Direct on line starter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In electrical engineering, a direct on line (DOL) or across the line starter starts electric motors by applying the full line voltage to the motor terminals. This is the simplest type of motor starter. A DOL motor starter also contain protection devices, and in some cases, condition monitoring. Smaller sizes of direct on-line starters are manually operated; larger sizes use an electromechanical contactor (relay) to switch the motor circuit. Solidstate direct on line starters also exist. A direct on line starter can be used if the high inrush current of the motor does not cause excessive voltage drop in the supply circuit. The maximum size of a motor allowed on a direct on line starter may be limited by the supply utility for this reason. For example, a utility may require rural customers to use reduced-voltage starters for motors larger than 10 kW.[1] DOL starting is sometimes used to start small water pumps, compressors, fans and conveyor belts. In the case of an asynchronous motor, such as the 3-phase squirrel-cage motor, the motor will draw a high starting current until it has run up to full speed. This starting current is commonly around six times the full load current, but may be as high as 12 times the full load current. To reduce the inrush current, larger motors will have reduced-voltage starters or variable speed drives in order to minimise voltage dips to the power supply.

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1 DOL reversing starter 2 Overload relays 3 Loss of voltage protection 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

[edit] DOL reversing starter
A reversing starter can connect the motor for rotation in either direction. Such a starter contains two DOL circuits—one for clockwise operation and the other for counterclockwise operation, with mechanical and electrical interlocks to prevent simultaneous closure.[1] For three phase motors, this is achieved by transposing any two phases. Single

A thermal overload will accommodate the brief high starting current of a motor while accurately protecting it from a running current overload. Thermal overloads have a small heating device that increases in temperature as the motor running current increases. they are resistant to casual tampering but require changing the heater coil element to match the motor rated current. When too much current passes through the heating element for too long a time. Since eutectic alloy elements are not adjustable. At a minimum this would include a thermal overload relay. If a momentary loss of supply voltage occurs. [edit] Loss of voltage protection Starters using magnetic contactors usually derive the power supply for the contactor coil from the same source as the motor supply. However since contactor coils will hold the . the contactor will open and not close again until a new start command is given. The overload relay has a normally closed contact which opens due to heat generated by excessive current flowing through the circuit. to retain a spring-loaded contact. They can also include metering and communication functions. the alloy melts and the spring releases the contact. [edit] Overload relays A starter will contain protective devices for the motor. An auxiliary contact from the contactor is used to maintain the contactor coil energized after the start command for the motor has been released.[1] Electronic digital overload relays containing a microprocessor may also be used. In one type. There are two types of thermal overload relay. This connection also provides a small degree of protection against low power supply voltage and loss of a phase. The heater coil and the action of the bi-metallic strip introduce a time delay that affords the motor time to start and settle into normal running current without the thermal overload tripping. like a solder. cutting power to the motor should it become overloaded. this prevents restarting of the motor after a power failure. The thermal overload is designed to open the starting circuit and thus cut the power to the motor in the event of the motor drawing too much current from the supply for an extended time.phase AC motors and direct-current motors require additional devices for reversing rotation. opening the control circuit and shutting down the motor. A second type of thermal overload relay uses a eutectic alloy. These devices model the heating of the motor windings by monitoring the motor current. Thermal overloads can be manually or automatically resettable depending on their application and have an adjuster that allows them to be accurately set to the motor run current. a bi-metallic strip located close to a heater deflects as the heater temperature rises until it mechanically causes the device to trip and open the circuit. especially for high-value motors.

Why Soft Starts? The 3-phase induction motor is over 100 years old and obviously many design changes and variations have appeared over the years. Auto Transformer 4. Direct-On-Line Reduced Voltage Starting: 2. This simply means an electro-mechanical switch is opened and closed to stop and start the motor. Direct-On-Line The main method of starting the AC motor is direct-on-line starting. Soft Starts 1. Star/Delta 3. this is not a primary means of protecting motors from low voltage operation. 1. However certain fundamental characteristics remain the same and it is the problems that these inherent features cause that electronic soft start aims to solve.circuit closed with as little as 80% of normal voltage applied to the coil. DOL Starting DOL Motor Start Characteristics Disadvantages Electrical .

This reduces the starting torque and current (typically 3. Star/Delta Starter .5 x FLC). The star/delta transition will produce a second current and torque peak which is almost the equivalent of having two direct-online starts.5 x full load) Increases wear on drive chain components Reduces service life of mechanical components back to top 2. Three contactors are used to first connect the motor in star and then to delta after a given time. or if it is too great the motor still starts with a pronounced snatch. Connecting the motor in star reduces the voltage applied to each winding to about 60% of the line voltage. sometimes this voltage is not ideal. This method of starting does however have the advantage of being a low cost and simple solution if its limitations can be tolerated. After a given time the motor is switched to delta connection and then runs as if direct-on-line. The major problem with this method is that the reduced voltage level is in a single stage and is fixed. Star/Delta This method requires both connections for each phase (six in all) to be taken to the starter. the torque it produces (65% of full load torque) may be too small and the motor stalls or does not give complete acceleration.• • • • High inrush current (typically 6 x full load which can cause several problems) Necessities over sizing of installation (particularly important on generator and UPS fed supplies) Limits Expansion Reduces service life of electrical components Mechanical • • • Excessive applied starting torque (typically 2. On some loads the motor sometimes almost stalls during this transition time. Its main advantages are that it is relatively simple and low cost.

An improved torque/amp ratio is achieved and starting current is typically 3 x FLC. Also once the tappings have been selected. Auto Transformer Starter Advantages • Simple operation Disadvantages .Advantages • Low cost and simple Disadvantages • • • • Torque too high – causes snatch Torque too low – motor stalls Transition peak up to 20 x In Motor can stall in transition back to top 3. Typical tappings are 50%. 70%. depending on the voltage rapping selected. followed by full voltage being applied to the motor. Auto Transformer This method uses transformer action to reduce the voltage applied to the motor and current seen by the supply. it may be necessary to change them according to changes in load parameters. The major disadvantages are size and cost. and of course the mechanical snatch at switch on is not controllable and can still cause problems. Normally the voltage is applied to the motor in voltage steps through the transformer with the taps being selected through contactors.

where fast stops can result in ‘water hammer’ and mechanical damage.• • • Poor controllability Bulky Very Expensive back to top 4. The acceleration time being dependent on the application and desired characteristics. Soft Starts The soft start is designed to apply an adjustable voltage to the motor and increase this voltage gradually over a user-selectable acceleration period. Soft Starter Advantages • • • • Reduced starting current Reduced starting torque Less mechanical stress Improved control of acceleration and deceleration .‘Soft Stop’ feature offers a smooth stop in many process industries such as pumps. The added advantage of this method of reduced voltage control is that the motor can also be stopped gradually by slowly reducing the output voltage to the .

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