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Date of conference: 2 Feb 2015

Protection

Delhi Technological University Delhi Technological University

Delhi Delhi

Jnraiphd1968@gmail.com Jeet1989ee@hotmail.com

Abstract:In this present paper design distance relay based on numerical technique

and modeling of Distance Relay has been has been developed and then the

done using MATLAB-SIMULINK. When characteristic of that relay on various faults

microprocessor technology was

implemented in the relay designing

technique it gave birth to a new type of has been drawn. Numerical relays are the

protection methodology known as combination of microprocessor technique

Numerical relay. Numerical relays can and digital signal processing.A power

interact with the peripheral devices and system is a complex network of generators,

other numerical relays also, resulting in transformers, transmission and distribution

overall economy of the protection system lines etc. Short circuits and other

equipments. A power system network and abnormalities often occurs in power system

the distance relay model has been networks and due to this short circuit heavy

developed and the response of the current flows in the equipments working in

distance relay has been verified by the system causing damage to the equipment

plotting the data generated by the relay [1]. Most of the equipments are very

on R-X diagram. The input voltage and expensive in power system, and so the

current signal from the power system whole power system can be considered as a

network contains dc offset values and very large capital investment. For optimum

higher order harmonics these are the utilization of the whole system, the system

unwanted quantities of the signal which must be working under the applicable

need to be filtered out for proper constraints of security and reliability of

functioning of the relay, Discrete Fourier supply. More fundamental, however, is that

Transform (DFT) can easily isolate these the power system should response in a safe

unwanted quantities from the signals. manner at all times. The power system may

DFT has been used for the designing of be very well designed but faults will always

the proposed distance relay. occur on a power system, and these faults

may represent a risk to life and/or property.

Keywords: In power system terminology short circuits

Power system protection, distance relay, line are commonly known as ‘Fault’. For

protection, MATLAB/SIMULINK, DFT etc. protection of these equipments from such

abnormalities we need protective

arrangements. These arrangements consist selective. Distance protection provides an

of protective relays and circuit breakers. If a excellent way of obtaining discrimination,

fault occurs in the system automatic selectivity, and speed of operation by

protective device is required to isolate the allowing trip operation up to a certain range

faulty section and keep the healthy section of distance. Unlike an over-current

in operation. If fault persist for long duration protection scheme, which does not have

it may damage some important and costly built-in backup protection, in a distance

equipment in the system. A high short protection scheme backup is provided by

circuit current may also cause fire which arranging three sets of distance protection

may damage a part of the system. During zones operating in tandem.

short circuit the system voltage reduces to a Normallydistance protection is termed as a

low level and generators may lose non-unit protection system. Unlike phase

synchronism. and neutral over-current protection, the main

A protective system includes advantage of distance protection is that its

transducers, circuit breakers and protective fault coverage of the protected circuit is

relays for working of the protective system. virtually independent of source impedance

Protective relays act as the brain of any variations. Distance protection relays are

protective system which with the help of the comparatively very simple to implement and

transducers senses the abnormalities in it is faster in operation in the fault location

power system network and provide a in protection zone. Distance relays can also

command to the circuit breaker weather to be utilized in primary and remote back-up

trip or not. In this way the work of relay is to protection in a single protection scheme.In

detect and locate a fault and provide a trip distance protection we use a number of

signal to the circuit breaker. During distance relays which measure the

occurrence of fault there occur some impedance or some components of the line

changes in the system these changes are in impedance at the relay location. The

terms of current, voltage, frequency and measured quantity is proportional to the line

phase angle. Engineers always use relay length between the location of relay and the

models for selection of the relay types which point where fault has occurred. A distance

is suitable for a particular application, and protection scheme is a non-unit system of

for the analysis of the performance of the protection. A single unit provides both

relays which appear to either operate primary and backup protection.A MHO

incorrectly or fail to operate when fault relay measures a component of admittance

occur. Instead of using actual relay in the relay |Y| ⎳θ. But its characteristic, when

field for testing, manufacturers use software plotted on impedance diagram (R-X

developed relay model designing to expedite diagram) is a circle passing through origin.

and economize the process of developing It is inherently a directional relay as it

new relays. Distance protection is so called detects the fault only in forward direction. It

because it is based on an electrical measure is clear from its circular characteristic

of distance along a transmission line to a passing through the origin, as shown in the

fault. The impedance of the transmission figure (1).

line is distributed uniformly along the

transmission line length this provides the

basis for the principle of the distance relay.

