from 15% of value and 16% of volume in 2004 to just 4% of value and 3% of volume in 2008. the extra-EU share of trade (excluding developing countries) has fallen dramatically. but also because of the greater relevance of some of the products within the groups. This can be explained by significant additional volumes from some new Member States in particular.1 Total EU imports The global domestic furniture trade was valued at well over € 60 billion. The EU accounts for over half of global domestic furniture imports. This represented a 2.

accounting for 35% of the imports by value (26% by volume). dining/living room furniture.169 1.418 3. South Africa was the largest supplier in 2004 (€ 338 million or 6. The higher value reflected the higher prices paid for these products compared to other domestic furniture.390 10. extra-EU supplies (excluding developing countries) have decreased by 25% year on year (23% by volume).0 Total EU 29. Supplies from Turkey. The significance of outsourcing was highlighted by the size of this product group.747 3.603 1. 82% of the imports of this product group were supplied from within the EU.3 9. upholstered seats.244 5. nonupholstered seats and rattan furniture. from € 206 million in 2004 (109 thousand tonnes).005 2.669 3.465 10. Uruguay and Morocco increased over the period but supplies from Tunisia. compared to 5.988 1.2 EU imports of domestic furniture by product group 2004-2008.472 617 1.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU To put these five product groups in context.1% per annum for imports from developing countries (17% by volume).eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.4 thousand tonnes).6% per annum. Croatia.799 4.773 Non-upholstered seats 2.627 1.9% by volume). the following table summarises imports for all products included within the domestic furniture sector.6 4. to more readily appreciate the importance of the product groups we have selected.472 32. Thailand and Indonesia decreased.7 0. compared with the product group as a whole that has been increasing at the rate of 5. Note that imports per product group by individual Member States are provided in the CBI market surveys on individual countries.6% for the product group as a whole (5.1 7. Hence they represented a decreasing share of the product group.637 1.000 tonnes 2004 value volume 2006 value volume 2008 value volume Average annual % change in value 2.193 Kitchen 1. and 9.1 million tonnes). with supplies of € 548 million in 2008 (259 thousand tonnes) up on average 28% each year.eu • www. These five groups between them represented 76% of all domestic furniture imports by value and 65% by volume in 2008.6 billion (550 thousand tonnes). as shown in Table 4. Their import value was down to € 232 million in 2008 (4. Germany.437 Furniture parts 9.349 1. These have been increasing at 3.173 10.019 2.523 3. metal parts of furniture were valued at € 1.635 2.723 1.352 11.eu/disclaimer Page 30 of 52 .9 thousand tonnes). Within this group. The product groups selected are furniture parts.408 1. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.179 2.054 3.628 1. Furniture parts Furniture parts represented the largest product group.406 1.4 5. Parts of furniture of wood accounted for 17% of the value of the group (€ 2 billion). Poland and Italy were the largest intra-EU suppliers. Bosnia-Herzegovina.cbi.736 643 Rattan 550 132 608 240 551 230 Source: Eurostat (2009) * no data for other metal or plastic furniture in 2006 and 2008 The main product groups for domestic furniture are shown in the next five tables. China was the largest developing country supplier of furniture parts.130 Bedroom 2. where additional processing would be required for them to attain their value.2% year on year over the period.2.613 995 5. other parts of furniture were € 697 million (234 thousand tonnes) and wooden parts of seats were valued at € 174 million (77 thousand tonnes).199 449 1. Of the other sub-groups. although these have been increasing at the rate of 9.179 Dining/living room 3.990 1. This indicated that products made of wood were of lower value than products made of other materials.425 2.1 -0.005 Upholstered seats 4.9 billion).0 -7. but just 35% of the volume (1 million tonnes). but 37% of volume (1.146 1. parts of seats (not wood) accounted for 61% of the value of this group (€ 6.005 2.1% by volume). € million / 1.3 0. Over the period.cbi. Table 4.453 1.284 Other furniture* 5.998 30.5% per annum over the period (7.752 11.

Morocco (0.3%).7%).9% by volume). USA (0.500 Italy (17.1%).4%) 1. Croatia (0. Taiwan (0. Switzerland (0.2%) Share (%) Total EU. Croatia (1. while the value of supplies from Serbia decreased. Poland (15.2%). accounting for 17% of imports by value (11% by volume).6% by volume).4%).635 11.8 4.3%). China was the largest supplier of upholstered seats.3%).337 Germany (16. share in % of value 2004 2006 2008 Leading suppliers to EU in 2008 € mln € mln € mln Share in % 9. as shown in Table 4.3 EU imports and leading suppliers for furniture parts 2004 . Of the non-Asian suppliers. extra-EU supplies (excluding developing countries) have decreased by 26% year on year (42% by volume). DC* DC* 81.3%).7% per annum over the period (7.5 13.5%).8%).5%). Poland and Germany were the largest intra-EU suppliers. up by the equivalent of 27% each year from € 498 million in 2004 (153 thousand tonnes).9%). Japan (0. Malaysia was the second largest developing country supplier in 2008 (€ 76 million).6 Source: Eurostat (2009) *Developing countries Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.4 EU imports and leading suppliers for upholstered seats 2004 . Hong Kong (0.4 billion (82%) or 1 million tonnes.7 Source: Eurostat (2009) * Developing countries Upholstered seats Upholstered seats represented the second largest of the selected product groups. Poland (12. of which from Intra EU Extra EU ex.7 4.6%).3 billion in 2008 (426 thousand tonnes).653 China (24.2%). Ukraine (0. Taiwan (0.eu • www. valued at € 4. Croatia and Ukraine increased supplies.1% by volume from 860 thousand tonnes). Tunisia (0.4%). Turkey (2. upholstered seats with wooden frames was the largest sub-group. USA (0. Italy (11.2%) 1.1%).282 9.492 532 1. Italy. although these have been increasing at the rate of 3. with supplies of € 1. Romania (4. Uruguay (0.4%). Turkey (1.7 30. S Africa (2. Czech Rep (7.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.6%).2%). Within this group.349 5. 65% of the imports from this product group were supplied from within the EU.2.613 5.325 3.179 10. share in % of value 2004 2006 2008 Leading suppliers to EU in 2008 € mln € mln € mln Share in % 4.1%). Supplies from all the leading Asian suppliers have increased over the period. Over the period. Upholstered seats with metal frames were valued at € 985 million (18%) or 235 thousand tonnes. Thailand (0.2008.3%). This group increased by an annual average of 12% since 2004 from € 617 million (15% by volume from 135 thousand tonnes).406 3.031 828 754 3. DC* DC* 64.2%). Turkey. Austria (4. Russia (0.3%).CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Table 4.7%) 253 Norway (2.5%). BosniaHerzegovina.0%).418 6. Germany (7. of which from Intra EU Extra EU ex.0%).3%).645 708 1. Indonesia (0.4%).2008.eu/disclaimer Page 31 of 52 . Table 4. Belgium (2.5% since 2004 from € 4 billion (5. Bosnia Herzegovina (1.1%).2%) Share (%) Total EU.8%).8%).cbi.9%). Indonesia (0.585 1. Thailand (0. followed by Turkey (€ 63 million). and an increase of 22% per annum for imports from developing countries (also 22% by volume). This group increased by an annual average of 2.cbi.8%). Vietnam (0. Malaysia (1.568 China (4.0%). compared to an increase of 4% for the product group as a whole (6.489 1. Serbia (0. Bosnia Herzegovina (0.105 8.6%) 513 Switzerland (1.

