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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ETEE-2015),Jamia

Millia Islamia, New Delhi-20


Date of conference: 2 Feb 2015

Modeling and Simulation of Distance Relay for Transmission Line


Protection

J. N. Rai Ajit Kumar Singh


Delhi Technological University Delhi Technological University
Delhi Delhi
Jnraiphd1968@gmail.com Jeet1989ee@hotmail.com

Introduction:In this thesis paper a


Abstract:In this present paper design distance relay based on numerical technique
and modeling of Distance Relay has been has been developed and then the
done using MATLAB-SIMULINK. When characteristic of that relay on various faults
microprocessor technology was
implemented in the relay designing
technique it gave birth to a new type of has been drawn. Numerical relays are the
protection methodology known as combination of microprocessor technique
Numerical relay. Numerical relays can and digital signal processing.A power
interact with the peripheral devices and system is a complex network of generators,
other numerical relays also, resulting in transformers, transmission and distribution
overall economy of the protection system lines etc. Short circuits and other
equipments. A power system network and abnormalities often occurs in power system
the distance relay model has been networks and due to this short circuit heavy
developed and the response of the current flows in the equipments working in
distance relay has been verified by the system causing damage to the equipment
plotting the data generated by the relay [1]. Most of the equipments are very
on R-X diagram. The input voltage and expensive in power system, and so the
current signal from the power system whole power system can be considered as a
network contains dc offset values and very large capital investment. For optimum
higher order harmonics these are the utilization of the whole system, the system
unwanted quantities of the signal which must be working under the applicable
need to be filtered out for proper constraints of security and reliability of
functioning of the relay, Discrete Fourier supply. More fundamental, however, is that
Transform (DFT) can easily isolate these the power system should response in a safe
unwanted quantities from the signals. manner at all times. The power system may
DFT has been used for the designing of be very well designed but faults will always
the proposed distance relay. occur on a power system, and these faults
may represent a risk to life and/or property.
Keywords: In power system terminology short circuits
Power system protection, distance relay, line are commonly known as ‘Fault’. For
protection, MATLAB/SIMULINK, DFT etc. protection of these equipments from such
abnormalities we need protective
arrangements. These arrangements consist selective. Distance protection provides an
of protective relays and circuit breakers. If a excellent way of obtaining discrimination,
fault occurs in the system automatic selectivity, and speed of operation by
protective device is required to isolate the allowing trip operation up to a certain range
faulty section and keep the healthy section of distance. Unlike an over-current
in operation. If fault persist for long duration protection scheme, which does not have
it may damage some important and costly built-in backup protection, in a distance
equipment in the system. A high short protection scheme backup is provided by
circuit current may also cause fire which arranging three sets of distance protection
may damage a part of the system. During zones operating in tandem.
short circuit the system voltage reduces to a Normallydistance protection is termed as a
low level and generators may lose non-unit protection system. Unlike phase
synchronism. and neutral over-current protection, the main
A protective system includes advantage of distance protection is that its
transducers, circuit breakers and protective fault coverage of the protected circuit is
relays for working of the protective system. virtually independent of source impedance
Protective relays act as the brain of any variations. Distance protection relays are
protective system which with the help of the comparatively very simple to implement and
transducers senses the abnormalities in it is faster in operation in the fault location
power system network and provide a in protection zone. Distance relays can also
command to the circuit breaker weather to be utilized in primary and remote back-up
trip or not. In this way the work of relay is to protection in a single protection scheme.In
detect and locate a fault and provide a trip distance protection we use a number of
signal to the circuit breaker. During distance relays which measure the
occurrence of fault there occur some impedance or some components of the line
changes in the system these changes are in impedance at the relay location. The
terms of current, voltage, frequency and measured quantity is proportional to the line
phase angle. Engineers always use relay length between the location of relay and the
models for selection of the relay types which point where fault has occurred. A distance
is suitable for a particular application, and protection scheme is a non-unit system of