Distance relaying is considered where over

current relay is so slow to adopt or is not

waveforms then sampled at a selected

sampling frequency before being used

digitally inside distance relay. The relays

compare the setting impedance with the

measured impedance to determine if the

fault is inside or outside the protected zone.

They immediately release a trip signal when

the impedance value is inside the zone 1

impedance circle of distance relay.Post fault

power system signals contain dc offset and

harmonic components, in addition to the

Figure (1): Characteristic of MHO relay major fundamental frequency component.

Numerical relays are immerged form For conversion of analog signal to a

of digital relays because of advancement in sequence of numbers a suitable sampling

technology. Here we use mathematical rate must be used, because high frequency

algorithms for the protection functions. components which might be present in the

Distance Protection Scheme: signal could be incorrectly taken as

components of lower frequencies. The

mechanism of a high frequency component

in an input signal representing itself as low

frequency signal is called “aliasing”. It is

appearance of a high frequency signal as a

lower frequency signal that distorts the

desired signal. [1]

Since it is not possible to select a

sampling frequency that would prevent the

appearance of all high frequency

components of frequency of interest, the

Figure (2): distance protection scheme analog signals are applied to a low pass

filter. This process of band limiting of input

This is a scheme widely used for by using low pass filter removes most of the

protection of transmission and sub- high frequency components. Thus the effect

transmission lines. In distance protection we of aliasing is removed [1].

use a number of distance relays which After filtering the signal then

measure the impedance or some components sampling of the signal is done. Sampling is

of the line impedance at the relay location. the process of converting a continuous

The measured quantity is proportional to the signal, to a discrete time signal. The

line length between the location of relay and sampling rate should be selected by taking

the point where fault has occurred. A analog and digital converter into

distance protection scheme is a non-unit consideration. In order that the samples

system of protection. A single unit provides represent the analog signal uniquely

both primary and backup protection. andcontains enough information to recreate

Three phase current and voltage the original waveform, a continuous signal

waveforms must be filtered first to eliminate sampled properly. With the unique

the harmonic contents which may present collection of numerical values of samples

due to arcing of the fault. The filtered

the original waveform can be easily

recreated [2]. 𝑉𝑏

This is the technique for extracting BG 𝐼𝑏 + 3 ∗ 𝐾0 ∗ 𝐼0

the fundamental frequency components

from the complex post fault relaying 𝑉𝑐

signals. The Discrete Fourier Transform CG 𝐼𝑐 + 3 ∗ 𝐾0 ∗ 𝐼0

(DFT) of a data sequence is used to

evaluate the Fourier coefficients. In this

technique, the fundamental Fourier sine and 𝑉𝑎 𝑉𝑏 𝑉𝑐

cosine coefficients are obtained by ABC = =

𝐼𝑎 𝐼𝑏 𝐼𝑐

correlating the incoming data samples with

the stored samples of reference fundamental

sine and cosine waves respectively [3]. The Table (1): Impedance calculation formula

fundamental Fourier sine and cosine

coefficients are respectively equal to the Here A,B and C represent the three phases

real and imaginary parts of the fundamental

of the system

frequencies component. Using the DFT, the

real and imaginary components of the

fundamental frequency voltage and current

Where,

phasors are calculated.[5]

Va = phase-A voltage,

Impedance calculation Algorithm: Vb = phase-B voltage,

The formula used in the relay for the Vc = phase-C voltage,

calculation of the impedance of the line

impedance has been given in the table and Ia = phase-A current,

the proof for the formula has been given Ib = phase-B current,

there after. [3][4]

Ic = phase-C current,

I0 = zero sequence current

FAULT FORMULA 𝐼𝑎+𝐼𝑏+𝐼𝑐

TYPE = ,

3

𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑏 𝑍1+𝑍0

AB

K0 = ,

𝐼𝑎 − 𝐼𝑏 3∗𝑍1

Z0= zero sequence impedance,

𝑉𝑏 − 𝑉𝑐

BC

Z1= positive sequence impedance,

𝐼𝑏 − 𝐼𝑐

𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑐

TRANSMISSION LINE MODEL

AC 𝐼𝑎 − 𝐼𝑐

SIMULATION:

𝑉𝑎

AG

𝐼𝑎 + 3 ∗ 𝐾0 ∗ 𝐼0

2. Nominal 50 Hz

Transmission Line

frequency

13.8/ 13.8/ L

100MVAAC

115kV 115kV O (R1=R2)

13.8kV A 10MW

50 Hz. D 13.8kV

4. Line 0.9337×10-3

Inductance H/Km.