with supplies of € 1. as shown in Table 4. Developing countries were the dominant suppliers in this group.9% by volume). Thailand (0. China was the dominant supplier of non-upholstered seating. Within this group.6%). Seats convertible into beds were also growing quickly.723 3.5 EU imports and leading suppliers for dining/living room furniture 2004 . Hong Kong (0.1% for the product group as a whole (3% by volume). followed by Indonesia (€ 135 million or 36 thousand tonnes). Brazil (1. 64% of the imports of this product group were supplied from within the EU.327 Poland (13. accounting for 11% of imports by value (16% by volume). Turkey (1.2% per annum for imports from developing countries (8. Supplies from Indonesia.cbi. Italy (10.1% for the product group as a whole (1. Over the period.1 billion in 2008 (446 thousand tonnes). seats with metal frames was the largest sub-group.8% per annum over the period (4% by volume). Belarus (0. while Brazil and Belarus decreased. Belgium (3.637 2. Russia (0.8%).CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Dining/living room furniture Dining/living room furniture represented the third largest of the selected product groups. accounting for 11% of imports by value (10% by volume).0 2.5 Source: Eurostat (2009) *Developing countries Non-upholstered seating Non-upholstered seating represented the fourth largest of the selected product groups. Indonesia was the second largest developing country supplier in 2008 (€ 160 million or 69 thousand tonnes).4%).8% by volume).5 33. extra-EU supplies (excluding developing countries) decreased by 26% year on year (36% by volume).3%).627 3. Ukraine (0.2. Indonesia (4.8%).5% by volume). valued at almost € 1. Taiwan (0.2.4%).8%). Over the period.5%) 91 Switzerland (0.7%).266 322 1. although these have been increasing at the rate of 2. Poland and Italy were the largest intra-EU suppliers. as shown in Table 4. Of the non-Asian suppliers. Turkey and Ukraine increased. and 8. Seats with metal frames were the fastest growing sub-group by value. of which from Intra EU Extra EU ex.9%).0%). Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.2%) 1.8%).135 2.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Vietnam was the second largest developing country supplier in 2008 (€ 226 million or 97 thousand tonnes). Malaysia (1. Malaysia and Thailand decreased but supplies from Vietnam and India increased. compared to 0. Table 4. Denmark (4. although these have been increasing at the rate of 7.2008.9%). China was the largest supplier of dining/living room furniture with supplies of € 579 million in 2008 (306 thousand tonnes). compared to an increase of 7.8%). and an increase of 12% per annum for imports from developing countries (7. up by an annual average of 23% from € 254 million in 2004 (128 thousand tonnes).3 billion (37%) or 429 thousand tonnes.219 China (15.1% per annum over the period (5.eu • www. Germany (7. Other seats were valued at € 792 million (23%) or 201 thousand tonnes.143 596 888 2. Supplies from all the leading Asian suppliers increased over the period.5%). DC* DC* 64. up by the equivalent of 20% each year from € 560 million in 2004 (273 thousand tonnes). Vietnam (2. followed by Vietnam (€ 101 million or 49 thousand tonnes). Italy and Poland were the largest intra-EU suppliers. USA (0.4%).cbi. extra-EU supplies (excluding developing countries) have decreased by 36% year on year (42% by volume).2%). share in % of value 2004 2006 2008 Leading suppliers to EU in 2008 € mln € mln € mln Share in % 3.3% by volume). India (2. 47% of the imports of this product group were supplied from within the EU.4%) Share (%) Total EU. Seats with wooden frames were valued at € 936 million (27%) or 323 thousand tonnes.eu/disclaimer Page 32 of 52 . Seats convertible into beds were valued at € 458 million (13%) or 176 thousand tonnes.9%).

which decreased.3%). of which from Intra EU 198 Italy (8.4%). Table 4.6%).eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. India (0.eu/disclaimer Page 33 of 52 . Hong Kong (0. They are now valued at € 139 million (40 thousand tonnes).6 Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. with the exception of Vietnam. Italy and Germany were the largest intra-EU suppliers.7% of imports by value (2% by volume).7%).399 205 1. compared to unchanged for the product group as a whole (15% increase by volume). 36% of the imports of this product group were supplied from within the EU.2.6 EU imports and leading suppliers for non-upholstered seating 2004 .2% per annum over the period (44% by volume).4% by volume).1%) Source: Eurostat (2009) *Developing countries 35. with the exception of Morocco. although these have been increasing at the rate of 1.2%). Imports of rattan seats are in decline.cbi.2%) Share (%) Total EU. DC* 34 30 19 Taiwan (1. Philippines (1.2%). India (0.3%). of which from Intra EU Extra EU ex. Hong Kong (0. Morocco (0. Rattan furniture other than seats accounted for 75% of all rattan imports by value (€ 412 million) and 83% by volume (190 thousand tonnes).2%). share in % of value 2004 2006 2008 Leading suppliers to EU in 2008 € mln € mln € mln Share in % 550 608 551 189 216 Share (%) Total EU.453 1. Turkey (1.4%). Over the period.101 1. Philippines (0. France (2. Developing countries remain the principle source of supply.9%).5%).2008. USA (0.6 3.cbi. down by 10% per year from € 184 million in 2004 (61 thousand tonnes). as shown in Table 4. Vietnam (6. The Netherlands (4. Of the non-Asian suppliers. Table 4.6%). most likely developing countries.3%).4 Source: Eurostat (2009) *Developing countries Rattan furniture Rattan furniture represented the smallest of the selected product groups.9%). Indonesia was the second largest developing country supplier in 2008 (€ 123 million or 41 thousand tonnes).3%).eu • www.628 2.1%).8%).5% per annum for imports from developing countries (4. which was unchanged. Turkey (1.194 333 1.3%). Switzerland (0.1%).5%).9%).3%).9%) 101 Taiwan (0. extra-EU supplies (excluding developing countries) decreased by 14% year on year (4.4%). Turkey increased.8%).7% by volume).386 1. Germany (5. The Netherlands (3.3%).2008. Norway (0.3%).0%) Extra EU ex. Supplies from all the leading Asian developing countries decreased. share in % of value 2004 2006 2008 Leading suppliers to EU in 2008 € mln € mln € mln Share in % 2. while the value of supplies from Croatia and Ukraine decreased.5%). although significant supplies from the Netherlands indicate re-exports from other countries.1%).5%). Malaysia (1. Spain (4. Ukraine (0.1%) DC* 327 362 334 China (27.5 60. Indonesia (3.5%). Poland (6.4%).CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU with the exception of Indonesia and Malaysia. USA (0.990 3. Vietnam (6.4%). Malaysia (0. Thailand (1. up by the equivalent of 22% each year from € 68 million in 2004 (42 thousand tonnes). Supplies from the leading non-Asian suppliers increased.7 EU imports and leading suppliers for rattan furniture 2004 .741 China (33. Indonesia (22. Canada (0.9 3. Poland (3.5%). China was the largest supplier of rattan furniture with supplies of € 150 million in 2008 (90 thousand tonnes). Brazil (0. accounting for 1. Supplies from Vietnam were valued at € 36 million (16 thousand tonnes). Thailand (0.7%). DC* DC* 46.611 Italy (8. Croatia (0. and 0.2%) 1.0 50. Germany (5. Russia (0.