for the analysis of the performance of the protection. A single unit provides both
relays which appear to either operate primary and backup protection.A MHO
incorrectly or fail to operate when fault relay measures a component of admittance
occur. Instead of using actual relay in the relay |Y| ⎳θ. But its characteristic, when
field for testing, manufacturers use software plotted on impedance diagram (R-X
developed relay model designing to expedite diagram) is a circle passing through origin.
and economize the process of developing It is inherently a directional relay as it
new relays. Distance protection is so called detects the fault only in forward direction. It
because it is based on an electrical measure is clear from its circular characteristic
of distance along a transmission line to a passing through the origin, as shown in the
fault. The impedance of the transmission figure (1).
line is distributed uniformly along the
transmission line length this provides the
basis for the principle of the distance relay.
Distance relaying is considered where over
current relay is so slow to adopt or is not
waveforms then sampled at a selected
sampling frequency before being used
digitally inside distance relay. The relays
compare the setting impedance with the
measured impedance to determine if the
fault is inside or outside the protected zone.
They immediately release a trip signal when
the impedance value is inside the zone 1
impedance circle of distance relay.Post fault
power system signals contain dc offset and
harmonic components, in addition to the
Figure (1): Characteristic of MHO relay major fundamental frequency component.
Numerical relays are immerged form For conversion of analog signal to a
of digital relays because of advancement in sequence of numbers a suitable sampling
technology. Here we use mathematical rate must be used, because high frequency
algorithms for the protection functions. components which might be present in the
Distance Protection Scheme: signal could be incorrectly taken as
components of lower frequencies. The
mechanism of a high frequency component
in an input signal representing itself as low
frequency signal is called “aliasing”. It is
appearance of a high frequency signal as a
lower frequency signal that distorts the
desired signal. [1]
Since it is not possible to select a
sampling frequency that would prevent the
appearance of all high frequency
components of frequency of interest, the
Figure (2): distance protection scheme analog signals are applied to a low pass
filter. This process of band limiting of input
This is a scheme widely used for by using low pass filter removes most of the
protection of transmission and sub- high frequency components. Thus the effect
transmission lines. In distance protection we of aliasing is removed [1].
use a number of distance relays which After filtering the signal then
measure the impedance or some components sampling of the signal is done. Sampling is
of the line impedance at the relay location. the process of converting a continuous
The measured quantity is proportional to the signal, to a discrete time signal. The
line length between the location of relay and sampling rate should be selected by taking
the point where fault has occurred. A analog and digital converter into
distance protection scheme is a non-unit consideration. In order that the samples
system of protection. A single unit provides represent the analog signal uniquely
both primary and backup protection. andcontains enough information to recreate
Three phase current and voltage the original waveform, a continuous signal
waveforms must be filtered first to eliminate sampled properly. With the unique
the harmonic contents which may present collection of numerical values of samples
due to arcing of the fault. The filtered
the original waveform can be easily
recreated [2]. 𝑉𝑏
This is the technique for extracting BG 𝐼𝑏 + 3 ∗ 𝐾0 ∗ 𝐼0
the fundamental frequency components
from the complex post fault relaying 𝑉𝑐
signals. The Discrete Fourier Transform CG 𝐼𝑐 + 3 ∗ 𝐾0 ∗ 𝐼0
(DFT) of a data sequence is used to
evaluate the Fourier coefficients. In this
technique, the fundamental Fourier sine and 𝑉𝑎 𝑉𝑏 𝑉𝑐
cosine coefficients are obtained by ABC = =
𝐼𝑎 𝐼𝑏 𝐼𝑐
correlating the incoming data samples with
the stored samples of reference fundamental
sine and cosine waves respectively [3]. The Table (1): Impedance calculation formula
fundamental Fourier sine and cosine
coefficients are respectively equal to the Here A,B and C represent the three phases
real and imaginary parts of the fundamental
of the system
frequencies component. Using the DFT, the
real and imaginary components of the
fundamental frequency voltage and current
Where,
phasors are calculated.[5]
Va = phase-A voltage,
Impedance calculation Algorithm: Vb = phase-B voltage,
The formula used in the relay for the Vc = phase-C voltage,
calculation of the impedance of the line
impedance has been given in the table and Ia = phase-A current,
the proof for the formula has been given Ib = phase-B current,
there after. [3][4]
Ic = phase-C current,
I0 = zero sequence current
FAULT FORMULA 𝐼𝑎+𝐼𝑏+𝐼𝑐
TYPE = ,
3
𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑏 𝑍1+𝑍0
AB
K0 = ,
𝐼𝑎 − 𝐼𝑏 3∗𝑍1
Z0= zero sequence impedance,
𝑉𝑏 − 𝑉𝑐
BC
Z1= positive sequence impedance,
𝐼𝑏 − 𝐼𝑐

𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑐
TRANSMISSION LINE MODEL
AC 𝐼𝑎 − 𝐼𝑐
SIMULATION:

𝑉𝑎
AG
𝐼𝑎 + 3 ∗ 𝐾0 ∗ 𝐼0
2. Nominal 50 Hz
Transmission Line
frequency

3. Line Resistance 0.01273 Ω/Km.


13.8/ 13.8/ L
100MVAAC
115kV 115kV O (R1=R2)
13.8kV A 10MW
50 Hz. D 13.8kV
4. Line 0.9337×10-3
Inductance H/Km.
(L1=L2)
5. Line 12.74×10-9
Capacitance F/km.
Figure (3): Single line diagram of
modeled transmission line (C1=C2)
The developed power system is 6. Zero Sequence 0.3868 Ω/km.
designed by a 13.8 kV three phase
generator, a 15 MVA transformer to Resistance (R0)
increase the voltage level up to 115kV and a
7. Zero Sequence 4.1264×10-3
100 km. transmission line. Again at load end
a step down transformer of 15 MVA Inductance (L0) H/km
115/13.8kV is used to reduce the voltage
level back to 13.8kV to feed the 10MW load 8. Zero Sequence 7.751×10-9
connected to the system. Measurement unit Capacitance F/km.
is provided at both end of the transmission
line for sensing the current and the voltage. (C0)
First we observe the changes in the voltage 9. Total Positive 29.36⎳87.51ᴼ
and the current wave form during fault
condition and then we utilize the same Sequence Ω
knowledge for the formation of the relay Impedance (Z1)
model. Transformer used in this model is
star/star connected. 10. Total Zero 135⎳73.386ᴼ
Magnitude of various parameters in Sequence Ω
the simulation model:
Impedance (Z0)
S.
Transmission values Table (5.2): Transmission line parameter
No. The developed model of the above power
line parameter
system network has been shown below.
1. Length of 100 Km.
transmission
line
Va
20
Vb
Vc
10

-10

-20

-30
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

0.15 Ia
Ib
0.1
Ic
0.05

0
Figure (4): Model of transmission line -0.05
developed in MATLAB-SIMULINK -0.1

From the transmission line parameter we -0.15

developed the transmission line model in -0.2


0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
MATLAB-SIMULINK software. And the Time

voltage and current wave are obtained for


various faults shown below. Figure (6): single phase fault and voltage
and current wave-form for fault
resistance equal to zero
Va
20
Vb

10
Vc
From the simulation result it
0 observed that during fault on the
-10 transmission line at a distance 50km. from
-20
sending end the voltage of the faulty phase
-30
will drop drastically and the current on the
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
other hand will increase very high. The same
concept will be used for the fault detection
and fault calculation algorithm. Here fault
0.15 Ia

0.1
Ib resistance has been taken as zero.From the
Ic
0.05 wave diagram of voltage it is clear that it
0 will contain harmonics and dc offset. For
-0.05
relay design we need to get rid of these
-0.1
-0.15
unwanted quantities.
-0.2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Time Relay Model:
Figure (5): voltage and current wave form The simulation model of relay has
during 3-phase fault for fault resistance is been designed by using discrete filter and
equal to zero discrete Fourier transform block available in
the SIMULINK library. From the
measurement block we provide the three
phase voltage and current signal to the
multiplexer to split the voltage and current
signals in to three single phase voltages and
currents. Then these quantities are passed
through the discrete filter to avoid the higher
order harmonics figure (7).