(L1=L2)

5. Line 12.74×10-9

Capacitance F/km.

Figure (3): Single line diagram of

modeled transmission line (C1=C2)

The developed power system is 6. Zero Sequence 0.3868 Ω/km.

designed by a 13.8 kV three phase

generator, a 15 MVA transformer to Resistance (R0)

increase the voltage level up to 115kV and a

7. Zero Sequence 4.1264×10-3

100 km. transmission line. Again at load end

a step down transformer of 15 MVA Inductance (L0) H/km

115/13.8kV is used to reduce the voltage

level back to 13.8kV to feed the 10MW load 8. Zero Sequence 7.751×10-9

connected to the system. Measurement unit Capacitance F/km.

is provided at both end of the transmission

line for sensing the current and the voltage. (C0)

First we observe the changes in the voltage 9. Total Positive 29.36⎳87.51ᴼ

and the current wave form during fault

condition and then we utilize the same Sequence Ω

knowledge for the formation of the relay Impedance (Z1)

model. Transformer used in this model is

star/star connected. 10. Total Zero 135⎳73.386ᴼ

Magnitude of various parameters in Sequence Ω

the simulation model:

Impedance (Z0)

S.

Transmission values Table (5.2): Transmission line parameter

No. The developed model of the above power

line parameter

system network has been shown below.

1. Length of 100 Km.

transmission

line

Va

20

Vb

Vc

10

-10

-20

-30

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

0.15 Ia

Ib

0.1

Ic

0.05

0

Figure (4): Model of transmission line -0.05

developed in MATLAB-SIMULINK -0.1

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

MATLAB-SIMULINK software. And the Time

various faults shown below. Figure (6): single phase fault and voltage

and current wave-form for fault

resistance equal to zero

Va

20

Vb

10

Vc

From the simulation result it

0 observed that during fault on the

-10 transmission line at a distance 50km. from

-20

sending end the voltage of the faulty phase

-30

will drop drastically and the current on the

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

other hand will increase very high. The same

concept will be used for the fault detection

and fault calculation algorithm. Here fault

0.15 Ia

0.1

Ib resistance has been taken as zero.From the

Ic

0.05 wave diagram of voltage it is clear that it

0 will contain harmonics and dc offset. For

-0.05

relay design we need to get rid of these

-0.1

-0.15

unwanted quantities.

-0.2

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Time Relay Model:

Figure (5): voltage and current wave form The simulation model of relay has

during 3-phase fault for fault resistance is been designed by using discrete filter and

equal to zero discrete Fourier transform block available in

the SIMULINK library. From the

measurement block we provide the three

phase voltage and current signal to the

multiplexer to split the voltage and current

signals in to three single phase voltages and

currents. Then these quantities are passed

through the discrete filter to avoid the higher

order harmonics figure (7).

cut-off frequency is set to 60 Hz.

Only fundamental frequency

component of the signal are passed to the

next block which is discrete Fourier

transform block figure (8). Discrete Fourier Figure (9): Relay model designed in

transform due to its property eliminate the SIMULINK

dc off-set from the signal.

Mathematical simulation model for

impedance calculation in three phase fault

(LLLG-fault):

block

we get the magnitude and phase angle of the

voltages and the currents. Once the

magnitudes and phase of the currents and

the voltages is known, now mathematical

calculation model for various fault

conditions has been developed. The overall

developed model of the whole relay is

Figure (10): Impedance calculation model

shown in the figure (9).

for three phase fault

Mathematical simulation model for

impedance calculation in Line to Line fault

(LL-fault):

Result and Simulation:

The relay model developed in

SIMULINK is integrated with the power

system model in the MATLAB/SIMULINK,

Several operating and fault conditions have

been simulated in order to validate the relay

model.

Figure (13) shows the locus of the

impedance measured by the relay from

various fault location. It is seen from the

results that for 100 km length of the line if

fault is within the 80 km range the locus will

lie in the protection zone and for more than

80 km it lie outside the protection zone.