3% by value (6. other wooden furniture increased by an annual average of 7.179 760 534 399 370 296 183 176 72 44 108 97 113 2. € million / 1.7% by volume to 2.5 11. other wooden furniture represented 54% of the group (€ 3 billion). This made it one of the strongest performing groups.3 12.eu/disclaimer Page 34 of 52 .9 6. 4.657 737 402 340 245 190 196 132 85 82 18 23 54 43 25 21 11 6 9 12 3 3 2006 value volume 7.000 tonnes 2004 value volume Total EU United Kingdom Germany France The Netherlands Spain Italy Belgium Denmark Sweden Slovenia Poland Greece Ireland Austria 6.9 22. we are still able to provide some information on the important other wooden furniture sub-group.8 5.8 5.2 million tonnes) compared with 2004. 21% of all domestic furniture imports by value (24% by volume) to the EU came from developing countries.9 12.397 807 488 402 261 260 243 176 129 121 28 92 81 50 41 Average annual % change in value 8.818 712 388 349 215 254 216 133 107 102 27 47 54 64 24 2008 value volume 8.5 -1.478 955 687 618 510 433 291 282 253 177 175 121 106 3.0 42. In 2004.0 17.cbi. Germany (€ 388 million or 174 thousand tonnes) and Italy (€ 365 million or 148 thousand tonnes) were the leading intra-EU suppliers.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Other metal furniture was valued at € 1. In 2008.5 million tonnes).2 28.4 -3. By 2008.7 Romania Bulgaria 17 40 24 16 23 25 7 5 10 5 34 14 28 19 22 6 9 18 28 18 14 9 10 3 5 93 75 65 48 33 32 54.3 9.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Additional comment on other furniture Although the lack of Eurostat data on some of this group (metal and plastic) makes a proper analysis impossible.5 8. 26% by value (30% by volume) of all EU imports came from developing countries.156 1.8.8 Imports of domestic furniture from developing countries 2004-2008.0 Finland Czech Republic Cyprus Portugal Hungary Slovakia Lithuania 8 9 40 34 27 22 21 20 22 17 13 10 11 9 51.471 1.100 1.3 4.9% to € 4 billion (9.3 30. Note that imports by product group for individual Member States can be found in the CBI market surveys covering the market in individual countries.2 Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.5 million tonnes).5 37.3 The role of developing countries The role of developing countries in supplying domestic furniture to the EU has become increasingly important.3% by volume) to reach € 8.176 816 526 588 423 324 248 235 225 89 119 155 66 62 34 2. Table 4.648 1.cbi.0 4.9 billion (800 tonnes) and other plastic furniture was valued at € 593 million (216 thousand tonnes).3 5.5 billion in 2008. Poland (€ 469 million or 303 thousand tonnes). imports from developing countries to the EU increased by an annual average of 8. China (€ 609 million or 323 thousand tonnes). This average increase hides significant differences between countries.858 1. Vietnam (€ 213 million or 101 thousand tonnes) and Indonesia (€ 189 million or 75 thousand tonnes) were the leading DC suppliers.4 billion total in 2004 (2.0 12.946 1.0 44.eu • www. Of the € 5. As shown in Table 4. 64% of value (66% of volume) was intra-EU and 32% of value (30% of volume) came from developing countries. or 60% by volume (1.

These increases are explained by increases in their domestic market. The UK has been the leading importer for some time. The product groups that are increasing their imports most rapidly from developing countries are upholstered seats and kitchen furniture. China dominated the supply from developing countries. but also due to the fact that their economies have performed generally better than many other EU countries over the period. Indonesia (8% of supplies worth € 675 million or 243 thousand tonnes) registered a 5% annual decrease.cbi.6 billion) and 59% by volume (2 million tonnes).eu/disclaimer Page 35 of 52 .6% by volume. Lithuania and Poland. The largest increases were experienced by Latvia. Finland.7% of the total by value and 3.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 2004 value volume Latvia Estonia Malta Luxembourg Source: Eurostat (2009) 2 3 5 3 2 1 2 1 2006 value volume 8 9 7 2 5 4 3 1 2008 value volume 19 13 8 3 12 7 4 1 Average annual % change in value 70.9 indicates the relative importance of the different product groups for developing countries. This represented an annual increase of 17% in value (12% by volume). Germany.7 0. Only Hungary of the new Member States experienced a decrease in their imports from developing countries. the Netherlands) accounted for 60% (58% by volume) of all EU imports from developing countries. Turkey (€ 452 million). the only other country also to register an overall decrease in imports over the period. Table 4. Rattan furniture and nonupholstered seats have the highest proportion of imports from developing countries. Sweden and Denmark. 9% of the total by value and 8. However. down from 67% (65% by volume) in 2004. France. with India increasing but Thailand decreasing supplies.0 The top four importers (UK. 3.2 44. Romania. Bulgaria. This compared with € 228 million (96 thousand tonnes) in 2004. accounting for 55% by value (€ 4. It is clear that the dominance of supplies from China is increasing.2%. Vietnam (8. The poorest performing original Member State was Austria. Figures in brackets indicate the proportion of the total that developing countries represent. Thailand and India were the next two leading Asian suppliers. with volumes similar to those of Germany and France combined. large increases were also experienced by four of the EU15 Member States. Spain was the fifth largest importer and increased its imports by more than these other four countries. Estonia. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. All other new Member States experienced above average increases.3 11. Slovakia and the Czech Republic. South Africa (€ 243 million). Imports by the twelve newest Member States were valued at € 765 million (292 thousand tonnes) in 2008. although kitchen furniture still accounts for a very small proportion of imports from developing countries.cbi. Greece. as well as Slovenia. Hence the significance of the new Member States as import destinations has grown significantly over the period. Malaysia (4% of supplies worth € 342 million or 182 thousand tonnes) registered an increase of 1.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.6% by volume. Brazil (€ 234 million) and Croatia (€ 213 million) were the leading non-Asian DC suppliers.2% of supplies worth € 694 million or 313 thousand tonnes) registered a 12% annual increase.eu • www.