Figure (7): discrete second order filter


cut-off frequency is set to 60 Hz.
Only fundamental frequency
component of the signal are passed to the
next block which is discrete Fourier
transform block figure (8). Discrete Fourier Figure (9): Relay model designed in
transform due to its property eliminate the SIMULINK
dc off-set from the signal.
Mathematical simulation model for
impedance calculation in three phase fault
(LLLG-fault):

Figure (8): Discrete Fourier Transform


block

From the output of the DFT block


we get the magnitude and phase angle of the
voltages and the currents. Once the
magnitudes and phase of the currents and
the voltages is known, now mathematical
calculation model for various fault
conditions has been developed. The overall
developed model of the whole relay is
Figure (10): Impedance calculation model
shown in the figure (9).
for three phase fault
Mathematical simulation model for
impedance calculation in Line to Line fault
(LL-fault):
Result and Simulation:
The relay model developed in
SIMULINK is integrated with the power
system model in the MATLAB/SIMULINK,
Several operating and fault conditions have
been simulated in order to validate the relay
model.

Case (1): Three phase fault


Figure (13) shows the locus of the
impedance measured by the relay from
various fault location. It is seen from the
results that for 100 km length of the line if
fault is within the 80 km range the locus will
lie in the protection zone and for more than
80 km it lie outside the protection zone.

Figure (11): Mathematical simulated R-X diagram


30
model for impedance calculation in Phase
to Phase fault 25
Mathematical simulation model for
impedance calculation in Line to ground 20
fault (LG-fault):
15

10

0
R-X diagram
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Figure (13): locus of impedance


during three phase fault

Case (2): line to line fault:

Figure (14) has been drawn from the


drawn from the data obtained from the relay
when line to line fault has been created in
Figure (12): Mathematical model for the simulation model and the data obtained
impedance calculation in phase to ground for various fault location has been plotted on
fault
the R-X Diagram. This RX diagram has For getting the result of the fault
been shown in the figure (14). impedance up to the fault location in case of
line to ground fault, now we create the line
30 to ground in the transmission line model and
R-X diagram with the help of designed relay we calculate
25 the impedance of the transmission line up to
the fault location. And the result obtained is
plotted on the R-X Diagram which has been
20 shown in the figure (15).

15 Case (4): Three Phase Fault with Zero


Fault Resistance:
10
In the designed model now we
changed the fault setting with zero fault
5 resistance and the impedance of the line has
been calculated by the relay for the various
0
location of three phase fault on the
R-X diagram transmission line. For this condition also, we
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
use same mathematical model for
impedance calculation. And once the data
Figure (14): locus of MHO relay during
for various fault location has been created
LL-Fault
we plot the R-X diagram for this case which
is shown below.
Case (3): Line to Ground Fault:

30
Y-Values
25 30
R-X plot
20 25

15 20

10 15

5
10

0
Y-Values 5
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Figure (15):locus of impedance at various 0


R-X plot
fault location for LG fault -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Figure (16): R-X diagram for three phase
fault with Zero fault Resistance
Conclusion: [6] M.S. sachdev, R. Agarwal, “A
A Mho type distance relay Technique For Estimating Transmission
was successfully developed based on Line Fault locations from digital impedance
MATLAB/SIMULINK. relay measurements”, IEEE Transactions on
From the data obtained from the Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 121-129,
various faults the R-X diagram for all types 1988.
of faults have been drawn and it has been [7] A.G. Phadke, M. Ibrahim, T. Hlibka,
observed that the measurement of the “Fundamental Basis For Distance Relaying
impedance by the has been done properly. With Symmetrical Components”, IEEE
And the trajectories of the impedance data Transaction on Power Apparatus and
collected from the relay cuts the set System, Vol. PAS-96, no. 2, pp. 635-646,
impedance value circle at the fault produced 1997
at 80% length of the line from relay location [8] P.G. McLaren, E.N. Dirks, R.P.
on R-X diagram. From the R-X diagram it Jayasinghe, I. Fernando, G.W. Swift, Z.
has been shown that the characteristic of the Zhang, “An Accurate Software Model for
relay is as per the theoretical characteristic. Off-line Assessment of a Digital Relay”
When we observe the R-X diagram of the IEEE WESCANEX '95 PROCEEDINGS.
relay for various faults it is clear that when [9] M. Sreeram, P. Raja, “Implementation of
the fault is at 80 km. from the relay location DSP Based Numerical Three-Step Distance
the impedance calculation. Protection Scheme for Transmission Lines”,
2013 Annual IEEE India Conference
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