30

model for impedance calculation in Phase

to Phase fault 25

Mathematical simulation model for

impedance calculation in Line to ground 20

fault (LG-fault):

15

10

0

R-X diagram

-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

during three phase fault

drawn from the data obtained from the relay

when line to line fault has been created in

Figure (12): Mathematical model for the simulation model and the data obtained

impedance calculation in phase to ground for various fault location has been plotted on

fault

the R-X Diagram. This RX diagram has For getting the result of the fault

been shown in the figure (14). impedance up to the fault location in case of

line to ground fault, now we create the line

30 to ground in the transmission line model and

R-X diagram with the help of designed relay we calculate

25 the impedance of the transmission line up to

the fault location. And the result obtained is

plotted on the R-X Diagram which has been

20 shown in the figure (15).

Fault Resistance:

10

In the designed model now we

changed the fault setting with zero fault

5 resistance and the impedance of the line has

been calculated by the relay for the various

0

location of three phase fault on the

R-X diagram transmission line. For this condition also, we

-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

use same mathematical model for

impedance calculation. And once the data

Figure (14): locus of MHO relay during

for various fault location has been created

LL-Fault

we plot the R-X diagram for this case which

is shown below.

Case (3): Line to Ground Fault:

30

Y-Values

25 30

R-X plot

20 25

15 20

10 15

5

10

0

Y-Values 5

-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

R-X plot

fault location for LG fault -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Figure (16): R-X diagram for three phase

fault with Zero fault Resistance

Conclusion: [6] M.S. sachdev, R. Agarwal, “A

A Mho type distance relay Technique For Estimating Transmission

was successfully developed based on Line Fault locations from digital impedance

MATLAB/SIMULINK. relay measurements”, IEEE Transactions on

From the data obtained from the Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 121-129,

various faults the R-X diagram for all types 1988.

of faults have been drawn and it has been [7] A.G. Phadke, M. Ibrahim, T. Hlibka,

observed that the measurement of the “Fundamental Basis For Distance Relaying

impedance by the has been done properly. With Symmetrical Components”, IEEE

And the trajectories of the impedance data Transaction on Power Apparatus and

collected from the relay cuts the set System, Vol. PAS-96, no. 2, pp. 635-646,

impedance value circle at the fault produced 1997

at 80% length of the line from relay location [8] P.G. McLaren, E.N. Dirks, R.P.

on R-X diagram. From the R-X diagram it Jayasinghe, I. Fernando, G.W. Swift, Z.

has been shown that the characteristic of the Zhang, “An Accurate Software Model for

relay is as per the theoretical characteristic. Off-line Assessment of a Digital Relay”

When we observe the R-X diagram of the IEEE WESCANEX '95 PROCEEDINGS.

relay for various faults it is clear that when [9] M. Sreeram, P. Raja, “Implementation of

the fault is at 80 km. from the relay location DSP Based Numerical Three-Step Distance

the impedance calculation. Protection Scheme for Transmission Lines”,

2013 Annual IEEE India Conference

References: (INDICON).

[10] Sham M V, Dr. K P Vittal,

[1] MuhdHafiziIdris, Surya Hardi, Mohd. “Development of DSP Based High Speed

ZamriHasan, “Teaching Distance Relay Numerical Distance Relay and its

Using MATLAB/SIMULINK Graphical Evaluation Using Hardware in Loop Power

User Interface”. System Simulator”, 2011 IEEE PES

[2] Eng. Abdlmnam A. Abdlrahem, Dr. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies.

Hamid H Sherwali, “Modelling of

Numerical Distance Relays using

MATLAB”, IEEE Symposium on Industrial

Electronics and Applications (ISIEA 2009),

October 4-6, 2009.

[3] Omar G. Mrehel, Hassan B. Elfetori,

AbdAllah O. Hawal, “Implementation and

Evaluation a SIMULINK Model of a

Distance Relay in MATLAB/SIMULINK”.

[4] Li-Cheng Wu, Chih-Wen Liu,

“Modeling and Testing of a Digital Distance

Relay Using MATLAB/SIMULINK”.

[5] Jyh-CherngGu, Sun-Li Yu, “Removal of

DC Offset in Current and Voltage Signals

Using a Novel Fourier Filter Algorithm”,

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.

15, no. 1, January 2000.

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