2004-2008. Romania.9 EU imports from developing countries of domestic furniture by product group 2004 .4 1.9% over the same period.8 (32%) (31%) 1. up from 5.652 541 21. This had increased in 2008 to account for 75% of all exports by value (80% by volume).6% in value. Denmark and Austria in particular.6% higher by value (8% lower by volume) than EU imports in 2008.568 411 9.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Table 4.528 8.490 832 1.2008.5 (61%) (68%) 53 27 14.817 (21%) (24%) (24%) (27%) Non-upholstered seats 1.4 Exports The EU accounts for over 40% of world exports of domestic furniture.255 1.578 570 In 2004.100 2.126 572 (27%) (33%) (33%) (32%) Dining/living room 888 446 1. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.705 519 34.454 6.000 tonnes 2004 value volume 2006 value volume 2008 value volume Average annual % change in value 1.cbi.723 6. exports from the EU have been increasing year on year.1 (50%) (59%) 1.2% in 2004.2 (34%) (35%) 613 337 7.10. As indicated in Table 4.325 421 (16%) (24%) (25%) (34%) Furniture parts 1.273 10.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. In 2004 they were 11% higher in value terms (7.5% lower by volume). Table 4. € million / 1. the Czech Republic and Lithuania.eu/disclaimer Page 36 of 52 .282 305 (12%) (9%) (12%) (11%) Other furniture* 1.930 516 32.655 24. as well as decreases by the UK.905 1.10 EU exports of domestic furniture. Exports of domestic furniture to developing countries were increasing faster than to any other part of the world. intra-EU exports accounted for 74% of all exports by value (76% by volume). Ireland and Portugal have been offset by significant increases by Poland.6% of all EU exports. Germany. EU exports were 6.cbi.1 (14%) (14%) 1. followed by Germany.827 1.3 (26%) (30%) 1. there was an annual average volume fall of 4.804 10. Exports to developing countries represented just 6.290 648 -18. Spain.3 (3%) (4%) 2006 and 2008 2008 value volume Total EU 6.eu • www. France and Denmark. Italy was the leading exporter.386 560 (42%) (46%) (53%) (49%) Upholstered seats 754 243 1.707 10.657 7.741 662 12. India and Brazil. although they have fallen from a high point in 2007. DC* DC* Source: Eurostat (2009) *Developing countries 32.6 7.5 (29%) (28%) 334 156 0.101 488 1.397 8.156 2. Although extra-EU exports fell by an annual average 1.000 tonnes 2004 value volume 2006 value volume Average annual % change in value 8.043 6.513 24. of which to Intra-EU Extra-EU ex.135 549 (24%) (27%) (30%) (31%) Bedroom 459 275 437 227 (21%) (17%) (22%) (22%) Rattan 327 132 362 159 (59%) (46%) (60%) (66%) Kitchen 31 19 47 25 (3%) (4%) (3%) (4%) Source: Eurostat (2009) * no data for other metal or plastic furniture in 4.471 3. Belgium.481 25.051 7.485 2. Decreases by Italy.731 1.380 1. € million / 1.219 614 8. Poland.4 Total EU.177 7. The major explanation for this was the growth of imports by large emerging economies such as China.7 -1.7 (31%) (42%) 1.105 223 1. Slovakia.

6 billion). Although there has been alot of pressure on these products from lower priced products made of other materials. There are also growing opportunities for all furniture products that are made with a combination of materials.9 billion). furniture for storage and furniture that can also have a use as home office equipment.4 billion). The Scandinavian economies have been booming and have been taking in many more imports to support their growing domestic demand.5 Opportunities and threats Imports into the EU have been rising ahead of the growth in EU consumer markets. + Opportunities and threats can also be seen in the relative position of DCs in each of the EU Member States. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.Furniture parts is the largest product group by some distance. there seems to be a relationship between Tunisia and Morocco. nonupholstered seating (€ 2. * note that exports of other furniture may also be understated due to the absence of Eurostat data for other metal and plastic furniture. + While China dominates DC supply in many product groups. Bulgaria and Romania. other furniture* (€ 4. or 36% of exports.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. for example between Indonesia or Malaysia and Vietnam. The newest members. Each of these sub-categories represent some of the fastest growing market segments in the EU. dining and living room and rattan furniture imports have been growing at lower rates.9 billion). many of whom perceive this category to be of low value. What is an opportunity for one exporter becomes a threat for another. Hungary has taken more imports from other EU sources rather than developing countries. +/-The key long-term trend that will provide an opportunity for DC exporters is the changing dynamic in production in and between some of the main EU markets and the transfer of production to low-wage economies overseas.eu • www. as one of finding new EU markets.cbi. . but developing country exporters are poorly represented here.Developing country exporters need to take care that their already strong volume position is not exploited further by EU buyers. where on occasion one country has increasing supplies to the EU while the other has falling supplies. and imports from developing countries are growing at a faster rate than the market as a whole. Other examples of this are also apparent within Asia.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU In terms of product groups.5 billion). as well as EU consumers looking for higher levels of finish and comfort in some of their domestic furniture purchases. . The upholstered seating category has experienced rapid increases in growth from developing countries. Here DC exporters already dominate volume imports. dining and living room furniture (€ 3. This is especially true for manufacturers of rattan furniture. The import figures show quite clearly how patterns of trade seem to shift between countries.4 billion) and rattan furniture (€ 0. Most of this trade is between EU Member States. usually wood and a synthetic compatible material. This is explained by increasing capacity by some developing country producers to produce furniture with higher levels of finish and detail.eu/disclaimer Page 37 of 52 . as you might expect have shown some of the greatest level of increases in imports from DCs. EU buyers always appreciate high quality. The issue for many DC exporters is as much one of competing with other DC exporters. furniture parts was the largest group. + Opportunities in the other furniture category will also include multi-functional furniture. followed by upholstered seating (€ 5. 4. kitchen furniture (€ 2. particularly small cabinets and cupboards.6 billion). For example.cbi. there are still opportunities for high quality suppliers of other furniture. valued at € 12. Work is needed to improve the perceived value of rattan products in the eyes of EU consumers. Growth rates are above average but the share of imports is low. Note that not all new Member States have provided opportunities. bedroom furniture (€ 2. + All of the selected product groups are growing. who may view certain DC suppliers purely as a source of low cost imports. but the category is not performing well.2 billion. although bedroom. and increases in imports from developing countries have been increasing at more than double the average rate of increase.

ec.cbi.europa.eu/ go to: trade statistics Eurostat – official statistical office of the EU http://epp.eu.eurostat.pdf • Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. go to ‘themes’ on the left side of the home page go to ‘external trade’ go to ‘data – full view’ go to ‘external trade .6 • • Useful sources EU Expanding Exports Helpdesk http://exporthelp.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 4.eu • www.eds-destatis.de/en/database/download/Handbook_Comext_Database.cbi.eu/disclaimer Page 38 of 52 .eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.europa.detailed data’ Understanding eurostat: Quick guide to easy comext http://www.

990 CzK (€ 154. as well as differences between the same retailers in different countries. indicating greater market integration in this area.15). It covered 140 comparable products of all types of furniture. Hungary 49.33) and £116. Slovakia € 199 and € 165. Italy € 219 and € 159. Prices within the Member States that share the common currency (Euro) are more transparent. Greece and Cyprus € 229 and € 179. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Denmark. The Netherlands. +0.eu • www. the following prices were found around the EU for the same products: • In the Eurozone.68. After relatively high inflation during most of 2008.48).98).8% for all items. Portugal € 197. Part of the reason could also be different costs of supply.54) and 1. Estonia.900 Ft (€ 183. A survey by Eurostat (published in April 2007) provides a good comparison of furniture prices around the EU. The leading retailer IKEA is represented in many EU countries.93).1 Price developments Price developments Consumer prices Prices of furniture increased by 2. Belgium.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 5 5. Czech Republic 4.12) and 3. France. Sweden. Denmark 1.95 Pln (€ 114. Italy. France € 179 and € 159. Poland. There was even less dispersion for ‘specified brands’. United Kingdom £151. Poland 699 Pln (€ 160. Dispersion was much greater in the new Member States. Austria. Czech Republic. • Outside the Eurozone.76) and 39. Sweden 2.eu/disclaimer Page 39 of 52 . It concluded that there are wide price disparities between countries.43).Slovenia.1% in 2007. Household expenditure on furniture represents approximately 2. It included ‘specified brands’ that have a reputation throughout the EU. • Countries in the low range in descending order . Exchange rates at 6th July 2009.595Kr (€ 146.cbi. Using IKEA’s Hemnes bed and Leksvik dining table.545Kr (€ 234. In some cases this has led to an increase in cross-border shopping. Specific details can be found in the individual country reports.7% in 2006.64. and ‘brandless items’. The countries can be divided into three distinct clusters: • Countries with a furniture price index above average (>105% and <115% of the EU25 average) in descending order – the United Kingdom.3% in 2005). the position in 2009 is expected to reveal a narrowing differential between the all-price index and furniture prices. and +1. Lithuania. Bulgaria. as it is relatively easy for consumers to compare the prices of furniture items across borders.990 CzK (€ 193. This EU27 average hides significant differences between countries.5% of total household consumption. Spain € 189 and € 159. Finland. Portugal. Slovakia. but this varies between 1% and 5% depending on the country.900 Ft (€ 146. which tend to be at the lower end of the market. inflation has fallen significantly in 2009. ‘well known brands’ which relate to quality products with a good local reputation. Spain. Ireland. Price convergence would be expected in the Eurozone but there are still quite wide differences.69 (€ 177.42). Germany € 169 and € 159.77) and 1. Malta. Hungary. where prices are half that of the EU average. Austria € 199 and € 159. Greece. Germany. • Countries in the mid-range (>85% to 105%) in descending order – Cyprus.99). The Netherlands € 169 and € 159. Price dispersion was lowest in the EU15 area. This example illustrates on the one hand how prices converge in parts of the Eurozone while there are greater price differences outside this area. However.47 (€ 136.299 Dkk (€ 174. Romania 945 Rol (€ 225. Luxembourg.34 and € 157.6% in the EU27 area in 2008.86) and 575 Rol (€ 137.75) and 499. This compared with a rate of 3. Finland € 229 and € 139.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. This was higher than furniture price increases in previous years (+2.599Dkk (€ 214. Within each country there are wide variations between prices in different market segments. Latvia and Romania a distant last. Belgium € 209 and € 159.cbi.

Imports can change abruptly because of re-exports to neighbouring countries.4 4. Average prices decreased particularly in Austria. Import prices should be interpreted with care.98 2.30 3. the newest members.49 ave. which have been increasing at a faster rate than intra-EU import prices.15 4. Table 5.52 2008 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 2.2 Developments in EU average import prices by product group 2004 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 3. Slovakia.39 2. This is in part explained by a narrowing of the price differential between intra-EU and DC import prices. This was to be expected.cbi.eu • www.48 3.48 2.3 2.1 Developments in EU average import prices 2004 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 2.87 4.13 2.06 2. annual % change Total EU furniture parts imports Developing countries Total EU upholstered seating imports Developing countries Total EU non-upholstered seating imports Developing countries Total EU dining & living room furniture imports Developing countries Total EU rattan imports Developing countries Source: Eurostat (2009) 0. as changes in imports do not reflect the demand in these countries.99 1.21 2008 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 3.21 3.8 Table 5.4 -0.67 2.3 shows that the average price developments are different by each importing EU country.72 4. especially DC prices.4 -0.06 -2.5 1.9 2.61 2. with the exception of non-upholstered seating.88 3.53 2.64 3.0 -3.6 Table 5. Table 5.5 -6. There are different explanations.0 1.82 ave.96 2.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Import prices Import prices of furniture in the EU have been on a gradual upward trend.14 -1.17 1. Table 5.cbi.63 4. Price increases were seen in Romania and Bulgaria.1 6.88 2.89 2.10 4.2 highlights the average prices of the selected product groups.04 2.84 2. It shows that average developing country prices were still falling for each of the selected product groups.eu/disclaimer Page 40 of 52 .05 1.84 2. Portugal. the establishment or departure of manufacturers or large retailers in a particular market etc.28 2. building up stock by distribution centres for the following year.32 2006 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 2.1 shows how average import prices have increased between 2004 and 2008.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Cyprus and Malta.26 2. Prices in the new Member States from Eastern Europe were generally lower than those in the established western EU economies. annual % change Total EU imports Intra EU Developing countries Source: Eurostat (2009) 1. as their prices will rise in the next few years as their economies converge with the Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.07 2.80 3.97 2006 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 3.1 3.

77 1.thewholesaler.38 2.40 2.10 4. It is an increasing feature of some trade fairs that trade or wholesale prices are on open display. However.3 1.03 1.38 2.99 1. there may be a statistical error that explains such a high price in Slovenia.84 2.15 1.94 1.2 -3. Care needs to be taken when comparing prices.3 Developments in average import prices from developing countries in EU countries 2004 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 2.93 2.93 1.10 2.cbi.20 1.32 2.72 2.0 -13.16 1.45 2.31 1. France and Finland.8 2. You can find out about wholesale prices at trade fairs.5 5.2 2.09 2.uk/trade/distributor/Furniture_directory_of_UK_wholesale_distributors/).CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU EU average.eu/disclaimer Page 41 of 52 . as price promotions are a regular occurrence.1 1.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.17 1.46 2.03 2.25 2. Table 5.25 2.8 2.92 2.57 2. Prices can also be found at leading department stores around Europe.9 5.93 1.24 1.1 1.72 1.18 2.99 2.07 2.05 2.30 2.60 1.43 2.co.46 2006 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 3.eu • www.74 1.27 9.8 5. This trend is more apparent at the lower end of the market.91 1. The highest developing country import prices were in Slovenia.15 2.91 1. Previously prices were for individual negotiation depending on the size of the buyer.24 2.8 3.4 4.96 2.14 2.32 2.61 2.89 2.64 2008 ave price per ‘000 tonnes 3.70 2.49 1.44 2.3 2.77 ave.08 1.90 1.4 -0.30 2.3 -6.09 2.63 2.7 2. annual % change Germany Italy France United Kingdom Spain Netherlands Belgium Denmark Sweden Finland Austria Ireland Greece Portugal Poland Slovakia Czech Republic Hungary Slovenia Cyprus Lithuania Latvia Luxembourg Estonia Malta Romania Bulgaria Source: Eurostat (2009) 0.19 1.9 4.13 2.2 Useful sources The widespread use of the Internet makes it much easier to compare retail prices.27 2. Take care not to compare the same product when one is on promotion and one is not.45 1.24 2.2 -6. such as El Corte Ingles Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.40 2. followed by Germany.3 -2.89 4.1 -6.43 2.17 8.0 22.cbi.41 2. There were also above average price increases in the Netherlands.61 2.97 2.17 2.66 2. A good link to wholesalers and wholesale prices in the UK is the Wholesale Suppliers Directory (http://www.21 2.05 2.58 2.62 1.18 2.2 4.18 2.34 2.0 -5.8 9.33 2.9 1.5 0.

eu/disclaimer Page 42 of 52 . or John Lewis in the UK . including furniture in EU countries: http://epp.es.http://www.http://www.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.ikea.johnlewis.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU in Spain .cbi.eu Web site giving information on retail prices of IKEA furniture items: http://www.eurostat.elcorteingles.cbi.furniture.com This bulletin covers from time to time comparative price levels of consumer goods.com. including prices: http://www.europa.eu/ • IKEA store on-line • EUROSTAT – Statistics in Focus Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.ec.eu • www. Other sources of price information are: • The EU furniture portal EU furniture portal providing links to companies with electronic stores.

Even if there is no official EU quality standard. Always check the exact requirements for the prospective market with their importers.eu/marketinfo.cbi. kiln dried. you can find in the CBI market information database a document on the international requirements in the furniture industry. durability standards have been established relating to the resistance of products – surface resistance to dry heat. For information on legislative and non-legislative requirements. Quality standards There are national quality standards for furniture.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 6 Market access requirements As a manufacturer in a developing country preparing to access EU markets. More information and addresses of standard organisations can be found in the CBI market surveys covering the market in individual EU countries.g. which reviews some important voluntary quality standards for furniture. smelled strongly or deformed quickly. As an example. cold liquids and contracting movements.cbi.eu • www. free from pest. where homes and individual rooms tend to be bigger than their European equivalents. They are able to specify the best dimensions for their customer target group. many German consumers regret their cheap furniture purchase as these items have worn out fast. you should be aware of the market access requirements of your trading partners and the EU governments. codes and management systems. These requirements are based on environmental. Northern Europeans tend to be taller than southern Europeans and so require larger furniture. but also for chairs and tables to a lesser extent. which should not be neglected. You need to comply with EU legislation and have to be aware of the additional non-legislative requirements that your trading partners in the EU might request. consumer health and safety and social concerns.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.cbi. but this is of an increasing importance as e. splitting and from full grown trees from well-managed forests. click on the search button and click on market access requirements. This will also depend on the furniture item and style. People are generally becoming bigger and heavier. go to ‘Search CBI database’ at http://www. Quality. furniture sizes are smaller than those typically sold in the USA. buyers in most EU countries expect woods of an excellent quality e. Requirements are demanded through legislation and through labels. The body sizes of Europeans are changing. For example. particularly for beds. select domestic furniture and the EU in the category search. the following list indicates available sizes of furniture in the Dutch market: Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. as well as social and environmental related market requirements are of growing importance in international trade and are often requested by European buyers through labels. This has become an issue for furniture manufacturers. cracking. due to the use of woods from too young trees. The issue of weight affects both the size and structure of seating. In general. Furniture sizes The dimensions for domestic furniture vary considerably from country to country within the EU. codes of conduct and management systems.eu/disclaimer Page 43 of 52 . Within the furniture industry.g.

the packaging is extremely important because large quantities are usually involved and buyers want to be able to transfer goods from the port of destination straight into the retail outlet. therefore it is very important that close attention is paid to seaworthy and solid packaging.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Table 6.cbi.as well as sales promotion packaging. It is very important to be aware that requirements vary from country to country and to obtain information on the exact packaging needs directly from the prospective importer or buyer. that it should be considered whether returnable systems could be used on a much greater scale than before. In most cases.cbi.1 Item Typical furniture dimensions in the Netherlands Feature Dimensions / cms Couches/lounge chairs Seat height from ground Seat depth Total depth: chair Width: one seater Width: two seater Width: three seater Seat height from ground Height Round table diameter Square table diameter Rectangular/oval table.eu • www. • On the other hand. Apart from the safety aspects and protection against damage. length Width insert leaves Height Round table diameter Square table diameter Rectangular table diameter Total height Depth Width per unit Height per unit Single bed diameter Double bed diameter Couch bed (convertible) diameter Couch bed seat height Height Width of units Depth 32-45 40-55 80-100 80-110 160-210 200-230 43-47 72-76 105-130 80-120 80-95 140-230 40-50 35-60 40-100 60-100 60-75 x 115-145 30-50 35-50 60-90 40-120 80-90 x 200-220 140-200 x 200-220 120-140 x 200 40-47 180-235 40-60-80-100-120 55-60 Dining room chairs Dining tables Occasional tables Bookcase.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. the focus of packaging is definitely on environmentally friendly transport . Furniture items can easily be damaged in transit by dampness or mishandling and must therefore be packed carefully and securely. among other things. rattan furniture only needs to be wrapped in corrugated paper at the corners or in damp-proof wrapping. width Rectangular/oval table. This means. there should be no need for buyers to repair or to change the factory packing. • In the case of RTA furniture.eu/disclaimer Page 44 of 52 . Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. wall unit Beds Wardrobes Packaging Deliveries from developing countries generally have a long distance to go before reaching their destinations.

org.6% for seats and furniture of cane. see the document on what exporters need to know on the CBI website .eu/marketinfo. the Blue Angel . The website of the European Commission also has information on specific EU countries at http://ec. Österreichische Umweltzeichen in Austria .htm. has been in force since 2007. Tariffs Up-to-date information on import tariffs and an updated list of least developed countries can be obtained from the Customs Authorities in Rotterdam in the Netherlands.in Germany. including the Nordic Swan in Nordic countries .eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.cbi.and ÖkoControl . Click on ‘Business’ and on ‘Imports’ where you will have to mention the HS code of the furniture item concerned . through their online system. Anti-dumping duties on hardboard from Russia and parts of Eastern Europe have been lifted. known as the Integrated Tariff of the European Communities (TARIC).cbi.http://www.http://www. Milieukeur in the Netherlands http://www.fsc.marquenf. More information on tariffs and quotas can be found at http://exporthelp.europa.and Marque NF Environment in France .org/ep/packit.http://www. The global furniture trade is rather liberal and therefore most furniture items are free from duties.nu.eu/taxation_customs/index_en.htm. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Labelling With regards to labels there are forest certification schemes of which the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is most widely recognised .intracen.nl.oekocontrol. For more information on REACH.org.eu/disclaimer Page 45 of 52 .a detailed list of HS codes can be found in Appendix A. but the new regulations on chemical substances affect leather goods. Environmental legislation Details of how to find legislative requirements are mentioned above.http://www.nl .http://www.cbi.http://www. However especially in southern EU countries.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Additional information on packaging can be found at the website of ITC on export packaging: http://www. the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is increasingly gaining support from the furniture industry . The new EU regulation on chemical substances.eu • www. PEFC has 35 independent national forest certification systems in its membership. Quota There are no quantitative restrictions for imports of furniture. Import duty for kitchen furniture.pefc. at http://www.at.http://www.umweltzeichen.svanen.de . Many EU Member States have labelling systems for furniture.com . this scheme promotes forests to be managed sustainably by providing an assurance mechanism to buyers of wood and furniture. and should be noted carefully.com.blauer-engel. and furniture parts is 2.douane.milieukeur.7%. called REACH. The PEFC was specifically developed in 1999 for small forest owners in EU countries. Similar to the FSC.europa/eu. osier or bamboo.http://www. while it is 5.

eu/disclaimer Page 46 of 52 . Once the trend is clear it is important to know which target group in which country is involved. Consider the implications of the opportunity How will you design and produce these products? Will they be standalone products.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU 7 Opportunity or threat ? An overview of the general opportunities and threats are given at the end of Chapters 1. For example. but of your company’s capabilities as well. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. You have to organise your company in such a way.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. refer to CBI’s Export guidelines for domestic furniture.cbi. which have the most affluent population. and growth in one segment may take sales from another segment. but can be a threat to another. every listed opportunity becomes a threat for your company if you are not able to incorporate it in your product line and exploit it. 2 and 4 in this EU survey. If not. However. you may discover that the best opportunities for these type of cabinets are in EU markets. You need to ask yourself if you have good contacts in these markets. thereby putting you at a disadvantage. are you confident that you can develop such contacts? You also need to be confident that you can develop bedroom cabinets for these markets that will be of interest to both the trade and consumers. A given trend offers an opportunity to one company. you should find out whether this trend applies to all EU markets. you may have good contacts in the trade in Greece. the more likely more of your competitors will also be looking at the same opportunity. to make it easier to translate the opportunities into successful trading. The domestic furniture market has its limitations. that you can adapt to market preferences and produce attractive products at competitive prices. hence highly risky. Conversely. or just to a selected number. you will then know whether the country markets are suitable for you as export markets. others are very rapid. a couple of things turned out to be crucial for sustainable success: • Design quality • Product quality • Competitive pricing • Continuous customer communication For more information on these. development of home office furniture can take sales away from dining room furniture. but you find out that this trend is not so strong in that country. design and service specifications that your competitors will provide? An opportunity can be a threat In short. It is particularly important to be aware of trends when they change quickly. it is important to know the trends. It is therefore important not only to have a clear view of the market. Developing country exporters need to be in a position to anticipate and react quickly to these developments. or will they be part of a range that includes other bedroom items? Will the production of this new product line impact on your other production of other items? Have you properly costed the implications of pursuing this opportunity? Which trade channel will you use to try to sell this product? Do you know a suitable importer or wholesaler that you can trust? What time scale will you be working to in order to optimise the opportunity presented by this product trend? Do you have a product design already developed? Have you protected the design from copying by competitors? The greater the opportunity.eu • www. With this information. Discovering opportunities A good example would be the current trend for technology built into bedroom cabinets. For example. Although some trends are slow moving. In interviews with successful DC exporters. Specific opportunities in each EU market can be found in Chapters 1 and 3 of the CBI market surveys on individual countries. To analyse its potential for yourself.cbi. How confident are you that you can match the quality. because other companies will.

Seats. although some items may be declared in import figures as office furniture. both in finished and semi-finished form. cotton etc. dressing tables. drawer unit. It specifically excludes the contract sector.. shelf systems. filing cabinets. synthetic material.Dining sets (tables and chairs). kitchen tables and chairs. being produced in large volumes and at low cost.cbi. hall-stands. armchairs. seats convertible into beds. multiplex and MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard). schools. reclining chairs. Other furniture . coffee tables. hospitals. chests of drawers. especially in the low to medium end of the market. The figures involved are small. The supply is dominated by Italy and Germany. bamboo or similar material Metal Plastic / synthetic Stone Glass Combination of materials Furniture by style • • • • • Classic Colonial Rustic / country Contemporary Modern / avant garde RTA Furniture The majority of furniture sold in the EU market is in ready-assembled form.Armchairs.Fitted cabinets and kitchen units.eu/disclaimer Page 47 of 52 .Bathroom furniture such as storage cabinets. Although kitchen furniture is a sizeable segment in the EU furniture market.Desks. offices. chairs. baskets etc. Kitchen furniture is often made in Eastern European countries and the competition is on price and on short lead times. although it is a growing and important segment of furniture used in the home. Most furniture items are made of capital-intensive material such as chipboard.Parts of furniture or seats. mirrors. couches. wardrobes (fitted or free-standing). which is excluded from this survey.eu • www. plywood. bedside tables. integrated workstations. stools.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Appendix A Product groups Product characteristics The products covered in this survey are domestic or household furniture items. headboards. Furniture is usually divided by function into the following major groups: Product groups Upholstered seating Most common items . furniture can be also defined by material content or by style: Furniture by raw material • • • • • • • Wood Cane. television/ video/ music system storage units. Home office furniture* . wool.Occasional furniture like small tables. desks. Bedroom furniture .Cupboards. sofas. Furniture parts . which includes furniture for civil aviation. room dividers. hotels and other similar purposes. Dining and living room . divans.Beds. . also including semi-finished furniture. In addition to its function. footstools. Non-upholstered seating . bookcases and wall units. . In most EU countries.cbi. furniture sideboards.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. rocking chairs. Kitchen furniture . osier. also known as SOHO (Small Office Home Office). Antique and other second-hand furniture has been excluded. dressers. free-standing pieces such as moveable trolleys and butcher blocks. * Note that home office furniture is classified in consumer terms as domestic furniture. seating elements upholstered with leather. On the other Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. good after sales service and are able to keep up with fast changes in designs. newly built homes come complete with fitted kitchen and appliances. as well as garden furniture. who offer short lead times. it is covered only briefly in this survey.

convertible into beds Seats with wooden frames Seats with metal frames Other seats Kitchen furniture. This is a survey based on products whose definitions are standardised across the EU to allow comparability between the Member States’ data. including aircraft seats Metal parts of furniture Wooden parts of furniture Other parts of furniture Rattan furniture Statistical product classification Prodcom and Combined nomenclature (CN) In this survey two different sets of statistical data are used.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. This category is also referred to as ready-to-assemble (RTA) furniture. But) stimulated sales of furniture bought for self-assembly by the consumer. Both sets have been provided by Eurostat. of wood Wooden bedroom furniture Metal beds Other wooden furniture Other metal furniture Other plastic furniture Seats of cane.000 products that are assigned to some 250 industries (sub-classes) as defined by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC).eu • www. of wood Wooden bedroom furniture (See below) Other wooden furniture Other metal furniture. flat-pack or take-away furniture and is often contemporary style furniture. Prodcom covers some 7. the statistical body of the EU. convertible into beds Seats with wooden frames Seats with metal frames Other seats Wooden units for fitted kitchens Other wooden kitchen furniture Dining & living room furniture (excl seats).eu/disclaimer Page 48 of 52 . imports and Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www.cbi. Furniture product groups according to CN and Prodcom codes CN CODE Upholstered seats 940161 940171 Non-upholstered seats 940140 940169 940179 Kitchen furniture 940180 94034010 94034090 Dining & living room furniture Bedroom furniture Other furniture 94036010 940350 94032091 94036090 94032099 94037090 940150 940380 Furniture parts 94019030 94019080 94039010 94039030 94039090 DESCRIPTION Upholstered seats with wooden frames Upholstered seats with metal frames Seats. osier. osier. from 1970 onwards the expansion of IKEA and other furniture chain stores (MFI. bamboo or similar Furniture of cane.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU hand. Prodcom data contains production. The single term ‘RTA furniture’ has been used throughout this survey to describe this category. bamboo or similar Wooden parts of seats Parts of seats of other materials Metal parts of furniture Wooden parts of furniture Other parts of furniture 36141309 36141100 36141439 36111230 36141450 36111410 36111430 36141530 36141550 36141590 PRODCOM 36111259 36111179 36111210 36111290 36111190 36111309 36131050 36131090 36141250 36141230 DESCRIPTION Upholstered seats with wooden frames (including three piece suites) Upholstered seats with metal frames Seats. metal or plastic Wooden parts of seats Parts of seats of other materials.cbi. bamboo or similar Furniture of materials other than wood. The term Prodcom is derived from PRODucts of the European COMmunity. inc metal beds Other plastic furniture Seats of cane. fitted Other wooden kitchen furniture Dining & living room furniture (excl seats). osier. The first set is derived from Prodcom.

trade within the EU is generally underestimated. the information used in CBI market surveys is obtained from a variety of sources.cbi.000. but it is typically about € 100. This Combined Nomenclature contains the goods classification prescribed by the EU for international trade statistics. The CN is an 8-digit classification for a total of 9. The Harmonised System (HS) that consists of three 2-digit levels (HS2.eu • www.eu/disclaimer Page 49 of 52 . As a consequence. In this survey CN data are used to indicate imports and exports. It puts limitations to in-depth interpretation of relations between consumption. statistical surveying is only compulsory for exporting and importing firms whose trade exceeds a certain annual value. Based on this data apparent consumption can be calculated as follows: apparent consumption = production + imports . HS4 and HS6) is further specified in the CN classification. Furthermore.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU exports. The second set is the trade data based on the Combined Nomenclature. this puts limitations to in-depth interpretation and of the possible relationships between import and export figures on the one hand and consumption and production figures on the other. extreme care must be taken in the qualitative use and interpretation of quantitative data. The CN classification given differs from the product groups and products mentioned in the paragraphs above. Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. The abbreviation CN stands for Combined Nomenclature.cbi.500 products/commodities. More than 179 countries and economies use the system.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.exports. HS was developed by the World Customs Organisation (WCO). In the case of intra-EU trade. The threshold varies considerably from country to country. although figures for trade between the EU and the rest of the world are accurately represented. Statistical data: limitations Trade figures quoted in CBI market surveys must be interpreted and used with extreme caution. production and trade figures within one country and between different countries. Therefore.

the Netherlands.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Appendix B Introduction to the EU market The European Union (EU) is the current name for the former European Community. More information on cultural differences can be found in Chapter 3 of CBI’s export manual ‘Exporting to the EU (2006)’. Spain. Monetary unit: Euro On 1 January 1999. Ten new countries joined the EU in May 2004.htm or the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia http://en. the Euro (€) is the basic currency unit used to indicate value. unless otherwise stated. the United Kingdom and Sweden have decided not to participate in the Euro.) and of building relationships. Cultural awareness is a critical skill in securing success as an exporter.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Italy. In CBI market surveys.joined the EU. Negotiations are in progress with a number of other candidate Member States. body language etc.wikipedia.eu/disclaimer Page 50 of 52 .com/ Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. Slovakia is the latest country to adopt the Euro. the EU is referred to as the EU27. For exchange rates of EU currencies in €. Denmark. General information on the EU can also be found at the official EU website http://europa. negotiating. Finland.oanda. Germany. Belgium. and also significantly increased its complexity. and Portugal. Since 2002 Euro coins and banknotes replaced national currency in these countries. presentations. Since January 1995 the EU has consisted of 15 Member States. please visit http://www.eu/abc/governments/index_en.cbi. Be aware of differences in respect of meeting and greeting people (use of names. 2001. Luxembourg. France. Ireland. decision-making and handling conflicts. effective communication is necessary.eu • www. In this survey.cbi. joining in January 2009.org/wiki/Portal:Europe. With more people from culturally diverse backgrounds. In January 2007 two more countries – Bulgaria and Romania . Slovenia adopted the Euro in 2007 and Cyprus and Malta adopted the Euro in 2008. The enlargement of the EU has increased the size of the EU. the Euro became the legal currency within twelve EU Member States: Austria. There are also differences in dealings with hierarchy. Greece became the 12th Member State to adopt the Euro on January 1.

eu • www. Areas Haiti Panama Honduras Papua New Guinea India Paraguay Indonesia Peru Iran Philippines Iraq Rwanda Jamaica Samoa Jordan Sao Tome & Principe Kazakhstan Saudi Arabia Kenya Senegal Kiribati Serbia Korea Rep. Helena Madagascar St. Fed.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU Appendix C List of developing countries OECD DAC list . States Timor-Leste Moldova Togo Mongolia Trinidad & Tobago Montenegro Tunisia Montserrat Turkey Morocco Turkmenistan Mozambique Turks & Caicos Islands Myanmar Tuvalu Namibia Uganda Nauru Ukraine Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Wallis & Futuna Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. reference is made to the group of countries on this OECD DAC list of January 2006.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi. Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Democratic Rep. Kitts Nevis Malawi St. Sierra Leone Laos Solomon Islands Lebanon Somalia Liberia South Africa Libya Sri Lanka Macedonia St.cbi. Congo Rep. Vincent & Grenadines Maldives Sudan Mali Suriname Marshall Islands Swaziland Mauritania Syria Mauritius Tajikistan Mayotte Tanzania Mexico Thailand Micronesia.eu/disclaimer Page 51 of 52 . Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Fiji Gabon Nepal Gambia Nicaragua Georgia Niger Ghana Nigeria Grenada Niue Guatemala Oman Guinea Pakistan Guinea-Bissau Palau Guyana Palestinian Admin. Lucia Malaysia St. Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia & Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Rep. of Seychelles Kyrgyz Rep.cbi.January 2006 When referred to developing countries in the CBI market surveys.

cbi.eu/disclaimer Page 52 of 52 .eu • www.eu • Contact: marketinfo@cbi.CBI MARKET SURVEY: THE DOMESTIC FURNITURE MARKET IN THE EU CBI countries – January 2008: CBI supports exporters in the following Asian.cbi. Latin American and European (Balkan) countries: Afghanistan Albania Armenia Bangladesh Benin Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Burkina Faso Burundi Colombia Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Ethiopia Georgia Ghana Guatemala Honduras India Indonesia Jordan Kenya Kosovo Macedonia Madagascar Mali Moldova Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Nepal Nicaragua Pakistan Peru Philippines Rwanda Senegal Serbia South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Tanzania Thailand Tunisia Uganda Vietnam Zambia Source: CBI Market Information Database • URL: www. African.

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